AND SAFETY
                                   WORKING GROUP
                                   HECKE p03

                                                      SPRING 2016
                                                      MAGAZINE OF THE EFFC

Experience the Progress.

                                                                                  Visit us at:

                                                                                    Munich, April 11 – 17

   Liebherr deep foundation machinery
     High availability and long service-life due to robust equipment technology
     Low emission and high efficiency thanks to intelligent drive systems
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     Optimized construction processes thanks to comprehensive consultation

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Dr. Hans Liebherr Straße 1
6710 Nenzing, Austria
Phone: +43 50809 41 473


                         MUTUAL TRAINING RECOGNITION:
                         A LOGIC EVOLUTION

                         Over many years national federations           goal for “mutual recognition of minimal
                         within the deep foundations industry           training requirements”.
                         and, more specifically those within the         For the EFFC Health and Safety working
                         European Federation of Foundation              group it is, and will remain, an important
                         Contractors (EFFC), have made huge             topic: it will stay on our agenda until we
                         efforts to develop theoretical and practical   reach a solution.
                         training with one final goal: improving         All EFFC member countries should
                         safety.                                        come to an agreement on the content
                          Well-trained rig drivers are the best         of the minimum test requirements that
                         prevention to major incidents and              form the basis for acceptance in order to
                         dangerous situations. It is an undeniable      promote both free trade and safe working.
                         motivation and matter of professional          I am calling on all federations to work
                         pride for them.                                together to find a resolution as soon as
                          Today, most EFFC’s member companies           possible.
                         encounter problems on cross border job          Everyone will agree on the fact that
                         sites.                                         the best skilled and trained operator
                          They cannot count on their well-trained       working with good and well maintained
                         and skilled rig drivers because they do not    equipment is the best insurance to do
                         possess the correct certificates or cards to   a safe job. Crossing borders makes no
                         get permission to operate their own rigs       difference for this statement.
                         in another country.
                          At present there are ongoing                  LUC VAN HECKE
                         negotiations between different countries       CHAIRMAN
                         and their national federations to try and      EFFC HEALTH
                         overcome this obstacle.                        AND SAFETY
                          This is a first step towards our common       WORKING GROUP

EUROPEAN                                    EDITOR
                                            Claire Smith
                                                                                 Roland Maybank

FOUNDATIONS                                 +44 (0)20 3033 2818
                                                                                 +44 (0)20 3033 2911
                                            PROUDCTION                           The European Federation of Foundation Contractors aims
Emap, Telephone House,                      Andy Bolton                          to promote the common interests
Paul Street, London                         +44 (0)20 3033 2823
                                                                                 of members of the federation,
EC2A 4NQ                                                                         to improve standards of
                                                   workmanship and to maintain high standards of technical
                                                                                 competence, safety and innovation.
Forum Court, Office 205,
Devonshire House, Business Centre,
Elmfield Road, Bromley BR1 1LT                                        


     EF               New European tremied
                      concrete guide published

      06               EUROPE: The European
                       Federation of Foundation
                                                    working group chairman
                                                    Karsten Beckhaus,
                                                                                     The guide concentrates
                                                                                  up-to-date design
                                                                                                                    now did not really know
                                                                                                                    the specific needs for
     THE BIG           Contractors (EFFC) has       who also head of the          considerations including          concrete used in deep,
                       published new guidance       materials group at Bauer      concrete rheology, mix            submerged placement
 Slope protection
  for oil refinery.    to improve the quality of    Spezialtiefbau.               design, reinforcement             applications.
                       tremied concrete in the         “The guide meets           detailing, concrete cover            “With the guidance
                       foundation industry.         a real need in the            and best practice rules for       now published, we now
       08                 The guide is the result   industry for a document       placement.                        need to implement new
   PROJECTS            of several year’s work by    representing the common          “Until now the only            acceptance criteria as
   Major works         an EFFC working group        understanding of today’s      acceptance criteria               we need very substantial
   throughout          that was convened after      requirements on fresh         available were based              results from the ongoing
     Europe.           it emerged that issues       concrete for high-quality     on the definition of a            research project which
                       had been encountered on      deep foundations.             suitable ‘consistency’            includes European, and
       12              a number of European
                       foundation projects.
                                                       “This first edition
                                                    of the guide proposes
                                                                                  but we have learned that
                                                                                  slump is not enough to
                                                                                                                    American investigations
                                                                                                                    on rheology of fresh
  TUNNELLING              “The project provides     appropriate performance       understand and prove the          concrete, and its testing.”
 Immersed tunnel       guidance for all             criteria for the concrete     sufficient workability of            The guide will be
   challenge for
                       stakeholders – owners,       together with test            modern five-component             available free of charge
  Swedish city of
                       clients, designers and       methods and initial           concretes,” explained             from the EFFC and Deep
                       contractors – on the         recommendations on            Beckhaus.                         Foundations Institute
                       characteristic performance   acceptance values. A             “We have to establish          websites.
       17              of fresh concrete and its    second edition of the         the understanding of                 It is currently only
  GROUTING             method of placement          guide will be published on    concrete rheology in the          available in English but
 New tunnel will       using tremie methods         completion of the research    whole industry and move           national association
 reduce flooding       in bored piles and           and development work, as      away from slump only              members of the EFFC
 in Scotland but       diaphragm walls, allowing    this will allow definitive    assessment. That includes         are expected to translate
   sets complex        construction of high         acceptance criteria to be     all stakeholders, including       the guide into national
geotechnical tasks.    quality elements,” said      presented.”                   the suppliers who until           versions.

