JANUARY 2008 – JANUARY 2017


Copyright © David L. Harrowfield, 2017
    Copyright © Antarctica New Zealand, 2017
    Published Antarctica New Zealand, 2017
    Private Bag 4745, 38 Orchard Road Christchurch, New Zealand
    Print Edition published by Antarctic Office 2017
    ISBN 978-0-473-40363-8
    This books is copyright. Except for the purpose of fair review, no part may be stored or transmitted
    in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including recording or storage in any
    information retrieval sytems, without permission in writing from the publisher. No reproduction
    may be made, whether by printing or photocopying or by any other means, unless a licence has been
    obtain from the publisher or its agent.
    Cover photograph: Jason O’Hara
    Designed by RGB Design & Print Ltd, Christchurch.

      The cover image was created by New Zealand photographer/designer
       Jason O’Hara during his visit to Antarctica in October 2016, “LX” is a
  limited edition set of sixty photographic prints commissioned by Antarctica
      New Zealand to mark the 60th Anniversary of Scott Base in Antarctica.
    While working with an ice dive team at Cape Evans he visited the nearby
      historic hut, most associated with Captain Robert Falcon Scott’s British
Antarctic (Terra Nova) Expedition 1910-1913 and his second, and final, attempt
                                 for the South Pole.
Jason found stepping into the hut was deeply moving. Totally silent and dimly
lit, it stands preserved as if you are the first person to enter since Scott’s team
deserted the place in 1913. So he decided to capture the feeling of visiting the
  hut rather than attempting to accurately document the site and artefacts, as
                       many good photographers have already.
   To recreate the mood of that moment, he lit the interior with torchlight and
 used his modern DSLR camera fitted with the lens from a 100 year-old Kodak
    pocket camera. The lens is very similar to one used by Frank Hurley on Sir
Ernest Shackleton’s Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, which set out in 1914.
 It gives a wonderful soft quality to the images and adds a deeper connection
               to the “heroic-era” of Antarctic exploration (1895-1917).
              O’Hara selected and crafted his diptych to for a stylised
                          “LX” – the Roman numeral for 60.


Foreword Sir Rob Fenwick KNZM                                       7
Preface David L. Harrowfield                                        8
Antarctica New Zealand                                              11
Antarctic Treaty, SCAR and COMNAP                                   17
The Value of International Collaboration                            18
Logistic Support for Science and in an Emergency                    21
Developments at Scott Base                                          25
Science at Scott Base and Preparing for the Field                   27
NZARI Science                                                       40
Environmental Stewardship                                           47
Post-Season Conferences                                             49
Artists, media and Community Engagement                             52
Scholarships, Grants and Prizes                                     56
Looking to the Future. The Next Decade.                             58
Antarctic Heritage Trust                                            60
Requiem for the Decade                                              63
Board of Directors Antarctica New Zealand                           64
Distinctions                                                        65-66
Winter-Over Staff and Responsibilities Scott Base                   67-68
Arts fellows-since 2014. The Community Engagement Programme         69
Sir Peter Blake Antarctic Ambassadors                               69
Volunteer programme New Zealand Antarctic Society Inc.              69
Air New Zealand Secondees                                           70
APPRENT-ICE                                                         70
Antarctica New Zealand Christchurch Staff                           70
Trustees Antarctic Heritage Trust 2016                              71
Staff (New Zealand), Antarctic Heritage Trust 2016                  71
Important Dates for the New Zealand Antarctic Programme Post 2006   72


                       ROSS ICE SHELF

                      SOUTH POLE

            A N TA R C T I CA
                                          WEDDELL SEA


For so long dismissed as nothing more than a miserably hostile frozen wilderness, Antarctica is
finally being recognised as that part of the globe that will determine the fate of the rest of it. And it is
now alarmingly obvious that we are an ice-dependent species, and the contest to retain enough of it
to survive on the planet will play out in Antarctica, where unquestionably New Zealand will be a key
None of this will come as any surprise to David Harrowfield, who has devoted much of his life to
meticulously recording our stories on that slice of the continent which is New Zealand’s responsibility
– the Ross Sea Region. As a result he has earned the reputation of being one of its most devoted
This book covers the decade to 2017, when several key decisions resulted in Antarctica being elevated
in New Zealand’s global sphere of influence. A more strategic approach to science and logistic
investment was adopted by both Antarctica New Zealand and the New Zealand Antarctic Research
Institute, created to capture international interest in our polar competence: leadership in renewable
energy development that reduced the carbon footprints of both New Zealand and United States bases,
while helping to balance their long-standing logistic pool agreement; a new relationship with Korea,
which, while the city was recovering from its shattering earthquake, boldly settled on Christchurch
as its base to service a new research station on the Ross Sea shore,; the NZ Antarctic Heritage Trust,
whose projects hold a particular affection for both Harrowfield and myself, completed restoration
of the three wondrous huts built by Scott and Shackleton a century earlier. These moves, and many
others described in this text, were taken as New Zealand and its Antarctic partners struggled with
both a global financial crisis and the fearful realisation that effects of global warming at the poles
were occurring faster than scientists had predicted.
From the Kermadecs, which stretch into the tropical Pacific, through terrestrial New Zealand and
its astonishing sub-Antarctic Islands standing as sentinels in the Southern Ocean, to the Ross Sea
and all the way to the South Pole, New Zealand’s footprint on the world is immense. Harrowfield’s
keen observations of an area of this footprint, larger by far but least understood than the rest, will
be regarded as critical chapters in future histories of New Zealand in the twentieth and twenty-first
centuries. And as the importance of Antarctica reveals itself over coming decades, Harrowfield’s
observations of people and the roles they have played as New Zealand developed into a highly
respected player in the polar research community will be of compelling interest to future generations.
I extend warm thanks and congratulations for his work.

