Famous Photographers & Images - AWQ 3O & 4M Mr. C. Murray - TypePad

Famous Photographers & Images - AWQ 3O & 4M Mr. C. Murray - TypePad
& Images

                AWQ 3O & 4M
                Mr. C. Murray
Famous Photographers & Images - AWQ 3O & 4M Mr. C. Murray - TypePad
                                                                                    Niepce, circa

                                                               Left: Niepce’s earliest surviving
                                                               photograph, circa 1827
                                                               - Starting in 1829 he began
                                                               collaborating on improved
                                                               photographic processes with
   Niepce – world’s first permanent photograph                 Louis Daguerre.
                                                               - The Niepce crater on the
                                                               Moon has been named after him
                                                               in recognition of his
Nicephore Niepce –          was a French inventor, most noted as a pioneer in photography.
    The earliest known surviving example of a Niépce photograph (or any other photograph)
was created in June or July of 1827. In 2002 another early photograph by Niepce was
discovered. It was taken in 1825 of a young stable boy leading a horse, the photograph was
auctioned off in France for more than 500,000 Euros ( approx. 678,000 USD ). Niépce called
his process "heliography", meaning "sun writing". The exposure time required is an issue still
debated today, somewhere between 8 and 20 hours. Because of the very long exposure time,
the process was used to photograph buildings and inanimate objects, but could not be
practically used to photograph people.
Famous Photographers & Images - AWQ 3O & 4M Mr. C. Murray - TypePad
Photographers from the Civil War:
Mathew Brady & Timothy O’Sullivan
- recorded U.S. Civil War
- documentation of the horrors and disasters of war
-Mathew Brady did not actually shoot many of the Civil War photographs
attributed to him. He was more of a project manager and he spent most
of his time supervising his traveling photographers, preserving their
negatives and buying others from private photographers when they
returned fresh from the battlefield
                                                                          Mathew B. Brady,
- Brady routinely took credit for the work of his staff photographs       circa 1875

                        Joseph Hooker, 1814-1879
                        Mathew Brady Studio
Mathew Brady, 1861      Albumen silver print, 1863

                                                             Ulysses S. Grant, 1822-1885
                                                             Mathew Brady Studio
                                                             Albumen silver print, 1864
Famous Photographers & Images - AWQ 3O & 4M Mr. C. Murray - TypePad
The Harvest of Death: Union dead on
                                                            the battlefield at Gettysburg,
                                                            photographed July 4, 1863.
                                                            Albumen print, 7 x 8 11/16 in.

                                                            “Slowly, over the misty fields of
                                                            Gettysburg--as all reluctant to expose
                                                            their ghastly horrors to the light--came
                                                            the sunless morn, after the retreat by
                                                            [General Robert. E.] Lee's broken army.
                                                            Through the shadowy vapors, it was,
                                                            indeed, a "harvest of death" that was
                                                            presented; hundreds and thousands of
                                                            torn Union and rebel soldiers strewed the
                                                            now quiet fighting ground, soaked by the
                                                            rain, which for two days had drenched
                                                            the country with its fitful showers.”
Timothy O’Sullivan – photography to record
                                                            Although Gardner's caption identifies the
historical events (U.S. Civil War) – depicts the            men in the photograph as "rebels
reality of war                                              represented...without shoes," they are
                                                            probably Union dead. During the Civil
                                                            War, shoes were routinely removed from
                                                            corpses because supplies were scarce
                                                            and surviving troops needed them.
Timothy H. O’Sullivan (1840-1882)
- as a teenager he was employed by Matthew Brady, a Civil War photographer
- Under the employ of Mathew Brady photographers were sent out to document the war. To
   do this they had traveling darkrooms so that collodion plats could be processed on the spot.
- In 1862 or 1863, he joined the studio of Alexander Gardner, who included forty-four of
O'Sullivan's photographs in Gardner's Photographic Sketch Book of the War, the first published
collection of Civil War photographs. After the war he photographed the American West.
Famous Photographers & Images - AWQ 3O & 4M Mr. C. Murray - TypePad
Timothy O'Sullivan           Timothy H.
                             Field Where General
                             Reynolds Fell,
                             negative July 1863;
                             print 1866
                             Albumen print
                             6 15/16 x 9 in.

Photographers Wagon & Tent

                                                   Timothy H. O'Sullivan
                                                   Desert Sand Hill near Sink of Carson, Nevada
                                                   American, Nevada, 1867
                                                   Albumen print
                                                   8 13/16 x 11 7/16 in.

                                                   Timothy O'Sullivan's darkroom wagon, pulled by four
                                                   mules, entered the frame at the right side of the
                                                   photograph, reached the center of the image, and abruptly
                                                   U-turned, heading back out of the frame. Footprints
                                                   leading from the wagon toward the camera reveal the
                                                   photographer's path. Made at the Carson Sink in Nevada,
                                                   this image of shifting sand dunes reveals the patterns of
                                                   tracks recently reconfigured by the wind. The wagon's
                                                   striking presence in this otherwise barren scene dramatizes
                                                   the pioneering experience of exploration and discovery in
                                                   the wide, uncharted landscapes of the American West.
Famous Photographers & Images - AWQ 3O & 4M Mr. C. Murray - TypePad
                                                                      (1830 - 1904)
                                                                      - known primarily for his
                                                                      early use of multiple
                                                                      cameras to capture
                                                                      motion, and his
                                                                      zoopraxiscope, a device
                                                                      for projecting motion
                                                                      pictures that predated
                                                                      celluloid film strip used
  Muybridge – photography as an aid in scientific                     - The Horse in Motion
                                                                      shows that the hooves all
  investigation                                                       leave the ground at the
                                                                      moment when all the
                                                                      hooves are tucked under
In 1872, soon-to-be Governor of California Leland Stanford, a         the horse, as it switches
businessman and race-horse owner, had taken a position on a           from "pulling" from the
popularly-debated question of the day: whether during a horse's       front legs to "pushing"
gallop, all four hooves were ever off the ground at the same time.    from the back legs.
Stanford sided with this assertion, called "unsupported transit",
and took it upon himself to prove it scientifically. (Though legend
also includes a wager of up to $25,000, there is no evidence of
this.) Stanford sought out Muybridge and hired him to settle the
To do this Muybridge developed a scheme for instant motion
picture capture as well as improving chemical formulas and
development of an electrical trigger.
Famous Photographers & Images - AWQ 3O & 4M Mr. C. Murray - TypePad
In the 1880’s, Muybridge invents the
zoopraxiscope which produced a series of
images of a moving subject. The Zoopraxiscope
projected a series of images (hand painted from
Muybridge's photographic sequences) on a
circular rotating glass plate. The images were
elongated to compensate for the distortion
caused by projection through a rotating shutter.