                                     IN THREE                           1. HINDU TEMPLE SECURED

                                                                        INDIA: Maccaferri is                   funicular railway to ease access.
                                                                        undertaking rock bolting and           However, assessment of the
                                                                        netting to stabilise a cliff face to   planned site showed a high
                                                                        ensure up to 3,000 pilgrims can        risk of rockfalls and Maccaferri
                                                                   1    benefit from improved access to        worked with the authority to
                       2                                                the Saptashrungi temple every          stabilise a 200m section to
                                                                        day.                                   enable the new access to be
                                                                          The Hindu temple in the              installed.
                                                                        Sahyadri Mountains is located            Rock fall barriers and further
                                                                        at the top of the mountain and         netting above the temple is now
                                                                        the Public Works Department of         being installed at the site to
                                                                        Maharashtra wanted to install a        provide additional protection.


Ceneri Base Tunnel breakthrough achieved
SWITZERLAND: Alp Transit Gotthard has            years of tunnelling on the 15.4km long           and 10mm vertical deviation.
announced that final breakthrough was            tunnel through ground with an overburden           Work on lining the tunnel and installing
achieved on the western bore of the Ceneri       of up to 900m. According to Alp Transit          rail infrastructure will now get underway
Base Tunnel in Switzerland earlier this year.    Gotthard, the final blast was achieved with      and commissioning is scheduled to take
  The breakthrough marks the end of nine         great accuracy with just 20mm horizontal         place at the end of 2020.

                                        2. METRO TUNNELLING DEALS                                            3. AIRPORT LINK

                                        SINGAPORE: Singapore’s           Soletanche Singapore and Wai        AUSTRALIA: A joint venture
                                        Land Transport Authority         Fong Construction, Shanghai         of Salini Impregilo and NRW
                                        has announced that it has        Tunnel Engineering Co, and a jv     looks set to secure the design
                                        awarded three contracts          of Ssangyong Engineering and        and construct contract for the
                                        for the construction of new      Construction Co and Hyundai         Forrestfield Airport Link project in
                                        stations and tunnels on the      Engineering and Construction        Perth, Australia, after being named
                                        Thomson-East Coast Line.         Co, respectively.                   as the preferred bidder.
                                        They cover the construction of     The contracts cover                 The new 8km long, twin bored
                                        Tanjong Rhu, Katong Park and     construction of a 13km east coast   tunnelled rail route will provide a
                                        Marine Terrace stations and      section of the Thomson-East         20-minute connection to the city
                                        associated tunnels, which have   Coast Line and extend the route     and link to the existing Midland
                                        been awarded to a jv of Bachy    to 43km.                            line near Bayswater Station.



Keller is on the verge of completing an 18 month-long project to
install anchored slope protection for a new oil refinery currently under
construction in Aliaga, Turkey.
   The new Star Refinery, which is within an existing petrochemical plant,
will handle up to 214,000 barrels of crude oil per day and store up to
1.64M.t of diesel in 63 tanks that are being built within the development.
   While the location of the refinery has economic significance, it
presented Keller with a number of geotechnical challenges as it is
near a fault zone, close to two volcanoes and soil conditions are very
   Slopes above the plant needed to be stabilised and Keller has installed
single bore multiple anchors with 14 strands that are up to 50m long, split
into three bonded lengths, and capable of taking forces of up to 3,000kN.
Micropiles have also been installed to stabilise concrete precast elements
in areas where there was a low bearing capacity in the location of the
anchor heads.


