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MINE SOLUTION GROUTING WORK TO DELIVER SMOOTH PATH FOR SCOTTISH TUNNEL p17 NEW TREMIE CONCRETE GUIDE p04 LATEST EUROPEAN PROJECT NEWS p08 EFFC HEALTH AND SAFETY WORKING GROUP ZÜBLIN FLOATS IN GOTHENBURG p12 CHAIRMAN LUC VAN HECKE p03 EUROPEAN SPRING 2016 MAGAZINE OF THE EFFC FOUNDATIONS
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comment EUROPEAN FOUNDATIONS | Spring 2016 03 UP FRONT MUTUAL TRAINING RECOGNITION: A LOGIC EVOLUTION Over many years national federations goal for “mutual recognition of minimal within the deep foundations industry training requirements”. and, more specifically those within the For the EFFC Health and Safety working European Federation of Foundation group it is, and will remain, an important Contractors (EFFC), have made huge topic: it will stay on our agenda until we efforts to develop theoretical and practical reach a solution. training with one final goal: improving All EFFC member countries should safety. come to an agreement on the content Well-trained rig drivers are the best of the minimum test requirements that prevention to major incidents and form the basis for acceptance in order to dangerous situations. It is an undeniable promote both free trade and safe working. motivation and matter of professional I am calling on all federations to work pride for them. together to find a resolution as soon as Today, most EFFC’s member companies possible. encounter problems on cross border job Everyone will agree on the fact that sites. the best skilled and trained operator They cannot count on their well-trained working with good and well maintained and skilled rig drivers because they do not equipment is the best insurance to do possess the correct certificates or cards to a safe job. Crossing borders makes no get permission to operate their own rigs difference for this statement. in another country. At present there are ongoing LUC VAN HECKE negotiations between different countries CHAIRMAN and their national federations to try and EFFC HEALTH overcome this obstacle. AND SAFETY This is a first step towards our common WORKING GROUP EUROPEAN EDITOR Claire Smith ADVERTISING Roland Maybank FOUNDATIONS +44 (0)20 3033 2818 email@example.com +44 (0)20 3033 2911 firstname.lastname@example.org PUBLISHED BY PROUDCTION The European Federation of Foundation Contractors aims Emap, Telephone House, Andy Bolton to promote the common interests Paul Street, London +44 (0)20 3033 2823 of members of the federation, EC2A 4NQ to improve standards of email@example.com workmanship and to maintain high standards of technical competence, safety and innovation. EFFC Forum Court, Office 205, Devonshire House, Business Centre, Elmfield Road, Bromley BR1 1LT foundationworld.org.uk
EUROPEAN FOUNDATIONS | Spring 2016 04 NEWS EF New European tremied concrete guide published SPRING 2016 06 EUROPE: The European Federation of Foundation working group chairman Karsten Beckhaus, The guide concentrates up-to-date design now did not really know the specific needs for THE BIG Contractors (EFFC) has who also head of the considerations including concrete used in deep, PICTURE published new guidance materials group at Bauer concrete rheology, mix submerged placement Slope protection for oil refinery. to improve the quality of Spezialtiefbau. design, reinforcement applications. tremied concrete in the “The guide meets detailing, concrete cover “With the guidance foundation industry. a real need in the and best practice rules for now published, we now 08 The guide is the result industry for a document placement. need to implement new PROJECTS of several year’s work by representing the common “Until now the only acceptance criteria as Major works an EFFC working group understanding of today’s acceptance criteria we need very substantial throughout that was convened after requirements on fresh available were based results from the ongoing Europe. it emerged that issues concrete for high-quality on the definition of a research project which had been encountered on deep foundations. suitable ‘consistency’ includes European, and 12 a number of European foundation projects. “This first edition of the guide proposes but we have learned that slump is not enough to American investigations on rheology of fresh TUNNELLING “The project provides appropriate performance understand and prove the concrete, and its testing.” Immersed tunnel guidance for all criteria for the concrete sufficient workability of The guide will be challenge for stakeholders – owners, together with test modern five-component available free of charge Swedish city of clients, designers and methods and initial concretes,” explained from the EFFC and Deep Gothenburg. contractors – on the recommendations on Beckhaus. Foundations Institute characteristic performance acceptance values. A “We have to establish websites. 