Famous Photographers & Images - AWQ 3O & 4M Mr. C. Murray - TypePad
Julia Margaret Cameron
                                       (1815 – 1879)

                                       – was known for her portraits of
                                       celebrities of the time, and for
                                       romantic/dreamy themed images (with
                                       far-away looks and limp poses and soft
                                       - work had a huge impact on the
                                       development of modern photography,
                                       especially her closely cropped portraits
                                       which are still mimicked today
                                       - her career was short and came late in
                                       her life – her daughter gave Julia her
                                       first camera when she was 48 years old
                                       - Cameron strove to capture beauty in
                                       her images and her images often
                                       employ a soft focus technique as well as
                                       - most her work falls into two
                                       categories: closely framed portraits and
                                       illustrative allegories based on religious
Cameron – set up photos illustrating   and literary works.
stories, romantic dreamy themed
images – early female photogrpaher.    Left: ”I Wait”, 1860s
Famous Photographers & Images - AWQ 3O & 4M Mr. C. Murray - TypePad
                    ”Mrs. Herbert
                    April 1867


Above: “Self-
Portrait by Julia

Above Right:
“The Parting of
Sir Lancelot and
Left: ”Pomona”,
Famous Photographers & Images - AWQ 3O & 4M Mr. C. Murray - TypePad
Nadar or Gaspard-Felix
                                                        (1820 – 1910)

                                                        – was born in 1820, he was a
                                                        caricaturist for a Paris newspaper

                                                        - He took his first photographs in
                                                        1853 and in 1858 he became the
                                                        first person to take aerial
                                                        photographs and use artificial

                                                        - he used artificial lighting
                                                        (magnesium flares) when
                                                        descending into the sewers and
                                                        catacombs of Paris

                                                        - he built a huge hot air baloon
                                                        named Le Geant (The Giant) and
                                                        took aerial photographs of Paris –
Nadar – first person to take aerial photographs         he later crashed the balloon
and use artificial lighting, also known for his early
c. 1855

Above Right:
c. 1825
                André Gill, La Lune
Right::         June 2, 1867
The Sewers      Hand-colored Engraving
1864-65         12"w x 18"h
George Eastman
- founded the Eastman Kodak Company and
invented roll film which helped bring photography
into the mainstream.
- roll film was also the basis for motion picture film
- In 1884, he patented a photographic medium
that replaced fragile glass plates with a photo-
emulsion coated on paper rolls. The invention of
roll film greatly speeded up the process of
recording multiple images.
- He coined the marketing phrase “You push the
button, we do the rest.”
- The camera owner could return it with a
processing fee of $10, and the company would
develop the film and return 100 pictures, along
with a new roll of 100 exposures.
- The letter “K” had been a favourite of Eastman’s,
he is quoted in saying it seems a strong, incisive
sort of letter". He and his mother devised the
name Kodak with an anagram set. He said that
there were three principal concepts he used in
creating the name: it must be short, you can not
mispronounce it, and it could not resemble
anything or be associated with anything but Kodak
In 1932, Eastman died by his own hand, leaving a
suicide note that read, "My work is done. Why
Hine – used his photographs to promote social                    Above: Power house mechanic
  reform (child labour and workers rights)                         working on a steam pump,
                                                                   Left: Girl worker in Carolina
                                                                   cotton mill, 1908

Lewis Hine (1874 – 1940) –              was an American photographer who used the camera
both as a research tool and an instrument of social reform.
As a teacher in New York he encouraged his students to use photography as an educational
medium. He took his classes to Ellis Island to photograph the thousands of immigrants who
arrived each day to America. Eventually the realized that his vocation was photography.
In 1908 he became the photographer for the National Child Labour Committee and he
documented child labour in American industry in order to end the practice.
LEWIS HINE (American 1874-1940)


 ABOVE: Boy carrying homework from
            New York sweatshop, 1912
 RIGHT TOP: Newsies and Bootblacks
            shooting craps, 1910
 RIGHT BOTTOM: Newsies selling in saloons
            at night. New England, 1912
Above: “Worker on the Empire
                                                                        State building” circa 1931

                                                                        Left: “Construction worker on
                                                                        the Empire State building,
                                                                        working on some type of wire."
                                                                        Circa 1931
Lewis Hine
In 1920 he made a series of “work portraits” which emphasized the human contribution to
modern industry. In 1930, Lewis Hine was commissioned to document the construction of The Empire
State Building. Hine photographed the workers in precarious positions while they secured the iron and steel
framework of the structure, taking many of the same risks the workers endured. In order to obtain the best
vantage points, Hine was swung out in a specially designed basket 1,000 feet above Fifth Avenue
Alfred Stieglitz
                                          (1820 – 1910)

                                          – American-born photographer
                                          who was instrumental over his fifty
                                          year career in making
                                          photography an acceptable art
                                          form alongside painting and

                                          -Published magazines that
                                          promoted photography as an art

                                          - founded the Photo-Secession
                                          group to force the art world to
                                          recognize photography “as a
                                          distinctive medium of individual

                                          "The Steerage" 1907
Stieglitz – photography as art – he was   photograph by Alfred Stieglitz.
instrumental in making the art world      Photograph of working class
recognize photography as a distinctive    people crowding two decks of
medium of individual expression           a transatlantic steamer
He was insistent that
                                                                              "photographs look like
                                                                              photographs," so that the
                                                                              medium of photography
                                                                              would be considered with
                                                                              its own aesthetic credo
                                                                              and so separate
                                                                              photography from other
                                                                              fine arts such as painting,
                                                                              thus defining photography
                                                                              as a fine art for the first