                                                                                  PROJECT MAP

Amsterdam, Netherlands:
Controversial construction
Vroom Foundation Technology              CLIENT BC PONTSTEIGER
has just completed construction          CONSULTANT VAN ROSSUM
of 1,200 piles for an unusual new        FOUNDATIONS CONTRACTOR
residential development on the           VROOM FOUNDATION
bank of the Ij in the Netherland’s
                                         FOUNDATIONS VALUE €1.5M
city of Amsterdam.
   The six storey Pontsteiger
building is located at the end of a pier and will have an opening in the
centre of the structure but, while the design may be controversial, the
developer chose a proven technique for the foundations.
   According to Vroom, the most common in situ foundation in the
Netherlands is vibro piles and these were selected for the majority
of the work, which started in late 2015. In total 850 vibro piles have
been constructed to depths of up to 24m but a further 350 CFA piles
have been installed to 39m where higher bearing capacities of up to
3,500kN were needed.
                                                                           Palermo, Italy:
Huelva, Spain: Dyke drainage                                               Rail development
Menard’s Spanish subsidiary           CLIENT ACCIONA                       The Nodo di Palermo – the           CLIENT RETE FERROVIARIA
has undertaken consolidation          MAIN CONTRACTOR MATSA                Palermo Junction – project          ITALIANA
                                      GROUND ENGINEERING MENARD                                                GEOTECHNICAL CONTRACTOR
of very soft clay that is now                                              will see the rail line between
                                      ESPANA                                                                   TREVI
enabling the Juan Gonzalo Dyke GEOTECHNICAL VALUE €508,000                 the Sicilian city and the airport   COMPLETION DATE LATE 2016
in Huelva, Spain to be enlarged                                            doubled in order to improve
to support development of the                                              rail journeys and reduce road
Impala Terminal.                                                           congestion.
   Menard installed over 130,000 linear metres of vertical drains,         The project includes construction of 19.5km of railway
with each drain measuring up to 28m in depth, and constructed              embankments, 500m of bridge and viaducts, six tunnels with a total
embankments up to 12m high to surcharge the soft ground. The aim           length of 3.2km and 18 cut and cover tunnels with a total length of
of the work was to consolidate the ground to depths of up to 30m           5km.
below the new terminal development.                                           Geotechnical work for the scheme is being undertaken by Trevi
   The presence of dense sand layers at up to 25m below ground             and, when completed at the end of this year, the company expects to
level called for predrilling work to ensure the consolidation work         have installed more than 200,000 secant piles for the new link.
achieved the design requirements. Menard undertook over 97,000                Trevi is also undertaking tunnel consolidation work using jet
linear metres of pre-drilling to ensure the work was delivered to the      grouted columns, diaphragm walls for a new station and installation
specification.                                                             of over 7,000 linear metres of micropiles.


Stockholm, Sweden:
Bridge protection

Risk of damage from river traffic CLIENT TRAFIKVERKET
to Stockholm’s Gröndal Bridge       MAIN CONTRACTOR ZÜBLIN
has been signicantly reduced        SCANDINAVIA
                                    DESIGNER KFS
following completion of work
by Züblin to install new beam       CONTRACT VALUE €10M
fenders around the structure.
   Züblin installed a total of 168
tension anchored steel tubular piles to a depth of 24m to absorb the
forces from any collision by boats and prevent the bridge piers from
being struck.
   The completed fenders are 170m long and the piles are connected
by a concrete capping beam that is 4m high and 1.5m wide.

Budapest, Hungary:
Creating culture
Diaphragm walls for a new
                                   CLIENT ÚJPESTI VAGYONKEZELÖ
market hall and cultural           MAIN CONTRACTOR HBM
centre are currently on the        SOLETANCHE BACHY
verge of being completed in        OVERALL PROJECT COST €19M
Budapest by HBM Soletanche FINISH DATE JULY 2017
Bachy. The work (pictured
left) forms part of a seven
month long ground engineering phase on the project, which got
underway in November last year and the development is expected
to be finished in summer 2017.
   The new public space is designed to be fully accessible by
disabled people and will have several basement levels for parking
and a market hall.
   Construction of the new facility called for careful planning to
work around or move utilities, as well as ensure the work did
not disrupt local residents or the operation of the nearby existing



Bauer is currently constructing what is thought to be Europe’s deepest
underground parking facility in the Dutch city of Leiden. The circular car
park, designed by Royal Haskoning DHV, will extend to six levels below
ground and offer parking for up to 525 cars.
   Work on the €1.5M ground engineering contract started in early 2015
and is expected to be completed early next year.
   Before starting work, Bauer undertook six pile load tests to prove
the design and is now working from pontoons to install Gewi micropiles
to depths of up to 55m – believed to be a record-breaking depth in the
Netherlands – into very dense sand.


