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REGIONAL CONSULTATION
                  Europe and Others
              Budapest, 3-4 February 2015
OCHA Photo

             REGIONAL CONSULTATION - EUROPE AND OTHERS
             BUDAPEST, 3-4 FEBRUARY 2015
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REGIONAL CONSULTATION - EUROPE AND OTHERS, BUDAPEST 3-4 FEBRUARY 2015

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Countries in the ‘Europe and others’ regional grouping

Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovi-
na, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia,
Germany, Greece, Holy See, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,
Luxembourg, Malta, Republic of Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway,
Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Swe-
den, Switzerland, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, United Kingdom of Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, Ukraine, United States of America

Version 1.0
26 Jan 2015

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                                                                                                   UNDP Photo

Flooding in Europe cost an estimated US
$15 billion in damages in 2013 (UNOCHA)
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REGIONAL CONSULTATION - EUROPE AND OTHERS, BUDAPEST 3-4 FEBRUARY 2015

 TABLE OF CONTENTS

SCHEDULE AT A GLANCE . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . . 1

PRACTICAL INFORMATION . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . 3

FOREWORD . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . 6

INTRODUCTION: BACKGROUND AND GOALS  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . . 8

ANNOTATED AGENDA  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . 10

STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . 14

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS FOR BREAKOUT SESSIONS  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . . 27

EOG AND THE GLOBAL PROCESS LEADING UP TO THE 2016 SUMMIT . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  37

ANNEXES . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . 38

Timeline of key EOG-related events  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . 39

Participants’ code of conduct  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . . 41

Biographies of high-level panel members . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . . 42

List of participants and invited organizations . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  48

Regional Steering Group members . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . 59

Bibliography for the stakeholder analysis  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . . 61

Regional Snapshot  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . 64

Regional thematic scoping papers (November 2014)  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . 67

         Humanitarian effectiveness . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . . 67

         Reducing vulnerability and managing risk . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . 71

         Transformation through innovation . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  76

         Serving the needs of people in conflict . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . . .  . 81

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SCHEDULE AT A GLANCE
MONDAY 2 FEBRUARY
Time            Session                                                 Location
17:00- 21:00    Registration of participants                            Hotel reception

TUESDAY 3 FEBRUARY – DAY ONE
Time            Session                                                 Location
07:30-08:30     Registration (continued)                                Hotel reception
08:45-08:55     Welcome by Master of Ceremonies                         Plenary room
08:55-10:35     Plenary session:                                        Plenary room
                Welcome speech by Hungary

                High-level panel discussion

                World Humanitarian Summit: Setting the stage

                Administration and logistics briefing

10:35-11:00     Group photo (in plenary room) and coffee break          Hotel terrace
11:00-13:00     Breakout group discussions (Session 1)                  Breakout rooms
                8 parallel groups on: Humanitarian effectiveness
13:00-14:00     Lunch                                                   Hotel restaurant
14:00-16:00     Breakout group discussions (Session 2)                  Breakout rooms
                8 parallel groups on: Reducing vulnerability and man-
                aging risk
16:00-16:30     Coffee break
16:30-17:30     Plenary: Wrap-up of breakout sessions 1 and 2           Plenary room
19:30           Departure from hotel to the venue of the reception      Hotel Novotel
                                                                        Budapest City
20:00 onwards   Reception hosted by Hungary                             Európa Boat

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WEDNESDAY 4 FEBRUARY – DAY TWO
Time          Session                                             Location
08:30-10.30   Breakout group discussions (Session 3)               Breakout rooms
              8 parallel groups on: Serving the needs of people in
              conflict
10:30-11:00   Coffee break
11:00-13:00   Breakout group discussions (Session 4)               Breakout rooms
              8 parallel groups on: Transformation through innova-
              tion
13:00-14:30   Lunch
14:30-15:30   Plenary session:                                    Plenary room
              Wrap-up of breakout sessions 3 and 4
15:30-16:00   Coffee break
16:00-17:00   Plenary session:                                    Plenary room
              Closing high-level panel discussion
17:00-18:00   Plenary – Presentation and discussion of draft Co- Plenary room
              Chairs’ Summary
18:00-18:30   Closing ceremony                                    Plenary room

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 PRACTICAL INFORMATION

 VENUE
Budapest Congress Centre
1-3. Jagelló Street
1123 Budapest, Hungary
Tel: +36 (1) 372-5400, 372-5700
Budapest Congress Centre is a convention centre where many international conferences and sympo-
siums have been held. For more details please visit the following website:
http://www.bcc.hu/en/contact+us/contact+us.html

 ACCOMMODATION
Novotel Budapest City
63-67. Alkotás Street
H-1123 Budapest
Tel: +361 372-5400, 372-5700
Novotel Budapest City is directly connected to the Congress Centre, offering 319 standard 4* Novation
rooms.
www.novotel.hu
Focal Point: Ms. Ágnes Rajkai Tel: +36 1 372 5455 Fax: +36 1 466 5636; e-mail: H0511-re2@accor.com

 TRANSPORTATION FROM LISZT FERENC INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT TO
 HOTEL NOVOTEL BUDAPEST CITY
Liszt Ferenc International Airport is approximately 23 kilometres from Hotel Novotel Budapest City.
Travel time can vary between 35 and 60 minutes per way. Participants are required to make their own
transportation arrangements from the airport to the Hotel Novotel Budapest City. Please be sure to
use the official taxi service of the airport (find the taxi management counter at the exit of the airport).
On departure, you can order a hotel taxi from Novotel Budapest City as well with credit card guarantee
only – please contact Ágnes Rajkai from the hotel contacts to arrange it.