17 of fresh concrete and its second edition of the the understanding of It is currently only GROUTING method of placement guide will be published on concrete rheology in the available in English but New tunnel will using tremie methods completion of the research whole industry and move national association reduce flooding in bored piles and and development work, as away from slump only members of the EFFC in Scotland but diaphragm walls, allowing this will allow definitive assessment. That includes are expected to translate sets complex construction of high acceptance criteria to be all stakeholders, including the guide into national geotechnical tasks. quality elements,” said presented.” the suppliers who until versions. IN THREE 1. HINDU TEMPLE SECURED INDIA: Maccaferri is funicular railway to ease access. undertaking rock bolting and However, assessment of the netting to stabilise a cliff face to planned site showed a high ensure up to 3,000 pilgrims can risk of rockfalls and Maccaferri 1 benefit from improved access to worked with the authority to 2 the Saptashrungi temple every stabilise a 200m section to 3 day. enable the new access to be The Hindu temple in the installed. Sahyadri Mountains is located Rock fall barriers and further at the top of the mountain and netting above the temple is now the Public Works Department of being installed at the site to Maharashtra wanted to install a provide additional protection.
Spring 2016 | EUROPEAN FOUNDATIONS 05 NEWS Ceneri Base Tunnel breakthrough achieved SWITZERLAND: Alp Transit Gotthard has years of tunnelling on the 15.4km long and 10mm vertical deviation. announced that final breakthrough was tunnel through ground with an overburden Work on lining the tunnel and installing achieved on the western bore of the Ceneri of up to 900m. According to Alp Transit rail infrastructure will now get underway Base Tunnel in Switzerland earlier this year. Gotthard, the final blast was achieved with and commissioning is scheduled to take The breakthrough marks the end of nine great accuracy with just 20mm horizontal place at the end of 2020. 2. METRO TUNNELLING DEALS 3. AIRPORT LINK SINGAPORE: Singapore’s Soletanche Singapore and Wai AUSTRALIA: A joint venture Land Transport Authority Fong Construction, Shanghai of Salini Impregilo and NRW has announced that it has Tunnel Engineering Co, and a jv looks set to secure the design awarded three contracts of Ssangyong Engineering and and construct contract for the for the construction of new Construction Co and Hyundai Forrestfield Airport Link project in stations and tunnels on the Engineering and Construction Perth, Australia, after being named Thomson-East Coast Line. Co, respectively. as the preferred bidder. They cover the construction of The contracts cover The new 8km long, twin bored Tanjong Rhu, Katong Park and construction of a 13km east coast tunnelled rail route will provide a Marine Terrace stations and section of the Thomson-East 20-minute connection to the city associated tunnels, which have Coast Line and extend the route and link to the existing Midland been awarded to a jv of Bachy to 43km. line near Bayswater Station.
Spring 2016 | EUROPEAN FOUNDATIONS 07 SEISMIC SLOPE CHALLENGE Keller is on the verge of completing an 18 month-long project to install anchored slope protection for a new oil refinery currently under construction in Aliaga, Turkey. The new Star Refinery, which is within an existing petrochemical plant, will handle up to 214,000 barrels of crude oil per day and store up to 1.64M.t of diesel in 63 tanks that are being built within the development. While the location of the refinery has economic significance, it presented Keller with a number of geotechnical challenges as it is near a fault zone, close to two volcanoes and soil conditions are very heterogeneous. Slopes above the plant needed to be stabilised and Keller has installed single bore multiple anchors with 14 strands that are up to 50m long, split into three bonded lengths, and capable of taking forces of up to 3,000kN. Micropiles have also been installed to stabilise concrete precast elements in areas where there was a low bearing capacity in the location of the anchor heads.
