Rethinking Learning - Exploring Different Pedagogical Approaches to

Rethinking Learning - Exploring Different Pedagogical Approaches to


Exploring Different
Pedagogical Approaches to
Transform Education
For Humanity
• Educating students for their future, not our past

• Bringing learning back into education –
  a foreword by the Former Minister of Education, Mali

• An interview with Nobel Laureate, Tawakkol Karman
   on Prevention of Violent Extremism and education

• Why Games can be Effective Pedagogy
Rethinking Learning - Exploring Different Pedagogical Approaches to

                                                                                                                                                                                                       DIRECTOR’S MESSAGE

                                                                                                                                                                                              developed to meet the requirements of the
                                                                                                                                                                                              industrial revolution. In other words, we’ve
                                                                                                                                                                                              developed an assembly style of producing
                                      ISSUE 7 . 2018                                                                                                                                          educated individuals capable of producing
                                                                                                                                                                                              efficiently for the economy. The question we
                                                                                                                                                                                              have to ask ourselves is if this system can provide
                                                                                                                                                                                              the mindsets we need for building peaceful and
                                                                                                                                                                                              sustainable societies across the world. I venture
                                                                                                                                                                                              to say no.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  In fact, what we have right now is orthogonal
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural                                                                                                                                           to the outcomes we want – we live in a predatory
Organization | Mahatama Gandhi Institute of                                                                                                                                                   system that focuses on pitting individuals against
Education for Peace and Sustainable Development
                                                                                                                                                                                              each other in the name of competition and
35 Ferozshah Road, ICSSR, Building, 1st Floor                                                                                                                                                 rewards only success in areas that make financial
New Delhi 110001, INDIA                                                                                                                                                                       gains, not social or ecological. The weakest are
                                                                                                                                                                                              left to perish and it is the survival of the fittest.
THE BLUE DOT features articles showcasing
                                                                                                                                                                                              We need to reinvert our education such that the
UNESCO MGIEP’s activities and areas of interest.

                                                                                                                     Rethinking Education
The magazine’s overarching theme is the relationship                                                                                                                                          well-being of the individual and the collective is
between education, peace, sustainable development                                                                                                                                             the primary goal.

and global citizenship. THE BLUE DOT’s role is to                                                                                                                                                 In the seventh issue of the Blue Dot, we focus
engage with readers on these issues in a fun and                                                                                                            ur world today is facing          on Rethinking Learning. The Issue includes a
interactive manner. The magazine is designed to                                                                                                             an increasing number of           foreword by the Former Minister of Education of
address audiences across generations and walks of                                                                                                                                             Mali, H.E. Adama Samassékou on how education
                                                                                                                                                            “wicked” problems– rising
life, thereby taking the discourse on education for                                                                                                                                           systems need to be re-looked at to incorporate
                                                                                                                                                            inequality, violent extremism,
peace, sustainable development and global citizenship                                                                                                                                         personalised learning and technology as an
beyond academia, civil society organisations and                “Look again at that dot.                                                                    global warming and others
                                                                                                                                                                                              enabler and our Cover Story, which focuses on
governments, to the actual stakeholders.
                                                                                                                                         to name a few. The challenge we have before
                                                          That’s here. That’s home. That’s us.                                           us is that trying to solve our problems with the     the importance of socio-emotional learning.
THE BLUE DOT is published biannually.                                                                                                    mindset that created the problems will just not      Additionally, we feature opinions by specialists
                                                                       On it, everyone you love,                                                                                              from academia, research, policymaking and
                                                                                                                                         work . We need innovative and out of the box
Subscription                                               everyone you know, everyone you ever heard of,                                                                                     the industry on the need to relook at education
                                                                                                                                         thinking– and this can only come from our
The Blue Dot is available free of charge.                                                                                                                                                     systems for the future. Amongst various experts,
                                                                   every human being who ever was,                                       education systems. However, here is where
To receive all future issues of the THE BLUE DOT,                                                                                                                                             we hear from Andreas Schleicher, Director of
subscribe to                                             lived out their lives.                                         we have a problem. The education systems
                                                                                                                                         we have now have not changed much over the           Education and Skills and Special Advisor on
                                                                The aggregate of our joy and suffering,                                                                                       Education Policy to the Secretary-General at the
Managing Editor                                                                                                                          past 300 years. In order to change and foster
                                                                    thousands of confident religions,                                                                                         Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Akriti Mehra, UNESCO MGIEP                                                                                                               more peaceful and sustainable societies, there
                                                                  ideologies, and economic doctrines,                                    is definitely a strong need to re-think the future   Development (OECD); Anneli Rautiainen from
Publication Assistant                                      every hunter and forager, every hero and coward,                              of education and re-think learning.                  the Finnish National Agency for Education as
Dana Cotnareanu, UNESCO MGIEP                                                                                                                                                                 well as Pratik Mehta, Head of Education & Skills,
                                                               every creator and destroyer of civilization,                                  In 2015, 193 countries came together and
                                                                                                                                         agreed on 17 global goals. The uniqueness about      Microsoft India.
Design                                                    every king and peasant, every young couple in love,
                                                                                                                                         these goals was that development was no longer           Further, we present short blogs from the
Firefly Communications                                           every mother and father, hopeful child,                                                                                      youth about what future education systems

                                                                                                                                         an agenda for developing countries; instead the
                                                            inventor and explorer, every teacher of morals,                              Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) became          mean to them and we hear from Nobel Laureate,

                                                                every corrupt politician, every superstar,                               a key goal for all countries. Amongst others,        Ms Tawakkol Karman on the importance of
                                                                   every supreme leader, every saint                                     inclusive, quality and accessible education for      education for peace.
Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in this
                                                          and sinner in the history of our species lived there-       ENSURE INCLUSIVE   all became a key goal for all countries. There           I hope you enjoy reading this issue of
magazine do not necessarily reflect the official policy
                                                                                                                        AND QUALITY      was also a recognition by the community that         The Blue Dot.
or position of UNESCO MGIEP.                                 on a mote of dust suspended in a sunbeam.”
                                                                                                                       EDUCATION FOR     education will be key to achieving all other
The image used on the cover of this issue of
                                                                                                                      ALL AND PROMOTE    SDGs. Despite this recognition, there is a
The Blue Dot is purely representational and                                         CARL SAGAN
                                                                                                                     LIFELONG LEARNING   serious dichotomy.                                   ANANTHA KUMAR DURAIAPPAH
conceptual in nature.                                         PALE BLUE DOT: A VISION OF THE HUMAN FUTURE IN SPACE
                                                                                                                                             The education system we have now was             Director, UNESCO MGIEP

                                                                                                                                                                                                           ISSUE 7 . 2018                       1
Rethinking Learning - Exploring Different Pedagogical Approaches to


back into
                                                                                                                                          “There is immense
                                                                                                                                           potential for
                                                                                                                                           technology to
                                                                                                                                           be used to make
                                                                                                                                           learning fun and
                                                                                                                                           accessible through
                                                                                                                                           games, interactive
                                                                                                                                           e-publications and