 Construction of a new immersed                  IMMERSIVE
 tube and cut and cover tunnel is
 being undertaken in Gothenburg,
 Sweden to reduce traffic congestion
 and support future planned growth
 to the west of the city.
                                                 By Claire Smith

                                                 Constructing embedded retaining walls in         phase in December of that year.
                                                 soft clays with high groundwater levels for a      Züblin has responsibility for 85% of the
                                                 new cut and cover tunnel is always a major       contract and is undertaking all permanent
                                                 geotechnical challenge. However, if the          works, including the deep basements and
                                                 structure also has to be used as a temporary     earthworks for the dry docks and cut and
        SWEDEN                 Gothenburg
                               Gothenburg        dry dock, not once but three times, then the     cover tunnels and the immersed tunnel
                                                 challenge becomes significantly more             elements. The remainder of the contract
                                                 technically demanding.                           will be undertaken by Boskalis and this
                                                    This is exactly the challenge that Züblin     includes dredging of the river for placement
                                                 and Boskalis are currently undertaking in        of the immersed tunnel elements, installing
                                                 the Swedish city of Gothenburg for the           bedding layers, backfill and rock filling
 IN FIGURES                                      construction of the Marieholmstunneln.           around the elements and dredging for new

 39m                                                The ground conditions and temporary
                                                 works are not the only difficulties on this

 Depth of driven piles to overcome heave         new road scheme though. It is also being         DESIGN CHALLENGE

                                                 carried out in close proximity to two other      “Choosing the right parameters for the
                                                 major civil engineering projects – the           design of the tunnel was challenging
                                                 Partihalsbridge for a new motorway link to       because of the soft clays in which we are
 The width of the excavation pits
                                                 the Marieholmstunneln, which is being            working,” says Züblin geotechnical design
                                                 built by Peab and NCC, and the new               manager Christiane Hof.
 WHO?                                            Marieholmsbridge rail bridge, which is              “The depth to bedrock at the site is 91m
 Swedish Transport Administration                being built by Skanska.                          and the clays we are working with have an
 Trafikverket appointed Züblin and Boskalis          The new 500m long tunnel is designed to       undrained shear strength of around 10kPa.
 to deliver the design and construct             carry 90,000 vehicles per day and will           However, the clay is very homogeneous and
 contract, which is valued at SEK1.5bn           reduce traffic flow through the existing         has a very low permeability.
 (€166M), in June 2014 and work is               Tingstadtunnel and improve access to the            “Ground movement was one of our main
 expected to be completed in autumn 2020.        port and other industrial areas.                 concerns as the tunnel is located close to
                                                    The 300m long central section of the          both the Partihalsbridge and
 CHALLENGES                                      Marieholmstunneln, which will take the           Marieholmsbridge.”
 Soft clays and use of one of the excavation     new route below the River Göta, is being            Much of the design considerations were
 pits as a dry dock has made this project        constructed using immersed tube                  dealt with ahead of the contract award as
 geotechnically challenging and Züblin has       techniques and the 100m long east and            Züblin technical manager Johannes
 said that it is pushing the boundaries of       west access ramps are being constructed          Glückert says that the tender stage for the
 technology.                                     using cut and cover techniques. The cut and      project took a year to complete.
                                                 cover structure for the eastern ramp has a          Immersed tube tunnels have been
 M O R E I N FO R M AT I O N                     dual purpose as it will first serve as the dry   delivered in Gothenburg before but                          dock for construction of the three precast       Glückert says that this one is bigger and
 marieholmconnection                             concrete immersed tube tunnel elements.          deeper than the previous project undertaken
                                                                                                  in the 1980s.
                                                 CONTRACT DETAILS                                    The excavations for the cut and cover
                                                 Züblin and Boskalis were awarded the             sections are up to 18m deep and 37m wide
                                                 design and construct contract, which is          with minimal struts at ground level and the
                                                 valued at SEK1.5bn (€166M), by Swedish           base slabs formed by underwater concrete
                                                 Transport Administration Trafikverket in         – another unusual aspect for the Swedish
                                                 June 2014 and moved to the construction          civil engineering market.                   