                                                                              This approach by Stieglitz
                                                                              to photography gained the
                                                                              term "straight
                                                                              photography" in contrast
                                                                              to other forms of
                                                                              photography such as
                                                                              "pictorial photography"
Cunningham, Imogen                   Alfred Stieglitz (above right & above)   which practiced
American (1883-1976)                 The Terminal, New York, 1892             manipulation of the image
Alfred Stieglitz in American Place   Flat Iron Building, New York, 1903.
                                                                              pre and/or post exposure.
Dorothea Lange
                                            (1895 – 1965)

                                            – was an influential American
                                            documentary photographer and
                                            -She is best known for her Depression
                                            era work for the Farm Security
                                            - her photographs humanized the tragic
                                            consequences of the Great Depression
                                            and profoundly influenced the
                                            development of documentary
                                            - she started off as a portrait
                                            photographer with her own studio.
                                            With the onset of the Depression.
                                            Lange turned her camera lens from the
                                            studio to the streets
                                            - her work brought the plight of the
                                            poor and forgotten, displaced farm
                                            families, and migrant workers to public
Lange – iconic images of the Great          attention
Depression and influential in development   - her images were distributed free to
of documentary photography                  newspapers across the country and
                                            became icons of the era
Lange actually took six images that day, the last being the famous "Migrant
                     Mother". Below is a montage of the other five pictures.

                     Persons in picture (left to right) are: Viola (Pete) in rocker, age 14, standing
                     inside tent; Ruby, age 5; Katherine, age 4, seated on box; Florence, age 32, and
                     infant Norma, age 1 year, being held by Florence.

                     Pete has moved inside the tent, and away from Lange, in hopes her photo can
                     not be taken. Katherine stands next to her mother. Florence is talking to Ruby,
                     who is hiding behind her mother, as Lange took the picture.

                     Florence is nursing Norma. Katherine has moved back from her mother as
                     Lange approached to take this shot. Ruby is still hiding behind her mother.

                     Left to right are Florence, Ruby and baby Norma.
Migrant Mother
(Florence Owens      Florence stopped nursing Norma and Ruby has come out from behind her. This
Thompson),           photograph was the one used by the newspapers the following day to report the
Nipomo, California   story of the starving migrants.

                                                                White Angel Bread Line
Comments on Migrant Mother:

Over 10 minutes Lange took 6 images. Lange wrote of the meeting:
     "I did not ask her name or her history. She told me her age, that she was 32. She said that
     they had been living on frozen vegetables from the surrounding fields and birds that the
     children killed. She had just sold the tires from her car to buy food."
Her son Troy Owens recounts:
     "There's no way we sold our tires, because we didn't have any to sell. The only ones we had
     were on the Hudson and we drove off in them. I don't believe Dorothea Lange was lying, I just
     think she had one story mixed up with another. Or she was borrowing to fill in what she didn't
It was only in the late 1970s that Florence's identity was made known, after a letter she had written
was published in a local newspaper and the Associated Press sent a story around entitled "Woman
Fighting Mad Over Famous Depression Photo." Florence was quoted as saying "I wish she [Lange]
hadn't taken my picture. I can't get a penny out of it. She didn't ask my name. She said she wouldn't
sell the pictures. She said she'd send me a copy. She never did."

                        Lange taking
                        photos from
                        her car.
Dorothea Lange
                            White Angel Bread Line

                                 Dorothea Lange
                                 Hoe Culture,
                                 near Anniston,
                                 Alabama, 1936

Dorothea Lange
Ditched, Stalled, and Stranded
San Joaquin Valley, California
- she was the first
                                                                       allowed into the
                                                                       Soviet Union
                                                                       - she was the first
                                                                       photojournalist for
                                                                       Life magazine
                                                                       - her photographs of
                                                                       the construction of
                                                                       the Fort Peck Dam
                                                                       were featured in
                                                                       Life’s first issue,
                                                                       including the cover
Bourke-White – early female photojournalist who was the
first female war correspondent, first foreign photographer
allowed into Soviet Russia, first cover of Life magazine etc.

Margaret Bourke-White (1904 – 1971)

– was an American photographer and photojournalist
- photographed during the Depression like Dorothea Lange
- she was the first female war correspondent and first woman to be allowed
   to work in combat zones during World War II
- As the war progressed, she was
                  attached to the U.S. army air force
                  in North Africa, then to the U.S.
                  Army in Italy and later Germany.
                  She repeatedly came under fire in
                  Italy in areas of fierce fighting.

                  - "The woman who had been
                  torpedoed in the Mediterranean,
                  strafed by the Luftwaffe, stranded
                  on an Arctic island, bombarded in
                  Moscow, and pulled out of the
                  Chesapeake when her chopper
Above: Self-
                  crashed, was known to the Life
Portrait during   staff as 'Maggie the
a WWII photo      Indestructible.'“
                  - In the spring of 1945, she
Left: German
civilians made
                  traveled through a collapsing
to face their     Germany with General George S.
nation's          Patton. In this period, she arrived
                  at Buchenwald, the notorious
                  concentration camp. She is quoted
                  as saying, "Using a camera was
Bottom:           almost a relief. It interposed a
Prisoners at      slight barrier between myself and
1945              the horror in front of me."
She had a knack for being at the right place at the right
                      time: She interviewed and photographed Mohandas K.
                      Gandhi just few hours before his assassination.
                      Eisenstaedt, her friend and colleague, said one of her
                      strengths was that there was no assignment and no
“Ghandi at Spinning   picture that was unimportant to her. She also started the
Wheel”, 1946          first photo lab at Life.
                                                  Margaret Bourke-White
                                                  contributed many things to the
                                                  world of photography. She was
                                                  a woman, doing a man's job,
                                                  in a man's world, from the
                                                  foundries of Cleveland to the
                                                  battlefields in World War II.
                                                  She was an original staff
                                                  photographer for two of the
                                                  most prominent magazines of
                                                  her day, Fortune and Life. She
                                                  led a life full of adventure,
                                                  pioneering a new art form:
                                                  photojournalism. Margaret
                                                  Bourke-White was, and still is,
                                                  one of the most important
                                                  photographers of the twentieth
The halftone process, perfected in the 1880’s, permitted photographs and type to be printed
 together, and photographs became unexpected additions to news stories. The photo essay, a
 sequence of photographs plus brief textural material, came of age in the 1930’s.
 The halftone process converts the continuous shades of gray in a photograph into distinct
 units of black and white that can be printed with ink on paper

  Magazines such as LIFE became immensely
  popular as they were the most accessible,
  exciting, up-to-date form of news available.
  Today they are replaced by the mass media of
  television, newspapers, and the internet. But
  photojournalism has existed for the last 150
  years, and photojournalists have spent that
  time on the front lines, not only in times of
  war but in times of peace, recording the
  important events of contemporary history
  alongside the situations of everyday life,
  condensing the essential of a story in just a
  few pages of pictures.