                                                                                                                                           digital books
                                                              umanity today faces all      factories to contribute towards the growth
                                                              sorts of challenges – an     of wealth measured in monetary terms.
                                                              increasing gap between       This means we measure the outcome of
                                                              the rich and poor, global    education not by ‘happiness’ or ‘well-                                                                                      by various stakeholders including
                                                              warming, rising violent      being’, or ‘know-how’, instead by the                                                                                       educators, policymakers, curriculum
                                          extremism, growing nationalism and               amount of wealth that has been generated.                                     need to develop everywhere a mother-          designers, learners themselves as well
                                          intensifying lack of understanding for           This is in turn measured as the human                                         tongue-based multilingual education.          as technology experts.
                                          diversity and culture. The divide between        capital of a country.                                                             Technology can play an imperative            Many say that this is a rich country’s
                                          countries all over the world has never been          In order for future generations to be                                     role as a facilitator of this change and      agenda. I would say otherwise. In fact, the
                                          greater.                                         living in more peaceful and sustainable                                       transform the traditional method of           equity gap between the haves and have-
                                              The task of tackling these challenges        societies, the focus of education must                                        classroom training . Today, knowledge is      nots will increase even further if we do
                                          appears rather daunting. However, we             go beyond facilitating development of                                         accessible at the click of a button. There    not embrace this technological revolution.
                                          must together find a solution that can help      human capital and instead focus on                                            is immense potential for technology to be     The cost of technology is dropping
                                          these issues from mounting into a larger         human flourishing. This will require an                                       used to make learning fun and accessible      exponentially. The penetration rate of
                                          global crisis.                                   overall development of young people who                                       through games, interactive textbooks,         mobile technology in Africa is a case in
                                              The future lies in the hands of              are intellectually stimulated and are also                                    e-publications and digital books. Through     point. And what’s amazing is at which the
Former Minister of Education and Former
                                          the young, who offer a tremendous                ‘good’ human beings; individuals who are                                      assessments, analytics and artificial         speed the young absorb this new technology.
Spokesperson for the Government of Mali
                                          opportunity for solving the issues that face     empathetic and compassionate, in a true                                       intelligence, learning can be customised         The Transforming Education
                                          us. It is critical however that the young be     spirit of solidarity.                                                         to suit the learner’s pace and style and      Conference for Humanity (TECH),
                                          provided with the right platform and be              Further, the focus needs to be                                            optimise learning pathways for a student.     organised by the UNESCO MGIEP and the
                                          equipped with the right skills in order to       brought back on ‘the learner’, wherein                                        The interactive content, immersive            State Government of Andhra Pradesh, India
                                          collectively work towards achieving this         the learner’s individual strengths are                                        experiences and collaborative tools the       held in December, 2017 provided one such

“                                                                                                                                        “
                                          and therefore bridging the increasing            recognised and pedagogies are designed to                                     young are consuming are also being used       platform, in which experts, policymakers
                                          divide. In this, education will play a key       cater to individual learner needs. We need                                    by them to build content. The possibilities   and the youth congregated to discuss the
                                          role.                                            to shift the focus from creating factories                                    are limitless and technology will empower     future of learning. More such platforms
         the focus of                         Over the years, a large difference           of workers to empowering human beings,                The possibilities are   the learner in ways such that no child is     need to be developed and lead to concrete
education must go beyond                  has developed in what education                  who work towards human flourishing.           limitless and technology        left behind.                                  actions that result in creating education
facilitating development of               traditionally set out to achieve and what        Learning should be personalised and           will empower the learner in         These changes are not simple to           systems that are more ‘learner centric’.
                                          it now provides. The goal of our present         self-paced instead of merely focus on                                         implement and involve re-looking at              It is indeed the right time for us to
human capital and instead                                                                                                                ways such that no child is
                                          education systems has been driven by the         drilling in the same type of information or                                   existing education systems in entirety.       work towards bringing back ‘learning’ to
focus on human flourishing                need identified at the start of the industrial   ‘knowledge’ to everyone at an exogenously
                                                                                                                                         left behind.                    Since systemic change is required, a          education. I hope UNESCO will take the
                                          revolution- the need for skilled workers in      defined pace. Moreover, there is a crucial                                    collaborative effort needs to be undertaken   lead on this in the near future.

2                     ISSUE 7 . 2018                                                                                                                                                                                           ISSUE 7 . 2018                   3
Rethinking Learning - Exploring Different Pedagogical Approaches to


                                                                                              ISSUE 7 . 2018

                                                                                                                    • Higher Education as a Lever of Development
                                                                                                               20      in India
                                                                                                                       Bhaswati Mukherjee discusses the critical
                                                                                                                                                                         42   COVER STORY
                                                                                                                       need for policymakers to focus on higher               • Rethinking Learning
                                                                                                                       education in the country.                                 Yoko Mochizuki and Nandini Chatterjee discuss
                                                           OPINIONS                                                                                                             a renewed focus on learning, the emergence of
                                                                                                                    • Reimagining Globalisation and Education
                                                           EXPERT PERSPECTIVES:
                                                           RETHINKING LEARNING
                                                                                                               24      Fazal Rizvi describes the requirement to
                                                                                                                       rethink the ideas of global learning and global
                                                                                                                                                                                social and emotional learning as a focus area
                                                                                                                                                                                and UNESCO MGIEP’s approach to rethinking
                                                                                                                       citizenship education.
                                                           • Educating students for their future,
                                                      7      not our past                                           • The Future of Education                                Interview
                                                             Andreas Schleicher on the need to provide
                                                             people with a reliable compass to find their
                                                                                                               28      Anneli Rautiainen discusses the requirement
                                                                                                                       to transform the education system in Finland.
                                                                                                                                                                         50   Tawakkol Karman (Nobel Laureate, 2011) talks
                                                                                                                                                                              about how education is important for preventing
            Director’s Message                               way through an increasingly complex world.
    1       Rethinking Education                                                                                    • Building a Technology-Driven Environment
                                                                                                                                                                              violent extremism.
            By Anantha Kumar Duraiappah,                   • Educational TV of violence: Efficiently          31     for Collaborative Learning at Schools
            Director, UNESCO MGIEP                    11     training the youth in aggressive behaviours              Pratik Mehta on the role of technology for              Youth Voices
                                                             Helen Abadzi discusses how certain informal
                                                             methodologies of education promote violent
                                                                                                                      learning in education systems.                     52   Young people speak their mind as they respond
                                                                                                                                                                              to the question “What does the future of
    2       Bringing learning back into education
                                                             behaviours amongst the young.
                                                                                                               36   FEATURE                                                   education mean to you.”
            By H.E. Mr. Adama Samassékou,                  • Why Games can be Effective Pedagogy
            Former Minister of Education and Former   16     Chris Crowell explains how games can                                                                             Crossword
            Spokesperson for the Government of Mali          facilitate learning.                                                                                        57   Follow the clues to find answers to the
                                                                                                                                                                              crossword on ‘Rethinking Learning.’

                                                             11                                                     The Learning Labs
                                                                                                                    Aditi Pathak describes the importance of
                                                                                                                                                                         58   Activity Bulletin
                                                                                                                                                                              What we’ve been up to at unesco mgiep.

                                                                                                                    intercultural dialogue and the role of technology.

                                                                                                               39                                   2017
                                                                                                                                                  Highlights of the

                                                3                                                                                                                                                                61
                                                                                                                                                  Conference for
                                                                                                                                                  Humanity held
                                                                                                                    from December 16 -18, 2017 in Visakhapatnam.

4                      ISSUE 7 . 2018                                                                                                                                                          ISSUE 7 . 2018                 5
Rethinking Learning - Exploring Different Pedagogical Approaches to

       expert perspectives

        Rethinking Learning
         Read about what academics, policymakers,
         researchers and practitioners have to say on
         ‘Rethinking Learning’. From focusing on teaching
         skills such as empathy, compassion, mindfulness,
         collaboration to employing artificial intelligence
         and gaming in future learning systems, enjoy
         reading diverse and contradictory views on what
         future education systems should look like and how
         learning needs to be re-thought.