                                                                       The Marieholmstunneln is designed to carry 90,000 vehicle a day

THE MARIEHOLMS                            road and rail infrastructure are vital.      Bohus Line and add cycle and
CONNECTION                                The Marieholms Connection project will       pedestrian routes across the river.
                                          improve connection with the city’s port      Construction started in 2014 and is
The Marieholms Tunnel is part of a        and major industrial areas, as well as       scheduled to be completed in 2017.
wider project being delivered by          relieve congestion on local roads.              The Partihalls Intersection will allow
Trafikvert and also includes the            The new 1,500m long rail swing             road traffic from the E45 and E20 to
Partihalls Intersection and the South     bridge will add rail capacity to the city    connect with the new tunnel and divert
Marieholms Bridge.                        as the current Marieholms rail bridge        traffic away from routes that are
  According to Trafikvert, there are      only carried one line over the River         currently congested at peak times.
more than 1M residents in the greater     Göta.                                           The completion of the intersection is
Gothenburg area and more than 70% of        The new rail bridge will add freight       linked to the construction schedule for
Sweden’s industrial capacity is located   capacity into the port, as well as           the new tunnel and is scheduled to open
within a 500km radius of the city, so     improve passenger services on the            at the same time in 2020.


 200 tubular piles
 have been driven
 to a depth of 39m
 on the eastern
 side of the dry

 “Use of underwater concrete is                the depth of excavation and have been            no tie down piles are needed,” explains Hof.
unusual in Sweden but it is common in the       driven to a depth of 39m. In total 200 of        Nonetheless, the permanent slab will
Netherlands so we have brought in Ballast       these piles have been driven on the eastern      include a 600mm drainage layer and pump
Needham to deliver this aspect of the work,”    side for the dry dock and slightly fewer for     positions as a precaution.
says Glückert.                                  the western cut and cover as the excavation         The underwater concrete is needed as
   The double use of the eastern cut and        will not be as wide.                             part of the precautions against heave. Part
cover tunnel construction pit as a dry dock,       “The 39m depth of the piles has been          of the excavation was undertaken under dry
as well as the need to ease the construction    driven by the risk of bottom heave from the      conditions and then water was pumped in
phase on both sides, meant that supporting      unloading during the excavation,” says Hof.      to provide downforce while the remainder
struts needed to be kept to a minimum.             The excavation on the eastern side has        was excavated. The concrete was then cast
However, with such a large span this was        been completed and construction of the slab      underwater with 5,000m3 pumped into the
not a job that could be completed using         is underway. Work started with installation      eastern side over a three-day period and was
diaphragm wall or combi wall techniques.        of a temporary unreinforced slab covered         followed by installation of a 1.5m thick layer
Instead Züblin has developed an embedded        with ballast to overcome heave which will        of ballast before the water was pumped back
retaining wall that it calls a pipe wall –      then be sequentially replaced by the             out of the excavation in January.
driven steel tubular piles that are connected   permanent slab.                                     “The underwater concrete we used is
by tie rod.                                        “Because the clay has such a low              unusual in itself as it is a high strength mix
   The tubular piles have a diameter of         permeability, there is no free groundwater       – a 30/35 – and there were concerns over
either 1,075mm or 1,420mm depending on          so there is no risk of seepage and as a result   crack development so reinforcement has