Rates:
    •    There is no fixed price for taxis; it varies depending on traffic (30-40 EUR)
    •     o book your return from Hotel Novotel Budapest City to the airport, the hotel concierge will
         T
         assist.
Further information on Liszt Ferenc International Airport available at:
http://www.bud.hu/english

 PARKING
A limited number of free parking spaces are provided for conference participants arriving by car at the
Novotel Budapest City’s parking zone. Please see attached map for more details:
http://www.novotel.com/gb/hotel-0511-novotel-budapest-city/location.shtml
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 REGISTRATION
Registration to the conference will be available in the following hours:
2nd February, 17:00 – 21:00
3rd February, 07:30 – 08:30
Participants will be given their badges and conference packages upon registration.

 RECEPTION HOSTED BY HUNGARY ON 3rd FEBRUARY
Hungary will host a reception on “Európa Boat” (a Danube River ship) for the participants of the Re-
gional Consultation on Tuesday 3rd February (see more on the boat at http://www.europahajo.com/).
The host will provide bus transfer from the hotel to the venue of the reception. Departure: 19:30 pm
from the parking zone of Hotel Novotel Budapest City

 DRESS CODE
Business casual for conference; casual for reception

 EXCHANGE RATE (as of 13-01-2015)
EUR:HUF 1: 317; USD:HUF 1: 269; GBP:HUF 1: 406

 TIME ZONE
Central European Time Zone (UTC+01:00)

 RESIDENTIAL VOLTAGE AND PLUG
220 V

 EMERGENCY CONTACT NUMBERS
Police/Fire/Ambulance: 112
Alongside 112, the following emergency numbers are available:
104 - ambulance & emergency medical services,
105 - fire-brigade, rescue services, civil protection,
107 - police
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MORE INFORMATION ON BUDAPEST
http://welovebudapest.com/

SECRETARIAT CONTACT NUMBERS
For any questions or assistance, please contact:

OCHA World Humanitarian Summit secretariat
Email: eog@whsummit.org

Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade of Hungary - Hungarian Focal Points
Ms. Csilla Földesi
Department for International Development
Email: csilla.foldesi@mfa.gov.hu
Tel: +36 1 458 1230; +36 70 427 1767
Tel: +36 1 458 1000 (ext. 1230)
Fax: +36 1 458 1127

Mr. Tamás Orosz
Department for International Development
Email: torosz@mfa.gov.hu
Tel: +36 1 458-1871; +36 30 735 0690
Tel: +36 1 458 1000 (ext. 1871)
Fax: +36 1 458 1127

Logistics Coordinator
Ms. Ágnes Rajkai
Novotel Budapest City
Tel: +36 1 372 5455
Fax: +36 1 466 5636
e-mail: H0511-re2@accor.com

Ms. Andrea Mátrai
Protocol Department
Email: andrea.matrai@mfa.gov.hu
Tel: +36 30 910 42 50

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 FOREWORD

The consultation for the group of countries including Europe, Canada, the USA, Australia and New
Zealand marks the halfway point of the regional consultations leading up to the World Humanitarian
Summit in 2016. As the first consultation to take place in 2015 I have high hopes that it will play a key
role in shaping the recommendations to be taken forward to the Global Consultation and eventually
the Summit.

The outcomes of this consultation need to advance the discussion significantly. Three previous region-
al consultations – in West and Central Africa, North and South-East Asia and Eastern and Southern Af-
rica – have put forward some important recommendations that must be considered here, including the
growing politicization of humanitarian action, the inadequacy of current funding mechanisms to deal
with the new generation of crises, in particular protracted crises, and finding better ways of delivering
humanitarian assistance and protection in conflict situations. They must also seriously address the
growing calls for localizing disaster response and for a more transparent way of working that not only
includes local actors, but empowers people affected by crises to have greater agency, voice and choice.

We must also not forget that people and communities within this region are themselves no strangers
to conflicts and disasters. As a result of the current conflict, in 2015 1.4 million civilians in Ukraine will
need humanitarian assistance. In 2015, the number of refugees and asylum seekers in Turkey alone is
expected to rise to 1.9 million, and mixed migration flows with economic migrants traveling the same
routes as asylum seekers and refugees also have humanitarian implications.
Around the world, the frequency and intensity of damages due to weather-related events is increasing,
and recurrent natural hazards cause widespread economic and human losses. Since 2008, four million
people in countries in this grouping have been displaced by disasters. In 2005, the damage caused by
storms in the US, including Hurricane Katrina, led to economic losses of US$160 billion – the costliest
hurricane season in US history. Current climate change models predict with high to medium confi-
dence that there will be near-term increases in economic stress and people affected by climate-re-
lated events including water shortages, heat-related events, flooding and environmental degradation.

The countries represented here have a wealth of experience in facing such challenges. This consulta-
tion must build on their experiences preparing for and responding to disaster risk, and reflect on how
to capture the lessons learned and share best practices, as well as address the question of what needs
to be done differently to prepare for the risks of the future.

Over the course of the next two days, I call on you to go beyond the usual conversations and to enter
into a real debate on what can and should be done, and to think creatively about how we can make
that happen. We should leave Budapest with specific, implementable recommendations on what must
be done differently both within the region and when assisting others, and with some concrete com-
mitments to pilot some of them immediately so that experience is gained before the Summit. I also
sincerely hope that the participants will not shy away from discussing as frankly as possible how the
needs of people in the region’s current and recent conflict situations can be addressed.

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We are here today because we recognize that the status quo is neither sufficient nor acceptable. The
world is changing: so must humanitarian action. The World Humanitarian Summit is our opportunity
to embrace new actors, forge stronger partnerships and adapt to the next generation of crises. It is our
chance to take bold steps towards new ways of working together. The time for change is now. We can
and must do more to save lives, reduce suffering and preserve human dignity.