First LIFE magazine cover, dated Nov. 23, 1936, with logo and picture of Fort Peck Dam by Margaret Bourke-White
Brassai        (1899 – 1984)
                                              – was a Hungarian photographer, sculptor,
                                              and filmmaker who rose to fame in France

                                              - His job as a journalist and love of the city,
                                              whose streets he often wandered late at
                                              night, led to photography. He later wrote
                                              that photography allowed him to seize the
                                              Paris night and the beauty of the streets
                                              and gardens, in rain and mist.

                                              - Gyula Halász went by the pseudonym
                                              "Brassaï," which means "from Brasso." As
                                              Brassaï, he captured the essence of the city
                                              in his photographs, publishing his first book
                                              of photographs in 1933 titled "Paris de
                                              nuit" ("Paris by Night").

                                              - His efforts met with great success,
                                              resulting in his being called "the eye of
                                              Paris". In addition to photos of the seedier
                                              side of Paris, he also provided scenes from
                                              the life of the city's high society, its
                                              intellectuals, its ballet, and the grand
Brassai – best know for his images of the     operas. He photographed many of his great
                                              artist friends, including Salvador Dalí, Pablo
streets of Paris at night
                                              Picasso, Henri Matisse, and Alberto

Brassai (Gyula Halasz), Open Gutter, From "Paris by Night“, 1933
-his images depict in a non-
                                                                                   judgmental and keenly observed
                                                                                   fashion the prostitutes, opium
                                                                                   addicts, lovers (homosexual and
                                                                                   heterosexual), street hoodlums,
                                                                                   performers and nighttime revelers
                                                                                   of prewar Paris.
                                                                                   - Brassaï described himself as
                                                                                   nocturnal, rising only at sunset and
                                                                                   going to bed at sunrise, walking for
                                                                                   long hours around the city,
                                                                                   sometimes with a companion, but
                                                                                   more often alone. At first he
                                                                                   worked simply with available light,
"Bijou" of the Montmartre cabarets       Prostitute at angle of Rue de la Reynie   using long exposures on a tripod.
From "Paris by Night“, 1933              and Rue Quincampoix                       Paris was getting significantly
                                         From "Paris by Night“, 1933
                                                                                   lighter out of doors at night, with
                                                                                   electric street lighting beginning to
                                                                                   take the place of gas.
                                                                                   - Brassai had used some very long
                                                                                   exposures - perhaps half an hour -
                                                                                   for his night pictures.

                                     Parisian couple, 1926
- He often chose conditions of mist or
                                                       light rain and tried to mask close bright
                                                       light sources behind trees or other
                                                       barriers in the scene to avoid problems
                                                       of excessive exposure in these areas.
                                                       Both served to reduce the excessive
                                                       contrast which was the main problem
                                                       in night photography.

                          Above: Brassaï @ work        -The weather conditions he chose at
                          Below: Portrait of Brassai
                          by another photographer
                                                       least in part on technical grounds
                                                       added to the work, producing strong
“The Stairs" by Brassaï                                moods and a tangible atmosphere.

                                                       - Brassaï generally timed his
                                                       exposures using a cigarette -the
                                                       cheap, fast-burning Gauloise which
                                                       incorporated an oxidiser being suitable
                                                       for brighter conditions and a more
                                                       expensive slower burning brand for
                                                       darker areas.
“Brouillard" by Brassaï
-best known as a candid news
                                                                  photographer whose stark
                                                                  black-and-white shots
                                                                  documented street life in New
                                                                  York City. Weegee's photos of
                                                                  crime scenes, car-wreck
                                                                  victims in pools of their own
                                                                  blood, overcrowded urban
                                                                  beaches and various
                                                                  grotesques are still shocking,
                                                                  - Fellig was the only New York
                                                                  newspaper reporter with a
                                                                  permit to have a portable
                                                                  police-band shortwave radio.
                                                                  He maintained a complete
                                                                  darkroom in his trunk of his
                                                                  car, to expedite getting his
                                                                  free-lance product to the
    Weegee – best known for his street crime scene
    photography                                                   - Weegee worked mostly at
                                                                  night; he listened closely to
                                                                  broadcasts and often beat
Weegee aka Arthur Fellig (1899 – 1968)                            authorities to the scene

– was an American photographer and photojournalist, known for his stark black and white
      street photography
- His nickname was a phonetic rendering of Ouija, because he frequently arrived at scenes
   only minutes after crimes, fires or other emergencies were reported to authorities
"He will take his camera and ride off in
                                                              search of new evidence that his city,
                                                                 even in her most drunken and
                                                              disorderly and pathetic moments, is
                                                                  -William McCleery in Naked City

                                                             -His acclaimed first book collection of
                                                             photographs, Naked City (1945), became
                                                             the inspiration for a major 1948 movie The
                                                             Naked City, and later the title of a
                                                             pioneering realistic television police drama
- Most of his notable photographs were taken                 series.
with very basic press photographer equipment
and methods of the era, a 4x5 Speed Graphic
camera preset at f/16, @ 1/200 of a second with -Fellig is also referred to in an episode of
flashbulbs and a set focal length of ten feet.  The X-Files in which Agent Dana Scully is
                                                             assigned to work with a crime scene
                                                             photographer named Alfred Fellig whose
                                                             subjects may in fact be his victims.