> MARRIEHOLMS TUNNEL                                                                             completed, the dock will be flooded to allow
                                                                                                 the elements to be floated out into the river
                        E6                                                                       to be stored until all the units are
                                     Göta älv
                                                                                                    “We are only permitted to work in the
                                                    E45                                          river during winter time, so although the
                                                                Gamlestaden                      first units will be completed this year they
            Tingstad                                                                             will not be put in their final position just
                                                                                                 yet,” says Glückert.
      Lundbyleden                                                                                   Before the elements can be positioned,
                                                                                                 Boskalis will have to complete its dredging
                                MARIEHOLMS                  Ånäsmotet                            work to excavate an 8m deep trench and
                                                                                                 install a 0.5m to 1m thick sand bed to
                                   Marieholm                                   Munkebäcksmotet
                                                                                                 cushion the concrete elements against the
                                                               E20       Bagaregården
                                                                                                 clay. Fill that will “lock” the elements into
                                                                                                 position will then be placed against the
                                                          Olskroken                     500m     sides of the elements and the whole
                                                                                                 installation will be overlain with rockfill to
                                                                                                 provide long-term protection from river
been placed around the edge,” says                Tunnel construction                            traffic.
Glückert.                                         work is expected to                               While work is progressing on casting in
  In theory, even the permanent slab is only      be completed in late                           the dry dock, construction of the cut and
                                                  2018 or early 2019                             cover tunnel will be undertaken on the
temporary – albeit for three years – as the
cut and cover tunnel structure will be                                                           western side. To the untrained eye the cut
separate and built once the excavation has                                                       and cover segments will look much the
served its purpose as a dry dock.                                                                same as the immersed tube sections but will
  Despite the detailed design and modelling                                                      have expansion joints rather than seals
that has gone into the project, there are still                                                  between them.
concerns over ground movement and Hof                                                               According to Glückert, the tunnel
says that there is a huge monitoring                                                             construction work is expected to be
programme underway that is being                                                                 completed in late 2018 or early 2019 at
delivered by Sol Experts to check for                                                            which point the focus of Züblin’s work will
deformation of the wall, heave and changes                                                       move onto the mechanical and electrical fit
in pore water pressure. “All movements                                                           out and testing phase which is scheduled to
have been as anticipated, so far,” she says.                                                     take two years.
  Much of the focus has been on                                                                     Once the tunnel construction is
completing the excavation on the eastern                                                         completed, Züblin will also construct a new
side as casting of the first of five 102m long                                                   marina within the excavation pits which will
immersed tunnel elements is scheduled to                                                         create 800m of new quay wall. According to
start in April. Nonetheless, excavation on                                                       Hof, the aim is partly to improve the area
the western side is only running two                                                             but also to ensure that ground loading
months behind the eastern side.                                                                  around the cut and cover tunnels is
  “We currently have three months to                                                             minimised.
complete the concrete work on the eastern                                                           “Ground conditions are challenging so
side but there is a lot of work needed to                                                        the pipe walls formed for the construction
create the dry dock,” says Glückert. “Work                                                       work will be left in place at the end of the
on the western side has gone well so far.                                                        project,” she says.
The ground there is softer still which has        repeated dewatering and flooding of the           “Removing them could present a high
made installation of the pipe wall easy but       dock as casting work progresses. “It is very   risk of damage to the tunnel structures and
will be a challenge in terms of deformation       hard to model,” she says.                      the new quay area will help unload the soil
during excavation, however, we only have to         The ground conditions were not the only      to prevent creep.”
dewater that side once.”                          feature that guided use of the eastern side       However, the challenge of whether to
  According to Hof, the dry dock still            as the location for the dry dock – the space   remove the temporary works or not is still
presents some further concern over ground         available on that side was also a factor.      some way off as the new tunnel is not set to
movement from the cyclic loading from the           As each post tensioned element is            open until autumn 2020.
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                                                The €128M Shieldhall
IN SUMMARY                                      Tunnel is designed to
Sottish Water is building the                   provide flood relief in
€128M Shieldhall Tunnel to improve
water quality and reduce flooding in
Glasgow but has called for complex
geotechnical work to reduce the risks
on the tunnelling phase.






Grout hole locations in Queens Park

Linear length of drilling at Queens Park

The tunnelling will be undertaken by
contracting joint venture Vinci Construction   By Claire Smith
Grands Projets and Costain but the
grouting work has been sublet to specialist
contractor Soil Engineering Geosciences        Many grouting projects are reactive to           Geosciences (SEG).
and piling work to Bachy Soletanche (see       ground movement problems and residents              The Shieldhall Tunnel is 5.2km tunnel to
box).                                          of Glasgow are very familiar with these          link the Shieldhall Treatment works with
                                               works as a result of widespread shallow coal     another part of the network in Queens Park,
CHALLENGES                                     mines across the Scottish city. However, the     which is currently the main focus of the
Shallow coal mining along the route            latest fleet of drilling rigs and grout mixers   grouting.
means that voids and unstable ground lie       are working to mitigate against the problem         When completed in 2017, the tunnel will
on the planned path of the tunnel boring       ahead of a major investment in a wastewater      provide flood relief for southern Glasgow
machine and has called for extensive           management tunnel to protect the city from       and reduce storm water overflow into the
grouting work ahead of tunnelling.             flooding.                                        River Clyde.
                                                  Accuracy is essential as the grouted mine        “The scheme is part of a wider
M O R E I N FO R M AT I O N                    workings will soon be in the direct path of a    programme of work in Glasgow that is        Herrenknecht slurry tunnel boring machine        focused on large scale water quality
communities/your-community/glasgow-            (TBM) that will be constructing Scottish         improvements and removing properties
investment                                     Water’s £100M (€128M) Shieldhall Tunnel.         from flooding register by 2021,” says
                                                  Main contracting joint venture Vinci          Scottish Water senior project manager
                                               Construction Grands Projets and Costain          Dominic Flanagan.
                                               are currently preparing for the arrival of the      “It is the largest investment undertaken
                                               TBM but the grouting work has been sublet        by Scottish Water and is aimed at
                                               to specialist contractor Soil Engineering        making the network in Glasgow fit for       