Sir Rob Fenwick KNZM


    In 2007 two books, Polar Partners (Peat 2007) and Call of the Ice (Harrowfield 2007), commemorated
    the first fifty years of New Zealand in the Antarctic and extended significant general histories by
    Leslie Quartermain (1971) and Robert Thomson (1982). Each made reference to the decades of valued
    collaboration and good will between New Zealand and the United States and other nations. However,
    because the draft of Call of the Ice closed a year before the book was published, it was not possible to
    document some achievements and other significant aspects of the New Zealand programme.
    Now with Antarctica New Zealand marking the sixtieth anniversary of the establishment of Scott
    Base, the opportunity has arisen to do so. Two excellent books, Science on Ice (Meduna 2012) and Its a
    dog’s life in Antarctica (Otway 2015) the latter focusing on pioneering science and survey expeditions,
    have added to the expanding literature on New Zealand and Antarctica; as has Antarctic, the
    publication of the New Zealand Antarctic Society Inc.
    In addition to major events in the science field, by 2007 there had also been new developments at
    Scott Base. These required New Zealand, like other nations, to conform to a new environmental
    policy. Along with the upgrade of the Thomson Building (formerly Stage 3A, 3B), including the
    kitchen, dining area and a new lounge, the new Hillary Field Centre (HFC) and a replacement for the
    original building dating from 1960 at Arrival Heights for upper-atmosphere observations were also
    completed. New Zealand has every reason to be proud of its efforts in Antarctica, including its on-
    going collaboration with other nations, which has continued to attract worldwide admiration.
    With a further decade of activities in Antarctica almost concluded, it is hoped the following
    account will provide a suitable up-date record, although not everything can be mentioned here. As
    Meduna wrote, ‘Despite its small population compared to other nations with an Antarctic research
    programme, New Zealand invests strongly in science on ice.’ Pivotal to this, the New Zealand
    Antarctic Institute, established on 1 July 1996, has become a modern Crown entity operating on
    corporate lines. With Antarctica New Zealand, over the last 21 years it has coordinated, in association
    with other nations as necessary, a diverse science programme that has progressed from strength to
    I retrace a memory of over 60 years of interest in, and more than a 40-year association with, New
    Zealand’s Antarctic programme. In Antarctica this began with a few nights at the largely unaltered
    original Scott Base, followed by field work including coastline surveying near Cape Bird and a few
    nights in the University of Canterbury Harrison Biology Field Station. I have reflected on the many
    changes in and development of not only the programme and its administration, but also of Scott Base
    and developments in New Zealand’s Antarctic science. It has been a very special experience to have
    observed these changes over the decades and to have maintained contact with many fine people.
    Given Antarctica New Zealand’s adoption of a Science Strategy for 2010–2020, that strategy’s focus
    on climate, ice, the atmosphere, inland and coastal ecosystems and with New Zealand’s successful
    participation in the 4th International Polar Year 2007–2008, followed by the formation of the New
    Zealand Antarctic Research Institute (NZARI) in 2012, New Zealand’s Antarctic science has assumed
    even greater importance. These events, along with the major changes during the decade at Scott Base,
    are mentioned in the following update.

This project, while intensely interesting, has not been easy since much has been achieved on many
fronts over the decade. New Zealand’s “Antarctic Year” is quite different now to what it was a decade
ago. As with other research partners, on the cusp of a new era in Antarctic scientific research New
Zealand’s scientific endeavours are changing. Such aspects as the Dry Valleys ASMA, Environmental
Portal, the formation of NZARI (2012) and attainment of the World’s first Energy-Mark Certification
(2016) are major leaps forward and represent some of the most significant aspects of the decade, even
perhaps of our entire Antarctic presence. And there are many more.
Antarctica New Zealand’s Annual Reports, along with other records including the very good regular
Science Updates, have been particularly useful, as have other publications. The interest of Antarctica
New Zealand in seeing the history of the decade compiled, along with considerable assistance from
friends and colleagues in Christchurch, at Scott Base and elsewhere, was very much appreciated.
I hope the following record will be a useful reference for the future and adequately recognises the
dedicated staff.

David L. Harrowfield
Oamaru, New Zealand
November 2016

Flagpole, White Island and pressure ridges in front of Scott Base.
     © Antarctica New Zealand Pictorial Collection.


New Zealand’s formal Antarctic programme began in 1959, the year 12 nations, including New
Zealand, signed the Antarctic Treaty in Washington and Cabinet approved the formation of an
Antarctic Division within the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR). In 1962,
following the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1955–58) and the International
Geophysical Year (1957–58), Scott Base was formally retained. In May 1970 the Antarctic Division,
also known as “AntDiv”, moved from Wellington to Christchurch. It was later briefly named DSIR
Antarctic, then on the disestablishment of DSIR in 1992 the organisation became the New Zealand
Antarctic Programme (NZAP).
In 1995 the Government approved formation of a new Crown Institute and the New Zealand
Antarctic Institute came into being, under the umbrella of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade
(MFAT), which had already established an Antarctic Policy Unit. The Crown entity NZAP then
became Antarctica New Zealand. In 1996.
Antarctica New Zealand has its Headquarters at the International Antarctic Centre, Christchurch
International Airport, where the offices of the United States National Science Foundation (NSF),
United States Antarctic Program (USAP), the Italian and Korean Antarctic programmes and of
Antarctic Heritage Trust are also located.
In 2008 Mr Rob Fenwick, a businessman and ardent conservationist, was appointed Chairman of
Antarctica New Zealand’s Board of Management. Like his predecessor, the late Mr Paul Hargreaves
ONZM, who was well known for his contribution to IT and business, Fenwick, a former journalist,
public relations consultant and Chairman of the Antarctic Heritage Trust, had extensive business
experience. In the same year the management team was reduced from six persons to five, to better
reflect Antarctica New Zealand’s strategic objectives in the Ross Dependency.
A new rotating role, SANZREP (Senior Antarctica New Zealand Representative), different to the
previous Scott Base Manager function, enabled the New Zealand Representative to step back from
managing the base and to devote more time to interacting with events on the ice and to liaising
with the US Representative at nearby McMurdo Station. The Board of Directors also requested that
Antarctica New Zealand undertake regular science review.
From 27 to 30 November 2009 Antarctica New Zealand hosted a special Air New Zealand on-ice
commemoration to mark the 30th anniversary of the tragedy on 28 November 1979. A Memorial
Service was conducted at Scott Base by Antarctica New Zealand’s Honorary Chaplain, the Very
Reverend Peter Beck, and a wreath-laying ceremony was held at the historic flagpole. On 16 February
2011, 104 family members, joined by Air New Zealand’s Chief Executive Rob Fyfe, Peter Beck and
Antarctica New Zealand’s Manager of Operations and Infrastructure, Iain Miller, travelled by
RNZAF B757 to Scott Base for a special remembrance service at the memorial behind the base, where
a beautiful metal koru was placed.