                                                             - had no formal photographic training but
                                                             was a self-taught photographer and
                                                             relentless self-promoter. He is sometimes
                                                             said not to have had any knowledge of the
                                                             New York art photography scene; but in
                                                             1943 the Museum of Modern Art included
  Charles Sodokoff and Arthur Webber Use Their Top Hats to   several of his photos in an exhibition
  Hide Their Faces, January 27, 1942
In the Lobby at the Metropolitan Opera,
                                                                         Opening Night, , November 22, 1943

                                                                       The Fashionable People, [title first used for
                                                                       "The Critic" in LIFE Magazine], published
                                                                       December 6, 1943

- "The Critic" is probably Weegee's most famous image, and most widely published. It taken at the opening night of
the Metropolitan Opera in 1943. In an interview, Louie Liotta, Weegee's assistant, recalled that Weegee has been
planning this photograph for a while. Liotta, at Weegee's request, picked up one of the regular women customers at
Sammy's on the Bowery at about 6:30 p.m. With a sufficient amount of cheap wine for the woman, they proceeded
to the opera house. When they arrived, the limousines owned by the members of high society were just beginning
to discharge their passengers. With a signal worked out in advance, Weegee gave the sign to Liotta, who releasd
the woman, hoping all the while that she could keep her balance long enough for Weegee to expose several plates.
The moment had finally arrived: Mrs. George Washington Kavenaugh and Lady Decies were spotted getting out of a
limousine. Both women were generous benefactors to numerous cultural institutions in New York and Philadelphia,
and Weegee knew that they were known to every newspaper in New York. Liotta recalled the moment he released
the disheveled woman: "It was like an explosion. I thought I went blind from the three or four flash exposures
which Weegee made within a very few seconds." For his part, Weegee told the story that he "discovered" the
woman viewing the opera patrons after the negative had been developed, never revealing the prank, saying it was
as much a surprise to him as anyone.
Riis – documentary photography for social
 reform – poverty

                                             Bandit's Roost by Jacob Riis, 1888, from How the
                                             Other Half Lives. This image is Bandit's Roost at 59½
Jacob Riis                                   Mulberry Street, considered the most crime-ridden,
(1849 – 1914)                                dangerous part of New York City.

– a Danish-American muckraker journalist, photographer, and social reformer, was born in Ribe,
Denmark. He is known for his dedication to using his photographic and journalistic talents to
help the less fortunate in New York City, which was the subject of most of his prolific writings
and photographic essays. As one of the first photographers to use flash, he is considered a
pioneer in photography
W. Eugene Smith
                                               (1918 – 1978)

                                               – was an American photojournalist
                                               known for his refusal to
                                               compromise professional
                                               standards and his brutally vivid
                                               World War II photographs.

                                               - Smith was injured while taking
                                               photographs of WWII. During his
                                               two year of recovery and plastic
                                               surgery he took no pictures and
                                               debated whether he would ever be
                                               able to return to photography.
                                               Then one day Smith took a walk
                                               with his two children and even
                                               though it was still intensely painful
Smith – war photographer known for using a     for him to operate a camera he
35mm SLR in combat zones, also known for       came back with one of the most
establishing the photo essay as an important   famous photographs of all time:
                                               "A Walk to Paradise Garden." This
way to convey a message (story through         memorable image was to serve as
pictures) – also early environmental           the final picture in the famous
photography                                    "Family of Man" Exhibition.
-He began his career by taking pictures for local newspapers. He
 went to New York City and began work for Newsweek and became
 known for his incessant perfectionism and thorny personality.
 Smith was fired from Newsweek for refusing to use medium
 format cameras and joined Life Magazine in 1939.

 - As a correspondent, Smith entered World War II on the front
 lines of the island-hopping American offensive against Japan,
 photographing U.S. Marines and Japanese prisoners of war. On
 Okinawa, Smith was hit by mortar fire. After recovering, Smith
 continued at Life and perfected the photo essay, a set or series of
 photographs that are intended to tell a story or evoke a series of
 emotions in the viewer.
Right: An example of Smith's
war photography for Life.

                               Above: Marine Mop-up Following Japanese Suicide
                               Charge, Saipan, 1944
                               Left: Marine Demolition Team Blasting Out a Cave on
                               Hill 382, Iwo Jima, 1945
Tomoko Uemura in Her
                                                            Bath, Minamata, 1972

-In the early 1970s, William Eugene Smith lived with his wife, in Minamata, Japan.
William Eugene Smith took this photo. as well as many others, of the effects of long term
environmental industrial mercury poisoning on the local population.
- Here, on the Japanese Island of Kyushu, we see an image of an outwardly healthy mother
bathing her fetal-poisoned 16 year old daughter, Tomoko Uemura, grotesquely deformed,
physically crippled and blind since birth due to environmental industrial mercury poisoning in
the local Minamata, Japan, water supply.
- This may well be the first environmental pollution photojournalism. The photograph is
from a series on industrial pollution by William Eugene Smith and Aileen Mioko Sprauge
Smith for which they jointly received the World Understanding Award-U.S.A. William Eugene
Smith, who was severely beaten by goons hired by the offending chemical company, also
received the Robert Capa Gold Modal-U.S.A. for "photography requiring exceptional courage
and enterprise."
- “There is nothing
                                                                                                         in this world that
                                                                                                         does not have a
                                                                                                         decisive moment"
                                                                                                         applied this to his
                                                                                                         style. He said: "To
                                                                                                         me, photography
                                                                                                         is the
                                                                                                         recognition, in a
                                                                                                         fraction of a
                                                                                                         second, of the
                                                                                                         significance of an
   Cartier-Bresson – developed a style of “street                                                        event as well as of
                                                                                                         a precise
   photography” that promoted the idea of the                                                            organization of
   “decisive moment”                                                                                     forms that give
                                                                                                         that event its
Henri Cartier-Bresson
                                Children in Seville, Spain, photograph by Henri Cartier-Bresson, 1933.