                                                                                 Dr Jemilah Mahmood
                                                                                Chief, WHS secretariat

   As well as being a medical physician, Dr. Jemilah Mahmood has over 15 years of experience
   working in disaster-affected countries. She is the founder of MERCY Malaysia, a successful hu-
   manitarian organization from the global south, which she led for a decade and was also the
   Chief of Humanitarian Response at United Nations Population Fund in New York from 2009-
   2011. From September 2011, she was concurrently a Senior Visiting Research Fellow at the
   Humanitarian Futures Programme at King’s Policy Institute, Kings College London and worked
   on private sector and military roles in disasters as well as engagement with “new” humanitarian
   actors. Dr. Mahmood has worked closely with regional organizations, particularly ASEAN, and
   has been an active member of several humanitarian international boards.

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 INTRODUCTION: BACKGROUND AND GOALS

“We need a truly global and innovative humanitarian system
in which everyone plays their part. That is why we are
convening the first-ever World Humanitarian Summit in
Istanbul in May 2016.”
                  Ban Ki-moon, United Nations Secretary-General
Background
The first World Humanitarian Summit, to be held in Istanbul in May 2016, is an initiative of UN Secre-
tary-General Ban Ki-moon. It will bring together governments, humanitarian organizations, people
affected by humanitarian crises, and new partners including the private sector to propose solutions
to our most pressing challenges and set an agenda to keep humanitarian action fit for the future. This
will be the first-ever humanitarian gathering of such scope.

This initiative comes at a crucial time. Humanitarian needs worldwide are already massive, and likely
to keep mounting. Global trends such as climate change, urbanization and population growth are
creating new challenges for the future. The humanitarian landscape is also changing: the number of
actors involved in humanitarianism is increasing and new kinds of actors are participating. Technolo-
gies are bringing new methods and partnerships to the humanitarian sphere and have enabled people
affected by crises to express their views and needs more immediately and with greater impact. At the
same time, humanitarian action is riskier than ever: a record number of humanitarian workers were
victims of violence in 2013.

Process
To explore the options for future configurations of humanitarian action, a consultative process which
started in 2014 has been bringing together humanitarian actors and other stakeholders in a series
of regional consultations aimed at identifying regional perspectives on what changes are required to
meet the humanitarian challenges of now and the future. To date, three regional consultations have
taken place: west and central Africa (Abidjan, June 2014), north and south-east Asia (Tokyo, July 2014)
and eastern and southern Africa (Pretoria, October 2014). After the regional consultation for the ‘Eu-
rope and others’ (EOG) grouping in Budapest, the remaining four will be in Amman for the Middle East
and North Africa region (3-5 March), in Guatemala for the Latin America and Caribbean region (5 -7
May), in Auckland for the Pacific region (30 June-2 July), and for south and central Asia (early August,
venue to be confirmed).

The EOG grouping is the largest, encompassing 54 countries. Its consultation has a distinctive dual
focus. The region is not immune to disaster; it features most types of natural hazards and there are
recent and current conflicts. Most countries in the grouping have invested significantly in disaster risk
reduction, civil protection mechanisms and regional cooperation, and there are lessons to be learned
from these experiences and innovations. EOG countries currently face domestic and regional issues
such as the impact of mixed migration, financial and economic frailties which may affect domestic
preparedness and international humanitarian funding, and the crisis in Ukraine. At the same time

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this regional consultation, more than most, must also take an outward view because of the strong
concentration of major international humanitarian and development aid donors and the fact that many
major international aid organizations are headquartered within it. These actors have long worked on
improving aid policies and flows—and the WHS regional consultations to date have emphasized a num-
ber of critical issues to resolve. The Europe and Others regional consultation will therefore examine
both domestic/regional and international issues.

Each regional consultation process has a Regional Steering Group (RSG) which, for EOG, is co-chaired
by the Governments of Hungary and Finland (the latter being co-host of the EOG event), ECHO and
OCHA. The composition of the RSG reflects the broad, consultative nature of the WHS process, being
composed of 20 members ranging from NGO consortia to the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement,
multilateral aid agencies, a civil protection agency, governments and inter-governmental organiza-
tions, a diaspora network, a private sector firm and academia (see full membership list in annex).
The RSG’s job is to guide the conceptual and logistical planning of the consultation, as well as the
post-Budapest process. Since September 2014 the Steering Group has had six teleconferences and
two face-to-face meetings.

As with each regional consultation, that for EOG has followed an extensive process of preliminary con-
sultations with regional actors. (See the “stakeholder analysis” section for detail.) This should allow
the discussions in Budapest to start from an advanced point, well informed by preliminary inputs.

Goals
The WHS secretariat envisions the WHS as an opportunity to mobilise broad support and commitment
on changes necessary to meet the humanitarian challenges of the future.

The outputs of the Budapest event will have a major influence on the Summit and its preceding Glob-
al Consultation (to be held in October 2015 in Geneva). They should be bold and advance the global
discussions significantly; and they should feature specific, implementable recommendations for hu-
manitarian actors in the region, and perhaps some commitment to pilot some of them immediately
so as to gain experience before the Summit. The consultation should also respond to the issues and
recommendations that the previous regional consultations directed towards actors in this region.

No single gathering in a region this large can encompass all key actors and issues. The Budapest
event is therefore a milestone, not an endpoint. Stakeholder consultations will continue in the region
after Budapest and the RSG will continue to function so as to update the consultation’s conclusions, in
light of subsequent stakeholder inputs and the remaining regional consultations.

There is much work to be done. EOG stakeholders need to make bold and substantive recommenda-
tions to ensure that Istanbul is a platform for meaningful and far-reaching change—not just on how
to adjust the present system but on what is needed to respond to the humanitarian challenges of the
future. People in need now and in coming years require and deserve no less.

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 ANNOTATED AGENDA

Overview
The Regional Consultation will open with a high-level panel featuring representatives of the meeting’s
co-hosts and key humanitarian actors in the region, followed by a presentation on the global World Hu-
manitarian Summit initiative and the regional consultations already completed. These presentations
will set the stage for subsequent plenary discussions and breakoutsessions.