       In November 2014 the third and final flight with the remaining 31 family members visited Scott Base.
       This brought to a close this unfortunate event in New Zealand’s Antarctic history. New Zealand
       Antarctic Research Programme (NZARP) recipients of decorations in 1981, in 2006 and again in 2016
       are recorded as a group for the first time (Appendix 2).
       A significant new development, with financial benefit to the New Zealand and United States
       Antarctic Research Programme, was the Ross Island “wind farm”. A joint venture between Antarctica
       New Zealand and power provider Meridian Energy began in 2008 and the facility was officially
       opened on 10 January 2010. Kristina Johnson, US Under-Secretary of Energy, the US Ambassador
       to New Zealand, Mr David Huebner, and New Zealand’s Minister of Foreign Affairs, Hon. Murray
       McCully, attended the ceremony.
       In January 2009 an important project known as the Antarctic Metadata Collection, which had been
       carefully assembled by Ceisha Poirot, then Data Compiler at Antarctica New Zealand, became
       available for researchers. This significant record, an archive of 480 detailed records, identified all the
       data collected by scientists with the New Zealand programme over the previous five decades.
       Scientific research has long been the reason for New Zealand’s ongoing presence in the Ross Sea
       region. The Annual Review of Antarctica New Zealand, which supports the science programme,
       aims to improve the quality of public information about the research output of science programmes
       and enables effective reporting to Government on the success of the research supported. This
       outreach through information-sharing includes publications and outreach to the wider public
       through education and other means such as web sites, the training of new researchers, international
       collaboration and progress toward achieving income, as outlined in a research contract proposal.
       Two important developments would determine future directions for the country’s Antarctic science.
       The Science Strategy, with the overriding theme of “Global Change”, focussed on New Zealand
       Antarctic and Southern Ocean research programmes and set priority areas for research in “climate,
       ice and atmosphere; inland and coastal ecosystems; and the broader marine environment”. A Cabinet
       mandated public process ran from June-August 2010 and on 27 April 2011, a Strategic Plan New
       Zealand Antarctic & Southern Ocean Science 2010–2020 was launched in Wellington, by Hon. Kate
       Wilkinson, Minister for Conservation.
       By January 2011 work was, however already under way to establish a New Zealand Antarctic Research
       Institute (NZARI), to coordinate New Zealand science in Antarctica, and by partnering with research
       agencies, develop a global understanding of Antarctica’s impacts and vulnerability in a changing
       global climate.
       Rob Fenwick hoped the Science Strategy would;
             ‘deepen New Zealanders’ appreciation of the relevance of Antarctica’s special role in climate
             change, their knowledge of inland and coastal ecosystems and the conservation and
             management of living resources in oceans around Antarctica’. (Antarctica New Zealand,
             Annual Report 2010–2011)
       The Board of Antarctica New Zealand also hoped the Strategy would align funders of Antarctic
       science, such as the Ministry of Science and Innovation, and that with the logistical support of
       Antarctica New Zealand, Antarctic science proposals could be measured against the Strategy’s
       expected outcomes.
       When considering the long collaboration New Zealand has enjoyed with the United States, Chairman
       Rob Fenwick was honoured to host a visit in November 2010 from US Secretary of State, Mrs Hillary
       Clinton. Former President, Bill Clinton, had visited the International Antarctic Centre during APEC
       in September 1999, when he addressed a public gathering, and inspected the Antarctic Visitor Centre.


During a function held at the Antarctic Departure Terminal Mrs Clinton spoke of the strength of
the Joint Antarctic relationship. Before leaving New Zealand Mrs Clinton and Foreign Affairs Hon.
Murray McCully signed the Wellington Declaration on 4 November. This represented a new strategic
partnership between New Zealand and the United States.
In 2010 there were key changes in the operation of Antarctica New Zealand. In July, a smaller
management team was instituted, with the positions of Manager Antarctic Programmes and
Manager Antarctic Support now combined.
In September 2010 Christchurch suffered a major earthquake, along with serious aftershocks.
A devastating earthquake followed on 11 February 2011. In addition to considerable loss of life,
this second earthquake caused a major upheaval for many businesses, organisations and for
infrastructure in Christchurch. It had a significant impact on the end-of-season operations for both
the United States Antarctic Program and Antarctica New Zealand. Nevertheless Antarctica New
Zealand was able to continue operations at the International Antarctic Centre.
Because of the generosity of Antarctica New Zealand, the US Antarctic Program and Italian Antarctic
Programme, various organisations displaced as a result of the earthquakes were lent space to relocate
staff. These included the Department of Conservation, St. John Ambulance, the Department of
Internal Affairs and the Police Child, Youth and Family service. The February earthquake has been
marked with respect at Scott Base since 2012 by the placement of artificial flowers in red road cones.
A review of Crown Research Institutes in 2011 and 2012 resulted in an improved selection process for
Antarctic science, including Antarctica New Zealand’s event management system. By now, as Rob
Fenwick stated, ‘NZARI aims to lift Antarctic science to a level capable of identifying and solving
global questions with greater urgency and fostering new, multi-disciplinary, multi-national research
collaborations.’ (Antarctica New Zealand Annual Report 2010–2011, p5)
There were also changes in membership of the Board in 2011. Former Chief Executive for the World
Wide Fund for Nature New Zealand, Mrs Jo Breeze, completed her term and was succeeded by Mr
Philip Melchior, a Director on the Board of Television New Zealand and Chairman of LANDSAR
In May 2011 Antarctica New Zealand was granted membership by the International Union for
Conservation of Nature (ICUN) and received further recognition through retaining its Certified
Emissions Measurement and Reduction Scheme Certification (CEMARS). In October of that year
Antarctica New Zealand was a finalist in the Sustainable 60 Awards, a national competition which
celebrates New Zealand’s most innovative sustainability actions in business practice.
New Zealand’s presence in Antarctica continued to be the focus for visits by distinguished guests,
many of whom were given the opportunity to visit Scott Base. In 2011–12 visitors included the
Malaysian King, Seri Paduka Yang di-Pertuan Agong, in November, in recognition of his nation
acceding to the Antarctic Treaty along with visits by Norway’s Prime Minister, Jens Stoltenberg, who
also visited the US Amundsen Scott South Pole Station, to mark the Centenary of the arrival by Roald
Amundsen on 14 December 1911 and of Falcon Scott, the grandson of Captain Robert Falcon Scott,
to commemorate Scott’s arrival at the South Pole on 17 January 1912. On these occasions, Scott Base
hosted memorable commemorative dinners.
At this time Antarctica New Zealand’s Management Board had Rob Fenwick continuing as
Chairman, along with members Mr Graham Fortune, Ms Janice Molloy, Professor John McGomery
and Mr Tenby Powell. New appointees in 2012–13, following the retirement of Graham Fortune
and John McGomery, were Professor Carolyn Burns, University of Otago, Rob Fyfe, former Chief
Executive for Air New Zealand and Mr Tony O’Brien, a Senior Executive with Sky Television.
A major boost to scientific research was the establishment of the New Zealand Antarctic Research