 PREPARING FOR LAUNCH                          chamber, which is just off Jura Street.                  Pollock Country Park to Queens Park.
                                               The walls for the 240m long cut and                        Despite value engineering, the bored
 In terms of tunnelling techniques,            cover tunnel have been formed by                         tunnel work is not straightforward. The
 Shieldhall has it all with piled shafts,      750mm diameter CFA piles with the                        route has been selected to minimise the
 top down constructed shafts, sprayed          length changing from 15m close to the                    number of residential areas it passes,
 concrete linings, pipe jacking, grouting,     service chamber to 12m as the cut and                    this takes the tunnel through a number
 cut and cover and bored solutions.            cover tunnel progresses towards the                      of disused mine workings and complex
   At the other end of the new tunnel          TBM launch chamber.                                      faulting.
 from the current Queens Park grouting            The TBM launch chamber has been                         “Four areas were identified from the
 works, Bachy Soletanche has already           formed from 900mm diameter CFA piles                     outset – Jura Street, Bellahousten Park,
 completed a large amount of piling,           installed to 13.8m depth with glass fibre                Titwood Road near Crossmyloof Station
 along with more grouting by SEG, to           reinforced cages used in the piles at the                and Upper Queens Park,” says Walker.
 prepare for the launch of the TBM.            launch end of the chamber to create the                  SEG has already completed grouting at
   At the Jura Street site the ground          soft eye for the TBM.                                    Jura Street and Bellahousten Park.
 conditions of clays and glacial tills            “The main challenge was the logistics                   The tunnel will also encounter faulted
 overlying mudstones and sandstone             due to the residential nature of the                     ground where it passes under the M77,
 combined with the shallow depth of the        site,” says Bachy Soletanche site                        the Paisley Canal and a railway line.
 tunnel at Shieldhall have dictated the        engineer Jake Young. “The site was                       “This area presents a settlement risk as
 use of cut and cover techniques.              literally the width of the street, so the                we will only have one tunnel diameter
   This led to Bachy undertaking 131,          sequencing of the work is critical.”                     of cover in this area,” says Walker. “We
 900mm diameter cased secant piled                Once the TBM is launched later this                   may undertake more compensating
 (CSP) wall for the 15m diameter and           year, the tunnel will be bored south                     grouting in this area but this is still
 15.5m deep shaft one and a service            eastwards under Bellahouston Park and                    under discussion.”

 purpose for the next 100 years.”                                                                      grouting work to shore up the bandstand
  The project is based on 10 years of
                                               > TUNNEL ROUTE                                           for Glasgow City Council around a decade
hydraulic modelling and is part of                                                                      ago. Nonetheless, that work was not on the
integrated investment planning that                     Shieldhall waste water           M8             scale of the current project that will call for
                                                        treatment works
Scottish Water has undertaken with                                                                      2,000 grout holes to be drilled that are set
                                                M8          Jura Street
Glasgow City Council, the Scottish                                                                      to cover a linear length of 42km.
Environmental Protection Agency and                                                                        “The route of tunnel has been planned to
Scotland Canals. This approach is now                                                           M74
                                                                                                        follow Glasgow’s greenspaces and roads to
being rolled out to other Scottish cities.                Park                   Titwood Road           minimise the impact of any potential
  “It was identified during the early stages                                                            subsidence on residential or commercial
of the project that there would be a                       Country Park                   Queens Park
                                                                                                        properties,” explains Llewellyn.
requirement for grouting on the project,”                                                                  “With the TBM alignment set to bore
says SEG business unit manager Tristan                                                                  directly through the grouted horizons, there
Llewellyn. “SEG has previously undertaken                                                               is no margin for error with our work and
grouting work to stabilise collapsed coal      city due to the size of the sites and varying            minimising the risk of collapse,
and ironstone mines around Glasgow over        locations. During the course of the scheme,              groundwater and ground gas is vital.”
the last 30 years, so we had a good idea of    SEG has worked in a residential street at                   SEG moved onto site in Queens Park in
what to expect.                                Jura Street (see box), in park environments              January this year and expects to complete
  “The mining was mostly done in the 18th      at Bellahousten Park (see box) and Queens                the work in May 2016.
and 19th century but is largely unmapped.      Park, and on railway land and within live                   The grouting covers a 20m wide strip of
The mines are very discreet in nature,         traffic at the Titwood Road site.                        the park with a spacing of 3.5m between
which makes it hard to predict where will                                                               treatment holes.
or won’t be affected, but where the mines      QUEENS PARK                                                 “The tunnel will pass under the park at
do exist most were driven using the pillar     At Queens Park SEG has taken over an                     15m to 20m below ground level and we are
and stall approach.”                           800m long east-west swathe of Glasgow’s                  treating the ground up to 12m below the
  According to Llewellyn, the grouting         largest park, putting the work fully within              base of the tunnel,” says Llewellyn.
work for the Shieldhall Tunnel is probably     the public spotlight.                                       There are five coals seams within the
the most complex of all the grouting              SEG had specific experience of working                depth being treated by SEG but there is
projects the company has undertaken in the     in Queens Park after undertaking previous                only evidence of workings within two          