Over the course of Day 1 and the morning of Day 2, eight parallel interactive and dynamic sessions of
smaller breakout groups facilitated by regional and global experts will invite rich, open and informal
debate on four themes: humanitarian effectiveness, reducing vulnerability and managing risk, trans-
formation through innovation, and serving the needs of people in conflict. The breakout discussions
will identify priority areas for action, stimulating creative thinking by participants to draw out the best
practices and lessons learned and to propose forward-looking and innovative solutions and recom-
mendations on each theme. (See “Discussion questions” section of this document. Generally, each
breakout group will address the same set of questions per theme. Participants will be pre-assigned
to groups; the assignments and a room map will be distributed at registration.) Plenaries following
every second breakout session will pool the results of the breakout groups and outline and validate
the key findings.

In the afternoon of Day 2, a closing high-level panel will share reflections on the consultation’s topics.
The final plenary session will review a real-time draft of the co-chairs’ summary, which will be drawn
from the preceding plenary sessions’ outline of key findings. The co-chairs’ summary should crystal-
lise the region’s recommendations for the 2016 Summit and set an agenda for action for actors in the
region to pilot some of the key recommendations.

 MONDAY 2 FEBRUARY
 17:00- 21:00       Registration of participants at hotel reception. Participants will be given their
                    badges and conference packages upon registration.

 DAY 1 – TUESDAY, 3 FEBRUARY 2015
 07:30-08:30        Registration cont’d.
 08:45-11:00        PLENARY SESSION 1 (PUBLIC SESSION)
                    VENUE: PLENARY ROOM
 08:45-08:50        Welcome by Master of Ceremonies (MC) Mr. Martin Nesirky,
                    Director, United Nations Information Service, Vienna
 08:50-08:55        Video message from the Secretary-General of the United Nations,
                    Mr. Ban Ki-moon

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                OPENING CEREMONY

08:55-10:10     Welcome speech by Péter Szijjártó,
                Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade of Hungary

                Keynote address: European Commissioner for Humanitarian Aid and Crisis Man-
                agement Christos Stylianides
                Keynote address: International Organization for Migration Director-General
                William Swing

                High-Level Panel on “Effective Humanitarian Action: vision for a future agenda”
                   Moderator: Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergen-
                   cy Relief Coordinator Valerie Amos
                   Panelists:
                      • Finland
                              Under-Secretary of State for Development Cooperation and
                        Development Policy Anne Sipiläinen
                      • International Organization for Migration Director-General William Swing
                      • I nternational Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
                         Secretary-General Elhadj As Sy
                      • Representative of crisis-affected communities (to be confirmed)
10:10 - 10:25   World Humanitarian Summit: Setting the stage for the ‘Europe and others’
                regional consultation
                Remarks by Dr. Jemilah Mahmood, Chief, World Humanitarian Summit secretariat
10:25 - 10:35   Briefing on programme, administration, and logistics of the breakout sessions (MC)
10:35-11:00     Group Photo and coffee break
                BREAKOUT GROUP SESSIONS (in breakout rooms; closed session)
11:00-13:00     Breakout group discussions (SESSION 1)
                8 parallel groups on: Humanitarian effectiveness (2 hours)
13:00-14:00     Lunch
                BREAKOUT GROUP SESSIONS (in breakout rooms; closed session)
14:00-16:00     Breakout group discussions (SESSION 2)
                8 parallel groups on: Reducing vulnerability and managing risk (2 hours)
16:00-16:30     Coffee break
16:30-17:30     PLENARY SESSION: WRAP-UP OF BREAKOUT SESSION 1 AND 2
                VENUE: PLENARY ROOM
19:30           Departure from the parking zone of the Hotel Novotel Budapest City hotel to the
                venue of the reception
20:00 onwards   Reception hosted by Hungarian Minister of State for Security Policy and Interna-
                tional Cooperation Dr. István Mikola, on board Európa Boat

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DAY 2: WEDNESDAY, 4 February 2015

              BREAKOUT GROUP SESSIONS (in breakout rooms; closed session)
08:30-10:30   Breakout group discussions (SESSION 3)
              8 parallel groups on: Serving the needs of people in conflict (2 hours)

10:30-11:00   Coffee break

11:00-13:00   Breakout group discussions (SESSION 4)
              8 parallel groups on: Transformation through innovation (2 hours)

13:00-14:30   Lunch

14:30-15:30   PLENARY SESSION
              WRAP-UP OF BREAKOUT SESSION 3 AND 4
              VENUE: PLENARY ROOM
15:30-16:00   Coffee break
16:00-17:00   PLENARY SESSION
              CLOSING PANEL DISCUSSION
              VENUE: PLENARY ROOM
              Panel Discussion on “Reshaping Humanitarian Action:
              a way forward from Budapest”
              Moderator: to be confirmed
              Panellists:
                  •    irector-General, Disaster and Emergency Management Authority (AFAD),
                      D
                      Turkey, Mr. Fuat Oktay
                  •    nited Nations Deputy High Commissioner for Refugees, Mr. Alexander
                      U
                      Aleinikoff
                  •    ssistant Secretary-General and Deputy Emergency Relief Coordinator,
                      A
                      Ms. Kyung-wha Kang
                  •   Executive Director, Action contre la Faim (ACF) France, Mr. Mike Penrose
17:00-18:00   PLENARY – PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF DRAFT CO-CHAIRS’ SUMMARY

18:00-18:30   Closing ceremony
                  •    ungarian Deputy State Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and
                      H
                      Trade, Ádám Zoltán Kovács
                  •    innish Under-Secretary of State for Development Cooperation and
                      F
                      Development Policy Anne Sipilainen
                  •   Chief, World Humanitarian Summit secretariat Dr. Jemilah Mahmood
                  •    aster of Ceremonies, Director, United Nations Information Service,
                      M
                      Vienna Mr. Martin Nesirky

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                                                                                    UN Photo / Tobin Jones

                                 Displaced families walk to seek safety, Somalia.
REGIONAL CONSULTATION - EUROPE AND OTHERS, BUDAPEST 3-4 FEBRUARY 2015

 STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS

Introduction
This paper is intended as a working document in preparation for the WHS EOG regional consultation.
It aims to provide food for thought for participants and contribute to making the consultations as ef-
fective as possible.