       Institute (NZARI), launched by the Prime Minister, the Rt. Hon. John Key, at Premier House,
       Wellington, in August 2012 before 140 guests. The Aotearoa Foundation and Air New Zealand, which
       entered into a three-year partnership, provided $6.2M funding to NZARI. Further funding would
       come from the universities, private companies and the Royal Society of New Zealand Marsden Fund.
       Logistics for other Antarctic programmes would, as before, be supported by public funding.
       NZARI is a charitable trust. It is also a multidisciplinary, multinational research institute that seeks
       philanthropic funding for government science programmes on the ice. The scientific challenge for
       NZARI is to;
               Determine how Antarctica, its ice, oceans, climate and life will respond to warming in a
               global climate and indirectly what those changes in Antarctica will mean for the rest of the
               world in terms of sea level, climate and ecosystems. (Antarctica New Zealand Annual Report
               2012–2013, p14)
       In January 2013 Scott Base hosted the Prime Minister, accompanied by Lady Bronagh Key and
       a further 23 visitors. Among them were Sir Peter Gluckman, the Prime Minister’s Chief Science
       Advisor; Sir Paul Nurse, from the Royal Society (London); Sir David Skegg, President of the Royal
       Society New Zealand and Trustee for the New Zealand Antarctic Research Institute; and Dr
       Prue Williams, General Manager for Science Investments, Ministry of Business, Innovation and
       Employment (MBIE). A further group of visitors in October included the Foreign Minister, the Hon.
       Murray McCully.
       Antarctica New Zealand’s Chief Executive, Lou Sanson, announced in June 2013 that he would
       be transferring in December of that year to the position of Chief Executive and Director General
       for the Department of Conservation. During 11 years as Chief Executive Lou oversaw major
       changes in Antarctica New Zealand and had made a significant contribution to New Zealand

       Prime Minister Rt. Hon. John Key and wife Bronagh with the flight crew of the US Air Force City of Christchurch, January 2013.
       © Antarctica New Zealand Pictorial Collection.


science leadership, to New Zealand’s geopolitical interests in the Ross Dependency and also to
international collaboration and leadership. His term included the first major building programmes
at Scott Base since the mid-1980s and other building at Arrival Heights, the establishment of the
first “wind farm” in Antarctica, the creation of the McMurdo Dry Valleys Antarctic Specially
Managed Area (ASMA), and leadership of and securing funding for New Zealand’s largest-ever
Antarctic science initiative, with participation in the International Polar Year (IPY) and the Census
of Antarctic Marine Life (CAML).
In summer 2013–14 major construction work commenced at the Hillary Field Centre and the Scott
Base Administration area.
In January 2014 Peter Beggs was appointed Chief Executive. Peter took over with an extensive
business background in Thales Australia New Zealand Group, serving transport and other
operations, where he was Country Director for New Zealand Auckland (NZA) and Regional
Divisional Vice-President for the business.
With a strong record of building both capability and leadership, the new Chief Executive was
committed to using his experience to continue to enhance New Zealand’s delivery of world-class
science in Antarctica. Following the opening of South Korea’s Jang Bojo station at Terra Nova Bay,
Peter, along with the Speaker of the National Assembly for Korea, His Excellency Kang Chang-
hee and his delegation, then visited Scott Base. Antarctica New Zealand also hosted a further visit
in February by Defence Minister Hon. Jonathan Coleman and the Chair of the Parliamentary
Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defences and Trade, Mr John Hayes. These visits clearly
demonstrated continued support for logistics by the Government and the New Zealand Defence
Force. In July the Hon. Joe Hockey, Australian Treasurer and a former Minister of Tourism, also
visited Scott Base.
Since the days of the Trans-Antarctic Expedition 1957–58, surveyors have been active in the Ross
Sea region, including at Scott Base, historic sites and drilling and other science programmes.
Recognising this long association and Government’s commitment to collaborative projects, in June
2014 Antarctica New Zealand signed a Record of Understanding (RoU) with Land Information
New Zealand (LINZ).
After more than a decade of valuable service, Board Chairman Rob Fenwick announced his
impending retirement later in the year. Rob Fenwick’s contribution to science and environmental
best practice in New Zealand had been of an exceptional standard and in 2015 he was honoured
with the Blake Medal for his outstanding leadership achievement in New Zealand.
In March 2014 a group from Christchurch, led by Mayor Lianne Dalziel, spent one week at Scott
Base. The visit helped the Mayor to understand the historical association the city has had with
Antarctica for more than a century, including its existing role as a major “gateway” and the need
to enhance that role in the future. The following month the World War 1 ANZAC centenary was
marked at Scott Base.
With NZARI now in its third year of operation and under the capable leadership of Professor Gary
Wilson (University of Otago), in May 2015 a three-year sponsorship agreement was signed between
Antarctica New Zealand and National Geographic. The sponsorship provided significant funding
for NZARI-led Antarctic research while also offering a global platform to promote the importance
of Antarctic research on a global scale. A further significant development took place in July with the
commitment to appoint a new Health and Safety Manager, bringing Antarctica New Zealand up to
international standards.
In September, Air New Zealand confirmed a further three years’ support for NZARI-led research
initiatives along the Ross Sea coastline.