(1908 – 2004)

– a French photographer considered to be the father of modern photojournalism, an
early adopter of 35mm format, and the master of candid photography. He helped
develop the "street photography" style that has influenced generations of
photographers that followed.
Behind the
                                               - Cartier-Bresson exclusively used Leica 35 mm
Gare St.                                       rangefinder cameras equipped with normal 50mm
Lazare, Paris                                  lenses or occasionally a wide-angle for landscapes.
There was a                                    He often wrapped black tape around the camera's
plank fence                                    chrome body to make it less conspicuous. With fast
around some
                                               black and white films and sharp lenses, he was able to
behind the                                     photograph almost by stealth to capture the events.
Gare Saint-                                    He never photographed with flash, a practice he saw
Lazare train                                   as “impolite...like coming to a concert with a pistol in
station. I
happened to
                                               your hand.”
be peeking
through a
gap in the
fence with
my camera at
the moment
the man


                                              - He believed in composing his photographs in his
                                              camera and not in the darkroom, showcasing this belief
                                              by having nearly all his photographs printed only at full-
                                              frame and completely free of any cropping or other
                                              darkroom manipulation -- indeed, he emphasized that
                                              the entire negative had been used by extending the area
                                              reproduced on the print to include a thick black border
   The Var department, Hyères, France 1932.   around the frame.
Berenice Abbott
                                            (1898 – 1991)

                                            – an American photographer
                                            best known for her black-and-
                                            white photography of New
                                            York City architecture and
                                            urban design of the 1930s.
                                            - Abbott's first became
                                            involved with photography in
                                            1923, when Man Ray, hired
                                            her as a darkroom assistant at
                                            his portrait studio. Later she
                                            would write: "I took to
                                            photography like a duck to
                                            water. I never wanted to do
                                            anything else." Ray was
                                            impressed by her darkroom
                                            work and allowed her to use
                                            his studio to take her own
Abbott – best known for her architectural
and urban design photographs of New         Berenice Abbott
York                                        Canyon: Broadway and Exchange
                                            Place, c. 1935-39
In early 1929, Abbott
                                                                                        visited New York City and
                                                                                        immediately saw its
                                                                                        photographic potential.
                                                                                        Accordingly, she went back
                                                                                        to Paris, closed up her
                                                                                        studio, and returned to
                                                                                        New York in September.
                                                                                        Her first photographs of
                                                                                        the city were taken with a
                                                                                        hand-held Kurt-Bentzin
                                                                                        camera, but soon she
                                                                                        acquired a Century
                                                                                        Universal camera which
                                                                                        produced 8 x 10 inch glass
                                                                                        plate negatives. Using this
                                                                                        large format camera,
                                                                                        Abbott photographed New
                                                                                        York City with the diligence
                                   Abbott was part of the straight photography
                                   movement, which stressed the importance of
                                                                                        and attention to detail she
                                   photographs being unmanipulated in both subject      had so admired in Eugène
                                   matter and developing processes. Throughout her      Atget. Her work has
                                   career, Abbott's photography was very much a
                                   display of the rise in development in technology
                                                                                        provided a historical
                                   and society. Her works documented and praised        chronicle of many now-
Above: Columbus Circle, Feb. 10,   the New York landscape. This was all guided by her   destroyed buildings and
           1938                    belief that a modern day invention such as the
Right: Cliff and Ferry Street,     camera deserved to document the 20th century.
                                                                                        neighborhoods of
           Nov. 29, 1935                                                                Manhattan.
Man Ray
                                            (1890 – 1976)
                                            – an American artist who spent most of
                                            his career in Paris, France. Perhaps best
                                            described simply as a modernist, he was
                                            a significant contributor to both the
                                            Dada and Surrealist movements,
                                            although his ties to each were informal.

                                            -Best known in the art world for his
                                            avant-garde photography, Man Ray
                                            produced major works in a variety of
                                            media and considered himself a painter
                                            above all.
                                            - In 1999, ARTnews magazine named
                                            him one of the 25 most influential artists
                                            of the 20th century, citing his
                                            groundbreaking photography as well as
                                            "his explorations of film, painting,
                                            sculpture, collage, assemblage, and
                                            prototypes of what would eventually be
                                            called performance art and conceptual
                                            art" and saying "Man Ray offered artists
                                            in all media an example of a creative
Man Ray – know for his photograms as well   intelligence that, in its 'pursuit of
as explorations into surreal photographic   pleasure and liberty,'" — Man Ray’s
images                                      stated guiding principles — "unlocked
                                            every door it came to and walked freely
            Rayography Spiral, 1923         where it would."
Left: Objet Indestructible
                                                                                         (1923-1975) -
                                                                                         (Readymade wooden
                                                                                         metronome with photograph
                                                                                         of an eye )

                                                                                         Bottom Left: Larmes, 1932
                                                                                         Bottom Middle: Le Violon
                                                                                         d'Ingres, 1924
                                                                                         Bottom Right: Woman,

Man Ray involved himself with Dada, a radical anti-art movement, and abandoned traditional painting, started
making objects, and developed unique mechanical and photographic methods of making images. Like Duchamp,
he made "readymades" - objects selected by the artist, sometimes modified and presented as art. His Gift
readymade (1921) is a flatiron with metal tacks attached to the bottom, and Enigma of Isidore Ducasse is an
unseen object (a sewing machine) wrapped in cloth and tied with cord. His approach to photography was always
to challenge the traditional ways of seeing. His extreme close-up of an eye with perfectly round tears is an
arresting image. He is also known for his experiments with a darkroom process called solarization, in which the
image is treated with special chemicals and exposed to light before it is thoroughly developed.
Yousef Karsh (1908 – 2002)
                                        – a Canadian photographer of Armenian birth,
                                        and one of the most famous and accomplished
                                        portrait photographers of all time
                                        -when he came to Canada he established a
                                        studio on Sparks Street in Ottawa, close to
                                        Canada’s seat of government. Canadian Prime
                                        Minister Mackenzie King discovered Karsh and
                                        arranged introductions with visiting dignitaries
                                        for portrait sittings.
                                        - Karsh's work attracted the attention of varied
                                        celebrities, but his place in history was sealed
                                        in 1941 when Winston Churchill came to
                                        Ottawa and was photographed by him
                                        - as the story goes, Karsh was only given two minutes
                                        to photograph when Churchill marched into the room
                                        scowling, "regarding my camera as he might regard
                                        the German enemy." His expression suited Karsh
                                        perfectly, but the cigar stuck between his teeth
Karsh – famous Canadian portrait        seemed incompatible with such a solemn and formal
photographer – probably best known      occasion. "Instinctively, I removed the cigar. At this the
                                        Churchillian scowl deepened, the head was thrust
for how he is able to capture the       forward belligerently, and the hand placed on the hip
essence of a persons identity on film   in an attitude of anger."The image captured Churchill
                                        and the England of the time perfectly — defiant and
                                        unconquerable. Churchill later said to him, "You can
                                        even make a roaring lion stand still to be
                       Winston          photographed." As such, Karsh titled the photograph,
                       Churchill        The Roaring Lion.
Humphrey Bogart, 1946            Albert Einstein, 1948        George Bernard Shaw 1943 Ernest Hemingway, 1957