EUROPEAN FOUNDATIONS | Spring 2016 08 EUROPEAN PROJECTS PROJECT MAP Amsterdam, Netherlands: Controversial construction Vroom Foundation Technology CLIENT BC PONTSTEIGER has just completed construction CONSULTANT VAN ROSSUM of 1,200 piles for an unusual new FOUNDATIONS CONTRACTOR residential development on the VROOM FOUNDATION TECHNOLOGY bank of the Ij in the Netherland’s FOUNDATIONS VALUE €1.5M city of Amsterdam. The six storey Pontsteiger building is located at the end of a pier and will have an opening in the centre of the structure but, while the design may be controversial, the developer chose a proven technique for the foundations. According to Vroom, the most common in situ foundation in the Netherlands is vibro piles and these were selected for the majority of the work, which started in late 2015. In total 850 vibro piles have been constructed to depths of up to 24m but a further 350 CFA piles have been installed to 39m where higher bearing capacities of up to 3,500kN were needed. Palermo, Italy: Huelva, Spain: Dyke drainage Rail development Menard’s Spanish subsidiary CLIENT ACCIONA The Nodo di Palermo – the CLIENT RETE FERROVIARIA has undertaken consolidation MAIN CONTRACTOR MATSA Palermo Junction – project ITALIANA GROUND ENGINEERING MENARD GEOTECHNICAL CONTRACTOR of very soft clay that is now will see the rail line between ESPANA TREVI enabling the Juan Gonzalo Dyke GEOTECHNICAL VALUE €508,000 the Sicilian city and the airport COMPLETION DATE LATE 2016 in Huelva, Spain to be enlarged doubled in order to improve to support development of the rail journeys and reduce road Impala Terminal. congestion. Menard installed over 130,000 linear metres of vertical drains, The project includes construction of 19.5km of railway with each drain measuring up to 28m in depth, and constructed embankments, 500m of bridge and viaducts, six tunnels with a total embankments up to 12m high to surcharge the soft ground. The aim length of 3.2km and 18 cut and cover tunnels with a total length of of the work was to consolidate the ground to depths of up to 30m 5km. below the new terminal development. Geotechnical work for the scheme is being undertaken by Trevi The presence of dense sand layers at up to 25m below ground and, when completed at the end of this year, the company expects to level called for predrilling work to ensure the consolidation work have installed more than 200,000 secant piles for the new link. achieved the design requirements. Menard undertook over 97,000 Trevi is also undertaking tunnel consolidation work using jet linear metres of pre-drilling to ensure the work was delivered to the grouted columns, diaphragm walls for a new station and installation specification. of over 7,000 linear metres of micropiles.
Spring 2016 | EUROPEAN FOUNDATIONS 09 Stockholm, Sweden: Bridge protection Risk of damage from river traffic CLIENT TRAFIKVERKET to Stockholm’s Gröndal Bridge MAIN CONTRACTOR ZÜBLIN has been signicantly reduced SCANDINAVIA DESIGNER KFS following completion of work ANLÄGGNINGSKONSTRUKTÖRER by Züblin to install new beam CONTRACT VALUE €10M fenders around the structure. Züblin installed a total of 168 tension anchored steel tubular piles to a depth of 24m to absorb the forces from any collision by boats and prevent the bridge piers from being struck. The completed fenders are 170m long and the piles are connected by a concrete capping beam that is 4m high and 1.5m wide. Budapest, Hungary: Creating culture Diaphragm walls for a new CLIENT ÚJPESTI VAGYONKEZELÖ market hall and cultural MAIN CONTRACTOR HBM centre are currently on the SOLETANCHE BACHY verge of being completed in OVERALL PROJECT COST €19M Budapest by HBM Soletanche FINISH DATE JULY 2017 Bachy. The work (pictured left) forms part of a seven month long ground engineering phase on the project, which got underway in November last year and the development is expected to be finished in summer 2017. The new public space is designed to be fully accessible by disabled people and will have several basement levels for parking and a market hall. Construction of the new facility called for careful planning to work around or move utilities, as well as ensure the work did not disrupt local residents or the operation of the nearby existing market.
Spring 2016 | EUROPEAN FOUNDATIONS 11 EUROPEAN PARKING RECORD Bauer is currently constructing what is thought to be Europe’s deepest underground parking facility in the Dutch city of Leiden. The circular car park, designed by Royal Haskoning DHV, will extend to six levels below ground and offer parking for up to 525 cars. Work on the €1.5M ground engineering contract started in early 2015 and is expected to be completed early next year. Before starting work, Bauer undertook six pile load tests to prove the design and is now working from pontoons to install Gewi micropiles to depths of up to 55m – believed to be a record-breaking depth in the Netherlands – into very dense sand.