       In his Annual Report for 2015–16, the incoming Chairman, Mr Brian Roche, expressed his gratitude
       for ‘the clarity and a passion Rob brought to the organisation for nearly a decade’. The contribution
       made by outgoing Board Members Tenby Powell and Dr Caroline Burns was also acknowledged. New
       Members appointed in December, Dr Helen Anderson, Hunter Powell Investment’s Founder and
       Director Sharon Hunter, and Kiwi Bank Chairman Rob Morrison were welcomed. They joined the
       Chairman and existing Board members Rob Fyfe, Phillip Melchior and Tony O’Brien (Appendix 1).
       The following month the Governor General, Lt. Gen. the Rt. Hon. Sir Jerry Mateparae, and Lady
       Janine Mateparae, visited the offices of Antarctica New Zealand and met some of New Zealand’s top
       climate change researchers. In November Scott Base received a visit from Cabinet Ministers Simon
       Bridges, Nicky Wagner and Bill English, who were able to observe first-hand the Government’s
       investment; and Chief of Defence Force Lt. Gen Tim Keating observed the NZDF contribution to the
       annual ship offload. Other prominent visitors to Scott Base included the Chairman of the Council of
       Managers of National Antarctic Programs (COMNAP), Professor Kazuyuki Shiraishi.
       A further important new appointment to Antarctica New Zealand staff in July 2016 was that of
       Dr Rebecca McLeod as Science Research Advisor. A former winner of the Prime Minister’s Young
       Scientist Award, Rebecca has wide experience in science communication and marketing.
       On 29 March 2016, a briefing by Antarctica New Zealand and NZARI, titled “Our Place in
       Antarctica”, was held in Wellington for Members of Parliament. The briefing was a significant step
       forward. With other nations seeking to gain a more strategic presence on the continent, the time was
       appropriate to update Members of Parliament on the responsibilities decision makers in New Zealand
       will be faced with and to further cement New Zealand’s position within the Antarctic Treaty System.
       In attendance were Brian Roche, Chairman of the Board Antarctica New Zealand, Peter Beggs,
       Chief Executive, Neil Gilbert, Environmental Consultant to Antarctica New Zealand, Professor
       Gary Wilson, Chief Scientific Advisor Antarctica New Zealand and Jeanine Foster, General Manager
       Communications Antarctica New Zealand.
       As Jeanine Foster stated, the meeting in Wellington ‘symbolised the beginning of an annual briefing
       to keep Members of Parliament abreast of the critical issues facing Antarctic research and logistics
       from a strategic perspective’. The following month the Prime Minister, during a visit to Antarctica
       New Zealand, was briefed on our country’s ambitious, long-term research aims.
       In May, Minister of Finance Hon. Bill English announced in the Budget a further $16.7 M additional
       funds spread over four years, had been allocated to support New Zealand science and for Scott Base,
       the hub for the science programme. This was a direct result of considerable work by the Board and
       dedicated staff of Antarctica New Zealand, with ongoing reviews and the compilation of important
       strategic papers on New Zealand’s Antarctic programme. The new Board Chairman, Brian Roche
       was delighted with the Government’s support.
            The importance of this funding cannot be underestimated. Scientific challenges require
            researchers to work collaboratively on larger multidisciplinary science programmes to achieve
            their scientific objectives. These projects are often in remote area of Antarctica and require
            increased levels of logistical support from Antarctica New Zealand. (Antarctica New Zealand
            Annual Report 2015–16, p4)
       The Queen’s Birthday Honours included well-deserved accolades for former Chairman of the
       Board, Sir Robert Fenwick and Sir Christopher Mace, both of whom were knighted for their
       major contributions to New Zealand’s Antarctic programme, and their support for New Zealand
       conservation, science, business and education.


Since the Antarctic Treaty (1959), which covers the area south of Latitude 60o, came into force
in 1961, New Zealand has had an important presence at Consultative Meetings (ATCM), in the
Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR), which was established in 1958 when it was
created concurrently with the IGY 1957–58 by the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU),
and in the Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programmes (COMNAP), established in 1988.
In January 2007 Antarctica New Zealand supported Treaty Inspections of Amundsen-Scott South
Pole Station (United States) and Concordia (France and Italy) and in May, Chief Executive Lou
Sanson and Environmental Manager Dr Neil Gilbert, attended the 30th Treaty Meeting held in New
Delhi. Key outcomes included an Agreement on New Measures to improve regulation of tourism,
including the necessity to protect sensitive areas of the environment; and agreement to place the issue
of climate change on the Agenda for the following ATCM. At the same time the Antarctic Treaty’s
Committee for Environmental Protection also met. In 2007 in association with SCAR’s Open Science
Conference entitled Antarctica in the Earth System, Antarctica New Zealand hosted the International
Latitudinal Gradient Project (LGP) Workshop and Council of Managers of National Antarctic
Programmes (COMNAP) XV111 annual meeting. Antarctica New Zealand and NIWA was also
represented in June, the CAML International Science Steering Committee in Poland.
The following year the COMNAP meeting, held in June-July at St. Petersburg, Russia, was also
attended by the Chief Executive along with the Managers for New Zealand’s Antarctic Programme
and Support, Erik Barnes and Iain Miller. In 2009 Lou Sanson attended the 32nd Antarctic Treaty
Consultative Meeting in Baltimore USA. This meeting marked 50 years of the Antarctic Treaty
In 2009 Michelle Rogan-Finnemore, Gateway Antarctica’s Centre Manager, was appointed Executive
Secretary COMNAP for the following six years. The Secretariat is currently based at Gateway
Antarctica at the University of Canterbury under geologist Professor Bryan Storey, the Centre’s
Director. The following year the 33rd meeting of Treaty Parties was convened and the 13th Meeting of
the Committee for Environmental Protection (CEP) was held at Punta Este, Uruguay, with retiring
Chair Dr Neil Gilbert in attendance.
Antarctica New Zealand was also represented during the Antarctic Treaty Meeting of Experts
(ATME) on Climate Change held at Svolvaer, Norway, on 9 and 10 April 2010, at which Dr Gilbert
provided a key presentation. In August 2012 Dr Nancy Bertler of Victoria University Wellington and
GNS Science was appointed Chair of Antarctic Climate 21. An initiative of the SCAR programme,
Antarctica and the Global Climate System, AC21 aims to deliver improved regional predictions of
key elements of the Antarctic atmosphere, ocean and cryosphere, for the next 20 to 200 years and to
understand the responses of the physical and biological systems and forcing factors to environmental
pollution and pollutants, such as sulphur dioxide originating from human activity.
Lou Sanson and Environmental Adviser Jana Newman, represented New Zealand at the ATCM
(XXX1V) in Buenos Aires in June 2011. A highlight of that meeting was the release of the Dry Valleys
ASMA Review completion along with, the New Zealand leadership leading to the first Resolution, on
the issue of non-native species in Antarctica. (Antarctica New Zealand Annual Report, 2010–2011,
The next ATCM was held in Hobart in 2012 and further considered the environmental aspects
and impacts of tourism in Antarctica. At the meeting New Zealand was asked to take the lead
on developing guidance for the repair and remediation of environmental damage in Antarctica,
including the clearance of historic waste disposal sites and abandoned facilities and was required
to update Treaty Partners on its work. A Clean-up Manual was then compiled. Motivated by the