40 SOURCES of input were considered for this report

Stakeholders in the following countries provided input to this report in the form of holding preparatory
consultations or completing the online surveys:

    •   Canada                          •   Ukraine                •   Albania
    •   Germany                         •   Georgia                •   Australia
    •   France                          •   New Zealand            •   Netherlands
    •   Switzerland                     •   Hungary                •   Portugal
    •   USA                             •   Finland                •   Slovakia
    •   Belgium                         •   Luxembourg             •   Norway
    •   Italy                           •   Poland                 •   Greece
    •   UK                              •   Turkey                 •   Lithuania
    •   Bosnia and Herzegovina          •   Czech Republic         •   Ireland
    •   Serbia                          •   Sweden                 •   Kosovo

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In the months before the Budapest meeting, different groups were approached to voice their experi-
ence, perspectives and recommendations on humanitarian issues in the region. Data for this report
was gathered through four principal means: the WHS secretariat (“WHSS”) (i) accepted formal, written
submissions prepared as position papers or reports from consultation events that different stakehold-
ers convened for the EOG regional consultation; (ii) collected surveys completed by interested individ-
uals and organizations;1 (iii) hosted online discussion forums on the WHS website; and (iv) selected
certain materials produced by stakeholders as part of exogenous processes.2 Each narrative, survey
and report was first reviewed in isolation. Then, with the assistance of Linklaters LLP, the WHSS com-
piled and integrated the findings into this report.

Most stakeholders’ narratives and data sets were guided by the four WHS themes:
        •       Humanitarian effectiveness;
        •       Reducing vulnerability and managing risk;
        •       Transformation through innovation; and
        •       Serving the needs of people in conflict.

        Humanitarian
               Humanitarian
                        Humanitarian
                               Humanitarian
                                ReducingReducing
                                           vulnerability
                                               Reducing
                                                 vulnerability
                                                      Reducing
                                                          vulnerability
                                                                 Transformation
                                                                 vulnerability
                                                                        Transformation
                                                                                Transformation
                                                                                      Transformation
                                                                                         ServingServing
                                                                                                 the needs
                                                                                                       Serving
                                                                                                         theofneeds
                                                                                                               Serving
                                                                                                                 theofneeds
                                                                                                                        the of
                                                                                                                             needs of
        effectiveness
                effectiveness
                        effectiveness
                               effectiveness
                                   and managing
                                          and managing
                                                 and
                                                 riskmanaging
                                                         and
                                                          riskmanaging
                                                               through
                                                                 risk through
                                                                        innovation
                                                                         risk through
                                                                               innovation
                                                                                    through
                                                                                      innovation
                                                                                           people
                                                                                            innovation
                                                                                                  people
                                                                                                  in conflict
                                                                                                          people
                                                                                                          in conflict
                                                                                                                 people
                                                                                                                  in conflict
                                                                                                                         in conflict

Comments
   Humanitarian
                    raised
           Humanitarian
                    Humanitarian
                                  through
                           Humanitarian
                            ReducingReducing
                                                 the
                                       vulnerability
                                           Reducing
                                             vulnerability
                                                  Reducing
                                                          stakeholder
                                                      vulnerability
                                                             Transformation
                                                             vulnerability
                                                                                 consultation
                                                                    Transformation
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                                                                                     ServingServing
                                                                                             the needs
                                                                                                         process
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                                                                                                                          that exceeded the scope of the key
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issues     are
    effectiveness reflected
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                                          managing
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                                                                           innovationIssues.
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                                                                                                      people
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                                                                                                             people
                                                                                                              in conflict
                                                                                                                     in conflict

Methodological note
The methodology used for the analysis presented challenges, despite efforts to ensure data integrity.
First,  since
    Humanitarian     data
           Humanitarian       was
                    Humanitarian
                           Humanitarian
                            Reducing   collected
                                    Reducing
                                       vulnerability
                                           Reducing
                                             vulnerability
                                                  Reducingfrom
                                                      vulnerability  fourTransformation
                                                             Transformation
                                                             vulnerability   different
                                                                    Transformation           types
                                                                                  Transformation
                                                                                     ServingServing  theof
                                                                                             the needs
                                                                                                   Serving
                                                                                                         of   sources,
                                                                                                          needs
                                                                                                            Serving
                                                                                                             the of
                                                                                                                  needs
                                                                                                                    the of
                                                                                                                         needs oftheir outcomes and results had
    effectiveness
            effectiveness
                    effectiveness
                           effectiveness
                               and managing
                                      and managing
                                             and
                                             riskmanaging
                                                     and
                                                      riskmanaging
                                                           through
                                                             risk through
                                                                    innovation
                                                                     risk through
                                                                           innovation
                                                                                through
                                                                                  innovation
                                                                                       people
                                                                                        innovation
                                                                                              people
                                                                                              in conflict
                                                                                                      people
                                                                                                      in conflict
                                                                                                             people
                                                                                                              in conflict
                                                                                                                     in conflict
to be condensed and aligned to allow for a sound representation in this report. Second, not all data
collected could be included in this report. The analysis only considered findings that reoccurred across
the wider dataset and also bore relevance to the EOG region.3 Third, a certain degree of interpretation
bias was inevitable in the data collection and analysis processes despite efforts to counterbalance
individual bias. Finally, due to the nature of the non-probability sampling approach, the representation
of stakeholders included in this report may not correspond to their actual size. This report aims to
showcase the key issues and recommendations raised by various consulted stakeholders in the EOG
regional process leading up to Budapest. The document shall serve as a valuable basis for discussion
at the consultation meeting in Budapest, which will be a milestone in the region’s engagement with the
World Humanitarian Summit aspiring to stimulate further discussion and action. The analysis refers
to “stakeholders” in a general sense, not to imply unanimity of views on any one point. The prepara-
tory stakeholder consultations yielded the following key perspectives.