EUROPEAN FOUNDATIONS | Spring 2016 1 TUNNELLING IN SUMMARY Construction of a new immersed IMMERSIVE CHALLENGE tube and cut and cover tunnel is being undertaken in Gothenburg, Sweden to reduce traffic congestion and support future planned growth to the west of the city. By Claire Smith Constructing embedded retaining walls in phase in December of that year. WHERE soft clays with high groundwater levels for a Züblin has responsibility for 85% of the new cut and cover tunnel is always a major contract and is undertaking all permanent geotechnical challenge. However, if the works, including the deep basements and Norway Sweden structure also has to be used as a temporary earthworks for the dry docks and cut and SWEDEN SWEDEN Gothenburg Gothenburg dry dock, not once but three times, then the cover tunnels and the immersed tunnel challenge becomes significantly more elements. The remainder of the contract Denmark technically demanding. will be undertaken by Boskalis and this This is exactly the challenge that Züblin includes dredging of the river for placement and Boskalis are currently undertaking in of the immersed tunnel elements, installing the Swedish city of Gothenburg for the bedding layers, backfill and rock filling IN FIGURES construction of the Marieholmstunneln. around the elements and dredging for new 39m The ground conditions and temporary works are not the only difficulties on this marinas. Depth of driven piles to overcome heave new road scheme though. It is also being DESIGN CHALLENGE 37m carried out in close proximity to two other “Choosing the right parameters for the major civil engineering projects – the design of the tunnel was challenging Partihalsbridge for a new motorway link to because of the soft clays in which we are The width of the excavation pits the Marieholmstunneln, which is being working,” says Züblin geotechnical design built by Peab and NCC, and the new manager Christiane Hof. WHO? Marieholmsbridge rail bridge, which is “The depth to bedrock at the site is 91m Swedish Transport Administration being built by Skanska. and the clays we are working with have an Traﬁkverket appointed Züblin and Boskalis The new 500m long tunnel is designed to undrained shear strength of around 10kPa. to deliver the design and construct carry 90,000 vehicles per day and will However, the clay is very homogeneous and contract, which is valued at SEK1.5bn reduce traffic flow through the existing has a very low permeability. (€166M), in June 2014 and work is Tingstadtunnel and improve access to the “Ground movement was one of our main expected to be completed in autumn 2020. port and other industrial areas. concerns as the tunnel is located close to The 300m long central section of the both the Partihalsbridge and CHALLENGES Marieholmstunneln, which will take the Marieholmsbridge.” Soft clays and use of one of the excavation new route below the River Göta, is being Much of the design considerations were pits as a dry dock has made this project constructed using immersed tube dealt with ahead of the contract award as geotechnically challenging and Züblin has techniques and the 100m long east and Züblin technical manager Johannes said that it is pushing the boundaries of west access ramps are being constructed Glückert says that the tender stage for the technology. using cut and cover techniques. The cut and project took a year to complete. cover structure for the eastern ramp has a Immersed tube tunnels have been M O R E I N FO R M AT I O N dual purpose as it will first serve as the dry delivered in Gothenburg before but www.traﬁkverket.se/en/ dock for construction of the three precast Glückert says that this one is bigger and marieholmconnection concrete immersed tube tunnel elements. deeper than the previous project undertaken in the 1980s. CONTRACT DETAILS The excavations for the cut and cover Züblin and Boskalis were awarded the sections are up to 18m deep and 37m wide design and construct contract, which is with minimal struts at ground level and the valued at SEK1.5bn (€166M), by Swedish base slabs formed by underwater concrete Transport Administration Trafikverket in – another unusual aspect for the Swedish June 2014 and moved to the construction civil engineering market.