Karsh was a master of studio lights. One of Karsh's distinctive practices was lighting the subject's hands
separately. He photographed many of the great and celebrated personalities of his generation. It was said that
"when the famous start thinking of immortality, they call for Karsh of Ottawa.“ Karsh had a gift for capturing the
essence of his subject in the instant of his portrait. As Karsh wrote of his own work in Karsh Portfolio in 1967,
"Within every man and woman a secret is hidden, and as a photographer it is my task to reveal it if I can. The
revelation, if it comes at all, will come in a small fraction of a second with an unconscious gesture, a gleam of the
eye, a brief lifting of the mask that all humans wear to conceal their innermost selves from the world. In that
fleeting interval of opportunity the photographer must act or lose his prize."
                                                                                                        Photos Left:

                                                                                                        Man Ray,

                                                                                                        Ansel Adams,


Rush by Yousuf Karsh (1984)
Ansel Adams
                                                                                           (1902 – 1984)

                                                                                           – an American
                                                                                           photographer, best known
                                                                                           for his black and white
                                                                                           photographs of California's
                                                                                           Yosemite Valley.

                                                                                           -Adams also authored
                                                                                           numerous books about
                                                                                           photography, co-founded
                                                                                           Group f/64 along with other
                                                                                           photographic masters and
                                                                                           created the zone system - a
                                                                                           technique which allows
                                                                                           photographers to translate
                                                                                           the light they see into
                                                                                           specific densities on
  Ansel Adams – famous photographer known for his                                          negatives and paper, thus
  iconic images of the American landscape – master                                         giving them better control
  printer in the darkroom, teacher and environmentalist –                                  over finished photographs.
  pioneered the idea of visualization                                                      - Adams also pioneered the
                                                                                           idea of visualization of the
The Tetons - Snake River, (1942)
                                                                                           finished print based upon
- when he was 4 years old he broke his nose in an aftershock from the 1906 San             the measured light values
Francisco earthquake. It was never corrected and appeared crooked for his entire life.
                                                                                           in the scene being
- his original passion was to become a concert pianist and alternated between the two at   photographed
the start of his career
Top Left: Moon and Half Dome,
Yosemite Valley, 1960

Above: Oak Tree, Snowstorm,
Yosemite National Park, 1948

Above Right: Clearing Winter Storm,
Yosemite National Park, 1944

Right: Portrait of Ansel Adams, 1960
by Nancy Newhall

Bottom Left: Close up of leaves in
Glacier National Park, 1942

Ansel Adams was a dedicated artist-activist, playing a
seminal role in the growth of an environmental
consciousness in the U.S. and the development of a
citizen environmental movement. His photographs
continue to inspire the artist and conservationist alike.
Edward Weston
                                                 (1886 – 1958)

                                                 – an American photographer, and co-
                                                 founder of Group f/64. Most of his
                                                 work was done using an 8 by 10 inch
                                                 view camera.

                                                 - after operating a traditional
                                                 photographic studio for a few years,
                                                 he began a new period of transition in
                                                 1922. Renouncing pictorialism in favor
                                                 of straight photography and he would
                                                 later become known as the "pioneer of
                                                 precise and sharp presentation" with
                                                 images of natural forms such as the
                                                 human figure, seashells, plants,
                                                 vegetables, and landscapes.
                                                 -Weston worked mainly with nudes,
                                                 still life - his shells and vegetable
                                                 studies were especially important -
                                                 and landscape subjects.
                                                 - Price History: 1970's: $500 - $1,500
                                                 1980's: $3,000 - $50,000 1990's: $10,000 -
                                                 $300,000 Current: $5000 - $500,000
Weston – best known for his “abstract” studies
                                                 - Even though he was a celebrated
of natural forms such as vegetables, the         photographer he survived selling his photos
human figure and landscapes etc.                 for a humble price of $7-10. Now, they have
                                                 gone up over 1,000,000% in value.
- he co-founded Group f/64 in 1932 with Ansel
             Adams, and others. The term f/64 referred to
             the smallest aperture setting on a large format
             camera, which secured maximum depth of
             field, rendering a photograph evenly sharp
             from foreground to background. This
             corresponded to the philosophy of straight
             photography that the group promoted in
             response to the pictorialist methods that were
             still in fashion at the time.

Nude, 1936     White Dunes, Oceano, California, 1936
Edward Weston

   Top Left: Shells, 1927
   Top Middle: Excusado, 1925
   Above: Artichoke Halved
   Far Left: Pepper, 1929
   Left: Nude 1927
Bill Brandt
                                                     (1904 – 1983)

                                                     – an influential British
                                                     photographer and photojournalist
                                                     known for his high-contrast
                                                     images of British society and his
                                                     distorted nudes and landscapes

                                                     - Brandt became Britain's most
                                                     influential and internationally
Brandt – known for his high-contrast images that     admired photographer of the
                                                     20th century. Many of his works
combine elements of surrealism (distorted reality)   have important social
along an “abstract” study of form                    commentary but also poetic
                                                     resonance. His landscapes and
                                                     nudes are dynamic, intense and
                                                     powerful, often using wide-angle
                                                     lenses and distortion.