1 
    The WHSs together with its partners disseminated online surveys to individuals and organizations, including youth
    (15-24 years old), civil protection agencies, diaspora organizations, individuals from diaspora communities and people
    affected by disaster and conflict. The surveys contained questions on humanitarian action within and related to the
    EOG region.
    These papers represent a category of exogenous processes or products, i.e. not dedicated to, in response to, or in-
2  

    spired by the EOG regional consultation or the WHS, that present views relevant for this report.
3
    The documents that were reviewed for this report are either available on the WHS website or available upon request.

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1. Humanitarian effectiveness:
Putting people first to ensure an effective humanitarian response
1.1 Placing affected people at the centre:
Stakeholders urged the humanitarian community to place the empowerment of affected people at
the core of all stages of humanitarian response, from needs assessment and design to implemen-
tation to assessment and monitoring. This would better support affected communities. For example,
some stakeholders found people in conflict situations often do not receive the psychosocial support
they require given the trauma they have faced. Particularly, the emotional and psychological wounds
of children need to be better addressed through mental health services. More participatory needs
assessment would allow humanitarian actors to address this failure, and may also prevent social
fragmentation.

  “They addressed immediate needs, though I am unable to say that aid organization/governments
  did well supporting the people and community in the recovery phase. It feels like the long-term
  needs of the community were ignored.”

  “I became one of the aid workers for my local community 3-4 months after the disaster. My phys-
  ical needs were met in the earlier phase, but my emotional needs weren’t. I didn’t know where
  to go.”
                                     Survey respondents, People affected by disaster and conflict.

Stakeholders stressed that projects should be demand-driven, co-designed by communities and car-
ried out in coordination with local actors, emphasizing inclusivity and transparency. Academics called
for humanitarian actors to engage in more conscientious decision-making in order to avoid the cycle of
aid dependency and the perpetuation of existing poverty and socio-structural inequalities. To that end,
stakeholders also stressed that humanitarian assistance should be tailored to the individual as much
as possible. Stakeholders called for a framework for assistance that can provide individuals with clear
options that support personal agency, such as cash transfers. The online discussion also highlighted
the need for an increased focus on the economic empowerment—by humanitarian actors—of people
living in poverty in order to decrease their reliance on ongoing external support.

On assessing the impact of humanitarian action, one NGO position paper called on humanitarian ac-
tors to measure success by lives saved. Academics concurred, asserting that success should be ac-
corded when those affected think that success has been achieved. Reduced suffering and accelerated
recovery are also valid yardsticks but harder to measure. Stakeholders also noted that humanitarian
actors do not systematically capture and institutionalize how, when and where to replicate successes,
regardless of how it is measured.

A significant number of stakeholders also raised issues pertaining to accountability. They suggested
that accountability to affected people would counter the current trend of accountability to donors,
which has created less tolerance for risk and failed to impose downward accountability to the people
themselves. Humanitarian action requires all-of-society engagement and empowerment, and inclu-
sive, accessible and non-discriminatory participation. Stakeholders also asserted that the role of hu-
manitarian organizations should diminish over time, allowing for more direct engagement between

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beneficiaries and donors, with donors investing directly in innovations developed by affected people
and local communities. Academics called for a straightforward, quick political and legal system to be
created, by which those affected can hold non-state response agencies accountable. In particular, this
requires focusing on corruption, an issue highlighted by several survey respondents and participants
in the online consultation. Addressing corruption should be a key priority of the humanitarian agenda.

1.2 Focus on most vulnerable and gender-sensitive programming:
Stakeholders emphasized that special focus must be placed on the most vulnerable affected people.
They stressed that crises impact men, women, children and the elderly differently. A national network
of NGOs stressed that analysing disaggregated data, incorporating gender, sex, age and disability
markers, is crucial to transparent and risk-informed decision-making. Especially, the continued ex-
clusion of people with disabilities from humanitarian, disaster risk reduction and climate change pro-
grammes was considered a priority issue that needs to be addressed to counter the lack of evident dis-
ability-inclusive humanitarian practice. Stakeholders also cited the need for humanitarian response
models to address the needs of vulnerable populations arising from changing global demographics,
such as urban populations, aging populations and youth “bubbles.” Additionally, some stakeholders
underscored that vulnerable groups must be specially protected from experimentation with new pro-
cesses that occurs at their expense.

  “Self-regulation is no longer enough. Affected people have a right to know that agencies reach
  certain standards through some scheme to certify the agencies that do. There should also be a
  firmer ambition to support local organizations and involve affected communities than the ‘let’s
  try’ tone of some existing initiatives. And humanitarian programmes should be better designed
  to listen to the different needs and vulnerabilities of women and girls, and men and boys.”

                                                                  Source: International NGO, 2012.

Stakeholders asserted that the needs of women and girls must be taken into special account in hu-
manitarian responses. One international NGO stressed in their position paper that frontline humani-
tarian staff are often not trained or equipped to address the specific needs of women and girls in con-
flicts or natural disasters. Stakeholders called for gender to be placed at the heart of wider reforms
to the humanitarian system and for gender-based violence to be addressed in every humanitarian
response. NGOs also called for funding to be made gender-sensitive. Other stakeholders echoed this
call, urging humanitarian actors to address funding and implementation gaps in the roll-out of gen-
der-sensitive programmes, such as the Minimum Initial Service Package on Reproductive Health in
Crisis Situations. Stakeholders, including survey respondents, also called on WHS to factor gender
into its deliberations on aid effectiveness, vulnerability and innovation.

In the online discussion it was also pointed out that while it is known that emergencies increase wom-
en’s existing vulnerabilities, little acknowledgment exists for the potential of women in emergency
responses—looking particularly at leadership, decision-making, and feedback.