                                                              Andreas Schleicher is Director for
                                                              Education and Skills, and Special
                                                              Advisor on Education Policy to the
                                                                                                           Educating students for
                                                              Secretary-General at the Organisation
                                                              for Economic Co-operation and                their future, not our past
                                                              Development (OECD). As a key member
                                                              of the OECD’s Senior Management team,
                                                              he supports the Secretary-General’s
                                                              strategy to produce analysis and policy
                                                                                                               Andreas Schleicher
                                                              advice that advances economic growth
                                                              and social progress. In addition to policy

                                                              and country reviews, he oversees the
                                                              Programme for International Student                              ow should countries equip   a sense of dislocation, political forces
                                                              Assessment (PISA), the OECD Survey                               people to understand,       emerge that are offering closed borders,
                                                              of Adult Skills (PIAAC), the OECD                                engage with and shape       the protection of traditional jobs and a
                                                              Skills Strategy, the OECD Teaching and
                                                                                                                               a changing world? This is   promise to put the interests of today’s
                                                              Learning International Survey (TALIS),
                                                                                                                               the age of accelerations,   generation over those of the future.
                                                              and the development and analysis of
                                                              benchmarks on the performance of             a speeding-up of human experience                   In these times, we can no longer teach
                                                              education systems (INES).                    through the compound impact of                  people for a lifetime. In these times,
                                                                  Mr. Schleicher is the recipient          disruptive forces on every aspect of            education needs to provide people with a
                                                              of numerous honours and awards,              our lives. It is also a time of political       reliable compass and the navigation tools to
                                                              including the “Theodor Heuss” prize,         contestation. The priority of the wider         find their own way through an increasingly
                                                              awarded in the name of the first             international community is to reconcile         complex and volatile world. As future
                                                              President of the Federal Republic of
                                                                                                           the needs and interests of individuals,         jobs will pair computer intelligence with
                                                              Germany for “exemplary democratic
                                                                                                           communities and nations within an               the human knowledge, skills, character
                                                              engagement”. He holds an honorary
                                                              Professorship at the University of           equitable framework based on open               qualities and values, it will be our capacity
                                                              Heidelberg.                                  borders, free markets and a sustainable         for innovation, our awareness, our ethical
                                                                                                           future. But where disruption has brought        judgement and our sense of responsibility

6                  ISSUE 7 . 2018                                                                                                                                   ISSUE 7 . 2018                         7
Rethinking Learning - Exploring Different Pedagogical Approaches to

OPINION                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         OPINION

                                                                                                                                                                     to accept accountability for the products     profession and who work with a high level
                                                                                                                                                                     of one’s work. This suggests a sense of       of professional autonomy and within a
                                                                                                                                                                     responsibility, and moral and intellectual    collaborative culture.
                                                                                                                                                                     maturity, with which a person can reflect         But such people will not work as
                                                                                  . . . schools increasingly                                                         upon and evaluate their actions in the        exchangeable widgets in schools organised
                                                                                                                                     The perception and
                                                                                      recognise the need                             assessment of what is
                                                                                                                                                                     light of their experiences and personal       as Tayloristic workplaces that rely mainly
                                                                                                                                                                     and societal goals; what they have been       on administrative forms of accountability
                                                                                      for fostering ethics,                          right or wrong, good            taught and told; and what is right or         and bureaucratic command and control
                                                                                 character and citizenship                           and bad in a specific           wrong. The perception and assessment          systems to direct their work. To attract
                                                                                   and aim to develop . . .                          situation is about ethics.      of what is right or wrong, good and bad       the people they need, modern school
                                                                                   empathy, compassion,                              It implies asking questions     in a specific situation is about ethics. It   systems need to transform the form of
                                                                                                                                                                     implies asking questions related to norms,    work organisation in their schools to a
                                                                                   mindfulness, purpose-                             related to norms, values,
                                                                                                                                                                     values, meanings, and limits. Central to      professional form of work organisation
                                                                                   fulness, responsibility,                          meanings, and limits.           this competency is the concept of self-       in which professional norms of control
                                                                                        collaboration and                                                            regulation, in the spheres of personal,       replace bureaucratic and administrative
                                                                                         self-regulation.                                                            interpersonal and social responsibility,      forms of control. The past was about
                                                                                                                                                                     drawing on constructs of self-control,        received wisdom, the future is about
                                                                                                                                                                     self-efficacy, responsibility, problem-       user-generated wisdom.
                                                                                                                                                                     solving and adaptability.                         The past was also divided – with
                                                                                                                                                                         The challenge is that developing          teachers and content divided by subjects
                                                                                                                                                                     these qualities requires a very different     and students separated by expectations of
                                                                                                                                                                     approach to learning and teaching and         their future career prospects. And the past
                                     that will equip us to harness machines to       to shape the future will partly hinge                                           a different calibre of teachers. Where        could be isolated – with schools designed
                                     shape the world for the better. This is the     on their capacity to create new value.          The past was about received
                                                                                                                                                                     teaching is about imparting prefabricated     to keep students inside, and the rest of
                                     main conclusion OECD countries working              In a structurally imbalanced world,         wisdom, the future is about     knowledge, countries can afford low           the world out, with a lack of engagement
                                     on a new framework for curriculum design,       the imperative of reconciling diverse           user-generated wisdom. The      teacher quality. And when teacher quality     with families and a reluctance to partner
                                     referred to as ‘Education 2030’, have drawn.    perspectives and interests, in local settings   future needs to be integrated   is low, governments tend to tell their        with other schools. The future needs to
                                     Not surprisingly then, schools increasingly     with sometimes global implications, will                                                                                      be integrated – with an emphasis on the
                                                                                                                                     – with an emphasis on the       teachers exactly what to do and exactly
                                     recognise the need for fostering ethics,        require young people to become adept in                                         how they want it done, using an industrial    integration of subjects and the integration
                                     character and citizenship and aim to develop    handling tensions, dilemmas and trade-
                                                                                                                                     integration of subjects and
                                                                                                                                                                     organisation of work to get the results       of students. It also needs to be connected
                                     a range of social and emotional skills, such    offs. Striking the balance, in specific         the integration of students.    they want. Today the challenge is to          – so that learning is closely related to
                                     as empathy, compassion, mindfulness,            circumstances, between competing                                                make teaching a profession of advanced        real-world contexts and contemporary
                                     purposefulness, responsibility, collaboration   demands - of equity and freedom,                                                knowledge workers who own their               issues and open to the rich resources
                                     and self-regulation.                            autonomy and community, innovation and                                                                                        in the community. Powerful learning
                                         In their Education 2030 framework           continuity and efficiency and democratic                                                                                      environments are constantly creating
                                     for curriculum design, OECD countries           process - will rarely lead to an either/or                                                                                    synergies and finding new ways to enhance
                                     have put creating new value, dealing with       choice or even a single solution. Individuals                                                                                 professional, social and cultural capital
                                     tensions and dilemmas and developing            will need to think in a more integrated way                                                                                   with others. They do that with families
                                     responsibility at the center. Creating new      that avoids premature conclusions and                                                                                         and communities, with higher education,
                                     value, as a transformative competency,          attends to interconnections. The constructs                                                                                   with businesses, and especially with other
                                     connotes processes of creating, making,         that underpin the competence include                                                                                          schools and learning environments. This
                                     bringing into being and formulating;            empathy, adaptability and trust.                                                                                              is about creating innovative partnerships.
                                     and outcomes that are innovative, fresh             The third transformative competency                                                                                       Isolation in a world of complex learning
Dealing with novelty,                and original, contributing something            is a prerequisite of the other two.                                                                                           systems will seriously limit potential.
change, diversity and                of intrinsic positive worth. It suggests        Dealing with novelty, change, diversity                                                                                           Instruction in the past was subject-
ambiguity assumes that               entrepreneurialism in the broader sense         and ambiguity assumes that individuals                                                                                        based, instruction in the future needs to be
individuals can ‘think for           of being ready to venture, to try, without      can ‘think for themselves’ with a robust                                                                                      more project based, building experiences
                                     anxiety about failure. The constructs that      moral compass. Equally, creativity and                                                                                        that help students think across the
themselves’ with a robust
                                     underpin the competence are imagination,        problem-solving require the capacity to                                                                                       boundaries of subject-matter disciplines.
moral compass.                       inquisitiveness, persistence, collaboration     consider the future consequences of one’s                                                                                     The past was hierarchical, the future is
                                     and self-discipline. Young people’s agency      actions, to evaluate risk and reward and                                                                                      collaborative, recognising both teachers

8                   ISSUE 7 . 2018                                                                                                                                                                                         ISSUE 7 . 2018                     9
Rethinking Learning - Exploring Different Pedagogical Approaches to

OPINION                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          OPINION