       concern that had been felt for some time regarding the exploitation of toothfish in the Ross Sea, New
       Zealand, with the United States, also developed a proposal for a Ross Sea Marine Protected Area
       (MPA). The objective was to pave the way for the creation of the largest such reserve in the world.
       SCAR held an Open Science Conference at Portland, Oregon in July 2012, which focused on
       “Antarctic Science and Policy Advice in a Changing World”. The Conference was attended by
       800 participants. Attendees from New Zealand included Neil Gilbert, who had been appointed as
       Antarctica New Zealand’s Manager for Health, Safety and Environment, Dr Nancy Bertler and
       Professor Peter Barrett.
       In April 2014 the Inaugural Antarctic and Southern Ocean SCAR Horizon Scan Workshop, titled,
       “A View beyond the Horizon: Future Directions in Antarctic Science” took place in Queenstown.
       On this occasion 80 Antarctic-focused scientists and policy makers considered the most important
       questions facing the continent over the next 20 years. In August 2014 the SCAR Science Conference
       was held in Auckland and COMNAP met in Christchurch, with over 1200 Antarctic science and
       policy makers in attendance.
       Tourism, now a well-established commercial business in Antarctica, had become a significant
       summer activity in the Ross Sea. In discussion with the author in 2016, Peter Beggs suggested ‘New
       Zealand’s view is that tourism should be accepted and Scott Base will if possible assist’. Passengers
       with companies such as Aurora Expeditions, Oceanwide Expeditions, Quark Expeditions and
       Heritage Expeditions, which has visited the Ross Sea region for over 20 year all rate the landscape,
       environment, natural history and historic sites very highly in terms of public education and learning.
       Many return for a further visit. The company always has a Government representative, usually
       from the Department of Conservation, accompanying each voyage and considerable effort goes
       into ensuring high environmental standards are maintained responsibly by all support staff and
       Today tourism is carefully regulated and operators comply fully with requests from national
       programmes established in the Ross Sea. Most companies operating in Antarctica are members of a
       non-governmental body, the International Association of Antarctic Tour Operators (IAATO), which
       compiles statistics, recommends visitor guidelines, provides resources and publishes an excellent
       Newsletter, which includes observations of and statistics about wildlife. IAATO takes necessary
       requirements seriously, not only those concerning protection of the environment but importantly the
       conditions of entry, where permitted, to Antarctic Specially Protected Areas (ASPAs).
       In 2008 Dr Daniela Haase, the first Gateway Antarctica University of Canterbury doctoral student to
       complete the requirements for a PhD in Antarctic Studies, submitted an important and timely thesis
       “Tourism in Antarctica – modi operandi and regulatory effectiveness”. In 2010 a further PhD thesis
       titled “Footsteps on the Ice” was submitted at Lincoln University by Patrick T. Maher.
       A new scheme “designed to encourage the active involvement of scientists and academics in
       Antarctic research”, was launched by SCAR in 2016. The Visiting Professorship aims to strengthen
       international capacity and cooperation in Antarctic research, particularly for “smaller and less well-
       developed Antarctic research programmes”.
       At the ATCM held in Santiago, Chile, in June 2016, which also marked the 25th Anniversary of
       the signing of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, New Zealand
       again played a significant part. Topics discussed included action taken “to improve environmental
       management, including linking science and policy, area protection and management, climate
       change response and environmental impact assessment.” The Santiago Declaration reaffirms the
       commitment of the Consultative Parties to the protection of the Antarctic Environment and its
       associated and dependant ecosystems.


Since the early days of New Zealand’s activities in the Ross Sea region, there has been an excellent
partner relationship with the United States Antarctic Program (USAP), operating at and from
McMurdo Station, three kilometres from Scott Base. From 1963 to 1987 Dry Valley science by Japan,
particularly in geochemistry, was supported by the NSF and NZARP. In return, the late Dr Tetsuya
Torii, a geochemist of the Japan Polar Research Association, assisted NZARP to obtain replacement
vehicles and polar clothing. In the 1970s collaborative research included deep drilling and other
New Zealand and the United States have for many years shared air and sea logistic support for access
to Ross Island. The United States, which undertakes most air transport operations, is now also
responsible for air space. As Trevor Hughes, former Head of the Antarctic Policy Unit of the Ministry
of Foreign Affairs and Trade (MFAT), stated with reference to the long association New Zealand has
had with Scott Base, this collaboration has been “a highly successful and greatly valued relationship”
in many fields of science and logistic support (Peat 2007).
In the late 1970s early 1980s assistance was given by New Zealand to Germany’s geological
GANOVEX programme. In 1986 to 1989 their station, initially Lille Marlene Hutt (erected in 1983)
was converted to a summer station now named Gondwana. The station is currently being upgraded.
Advice was also provided for Italy in the selection of a suitable site for Baia Terra Nova Station, which
opened in 1986 and which was renamed Mario Zucchelli Station in 2004. Italy opened an office at the
International Antarctic Centre in the mid-1990s.
Collaboration in science with several countries has led to significant discoveries in atmospheric
research, including the measurement of ultra-violet radiation and an understanding of the chemistry
of ozone depletion in spring, and in other areas of research such as geology, glaciology, zoology,
ecology, botany and marine biology.
In 2008 a New Zealand-Australia Antarctic Agreement was formed, in which Australia and New
Zealand agreed to support each other’s collaborative science events equally; that New Zealand would
continue to go through the New Zealand Antarctic Science bidding round; New Zealand could work
at any of Australia’s sub-Antarctic or Antarctic Stations and agreed, given one year’s notice, to meet
Australia’s needs for participation in a mutual science programme including exchange of personnel
for science events.
In the past decade ties with the US program have been strengthened by the joint venture between
Antarctica New Zealand and power provider Meridian Energy, which erected three 330 kW Enercon
wind turbines on Crater Hill in 2008, which like Scott Base are owned by Antarctica New Zealand.
This venture, which was part of the New Zealand’s contribution to the Joint US/NZ logistics pool, has
resulted in a decrease in consumption of fuel by approximately 463,000 litres or 10% each year; and
also to the reduction of greenhouse gases and production CO2 by an estimated 1242 tonnes of CO2
annually (Antarctica New Zealand Annual Report, 2008–2009, p6)
The value in such work was shown in 2011–12, during which time ‘annual fuel savings of 666,230
litres of fuel was recorded, which is 204,411 litres, or 44% greater than target fuel savings for one year’
(Antarctica New Zealand Annual Report, 2011–2012, p6). New initiatives in 2013–14 considered
more efficient use of energy from the wind farm, thus further minimising New Zealand’s carbon
emission impact on Antarctica.
By the late 1970s concern was felt over the environmental status of the former Joint NZ/US Hallett
Station (1957–73). Several expeditions then prepared to restore the site, including removing buildings
and a fuel storage tank. In February 2010, with the cooperation of the Italian Antarctic programme