Spring 2016 | EUROPEAN FOUNDATIONS 1 TUNNELLING The Marieholmstunneln is designed to carry 90,000 vehicle a day THE MARIEHOLMS road and rail infrastructure are vital. Bohus Line and add cycle and CONNECTION The Marieholms Connection project will pedestrian routes across the river. improve connection with the city’s port Construction started in 2014 and is The Marieholms Tunnel is part of a and major industrial areas, as well as scheduled to be completed in 2017. wider project being delivered by relieve congestion on local roads. The Partihalls Intersection will allow Trafikvert and also includes the The new 1,500m long rail swing road traffic from the E45 and E20 to Partihalls Intersection and the South bridge will add rail capacity to the city connect with the new tunnel and divert Marieholms Bridge. as the current Marieholms rail bridge traffic away from routes that are According to Trafikvert, there are only carried one line over the River currently congested at peak times. more than 1M residents in the greater Göta. The completion of the intersection is Gothenburg area and more than 70% of The new rail bridge will add freight linked to the construction schedule for Sweden’s industrial capacity is located capacity into the port, as well as the new tunnel and is scheduled to open within a 500km radius of the city, so improve passenger services on the at the same time in 2020.
EUROPEAN FOUNDATIONS | Spring 2016 14 TUNNELLING 200 tubular piles have been driven to a depth of 39m on the eastern side of the dry dock “Use of underwater concrete is the depth of excavation and have been no tie down piles are needed,” explains Hof. unusual in Sweden but it is common in the driven to a depth of 39m. In total 200 of Nonetheless, the permanent slab will Netherlands so we have brought in Ballast these piles have been driven on the eastern include a 600mm drainage layer and pump Needham to deliver this aspect of the work,” side for the dry dock and slightly fewer for positions as a precaution. says Glückert. the western cut and cover as the excavation The underwater concrete is needed as The double use of the eastern cut and will not be as wide. part of the precautions against heave. Part cover tunnel construction pit as a dry dock, “The 39m depth of the piles has been of the excavation was undertaken under dry as well as the need to ease the construction driven by the risk of bottom heave from the conditions and then water was pumped in phase on both sides, meant that supporting unloading during the excavation,” says Hof. to provide downforce while the remainder struts needed to be kept to a minimum. The excavation on the eastern side has was excavated. The concrete was then cast However, with such a large span this was been completed and construction of the slab underwater with 5,000m3 pumped into the not a job that could be completed using is underway. Work started with installation eastern side over a three-day period and was diaphragm wall or combi wall techniques. of a temporary unreinforced slab covered followed by installation of a 1.5m thick layer Instead Züblin has developed an embedded with ballast to overcome heave which will of ballast before the water was pumped back retaining wall that it calls a pipe wall – then be sequentially replaced by the out of the excavation in January. driven steel tubular piles that are connected permanent slab. “The underwater concrete we used is by tie rod. “Because the clay has such a low unusual in itself as it is a high strength mix The tubular piles have a diameter of permeability, there is no free groundwater – a 30/35 – and there were concerns over either 1,075mm or 1,420mm depending on so there is no risk of seepage and as a result crack development so reinforcement has
Spring 2016 | EUROPEAN FOUNDATIONS 15 TUNNELLING > MARRIEHOLMS TUNNEL completed, the dock will be flooded to allow the elements to be floated out into the river E6 to be stored until all the units are Göta älv completed. “We are only permitted to work in the E45 river during winter time, so although the Gamlestaden first units will be completed this year they Tingstad will not be put in their final position just Säveån yet,” says Glückert. Lundbyleden Before the elements can be positioned, Boskalis will have to complete its dredging MARIEHOLMS Ånäsmotet work to excavate an 8m deep trench and TUNNEL install a 0.5m to 1m thick sand bed to Marieholm Munkebäcksmotet cushion the concrete elements against the E20 Bagaregården clay. Fill that will “lock” the elements into position will then be placed against the Olskroken 500m sides of the elements and the whole installation will be overlain with rockfill to provide long-term protection from river been placed around the edge,” says Tunnel construction traffic. Glückert. work is expected to While work is progressing on casting in In theory, even the permanent slab is only be completed in late the dry dock, construction of the cut and 2018 or early 2019 cover tunnel will be undertaken on the temporary – albeit for three years – as the cut and cover tunnel structure will be western side. To