                                                                                   to liberate learning from past conventions
                                                                                   and connect learners in new and powerful        Educational TV
                                                                                                                                   of violence
                                                                                   ways, with sources of knowledge, with
                                                                                   innovative applications and with one
                                                                                       In the past, the policy focus was on
                                                                                   the provision of education, now it needs
                                                                                   to be on outcomes, shifting from looking
                                                                                   upwards in the bureaucracy towards
                                                                                   looking outwards to the next teacher, the
                                                                                   next school and the next education system.
                                                                                   In the past, administrations emphasised
                                                                                   school management, now the focus
                                                                                   needs to be on instructional leadership,
                                                                                   with leaders supporting, evaluating and
                                                                                   developing teacher quality and the design
                                                                                   of innovative learning environments. The
                                                                                   past was about quality control, the future is
                                     and students as resources and co-creators.    about quality assurance.
Now schools need to                      In the past, different students were          The challenge is that such system
use the potential of                 taught in similar ways. Now school            transformation cannot be mandated
                                     systems need to embrace diversity with        by government, which leads to surface
technologies to liberate
                                     differentiated approaches to learning. The    compliance, nor can it be built solely from
learning from past                   goals of the past were standardisation and    the ground. Governments can’t do the
conventions and connect              compliance, with students educated in         innovations in the classroom, but they
learners in new and                  age cohorts, following the same standard      can help in building and communicating                                                        E f f i c ient l y trainin g the y o uth
powerful ways . . .                  curriculum, all assessed at the same time.    the case for change and articulating a
                                                                                                                                                                                      in a g g re s s i v e b eha v i o ur s
                                     The future is about building instruction      guiding vision for 21st century learning.
                                     from student passions and capacities,         Government has a key role as platform
                                     helping students to personalise their                                                         Helen Abadzi is a Greek psychologist
                                                                                   or broker, as stimulator, incentiviser
                                                                                                                                   and polyglot of 19 languages. She retired         Helen Abadzi
                                     learning and assessment in ways that foster   and enabler, and it can focus resources,
                                                                                                                                   after 27 years as a senior education

                                     engagement and talents, and its about         set a facilitative policy climate and use       specialist at the World Bank and is

                                     encouraging students to be ingenious.         accountability and reporting modifications      currently a researcher at the University
                                     School systems need to better recognise       to encourage new practice.                      of Texas at Arlington. To improve the                            n a recent flight, I sat next
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Boys always engaged
                                     that individuals learn differently, and           But education needs to better identify      outcomes of education investments, she                           to a 3-year old Korean boy,
                                     differently at different stages of their      key agents of change and champion them          regularly monitors research in cognitive                         who was watching a cartoon      in mischief; but organised
                                     lives. They need to foster new forms of       and to find more effective approaches for       psychology and neuroscience. The                                 video on a tablet. Two          bullying and attacks have
                                                                                                                                   implications are often counterintuitive,
                                     educational provision that take learning      scaling and disseminating innovations.                                                                           characters were hitting each    multiplied in recent years
                                                                                                                                   suggesting that education can greatly
                                     to the learner in ways that allow people to   That is also about finding better ways                                                        other. Every time one struck the other, the
                                                                                                                                   improve by using the often little-known
                                     learn in the ways that are most conducive     to recognise, reward and give exposure                                                        boy cried out with pleasure and slapped the
                                                                                                                                   neurocognitive research. Dr. Abadzi
                                     to their progress. We need to take to         to success, to do whatever is possible to       writes articles, books, and blogs that        seat with his hand. Clearly he was learning        stepped aside and started kicking each
                                     heart that learning is not a place but an     make it easier for innovators to take risks     integrate the research findings and offer     something that engaged the emotional areas         other with the skill of a Kung Fu master,
                                     activity. As well as countering educational   and encourage the emergence of new              solutions. She also lectures in various       of his brain. What was he learning, and how        while the teacher was trying to impose
                                     disadvantage, this will capitalise on the     ideas. The past was about public versus         universities and is a frequent speaker        will he use it later?                              some discipline with a voice hoarse from
                                     strengths of the most talented students.      private, the future is about public with        in international conferences. Topics              It was in a primary school a few months        constant shouting. These were just two
                                         In the past, schools were technological                                                   include learning methods, reading             later where the learning outcome came.             events in the course of 5 minutes. Just up
                                                                                                                                   in multiple languages, numeracy,
                                     islands, with technology often limited to         These challenges look daunting, but                                                       It was at a boys’ middle-class school in           the stairs, a group of third graders were
                                                                                                                                   adult literacy and skills development,
                                     supporting existing practices, and students   many education systems are now well on                                                        the Middle East. First graders lined up            pulling the hair of a short first grader who
                                                                                                                                   creativity, accountability, and others. Her
                                     outpacing schools in their adoption and       their way to find innovative responses          publications are at http://uta.academia.      to go to lunch. Suddenly one boy pushed            ran into the library crying. The boys waited
                                     consumption of technology. Now schools        to ensuring that the next generation is         edu/HelenAbadzi                               another onto a line of students who all fell       outside for him, until a cousin came by and
                                     need to use the potential of technologies     learning for their future, not our past.                                                      down. They started screaming. Two boys             rescued him.

10                  ISSUE 7 . 2018                                                                                                                                                                                                          ISSUE 7 . 2018                    11
Rethinking Learning - Exploring Different Pedagogical Approaches to

OPINION                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              OPINION