  “Whilst women are often the first responders, they are often the last to participate in deci-
  sion-making. Therefore it’s important we recognize that women are not helpless victims and
  have an important leadership role in preparedness, response and recovery.”

                                                              Participant in the online consultation

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2. Reducing vulnerability and managing risk:
Supporting response at the local level & building resilience to
protracted disasters
2.1 Recognizing local capacities and actors:
Nearly every stakeholder stressed the importance of supporting responses at national, sub-na-
tional and local levels. They noted that local partners, including individuals, are both first respond-
ers and a bridge between international response agencies and the local populations. They work with
vulnerable people before, during and after crises. Local partners have the most in-depth knowledge
of a context; thus, empowering local communities and actors is crucial to providing adequate hu-
manitarian assistance.

Participants in the online consultation emphasized that the reform of centralised and risk-averse
programming and funding requirements is necessary to address the main inhibitors preventing the
humanitarian system from working with local capacities. They stressed that the focus of humanitarian
responses must be shifted from horizontal partnerships to vertical partnerships (incorporating the re-
gional, national and local levels), with South-South and triangular cooperation also encouraged. Thus,
a bottom-up approach should be employed, allowing the humanitarian community to work alongside
the priorities, capacities and needs of local civil society and local governments. Stakeholders also
called for the elimination of the “us and them mentality” in favour of an approach that would allow
local actors to take stronger lead roles. One international NGO report stressed that partnerships de-
signed as political alliances based on shared values and common goals would allow parties to work to-
gether to build appropriate responses to the local context. Moreover, context-sensitive staffing would
mitigate potential negative effects of humanitarian programmes.

In order to counterbalance the mistrust of Western-dominated humanitarian action, one participant
in the online discussions proposed to encourage peer-to-peer knowledge exchange between city
actors (e.g. city mayors, emergency and resilience managers) from all global regions. This would
not only be a way to learn global best practices, but also a possible way in which the dynamics of
mistrust and misgiving regarding a predominantly Western-dominated humanitarian system could be
reversed. Further, participants suggested establishing a dialogue between traditional and emerging
donors for better coordination and security of finance.

2.2 Building resilience:
Stakeholders agreed that humanitarian actors must engage in long-term innovative and strategic
approaches to funding and resilience-building at the local level, and avoid separate, self-contained
approaches to disaster relief and development. They also noted national civil protection agencies can
play a large role as first-responders. Multi-annual finance mechanisms should be developed to fore-
see budget needs and increase preparedness resilience. Additionally, risk reduction should be main-
streamed into all aspects of humanitarian as well as development responses. Disaster management
targets should be integrated into global agreements and development processes, such as the post-
2015 disaster risk reduction (“DRR”) processes and DRR agreements now being negotiated.

Stakeholders found the humanitarian community lacked understanding of which capacities help or
hinder vulnerable people. Academics called for humanitarian actors to develop a robust understand-
ing and awareness of the context, particularly latent vulnerabilities, local mitigation strategies and
local capacity, to address this lack of understanding.

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As part of the humanitarian mandate, and also considering that funds are limited, it is crucial to iden-
tify the most efficient and effective ways to promote resilience. One of them is the central role humani-
tarian actors have had over the past few years as regards early warning, linked in particular to extend-
ed operational capabilities in the field. There is already concrete experience gained in public-private
partnerships, for instance supporting food security schemes through various programmes. In addi-
tion, there is room for humanitarian donors to address resilience by increasingly using innovative tools
and approaches.

Though 2012 figures suggested that private sector financial contributions comprised only 1.1% of
worldwide humanitarian funding, the private sector’s role in humanitarian action is growing and the
leveraging of private sector resources and capabilities has immense potential benefits. Despite this,
practitioners noted that the private sector generally does not appreciate the wealth of local under-
standing of humanitarian actors, which can strengthen markets, economies and resilience. To maxi-
mize potential contributions by the private sector, the private sector and aid agencies should provide
basic and easily accessible materials to one another, in order to learn about one another’s structures,
processes, terminologies, and capacities.

   “With significant logistical abilities, massive resources invested in R&D and highly capable per-
   sonnel, many within the aid community hope that businesses can do for humanitarian aid what
   Amazon did for the world of retail or what Microsoft and Apple did for personal computing.”

                                                                      Source: Research report, 2014.

2.3 Developing capacities at the local level:
Stakeholders recommended that humanitarian actors build and strengthen local expertise and capac-
ities. In their report, one NGO called on donors to invest directly in innovations developed by affected
people and local communities. Others called on humanitarian actors to focus on developing equita-
ble relations with existing local capacities and structures, and to engage them in new structures.
Moreover, stakeholders stressed that local actors should be given leadership roles in low-to medi-
um-scale crises, in which minimal international support is required. Many NGOs stressed that local
actors should work on an equal footing and in long-term partnerships with international NGOs, but
also that initiatives should originate from local civil society. A mapping of relevant actors—NGOs, lo-
cal governments, CSOs, etc.—should be done to achieve complementarity and improve coordination.

In terms of actions to improve local NGO participation in the humanitarian space, an international NGO
suggested that minimum grant sizes be re-evaluated and donor documents be translated into appro-
priate working languages to enable local NGOs to participate effectively. Other stakeholders urged
that pooled funds be made more available to local NGOs and that transparency in awards of funds be
made a priority.

   “Country-level pooled humanitarian funds in particular provide donors with a mechanism through
   which they can direct funds to specific crises where they may have no physical presence them-
   selves…. While pooled humanitarian funds represent an important step towards a more level-play-
   ing field for national actors in accessing international humanitarian funding, a number of practical
   administrative barriers remain which prevent optimal access to funds for national actors.“

                                                             Source: Faith-based organization, 2013.