the untrained eye the cut separate and built once the excavation has and cover segments will look much the served its purpose as a dry dock. same as the immersed tube sections but will Despite the detailed design and modelling have expansion joints rather than seals that has gone into the project, there are still between them. concerns over ground movement and Hof According to Glückert, the tunnel says that there is a huge monitoring construction work is expected to be programme underway that is being completed in late 2018 or early 2019 at delivered by Sol Experts to check for which point the focus of Züblin’s work will deformation of the wall, heave and changes move onto the mechanical and electrical fit in pore water pressure. “All movements out and testing phase which is scheduled to have been as anticipated, so far,” she says. take two years. Much of the focus has been on Once the tunnel construction is completing the excavation on the eastern completed, Züblin will also construct a new side as casting of the first of five 102m long marina within the excavation pits which will immersed tunnel elements is scheduled to create 800m of new quay wall. According to start in April. Nonetheless, excavation on Hof, the aim is partly to improve the area the western side is only running two but also to ensure that ground loading months behind the eastern side. around the cut and cover tunnels is “We currently have three months to minimised. complete the concrete work on the eastern “Ground conditions are challenging so side but there is a lot of work needed to the pipe walls formed for the construction create the dry dock,” says Glückert. “Work work will be left in place at the end of the on the western side has gone well so far. project,” she says. The ground there is softer still which has repeated dewatering and flooding of the “Removing them could present a high made installation of the pipe wall easy but dock as casting work progresses. “It is very risk of damage to the tunnel structures and will be a challenge in terms of deformation hard to model,” she says. the new quay area will help unload the soil during excavation, however, we only have to The ground conditions were not the only to prevent creep.” dewater that side once.” feature that guided use of the eastern side However, the challenge of whether to According to Hof, the dry dock still as the location for the dry dock – the space remove the temporary works or not is still presents some further concern over ground available on that side was also a factor. some way off as the new tunnel is not set to movement from the cyclic loading from the As each post tensioned element is open until autumn 2020.
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Spring 2016 | EUROPEAN FOUNDATIONS 17 GROUTING The €128M Shieldhall IN SUMMARY Tunnel is designed to Sottish Water is building the provide flood relief in Glasgow €128M Shieldhall Tunnel to improve water quality and reduce flooding in Glasgow but has called for complex geotechnical work to reduce the risks on the tunnelling phase. WHERE Scotland UK Glasgow IN FIGURES 2,000 ADVANCED Grout hole locations in Queens Park 42km STABILISATION Linear length of drilling at Queens Park WHO? The tunnelling will be undertaken by contracting joint venture Vinci Construction By Claire Smith Grands Projets and Costain but the grouting work has been sublet to specialist contractor Soil Engineering Geosciences Many grouting projects are reactive to Geosciences (SEG). and piling work to Bachy Soletanche (see ground movement problems and residents The Shieldhall Tunnel is 5.2km tunnel to box). of Glasgow are very familiar with these link the Shieldhall Treatment works with works as a result of widespread shallow coal another part of the network in Queens Park, CHALLENGES mines across the Scottish city. However, the which is currently the main focus of the Shallow coal mining along the route latest fleet of drilling rigs and grout mixers grouting. means that voids and unstable ground lie are working to mitigate against the problem When completed in 2017, the tunnel will on the planned path of the tunnel boring ahead of a major investment in a wastewater provide flood relief for southern Glasgow machine and has called for extensive management tunnel to protect the city from and reduce storm water overflow into the grouting work ahead of tunnelling. flooding. River Clyde. Accuracy is essential as the grouted mine “The scheme is part of a wider M O R E I N FO R M AT I O N workings will soon be in the direct path of a programme of work in Glasgow that is www.scottishwater.co.uk/investment-and- Herrenknecht slurry tunnel boring machine focused on large scale water quality communities/your-community/glasgow- (TBM) that will be constructing Scottish improvements and removing properties investment Water’s £100M (€128M) Shieldhall Tunnel. from flooding register by 2021,” says Main contracting joint venture Vinci Scottish Water senior project manager Construction Grands Projets and Costain Dominic Flanagan. are currently preparing for the arrival of the “It is the largest investment undertaken TBM but the grouting work has been sublet by Scottish Water and is aimed at to specialist contractor Soil Engineering making the network in Glasgow fit for