                                         Was the school climate like this ten           evolved to facilitate learning of movements.                                                                                  with a gun aimed at the viewer. The various
                                      years ago? The older teachers emphatically        The imitation is not exact but adapts to                                                                                      media have thus brought this content
Watch-and-imitate                     said no. Boys always engaged in mischief;         circumstances. This constitutes informal                                                                                      perhaps to almost every child on the planet.
sequences form the                    but organised bullying and attacks have           education; unlike formal education, it takes                                                                                     So, millions of boys such as the three-
rudiments of education...             multiplied in recent years. Teachers would        place at all hours. We watch and perform the                                                                                  year old Korean receive individualised and
Aggressive acts seem easy             stop one fight, and another one would start.      movements of the majority and of the role                                                                                     efficient training on how to hit others, pick
                                      Windows rattled, desks overturned. Some           we expect to have in the future.                                                                                              up guns, shout, threaten, take hostages,
to imitate.
                                      would jump on tables, scream, and ignore              Aggressive acts seem easy to imitate.                                                                                     punish those who disobey. They watch
                                      the teacher. When alone, individual boys          This was demonstrated in the United                                                                                           characters who competently and instantly
                                      would behave peacefully, but in a group,          States in the 1960s . Children watched a                                                                                      pull out weapons, often defending women
                                      they paralysed the class. Those who wanted        TV character hit a big doll, and later they                                                                                   who helplessly cry to be rescued. Children
                                      to study were deprived of opportunity.            were put in a room with that same doll.                                                                                       may watch 2-3 murders per minute, with
                                         Evolutionary psychology research               They were more likely to hit the doll than                                                                                    fake blood flowing. And these training
                                      shows that through play children practice         children who had not watched the video.                                                                                       programmes run multiple times per day.
                                      the skills they will use later in life and also   Many studies since then have had similar                                                                                      A better training strategy to raise aggression
                                      establish hierarchies of ability. Children are    results (see references on page 15). A 2017                                                                                   would have been impossible to build.
                                      experts at imitating sequences, such as the       study demonstrated that children who                                                                                             Compared with males who have not
                                      steps of a dance, and compiling them into         were shown guns being used in movies                                                                                          played violent video games, males who do
                                      fluent sequences. The acts are not random.        found guns in a toy room and used them.                                                                                       play them are 67 per cent more likely to
                                      Millions of years ago some animals survived       Those who had not been shown guns in                                          Violence was                                    engage in non-violent deviant behavior,
                                      because they could learn from their peers.        movies, used them at a much lower rate2.
                                                                                        The emotional connections facilitate
                                                                                                                                                                      produced since the                              and 63 per cent more likely to commit
                                      Watch-and-imitate sequences form the
                                      rudiments of education and are common             consolidation. Once a child learns to hit a                                   movie industry                                  a violent crime or a crime related to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      violence . And like a canary in the mines,
                                      among mammals, including ants. The                doll or joyfully imitate aggressive cartoons,                                 started                                         the effects of aggression training appear in
                                      animals that learned most efficiently             it is unclear what forces will mitigate it.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      the first grade.
                                      left more descendants, and they passed                The predilection for copying aggressive
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Girls are affected in perverse ways.
                                                                                        acts may be due to evolutionary forces on                                     groups and expropriate their wealth. Attack
                                      learning abilities to their next generation.                                                                                                                                    They may also become violent and kill girls
                                                                                        male roles. Humans have survived the harsh                                    behaviours have been a key skill, and may be
                                         Specialised neurons in the brain,                                                                                                                                            they dislike, as some news stories show.
                                                                                        Paleolithic circumstances through labour                                      why boys practice it with each other. They
                                      sometimes called mirror neurons, have                                                                                                                                           But evolution has prepared women to look
                                                                                        division. Women bore and raised children,                                     also tend to find pleasure in explosions,
                                                                                                                                                                      racing police cars, blood, and weaponry.        for strong defenders and providers. Thus
                                                                                        while men coalesced in groups to defend
                                                                                                                                                                         The evolutionary adaptation to learn         many are attracted to violent men, even
                                                                                        the community territory or to attack other
                                                                                                                                                                      such skills creates interest, which the         under risk of abuse. Men to some extent act
                                                                                                                                                                      movie and video industry have exploited.        violently because of female approval. And
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      mating with aggressive males helps pass
     Evolutionary                                                                                                                                                     Violence was produced since the movie
                                                                                                                                                                      industry started, but it was limited by         aggression-related traits to pass to the next
     psychology                                                                                                                                                       technology and actions feasible by male         generation. This tendency has gone on for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      thousands of years, but the many cases of
     research shows                                                                                                                                                   adults. In the mid-20th century, violent
                                                                                                                                                                      movies featured cowboys and Indians,            girls who followed ISIS fighters to Syria
     that through                                                                                                                       The feats of aggression and   Kung Fu, or cartoons such as Roadrunner.        bring this phenomenon into a sharp focus.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         So what do researchers say today?
     play children                                                                                                                      risk are now superhuman       But now technology has created digital
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Admittedly it is hard to attribute aggressive
                                                                                                                                                                      characters and scenes that are only limited
     practice the                                                                                                                       and not merely available                                                      acts to movies watched long-ago, but links
                                                                                                                                                                      by the producers’ imagination. The feats of
                                                                                                                                        for watching. They can be
     skills they will                                                                                                                   practiced in videogames.
                                                                                                                                                                      aggression and risk are now superhuman          are clearly there. Violent content raises the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      probability of violent verbal encounters. It is
                                                                                                                                                                      and not merely available for watching. They
     use later in life                                                                                                                  Children now practice car     can be practiced in videogames. Children        not a coincidence perhaps that humans have

                                                                                                                                        thefts, shooting aliens or    now practice car thefts, shoot aliens or        been affected at the population level. There
                                                                                                                                                                      ancient warriors or defend medieval             is an explosion of violence in the world. Men
                                                                                                                                        ancient warriors or defend
                                                                                                                                                                      castles. Violent content gets viewership and    may not necessarily kill others, but they tend
                                                                                                                                        medieval castles.             sells ads. It is almost impossible to turn on   to become more verbally aggressive. They
                                                                                                                                                                      the television without finding a channel        engage in bullying in schools, trolling on the

12                   ISSUE 7 . 2018                                                                                                                                                                                            ISSUE 7 . 2018                      13
Rethinking Learning - Exploring Different Pedagogical Approaches to

OPINION                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           OPINION