                                                     - Bill Brandt was largely self-taught in
                                                     photography and worked as a
                                                     student-assistant to Man Ray in Paris
                                                     from 1929 to 1930. This exposure to
                                                     Man Ray and his work would
                                                     determine the surrealist undercurrent
                                                     and tension of many of Brandt’s
Diane Arbus
                                                                                                       (1923 – 1971)

                                                                                                       – an American photographer,
                                                                                                       noted for her portraits of people
                                                                                                       on the fringes of society
                                                                                                       -Arbus' early work was created
                                                                                                       using 35mm cameras, but by
                                                                                                       the 1960s Arbus adopted the
                                                                                                       Rolleiflex medium format twin-
                                                                                                       lens reflex. This format
                                                                                                       provided a square aspect ratio,
                                                                                                       higher image resolution, and a
                                                                                                       waist-level viewfinder that
                                                                                                       allowed Arbus to connect with
                                                                                                       her subjects in ways that a
                                                                                                       standard eye-level viewfinder
                                                                                                       did not.
                                                                                                       - Arbus also experimented with
    Arbus – known for her confrontational (or noble)                                                   the use of flashes in daylight,
    portraits of people on the fringes of society                                                      allowing her to highlight and
                                                                                                       separate her subjects from the
Identical Twins, Roselle, New Jersey, 1967
Arbus' photograph Identical Twins is tenth on the list of most expensive photographs having sold in 2004 for $478,400.
Arbus is noted by critics and art
              historians for her photographs depicting
              outsiders, such as tranvestites,
Two Men       dwarves, giants, prostitutes, and
Dancing at    ordinary citizens in poses and settings
Drag Ball,
New York      conveying a disturbing uncanniness.
City, 1970

Giant at
with his

 Child with
 Toy Hand
 Grenade in
 Park, New
 York City
Double Exposure
A Moment With Diane Arbus Created A Lasting
By David Segal, Washington Post Staff Writer
Thursday, May 12, 2005

NEW YORK They remember none of it. Not the lady with the
camera, arranging them by a wall at the Knights of Columbus
hall in their home town of Roselle, N.J. Not the chocolate cake
they had just finished, which is very faintly visible in the
picture at the creases of their lips. The Wade sisters, as they
were known before they each married, recall nothing about
the day they gazed into the lens of Diane Arbus and became
part of American photographic history. Unless you count the
"We still have them," says Colleen.
"Our mother made them," says Cathleen. "They look black in
the photograph but they're actually green."
They were 7 years old in 1967, when Arbus found the girls at
a Christmas party for local twins and triplets. Nobody is quite
sure how Arbus heard about the gathering, but a few parents
obliged when she asked their children to pose. Which is how
the Wade sisters wound up on a sidewalk, standing close
enough to seem joined at the shoulder, their expression a kind
of spectral blank.
It would become one of the most famous photographs of the
era's most compelling photographer. Arbus killed herself in
1971, at the age of 48, leaving behind a gallery of characters -
- some of them spooky, some of them bizarre, all of them
vaguely tragic -- who won't go away. There's a retrospective of
her work called "Revelations" now on view at the Metropolitan
Museum of Art and it's a menagerie of weirdos we seem to
have known all our lives: those two men waltzing at a drag
ball, that Mexican dwarf, the grimacing kid with a toy grenade.
                                                                  (1903 –

                                                                  – was a professor
                                                                  of electrical
                                                                  engineering at the
                                                                  Institute of

                                                                  - He is largely
                                                                  credited with
                                                                  transforming the
                                                                  stroboscope from
                                                                  an obscure
                                                                  instrument into a
                                                                  common device
Edgerton – inventor of the strobe (the flash in the camera), as   seen in nearly
well as his scientific studies in “freezing time in images”       every camera

Shooting the Apple, 1964
Left: Milkdrop Coronet, 1957
Top Right: Densmore Shute Bends the Shaft, 1938
Above: Cutting the Card Quickly, 1964 & political cartoon spoof
Jerry Uelsmann
                                            (1934 –   )

                                            – a master printer producing
                                            composite photographs with
                                            multiple negatives and extensive
                                            darkroom work. He uses up to a
                                            dozen enlargers at a time to
                                            produce his final images.

                                            -Today, with the advent of digital
                                            cameras and Photoshop,
                                            photographers are able to create a
                                            work somewhat resembling
                                            Uelsmann's in less than a day,
                                            however, at the time Uelsmann
                                            was considered to have almost
                                            "magical skill" with his completely
                                            analog tools.

                                            - Uelsmann used the darkroom
Uelsmann – known for his surreal images     frequently, sometimes using three
that combine several individual photos      to ten enlargers to produce the
together – master printer in the darkroom   expected effect.
Anne Geddes
                                             (1956 –  )

                                             – an Australian-
                                             born photographer,
                                             clothing designer
                                             who now lives and
                                             works in New
                                             Zealand. She is
                                             well-known for her
                                             stylised depictions
                                             of babies and

Anne Geddes – best known for her stylized,
staged and costumed images of babies and
Steve McCurry
                                              (1950 – )

                                              – an American photojournalist best
                                              known for his evocative color
                                              photography. Capturing the
                                              essence of human struggle and
                                              joy, in the finest documentary
                                              tradition, is one of his artistic
                                              trademarks. McCurry has covered
                                              many areas of international and
                                              civil conflict, including the Iran-Iraq
                                              war, Beirut, Cambodia, the
                                              Philippines, the Gulf War, and
                                              continuing coverage of
                                              Afghanistan. McCurry's work has
                                              been featured in every major
                                              magazine in the world and
                                              frequently appears in National
                                              Geographic magazine.
Steve McCurry – best known for
his colourful portrait images of
different cultures that capture the   http://www.stevemccurry.com/main.php
essence of his subjects identity
Doubilet – well know underwater photographer who works for National
Geographic – scientist as well as artist

David Doubilet (1946 –              )         http://www.daviddoubilet.com/
– a well known underwater photographer known primarilly for
his work published in National Geographic Magazine
Annie Leibovitz
                                                  (1949 –    )

                                                  – a noted American
                                                  portrait photographer
                                                  whose style is marked
                                                  by a close collaboration
                                                  between the
                                                  photographer and the

Annie Leibovitz – famous celebrity photographer
Natchwey – contemporary war photographer

(  –   )

Freeman Patterson – Canadian photographer who
promotes the concept of spirituality behind the still image –
currently teaching, writing and lecturing about photography

Freeman Patterson
(   – )

Edward Burtansky – St. Catharines photographer who
focused his work on manufactured landscapes.

Edward Burtansky
(  –    )

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