EUROPEAN FOUNDATIONS | Spring 2016 18 GROUTING PREPARING FOR LAUNCH chamber, which is just off Jura Street. Pollock Country Park to Queens Park. The walls for the 240m long cut and Despite value engineering, the bored In terms of tunnelling techniques, cover tunnel have been formed by tunnel work is not straightforward. The Shieldhall has it all with piled shafts, 750mm diameter CFA piles with the route has been selected to minimise the top down constructed shafts, sprayed length changing from 15m close to the number of residential areas it passes, concrete linings, pipe jacking, grouting, service chamber to 12m as the cut and this takes the tunnel through a number cut and cover and bored solutions. cover tunnel progresses towards the of disused mine workings and complex At the other end of the new tunnel TBM launch chamber. faulting. from the current Queens Park grouting The TBM launch chamber has been “Four areas were identified from the works, Bachy Soletanche has already formed from 900mm diameter CFA piles outset – Jura Street, Bellahousten Park, completed a large amount of piling, installed to 13.8m depth with glass fibre Titwood Road near Crossmyloof Station along with more grouting by SEG, to reinforced cages used in the piles at the and Upper Queens Park,” says Walker. prepare for the launch of the TBM. launch end of the chamber to create the SEG has already completed grouting at At the Jura Street site the ground soft eye for the TBM. Jura Street and Bellahousten Park. conditions of clays and glacial tills “The main challenge was the logistics The tunnel will also encounter faulted overlying mudstones and sandstone due to the residential nature of the ground where it passes under the M77, combined with the shallow depth of the site,” says Bachy Soletanche site the Paisley Canal and a railway line. tunnel at Shieldhall have dictated the engineer Jake Young. “The site was “This area presents a settlement risk as use of cut and cover techniques. literally the width of the street, so the we will only have one tunnel diameter This led to Bachy undertaking 131, sequencing of the work is critical.” of cover in this area,” says Walker. “We 900mm diameter cased secant piled Once the TBM is launched later this may undertake more compensating (CSP) wall for the 15m diameter and year, the tunnel will be bored south grouting in this area but this is still 15.5m deep shaft one and a service eastwards under Bellahouston Park and under discussion.” purpose for the next 100 years.” grouting work to shore up the bandstand The project is based on 10 years of > TUNNEL ROUTE for Glasgow City Council around a decade hydraulic modelling and is part of ago. Nonetheless, that work was not on the integrated investment planning that Shieldhall waste water M8 scale of the current project that will call for treatment works Scottish Water has undertaken with 2,000 grout holes to be drilled that are set M8 Jura Street Glasgow City Council, the Scottish to cover a linear length of 42km. Environmental Protection Agency and “The route of tunnel has been planned to Scotland Canals. This approach is now M74 follow Glasgow’s greenspaces and roads to Bellahouston being rolled out to other Scottish cities. Park Titwood Road minimise the impact of any potential “It was identified during the early stages subsidence on residential or commercial Pollock of the project that there would be a Country Park Queens Park properties,” explains Llewellyn. M77 requirement for grouting on the project,” “With the TBM alignment set to bore says SEG business unit manager Tristan directly through the grouted horizons, there Llewellyn. “SEG has previously undertaken is no margin for error with our work and grouting work to stabilise collapsed coal city due to the size of the sites and varying minimising the risk of collapse, and ironstone mines around Glasgow over locations. During the course of the scheme, groundwater and ground gas is vital.” the last 30 years, so we had a good idea of SEG has worked in a residential street at SEG moved onto site in Queens Park in what to expect. Jura Street (see box), in park environments January this year and expects to complete “The mining was mostly done in the 18th at Bellahousten Park (see box) and Queens the work in May 2016. and 19th century but is largely unmapped. Park, and on railway land and within live The grouting covers a 20m wide strip of The mines are very discreet in nature, traffic at the Titwood Road site. the park with a spacing of 3.5m between which makes it hard to predict where will treatment holes. or won’t be affected, but where the mines QUEENS PARK “The tunnel will pass under the park at do exist most were driven using the pillar At Queens Park SEG has taken over an 15m to 20m below ground level and we are and stall approach.” 800m long east-west swathe of Glasgow’s treating the ground up to 12m below the According to Llewellyn, the grouting largest park, putting the work fully within base of the tunnel,” says Llewellyn. work for the Shieldhall Tunnel is probably the public spotlight. There are five coals seams within the the most complex of all the grouting SEG had specific experience of working depth being treated by SEG but there is projects the company has undertaken in the in Queens Park after undertaking previous only evidence of workings within two