                                                                                                   and violence may rise further. Bands of       Sample of studies attesting to the                           JAMA pediatrics, 171(11), 1040-1041, doi:10.1001/           Markey, P. M., & Markey, C. N. (2010). Vulnerability
                                                                                                                                                 effects of media violence                                    jamapediatrics.2017.2383                                    to violent video games: A review and integration of
                                                                                                   aggressive men may drive women into                                                                                                                                    personality research. Review of General Psychology, 14
                                                                                                                                                 AAlia-Klein, N., Wang, G. J., Preston-Campbell, R. N.,       Cikara, M., Jenkins, A. C., Dufour, N., & Saxe, R.
                                                                                                   retreat from the free movement and                                                                                                                                     (2), 82-91, doi: 10.1037/a0019000
                                                                                                                                                 Moeller, S. J., Parvaz, M. A., Zhu, W. & Fowler, J. S.       (2014). Reduced self-referential neural response
                                                                                                   labour force participation that they have     (2014). Reactions to media violence: it’s in the brain       during intergroup competition predicts competitor           Przybylski, A. K., Deci, E. L., Rigby, C. S., & Ryan, R. M.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              harm. NeuroImage, 96, 36-43, doi: 10.1016/j.                (2014). Competence-impeding electronic games and
                                                                                                   enjoyed since the 20 century. Wars
                                                                                                                         th                      of the beholder. PloS one, 9(9), e107260, doi:10.1371/
                                                                                                                                                                                                              neuroimage.2014.03.080                                      players’ aggressive feelings, thoughts, and behaviors.
                                                                                                   may multiply and create larger areas of                                                                                                                                Journal of personality and social psychology, 106(3),
                                                                                                                                                 Anderson, C. A., Shibuya, A., Ihori, N., Swing, E. L.,       Coyne, S. M., Stockdale, L., Linder, J. R., Nelson, D.
                                                                                                   forced migration and environmental                                                                                                                                     441.
                                                                                                                                                 Bushman, B. J., Sakamoto, A. & Saleem, M. (2010).            A., Collier, K. M., & Essig, L. W. (2017). Pow! Boom!
                                                                                                   contamination. Devolution is                                                                               Kablam! Effects of viewing superhero programs               Riva, P., Gabbiadini, A., Lauro, L. J. R., Andrighetto, L.,
                                                                                                                                                 Violent video game effects on aggression, empathy, and
                                                                                                                                                                                                              on aggressive, prosocial, and defending behaviors           Volpato, C., & Bushman, B. J. (2017). Neuromodulation
                                                                                                   conceivable in many areas, with humans        prosocial behavior in eastern and western countries: a
                                                                                                                                                                                                              in preschool children. Journal of abnormal child            can reduce aggressive behavior elicited by violent
                                                                                                                                                 meta-analytic review, doi: 10.1037/a0018251
                                                                                                   driven back to the Paleolithic era that                                                                    psychology, 1-13, doi: 10.1007/s10802-016-0253-6            video games. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral
                                                                                                                                                 Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2001). Effects of                                                                     Neuroscience, 17(2), 452-459, doi:10.3758/s13415-016-
                                                                                                   required aggressive adaptations. And          violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive       Dillon, K. P., & Bushman, B. J. (2017). Effects of          0490-8
                                                                                                                                                 cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal,         exposure to gun violence in movies on children’s
                                                                                                   with the changing climate and depleting                                                                                                                                Robertson, L. A., McAnally, H. M., & Hancox, R. J.
                                                                                                                                                 and prosocial behavior: A meta-analytic review of the        interest in real guns. JAMA pediatrics, 171(11), 1057-
                                                                                                   natural resources, humans may be                                                                           1062, doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.2229                  (2013). Childhood and adolescent television viewing
                                                                                                                                                 scientific literature. Psychological science, 12(5), 353-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          and antisocial behavior in early adulthood. Pediatrics,
                                                                                                   unable to climb out of that.                  359, doi: 10.1111/1467-9280.00366                            Engelhardt, C. R., Bartholow, B. D., Kerr, G. T., &         131(3), 439-446, doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-1582
                                                                                                      Justifiably, UNESCO is searching for       Anderson, C. A., Carnagey, N. L., Flanagan, M.,              Bushman, B. J. (2011). This is your brain on violent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Rusch, H., Leunissen, J. M., & van Vugt, M.
                                                                                                                                                 Benjamin, A. J., Eubanks, J., & Valentine, J. C. (2004).     video games: Neural desensitization to violence
                                                                                                   counter-measures. UNESCO MGIEP is                                                                          predicts increased aggression following violent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (2015). Historical and experimental evidence of
                                                                                                                                                 Violent video games: Specific effects of violent content
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          sexual selection for war heroism. Evolution and
                                                                                                   developing an online course on empathy,       on aggressive thoughts and behavior. Advances in             video game exposure. Journal of Experimental
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Human Behavior, 36(5), 367-373, doi: 10.1016/j.
                                                                                                                                                 experimental social psychology, 36, 199-249.                 Social Psychology, 47(5), 1033-1036, doi: 10.1016/j.
                                                                                                   compassion, mindfulness and critical                                                                                                                                   evolhumbehav.2015.02.005
                                                                                                   inquiry. But the effects of violent media     Andersen, K. (2017). Fantasyland: How America went
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Swann Jr, W. B., & Buhrmester, M. D. (2015). Identity
                                                  internet, raping, harassing, and disparaging                                                   haywire: A 500-year history. Random House.                   Ewoldsen, D. R., Eno, C. A., Okdie, B. M., Velez, J. A.,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          fusion. Current Directions in Psychological Science,
                                                                                                   are so instructional to the implicit                                                                       Guadagno, R. E., & DeCoster, J. (2012). Effect of playing
                                                  women. Desensitisation to suffering and                                                        Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S. A. (1963). Imitation                                                                   24(1), 52-57, doi: 10.1177/0963721414551363 cdps.
                                                                                                   memory system, that educational                                                                            violent video games cooperatively or competitively on
                                                                                                                                                 of film-mediated aggressive models. The Journal of                                                             
There is a explosion of                           death creates bizarre phenomena, such as                                                                                                                    subsequent cooperative behavior. Cyberpsychology,
                                                                                                   curricula are like a bandaid to a gunshot     Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66(1), 3, doi:10.1037/
                                                  a 17-year old girl coaching her boyfriend by                                                                                                                Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(5), 277-280, doi:       Towers, S., Gomez-Lievano, A., Khan, M., Mubayi, A., &
violence in the world.                                                                             wound.                                                                                                     10.1089/cyber.2011.0308                                     Castillo-Chavez, C. (2015). Contagion in mass killings
                                                  phone to commit suicide.                                                                       Barash, D. P. (2014). Buddhist biology: Ancient Eastern                                                                  and school shootings. PLoS one, 10(7), e0117259,
Billions are invested                                 Thus there is an explosion of violent
                                                                                                      Somehow UNESCO must advocate for a         wisdom meets modern Western science. Oxford
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Ferguson, C. J., Garza, A., Jerabeck, J., Ramos, R.,
                                                                                                                                                                                                              & Galindo, M. (2013). Not worth the fuss after all?
in violent media and                                                                               ban of violent media. This certainly seems    University Press.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Van den Bulck, J. Çetin, J., Terzi, Ö., & Bushman,B. J.
                                                  gangs, terrorism, mass murders, school                                                                                                                      Cross-sectional and prospective data on violent video
                                                                                                   unrealistic and will not happen in the next   Bartholow, B. D., & Anderson, C. A. (2002). Effects of       game influences on aggression, visuospatial cognition       (2016). Violence, Sex, and Dreams: Violent andSexual
videogames . . .                                  shootings, multiple civil wars, cybercrime,
                                                                                                                                                 violent video games on aggressive behavior: Potential        and mathematics ability in a sample of youth. Journal       Media Content Infiltrate Our Dreams at Night.
                                                                                                   decade. And even if new productions are
                                                  threats between the US and North Korea.                                                        sex differences. Journal of Experimental Social              of youth and adolescence, 42(1), 109-122, doi:10.1007/      Dreaming, 2016, doi: 10.1037/drm0000036
                                                                                                   banned, old movies and games will remain      Psychology, 38(3), 283-290, doi:10.1006/jesp.2001.1502       s10964-012-9803-6
                                                  These suggest that aggressive actions start                                                                                                                                                                             Willoughby, T., Adachi, P. J., & Good, M. (2012). A
                                                  more easily now than 10-20 years ago. And        available in practically every corner of      Bavelier, D., Green, C. S., & Dye, M. W. (2010). Children,   Furuya-Kanamori, L., & Doi, S. A. (2016). Angry birds,      longitudinal study of the association between violent
                                                                                                                                                 wired: For better and for worse. Neuron, 67(5), 692-701.     angry children, and angry meta-analysts: a reanalysis.      video game play and aggression among adolescents.
                                                  the perpetrators know what to do. They           the world. Banning the content will only
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Perspectives on psychological science, 11(3), 408-414,      Developmental psychology, 48(4), 1044.
                                                                                                   make it more desirable. And it may be         Beck, V. S., Boys, S., Rose, C., & Beck, E. (2012).
                                                  use guns fluently and easily, and they teach                                                   Violence against women in video games: A                     doi: 10.1177/1745691616635599
                                                  their comrades the missing skills.               insufficient to stop some children from       prequel or sequel to rape myth acceptance?.                  Fischer, P., Kastenmüller, A., & Greitemeyer, T.
                                                                                                                                                 Journal of interpersonal violence, 27(15),                                                                               Blogs and review articles on the effects
                                                      Many researchers have raised alarms and      being trained. They may just be more                                                                       (2010). Media violence and the self: The impact of
                                                                                                                                                 3016-3031,                  personalized gaming characters in aggressive video
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          of media violence
                                                  publicised study results. Even daily news        vulnerable to the bullies who have. There     abs/10.1177/0886260512441078                                 games on aggressive behavior. Journal of Experimental
                                                  featuring criminals generate additional          is a perverse reason to continue aggression   Bushman, B. J., & Anderson, C. A. (2009). Comfortably        Social Psychology, 46(1), 192-195, doi: 10.1016/j.          Affect_the_Brain%E2%80%94for_Better_and_Worse/
                                                                                                   training among all males.                     numb: Desensitizing effects of violent media on helping      jesp.2009.06.010
                                                  events. But the only outcome is scientific                                                                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                                 others. Psychological science, 20(3), 273-277.               Greitemeyer, T., & Mügge, D. O. (2014). Video games         neuromyth-or-neurofact/violent-video-games-make-
                                                  publications and interesting editorials.            So will our Paleolithic past control
                                                                                                                                                 Bushman, B. J., & Anderson, C. A. (2001). Media              do affect social outcomes: A meta-analytic review of        children-more-violent/
                                                  Policymakers at the national or international    humanity’s future? UNESCO should                                                                           the effects of violent and prosocial video game play.
                                                                                                                                                 violence and the American public: Scientific facts                                                             
                                                  levels are not giving much thought to this       become a voice of reason and science on       versus media misinformation. American Psychologist,          Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40(5), 578-     quarters/2015/apr/07/games-and-social-media-is-
                                                                                                                                                 56(6-7), 477.                                                589, doi: 10.1177/0146167213520459                          there-any-scientific-evidence-for-digital-neglect
                                                  threat. It is easy to see why. Billions are      human violence. It may initiate plans of
                                                                                                   action and obtain the buy-in of donors        Bushman, B. J., & Gibson, B. (2011). Violent video           Greitemeyer, T., & Osswald, S. (2010). Effects of 
 Bandura, Albert; Ross, D.; Ross, S. (1963).      invested in violent media and videogames,                                                                                                                   prosocial video games on prosocial behavior. Journal
“Imitation of film-mediated aggressive models”.                                                                                                  games cause an increase in aggression long after                                                                         train-the-brain-to-justify-killing
                                                  as well as in guns. Men are willing to pay for   and influential governments.                  the game has been turned off. Social Psychological           of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 211-221.
Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology.                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
66: 3–11. doi:10.1037/h0048687                    violent content, and companies are happy            In the 1920s, the independence of          and Personality Science, 2(1), 29-32, doi:                   Kelly, C. R., Grinband, J., & Hirsch, J. (2007). Repeated   2004/01ba.ap.pdf
                                                  to profit. Thus, it is currently impossible to   India seemed equally improbable. But                                                                       exposure to media violence is associated with
 Christakis, D. A. & Rivara, F. P. (2017). Guns                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                 Carnagey, N. L., Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B.              diminished response in an inhibitory frontolimbic
and Violent Media—A Toxic Mix With an Available   stop the training of the young.                  Mahatma Gandhi, armed only with                                                                                                                                        psych/201610/violence-in-games-does-not-cause-
Antidote. JAMA Pediatrics, September 25, 2017.                                                                                                   J. (2007). The effect of video game violence on              network. PLoS One, 2(12), e1268, https://doi.
doi:10.1001/ jamapediatrics.2017.2383                 In another decade, most adult males          moral fortitude practiced non-violence        physiological desensitization to real-life violence.         org/10.1371/journal. pone.0001268.
                                                                                                                                                 Journal of experimental social psychology, 43(3),                                                              
 Beck, V. S., Boys, S., Rose, C., & Beck, E.      of the earth will have gone through the          and overcame impossible odds. Perhaps                                                                      Li, L., Chen, R., & Chen, J. (2016). Playing action
                                                                                                                                                 489-496.                                                                                                                 pdf
(2012). Violence against women in video games:                                                                                                                                                                video games improves visuomotor control.
                                                  aggression training programmes. How              UNESCO MGIEP, with its scientific
A prequel or sequel to rape myth acceptance?                                                                                                     Christakis, D. A., & Rivara, F. P. (2017). Guns and          Psychological science, 27(8), 1092-1108, doi:     
Journal of interpersonal violence, 27(15),
                                                  will daily aggression levels change? No          orientation to peace is the right institute   Violent Media—A Toxic Mix With an Available Antidote.        10.1177/0956797616650300                                    anderson.aspx
3016-3031.                                        mitigating forces are visible at this time,      for this task.