       and the use of the supply ship MV Italica, removal of the station was completed. A selection of
       original US Navy Seabee-built huts and associated artefacts, including a bulldozer, was transferred to
       Canterbury Museum. Logistic support continues to be shared with Italy.
       When the Korean Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) considered a second Antarctic station (in
       addition to King Sejong Station on King George V Island in the South Shetland Islands) in November
       2010, Korea’s 110m 6950-ton icebreaker Araon visited Lyttelton. In March 2011 the position of
       Christchurch as an “Antarctic Gateway” was strengthened by the decision of the South Korean
       Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs to place its second base at Terra Nova Bay in the
       Ross Dependency.
       As with assistance given to Germany and Italy in the 1980s, Antarctica New Zealand was pleased to
       provide advice and became closely involved with KOPRI and the development of the new $90 million
       Jang Bogo Station, which opened near Germany’s Gondwana Station in February 2014. In November
       that year, Korea’s programme office opened at the International Antarctic Centre with Christchurch
       Mayor Lianne Dalziel and Melissa Lee MP in attendance.
       For science events, further new collaboration in programmes has included events involving Canada,
       Germany, Belgium and Russia. In July 2012 the Australian Antarctic Division and Antarctica New
       Zealand updated the existing 2008 Agreement to develop closer scientific collaboration between the
       two programmes. In 2012–13, with steadily expanding activity in Antarctic science, New Zealand’s
       science programme was able to support 27 different events, with over 105 scientists and 40 support
       staff. Much of this research involved international collaboration.
       In the following season and with US assistance, 33,000 kg of camp and field equipment was relocated
       from Roosevelt Island on the Ross Ice Shelf, although, as Chairman Rob Fenwick observed, “logistic
       support for expeditions like this, is complex, expensive and involves exhaustive negotiations with our
       science partners such as the United States and Korea.” With a changing science programme, research
       is no longer confined to sites close to Scott Base. However, while Peter Beggs acknowledges, “there
       has been a significant surge in Antarctic science … we [continue to] work closely with the science
       community to ensure we are able to support their research needs, both now and into the future.”
       In January 2015 China’s icebreaker, supply and research ship, MV Xuelong, arrived in Lyttelton
       from the Ross Sea. The 26th Chianare (Chinese) Expedition had supported scientific research on
       climate change, had surveyed potential sites for a proposed Chinese Antarctic research base and had
       positioned fuel depots for science. During the expedition’s time in Antarctica. Over three days the
       ship refuelled, and transferred cargo, and useful discussions were held with Antarctica New Zealand
       Antarctica New Zealand hosted a special delegation from South Africa In October 2015. This was
       part of an economic assessment being made ‘of their gateway city [Cape Town] potential’ and to
       observe the progress that has been made in Christchurch.
       Visits by polar ships are not new to Lyttelton. In January 2016 the British Naval vessel HMS Protector,
       formerly MV Polarbjørn, commanded by Captain Rory Bryan OBE, called at the port during its
       Ross Sea mission; the first by a ship of the Royal Navy in the Ross Sea for 80 years. Commissioned
       in 2011, HMS Protector is the only icebreaker in the British fleet. This important visit “celebrated
       how New Zealand and the United Kingdom work together to uphold the conservation requirements
       of the Antarctic Treaty System and to protect the Southern Ocean from illegal fishing activities”.
       (Antarctica New Zealand Annual Report, 2015–16, p8). At the invitation of the Acting British High
       Commissioner, Mrs Helen Smith, and the British Defence Advisor, Lieutenant Colonel Mike
       Treffry-Kingdom, an official reception was held on board and the public of Christchurch also had an
       opportunity to inspect the ship.


The following month the port received a rare visit from two polar vessels at the same time. They
were MV Italica, an ice-strengthened cargo support ship for Italy’s Antarctic programme, under
Captain Giuseppe Mancino, and South Korea’s icebreaker MV Araon under Captain Hyon-Yui Kim.
Both vessels have visited Lyttelton on previous occasions and continue to strengthen the over one-
hundred-year link the port has with Antarctica.