EUROPEAN FOUNDATIONS | Spring 2016 20 GROUTING Work at the Titwood Road site began in January – the Virgin and the Flint. There is undertake fissure grouting for the shafts,” lights control traffic flows through what is some faulting and folding within the seams adds Llewellyn thought to be one of Glasgow’s busiest in the park so careful observation of the junctions, giving road users plenty of time drilling arisings is vital. SEG is treating the TITWOOD ROAD to view the work. seams from the top down and, so far with Like Queens Park, SEG started work on Work is focused on completing the 25% of the drilling completed, voids have grouting at Titwood Road in January. While grouting on one half of the road before the been found by most of the grout holes. the Queens Park work is being carried out traffic management is switched over to The grouting is sequenced to create a cut during daylight only, the set up and railway allow SEG to access the other half. off wall to the north and south of the tunnel elements of the work here will call for The tunnel does not follow the road alignment and once this is completed the overnight working. alignment so extensive use of inclined holes between are used to undertake bulk It is hard to miss that the grouting is in boreholes is being applied. However, this is infill. full swing – two cement silos tower above a not straightforward as short masted rigs Costain and Vinci will also construct two supermarket car park that SEG has have had to be specially brought in to shafts within the park and SEG will deliver acquired for its site offices – and half the prevent obstructing the traffic and part of more technical grouting to enable these to street – over a 200m section – is hidden by the road is on embankment so the drill be excavated safely. “We will create a grout hoardings with just the drilling rig masts orientations need careful planning to curtain, create a base plug using grout and peeking over the top. Temporary traffic prevent work daylighting.
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EUROPEAN FOUNDATIONS | Spring 2016 22 GROUTING Grouting at Queens Park covers a 20m wide strip with a spacing of 3.5m between treatment holes The coal seams are more folded and CHALLENGES AHEAD programme for the grouting. faulted here than at Queens Park, so with SEG had only completed six weeks on site Another issue that will be a concern until just half of the site width available for when EF visited the work but so far the drilling of the last hole is completed is treatment and the variability of the ground everything has gone well. the need to ensure no steel is left in the conditions, it has been challenging for the “Our experience of grouting in Glasgow ground. “The no steel drop is critical site team to build up an accurate ground has certainly helped get us to this point but because the TBM will pass through the model. there are still some elements of the work grouted areas and any steel left in the The next phase of work at Titwood Road that we need to manage carefully to ensure ground could seriously damage it,” says will call for grouting below a railway line smooth running of the whole contract,” Llewellyn. “Just in case it does happen, we close to Crossmyloof Station, which will says Llewellyn. have developed some special equipment have to be undertaken during overnight “A major concern that still needs to be that would allow us to overdrill the hole and weekend track possessions. overcome is a decision on how to complete remove the steel before grouting is carried The other challenge for the Titwood Road drilling for grouting work on the Titwood out.” grouting team is the location of a mine Street site which is close to a care home While it is clear that SEG has carefully shaft in a road junction just off Titwood where residents are particularly sensitive to planned the work and taken precautions Road. noise.” against various pitfalls, the proof of the “Geophysics has been undertaken in the SEG has undertaken trials of a Soilmec grouting will only come when the TBM road to locate the mine shaft and guide the SM8G rotary drilling rig at the Queens Park safely passes through the site. With the grouting design,” says Llewellyn. site to try and work with Costain, Vinci and TBM not set to reach Queens Park until While the scale of work at Titwood Scottish Water to try and find a solution spring next year, it will be some time before Road is smaller, it is certainly still that will minimise the impact of the work Llewellyn’s team can completely relax and challenging. on residents without affecting the class the work as a success.
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