14                         ISSUE 7 . 2018                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ISSUE 7 . 2018                               15
Rethinking Learning - Exploring Different Pedagogical Approaches to


                                                           Why Games                                                                                                                                              Kids are Makers
                                                                                                                                                                       The thing is, society is constantly
                                                                                                                                                                   evolving. Looking through the lens of
                                                                                                                                                                   technological progress, we’ve witnessed        and Digital
                                                           can be Effective                                                                                                                                       Natives
                                                                                                                                                                   some massive changes from the norms
                                                                                                                                                                   of the last century. In a few decades,

                                                                                                                                                                   we’ve gone from assembly line factory          In addition to the need to develop these
                                                                                                                                                                   jobs and vacuum tube powered, room-            modern skillsets, educators are faced with
                                                                                                                                                                   sized computers, to the lightning fast         the second generation of students who
                                                                                                                                                                   interactivity of the digital world that is     have grown up with the modalities of the
                                                             Chris Crowell                                                                                         transforming every sector, including           digital era. They are used to being able to
                                                                                                                                                                   schools. Dealing with the differences          drive every choice, communicate instantly,
                                                                                                                                                                   created by the march of progress is nothing    and access any information with the tap of
Chris ‘Wombat’ Crowell is a Game                                                                                                                                   new. 3000 years ago, Heraclitus quipped        a finger. Modern education needs to meet
Designer and Creative Director with                                                                                                                                that ‘The only thing that is constant is       the expectations of these students in order
20+ years experience creating a wide                                                                                                                               change’, which serves to illustrate the        to engage and challenge their curiosity and
range of critically acclaimed games.
                                                                                                                                                                   timeless nature of societal evolution, and     intellects.
He has worked with globally known
                                                                                                                                                                   the need to constantly re-evaluate and
brands such as NASCAR, Tiger Woods,
                                                                                                                                                                   update the engines of society, including
Sim City, The Sims, Open Season,
Indiana Jones, and Kung Fu Panda.
He co-founded the online division at                                                                                                                                   In response to this changing world,        Games are Tools
Behavior Interactive, developing the                                                                                                                               pedagogy as a whole is undergoing a            for 21st Century
                                                                                                                                                                   fundamental evolution. While basic
kids MMO Monkey Quest in partnership
with Nickelodeon. At Tribal Nova, as                                                                                                                               comprehension and skills in language           Competencies
Creative Director he helped launch                                                                                                                                 literacy, mathematics, science, and art        Games, Gamification of Learning, and
the Woozworld startup, a virtual world                                                                                                                             are still essential; the current digital era   Game Based Learning are not intended
for tweens. At Ganz Studios (home of                                                                                                                               demands a new set of transferable skills to    as replacements to any current effective
WebKinz), he directed the creation of                                                                                                                              meet the needs of a rapidly changing world.    pedagogy. Rather, these approaches can be
the Tail Towns MMO and social game                                                                                                                                 Globally, many educators are developing        valuable additions to the teaching toolbox
for Facebook.                                                                                                                                                      new standards under the umbrella title         that educators can leverage to engage
    In recent years, Chris has shifted his
                                                                                                                                                                   of 21st Century Competencies. Core to          the modern learner. The 3rd principle of
focus towards working with educators
                                                                                                                                                                   these competencies are the mental habits       Adler’s ‘Paideia Proposal’ is ‘The primary
to create engaging and effective
                                                                                                                                                                   of logic, tenacity, and creativity honed       cause of learning is the activity of the
Game Based Learning and Gamified
                                                                                                                                                                   by challenging gameplay. The opening
Digital Education experiences. He                                                                                                                                                                                 child’s mind, which is not created by, but
has worked with leaders in this field                                                                                                                              statement of 21st Century Competencies:        only assisted by the teacher’. Game Based
such as Glass Labs, Pearson, and                                                                                                                                   Foundation Document for Discussion reads
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Learning puts the student in the driver’s
TVO to develop cutting edge projects                                                                                                                               in part “Researchers acknowledge that
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  seat, with the teacher’s role shifting from
such as Pearson’s Insight Learning                                                                                                                                 the need to engage in problem solving
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ‘sage on the stage to guide on the side’.
System and TVO’s mPower suite of             Physical and digital games are being increasingly used by                                                             and critical and creative thinking has
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  What follows is a review of a number of
classroom games. He is currently             educators as engaging and effective learning experiences. While                                                       ‘always been at the core of learning and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  core properties of games and Game Based
working at, a                                                                                                                                      innovation’1. What’s new in the 21st
massively multiplayer game played by
                                             many resist this as ‘frivolous fun’, there are valid reasons why                                                                                                     Learning that support this premise, and
                                                                                                                                                                   century is the call for education systems to
                                             games work as a pedagogical tool.                                                                                                                                    that also contribute to the development of

millions of elementary students that                                                                                                                               emphasise and develop these competencies
mixes gameplay with grade 1-8 math                                                                                                                                                                                21st Century Competencies.
                                                                                                                                                                   in explicit and intentional ways through

                                                                                                                                                                   deliberate changes in curriculum design
     Chris has served on the Board
                                                                                        ondering the mandate of education is a             The function of         and pedagogical practice. The goal of these
of Directors for the International
Game Developers Association, and
                                                                                        popular sport, with pundits forwarding   education, therefore, is          changes is to prepare students to solve        Agency and
is a founder of the Positive Impact
                                             The Ongoing
                                                                                        diverse views, but most agree on the
                                                                                        basics: the role of education is to
                                                                                                                                 to teach one to think             messy, complex problems – including
                                                                                                                                                                   problems we don’t yet know about –
Games SIG. In 2014, he was honoured                                                                                              intensively and to think
to participate in the White House
Educational Game Jam.
                                             Evolution                                  prepare the student for participation
                                                                         in society by presenting essential information, and
                                                                                                                                                                   associated with living in a competitive,
                                                                                                                                                                   globally connected, and technologically
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The player controlled interactivity of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  games is a key differentiator from other
                                             of Education                guiding expertise in foundational skills.                        Dr. Martin Luther King   intensive world.”                              forms of media, and especially different