Following the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition (TAE) 1955–58, when New Zealand
established Scott Base (1957) to support the crossing of Antarctica by Dr (later Sir) Vivian Fuchs with
support from the work of Sir Edmund Hillary’s team, our presence on the ice has been contingent on
support from the New Zealand Defence Force (NZDF).
In 2006 former Chief Executive Lou Sanson acknowledged that “the NZDF is the one organisation
which has been down there continuously…Their logistical help is critical to what we do as we try to
complete our summer field work each year. We’re hugely appreciative.”
In that year the RNZAF, in support of the Convention on the Conservation of Marine Living
Resources (CCAMLR), flew a P-3 Orion aircraft to the ice for the first time. In 2009 the first-ever
spring flight from Christchurch was made on 4 September, as a one-off trial by the US National
Science Foundation. The following season an RNZAF B757-200 successfully conducted two flights to
the Pegasus ice runway in February.
By 2008 Antarctica New Zealand had announced both certain proposed new developments at Scott
Base and a partnership with David Ellis of the outdoor clothing company Earth Sea Sky. The well-
known navy blue extreme cold weather clothing (ECW), which had superseded the familiar yellow
clothing, was replaced with 300 full sets of ECW in orange and black. This ranged from polar fleece
pants to extreme cold weather jackets, each sporting Antarctica New Zealand’s emperor penguin
logo. The outdated kit was donated by Antarctica New Zealand to the Inuit Community in North
America and the polar fleece garments were given to the Nepalese community in Nepal.
By 2009 the cost of fuel, and other costs, had risen considerably. A flight from Christchurch to
McMurdo Station now costs US$4000 per person, while on the ice the Bell 212 twin-engine
helicopter had an operating cost of US$4000/hr (and for the Darwin Glacier LGP camp 212, the
cost increased to US$6000/hr); and a fixed-wing Twin Otter had an operating cost of US$5000/hr
(Antarctica New Zealand Science Up-dates 2009).
Some of the major science events being undertaken required substantial logistical support. Scientists
planning a programme and having research contracts with the Foundation of Research, Science and
Technology (FORST) initially for the duration of up to four years, now had to apply for a two-year
term to cover logistics from Antarctica New Zealand and by doing so, continue to fill the four year
plan. The funding proposal had to focus on how the research was aligned with the draft New Zealand
and Southern Ocean Science Strategy; detail a team’s track record in delivering results; indicate the
benefits to the wider science community; request logistic support; contain a description of potential
environmental impacts; and explain plans relating to the management of data and storage of samples.
An example of major logistic support was that provided in November 2010 for establishment of
the Central Trans-Antarctic Mountains Camp (CTAM) near the Beardmore Glacier. This multi-
disciplinary expedition, which featured international collaboration, required the use of two dedicated
helicopters and fifty-four LC 130 trips from McMurdo Sound.


       Although in February 2011 the ice breakout at Scott Base was the largest for the inner McMurdo
       Sound in 16 years, the NZDF continued to allocate staff to assist with the annual ship off-load and
       resupply; and in February 2012 a sixty-eight strong contingent deployed to Antarctica to aid Scott
       Base and McMurdo Station. In 2015, over a period of eight days, a 53-strong team of NZDF personnel
       unloaded 389 crates from the USNS Ocean Giant, containing food, vehicles, scientific equipment
       and general supplies to last for 12 months. They also reloaded the ship with 550 crates of waste and
       scientific research equipment from the previous year.
       The New Zealand Defence Force has also played a major humanitarian role in emergencies over
       the decade. On 10 September 2010, a P3 Orion aircraft evacuated a seriously ill McMurdo Station
       resident; and in the following month RNZAF, USAF and Australian aircraft dropped survival
       equipment after an AS 350 B3 helicopter crashed in bad weather on sea ice, 62 miles from the French
       Dumont d’Urville Station. On this occasion four people lost their lives. Unrelated to the accident, in
       November, the Minister of Defence, the Hon Dr Wayne Mapp and the Chief Science Advisor to the
       Prime Minister, Sir Peter Gluckman, visited Scott Base to observe NZDF operations and the activities
       of New Zealand scientists at first hand.
       On 11 February 2011 a late summer storm off Cape Royds, with hurricane-force winds and eight
       metre seas, sank the 14.3m Norwegian yacht Berserk, with the loss of three lives. In response to a
       Mayday transmission, HMNZS Otago, which had successfully completed trials in the Ross Sea, and
       the Heritage Expeditions Spirit of Enderby and the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society ship, Steve
       Irwin, carried out a search covering 25000 km2. A lifeboat and other items were all that were found.
       The two remaining crew, who had begun an overland expedition to the South Pole to commemorate
       Roald Amundsen’s arrival there in 1911, aborted their trip. These men were taken to McMurdo
       Station and airlifted to Christchurch. However, as Lou Sanson stated, “the expedition had broken all
       safety protocols”. Nevertheless, twelve months later McMurdo Sound was visited by the yacht Nilaya
       with members of the Wild Vikings group, to search for evidence of the Berserk Expedition. This
       expedition had left New Zealand illegally and visited the Ross Sea without the necessary permits.
       In December the following season the RNZAF offered aid to the stricken Russian fishing vessel
       Sparta, trapped in ice 2000 nautical miles south-east of New Zealand with a 32-man crew. The ship,
       which had been fishing for toothfish near the Ross Ice Shelf, was thought to have struck an iceberg
       and was holed and disabled. The RNZAF, which made two C 130 flights with airdrops, had to refuel
       its aircraft at McMurdo. Korea’s icebreaker, RV Araon, arrived on 26 December 2011. Sparta was then
       repaired and a passage was cleared through the ice.
       Because the USCGC Polar Star was undergoing a refit and no other icebreaker was available, the US
       National Science Foundation negotiated with the Russian Government the use of the icebreaker
       Vladimir Ignatyuk in 2011 to open the annual shipping channel in the winter sea ice of McMurdo
       Sound. This enabled the annual refuelling and resupply of both Scott Base and McMurdo Station to
       be successfully accomplished.
       In November 2011 Antarctica New Zealand selected Southern Lakes Helicopters, with its Squirrel B3
       aircraft, as contractor for Antarctic operations. Helicopters New Zealand, the previous contractor,
       had provided excellent service and was contracted by KOPRI.
       All was not well, however, for the fixed-wing air operation, as in 2012–13 the Pegasus ice runway
       suffered considerable melt and disrupted flight schedules.
       On 23 January 2013 a de Havilland DHC-6-300 Twin Otter of Kenn Borak Air, lost while en route to
       Terra Nova Bay, crashed below the summit of Mt. Elizabeth (4480m) in the Queen Alexandra Range.
       Personal identification documents, the CVR (cockpit voice recorder) and a satellite tracking unit
       were retrieved, although sadly three Canadian lives were lost. In May 2014 the NZ Search and Rescue

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