    Work at the
    Titwood Road site
    began in January


 – the Virgin and the Flint. There is            undertake fissure grouting for the shafts,”     lights control traffic flows through what is
some faulting and folding within the seams        adds Llewellyn                                  thought to be one of Glasgow’s busiest
in the park so careful observation of the                                                         junctions, giving road users plenty of time
drilling arisings is vital. SEG is treating the   TITWOOD ROAD                                    to view the work.
seams from the top down and, so far with          Like Queens Park, SEG started work on              Work is focused on completing the
25% of the drilling completed, voids have         grouting at Titwood Road in January. While      grouting on one half of the road before the
been found by most of the grout holes.            the Queens Park work is being carried out       traffic management is switched over to
   The grouting is sequenced to create a cut      during daylight only, the set up and railway    allow SEG to access the other half.
off wall to the north and south of the tunnel     elements of the work here will call for            The tunnel does not follow the road
alignment and once this is completed the          overnight working.                              alignment so extensive use of inclined
holes between are used to undertake bulk             It is hard to miss that the grouting is in   boreholes is being applied. However, this is
infill.                                           full swing – two cement silos tower above a     not straightforward as short masted rigs
   Costain and Vinci will also construct two      supermarket car park that SEG has               have had to be specially brought in to
shafts within the park and SEG will deliver       acquired for its site offices – and half the    prevent obstructing the traffic and part of
more technical grouting to enable these to        street – over a 200m section – is hidden by     the road is on embankment so the drill
be excavated safely. “We will create a grout      hoardings with just the drilling rig masts      orientations need careful planning to
curtain, create a base plug using grout and       peeking over the top. Temporary traffic         prevent work daylighting.                   
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 Grouting at Queens Park
 covers a 20m wide strip
 with a spacing of 3.5m
 between treatment holes


      The coal seams are more folded and     CHALLENGES AHEAD                                programme for the grouting.
faulted here than at Queens Park, so with     SEG had only completed six weeks on site           Another issue that will be a concern until
just half of the site width available for     when EF visited the work but so far             the drilling of the last hole is completed is
treatment and the variability of the ground   everything has gone well.                       the need to ensure no steel is left in the
conditions, it has been challenging for the      “Our experience of grouting in Glasgow       ground. “The no steel drop is critical
site team to build up an accurate ground      has certainly helped get us to this point but   because the TBM will pass through the
model.                                        there are still some elements of the work       grouted areas and any steel left in the
   The next phase of work at Titwood Road     that we need to manage carefully to ensure      ground could seriously damage it,” says
will call for grouting below a railway line   smooth running of the whole contract,”          Llewellyn. “Just in case it does happen, we
close to Crossmyloof Station, which will      says Llewellyn.                                 have developed some special equipment
have to be undertaken during overnight           “A major concern that still needs to be      that would allow us to overdrill the hole and
weekend track possessions.                    overcome is a decision on how to complete       remove the steel before grouting is carried
   The other challenge for the Titwood Road   drilling for grouting work on the Titwood       out.”
grouting team is the location of a mine       Street site which is close to a care home          While it is clear that SEG has carefully
shaft in a road junction just off Titwood     where residents are particularly sensitive to   planned the work and taken precautions
Road.                                         noise.”                                         against various pitfalls, the proof of the
   “Geophysics has been undertaken in the        SEG has undertaken trials of a Soilmec       grouting will only come when the TBM
road to locate the mine shaft and guide the   SM8G rotary drilling rig at the Queens Park     safely passes through the site. With the
grouting design,” says Llewellyn.             site to try and work with Costain, Vinci and    TBM not set to reach Queens Park until
   While the scale of work at Titwood         Scottish Water to try and find a solution       spring next year, it will be some time before
Road is smaller, it is certainly still        that will minimise the impact of the work       Llewellyn’s team can completely relax and
challenging.                                  on residents without affecting the              class the work as a success.
11 May 2016
                                                        Grosvenor House Hotel

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