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2.4 Bridging the humanitarian/development divide:
Stakeholders from the online consultations, NGOs and donors stressed that the international system
must be adapted to ensure proper linkages between humanitarian and development responses, re-
quiring a fundamental shift to make both agendas more complementary. They emphasized that build-
ing resilience, reducing vulnerability and managing risk are issues that need to be jointly addressed by
the humanitarian, development and climate change communities. This would ensure that at national
level the humanitarian system links strongly from the onset of a crisis with the development coordi-
nation system. Government leadership in both phases is welcome to ensure ownership in the longer
term while assuming responsibilities vis-à-vis own populations and the implementation of the resil-
ience agenda. Harmonizing humanitarian and development financing was repeatedly highlighted as
an area for improvement to avoid jeopardizing humanitarian gains and longer-term recovery, and to
cement durable solutions.

Tied to these comments was the debate over of the humanitarian/development divide in the online
discussions. Some stakeholders found the separation between the two to be meaningless, asserting
increased capacity and resilience can only be achieved by addressing the underlying causes of vul-
nerability, such as population growth, poor governance and social inequality. Still others embraced
a more conservative approach to defining “humanitarianism,” insisting that humanitarian assistance
encompasses only life-saving actions related to classic disasters and emergencies. Given the diverse
range of interpretations, stakeholders called for the humanitarian and development communities to
work towards an accepted definition of “humanitarian” and an increased focus and specialization of
actors to increase impact.

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 3. Transformation through innovation:
Innovation & adaptability to the new generation of crises
3.1 New factors aggravating vulnerability and risk:
Stakeholders identified primary factors aggravating and intensifying the new generation of crises:
climate change and unplanned urbanization. One international NGO report found that unplanned ur-
banization has exacerbated the vulnerability of urban communities to natural disasters, such as flood-
ing and earthquakes. Many stakeholders stated that climate change has increased the frequency and
intensity of natural disasters, leaving communities vulnerable to heightened risks of storms and the
disruption of food production. Additional factors affecting vulnerability highlighted by individual stake-
holders included terrorism, cyber terrorism and migration.

   Risks and stresses stemming from climate change have grown. From 1990 to 2015, there was
   a 50% rise in climate-related events, and it is projected that the resulting disasters will affect at
   least 375 million people globally.

                                    Source: Think-piece on the future of humanitarian action, 2014.

Increasing the effectiveness of the global architecture for aid delivery is also an important factor in re-
sponding to new humanitarian challenges. The trend of humanitarian needs outgrowing the available
resources necessitates gathering sounder information and making thorough analysis of the situation
to ensure that those most in need are prioritised; exploring the most cost-efficient ways of delivery,
and ensuring that the impact of response is measured. Accountability both to affected populations and
those who provide funds is also key.

The impact of urbanization was highlighted numerous times in the online consultation. Participants
particularly discussed the overlap of growing urbanization and aging populations and the humani-
tarian implications of these two trends—disclosing the vulnerability of aging populations in urban
environments, especially when disasters strike.

   “More than half of the world’s refugees now seek shelter in urban areas […] They face distinct
   challenges, yet humanitarian assistance continues to prioritise its focus on camp settings, uti-
   lising responses designed for camp and non-urban areas. We now know that an effective hu-
   manitarian response in an urban context demands a radically different approach from that of the
   traditional humanitarian response.”

                                                                Participant in the online consultation

3.2 The role of technology in humanitarian response:
Stakeholders recognized the positive role technology can play in humanitarian response. One NGO
report highlighted particular information communication technologies (“ICTs”), such as mobile con-
nectivity, data analytics and field support tools that may increase the effectiveness and efficiency of
humanitarian responses. Participants in the youth surveys highlighted the role of social media and

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other networking technologies in raising awareness and delivering assistance. Other examples of use-
ful technologies include unmanned aerial vehicles (“UAVs”), which can be used to monitor the need
for specific goods or services. Non-ICTs, such as solar power and advance water filter tools, may also
benefit vulnerable populations during and after crises.

While stakeholders recognized the increasing importance of technology in supporting humanitarian
relief, they also raised concerns about the proper use of technology and information gathered with it.
Stakeholders asserted that technology should be sustainable and open-source but also identified the
protection of personal data of beneficiaries of humanitarian assistance as vital. Stakeholders also
recognized that State governments are among most important actors in data and information man-
agement, analysis and protection.

3.3 Financing, encouraging and shaping innovation:
Recognizing that local actors have the most in-depth knowledge of a community’s needs during and af-
ter crises, local actors must be integrated into humanitarian response efforts in order to best address
the new generation of crises. Thus, stakeholders recommended that donors should invest directly in
innovations developed by affected people and communities. Moreover, the humanitarian community
should support innovation by local actors through sharing best practices and building local capacities.
States can play a key role through financial innovation and facilitating humanitarian partnership
with academia and the private sector. Participants in the online consultation stressed that improving
knowledge management, communication and coordination is key to generating evidence-based hu-
manitarian responses. Communication should occur across sectors and messages should be trans-
lated into language that can be understood by all relevant actors, particularly by the private sector and
affected populations.

Stakeholders also found that current financing models fail to encourage innovation. They recommend-
ed that financing and investment structures adopt a more flexible approach, allowing for the testing,
and potential failure, of innovations. Moreover, in order to harness new innovation and technologies,
funds must be appropriated to the technical skills and technological awareness training of humanitar-
ian actors. Organizations need to review their internal structures and requirements to reduce barriers
to new ideas, solutions and collaborations.

Finally, stakeholders acknowledged the need to develop new coordination models, given the presence
of new actors in humanitarian action, including militaries, private sector entities, entrepreneurs and
local actors. For example, the private sector may best contribute to humanitarian action through in-
novations and new technologies. Thus, humanitarian innovation should also be encouraged through
the establishment of joint research and development (“R&D”) hubs between aid agencies, private
businesses and other interested institutions.

                                                                                   BRIEFING PACK • 22
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