16                       ISSUE 7 . 2018                                                                                                                                                                                    ISSUE 7 . 2018                       17

OPINION                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           OPINION

                                                                                      Critical Thinking                                                                          constrain the play in terms of the game and
                                                                                                                                                                                 setting of goals, and the student is free to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    boomed, to the current ‘sixty-five percent of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    American households are home to someone
                                                 social lessons                       and Problem                                       The growing legion of                    use the tools available in that space to test      who plays video games regularly’. If there
                                                                                                                                        progressive educators
                                                 can be                               Solving                                           prove that games ARE
                                                                                                                                                                                 the boundaries of the concepts, and assess
                                                                                                                                                                                 the efficacy of multiple solutions.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    WAS a correlation, then we would surely be
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    swimming in mass murderers who were
                                                 packaged in an                       An engaging game experience entails               effective pedagogy, and                                                                     infected by their game experiences. Per the

                                                 entertainment                        overcoming a series of challenges in pursuit
                                                                                                                                        we can expect them to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    numbers, ‘Violence In Games Does Not

                                                                                      of a goal. The player is presented with some
                                                                                      kind of obstacle, and must use his/her
                                                                                                                                        be a standard tool in the                Assessment and                                     Cause Real-Life Violence’ seems to be the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    rational, if rather boring, conclusion. If
                                                                                      available game actions to create a solution       21st Century classroom.                  Differentiation                                    anything, there is a case to be argued that the
                                                                                      that gets the player past the obstacle and                                                                                                    emotional outlets and psychological role-
                                                                                                                                                                                 A digital game can be designed to constantly
                                                                                      further toward his/ her goal. Whether the                                                                                                     play experimentation offered by videogame
                                                                                                                                                                                 and invisibly capture granular play metrics
     One great power of               from the didactic paradigm of classroom         game is as simple as Tic Tac Toe or as complex
                                                                                                                                                                                 for each student. The play metrics can be
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    experiences have had a deflating effect on
     games in the classroom           lecture focused on rote memorisation            as World of Warcraft, the act of playing a game
                                                                                                                                                                                 translated to reports on a teacher dashboard
                                      and repetition. A core element of any           is a constantly repeating loop of observation,                                                                                                    There is even an argument to be made
     is that students                                                                                                                                                            to allow differentiated instruction and
                                      game experience is agency. Agency is the        analysis, planning, execution, and feedback.                                                                                                  for considering violent games as classroom
     experience cause and                                                                                                                                                        assessment that is tailored to the individual
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    content. Consider that all media has a range
                                      ability to take meaningful action, which        While this analysis process is implicit in
                                                                                                                                                                                 student, such as when a student is having
     effect firsthand, and            conveys an associated responsibility for        all game loops, some games, such as Body                                                                                                      of content that includes violent content.
                                                                                                                                                                                 problems with particular concepts.
     realise that actions             the results of those actions. As Spider-        Battle, offer a familiar explicit problem                                                                                                     Consider the violent themes in classic
                                                                                                                                                                                     In real time, a digital game can also adjust
     have repercussions.              Man likes to say, “With great power             solving paradigm in the form of ‘detective’                                                                                                   classroom literature such as The Diary of Anne
                                                                                                                                                                                 the gameplay in response to the metrics to
                                      comes great responsibility”, which is not       style gameplay where clues are given. The                                                                                                     Frank or The Iliad. Raging Bull is presented
                                                                                                                                                                                 serve up the next set of problems at just the
                                      only valuable advice, but good reminder         player must explore and analyse the clues to                                                                                                  in film studies as a cinematic masterpiece,
                                                                                                                                                                                 right level of challenge for each student.
                                      that social lessons can be packaged in an       find the solution. No matter whether explicit                                                                                                 but it is also an unflinchingly violent movie.
                                                                                                                                                                                 These metrics can inform the scaffolding
                                      entertainment envelope. The relevant            or subtly implicit, engagement in a digital                                                                                                   Grand Theft Auto is a massively popular game
                                                                                                                                                                                 provided by game help systems, to provide
                                      point is that ANY power should have an          game experience comes from the challenge                                                                                                      series with an anti-social dystopian worldview
                                                                                                                                                                                 instant assistance aimed at the specific
                                      associated responsibility. In a game, the       of correctly using critical thinking skills                                                                                                   where violence is a key mechanic. Yet, Toronto
                                                                                                                                                                                 difficulties the student is experiencing at
                                      player must observe the game state and          in each of those loop phases to solve the                                                                                                     teacher Paul Darvasi was able to use this
                                                                                                                                                                                 precisely the moment of maximum relevance.
                                      create a mental model that makes sense of       problem and create a positive outcome.                                                                                                        game experience, shared by the majority of
                                      the game elements, the player’s own goals,                                                                                                                                                    his students, to lead a discussion about social
                                                                                                                                          Examples of Games                                                                         privilege in the real world. Treating games
                                      available actions, and potential success at
                                                                                                                                          Based Learning
                                                                                                                                                                                 But what about                                     as a valid medium allows teachers to reach
                                      each of those actions...and what is likely to
                                                                                      Mastery and
                                      happen as a result of those actions. Every
                                                                                                                                                                                 the Violence?                                      students in a familiar format, bringing forth
                                      action (including taking no action) will        Resilience                                          Educators use the incredibly popular
                                                                                                                                          game of exploration and creativity     No conversation about the effects of video
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    discussions about their games in addition to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    the movies and novels they also consume.
                                      have an impact on the state of the game.
                                                                                      Games are elastic interactive spaces where          Minecraft EDU to teach everything                                                             In regard to games in the classroom, one
                                      The student is not only able to make his/her                                                                                               games can ignore the constant question of
                                                                                      curriculum concepts can be encountered in           from mathematics (implicit in
                                      own choices on an action by action basis but                                                                                               whether exposure to violent games increases        must note that like any other teaching tool,
                                                                                      familiar scenarios. In an explicit example          everything from quantities in
                                      is responsible for the analysis and strategy                                                                                               violence in real life. While this question is      the inclusion of a game in the curriculum is
                                                                                                                                          recipes to time planning) to Spanish
                                                                                      of curriculum concepts used in a Game                                                      provocative, the assumption of a big problem       entirely under the teacher’s control.
                                      that eventually results in success or failure                                                       language. Games such as Prodigy
                                                                                      Based Learning framework, one game                                                         is unsubstantiated.
                                      at achieving his/her goals. One great power                                                         are using gamification techniques
                                                                                      from mPower has students use math                                                              Like film and television, not all games are
                                      of games in the classroom is that students                                                          to engage millions of students in
                                      experience cause and effect firsthand, and
                                                                                      concepts such as protractors and geometric
                                                                                      angles to navigate a small boat on a river
                                                                                                                                          a wizard filled game world that
                                                                                                                                          has answering math questions as
                                                                                                                                                                                 ‘violent’. There are untold numbers of games
                                                                                                                                                                                 of all sorts, and the discussion should be
                                      realise that actions have repercussions.
                                                                                      as part of a trash collection job. Using the        method for casting magic spells.       centered on the particulars of each game. A        Of course, there is no such thing as a silver
                                                                                      concepts over and over gives meaning to             Classcraft has been used to gamify     quick check on the best-selling games of all       bullet that solves all problems, and games
                                                                                      the concepts, and creates a mental pattern          the regular classroom work with in     time shows only two ‘violent’ games, with the      as part of learning is just another tool for
No matter whether explicit or subtly implicit, engagement                             library for use in the real world.                  school rewards and collaboration.      puzzle game Tetris taking the top spot.            educators to use. But it is a VERY strong tool,
                                                                                         As a virtual reality, games offer a safe         Portals such as Edutopia and               In reality, violent crime is in decline in     and should be understood and used properly.
in a digital game experience comes from the challenge of                                                                                  Edtech can be gateways to many
                                                                                      space to experiment with the curriculum                                                    the USA. The FBI reports that violent crime        The growing legion of progressive educators
correctly using critical thinking skills in each of those loop                                                                            more games, and the communities
                                                                                      concepts, with the freedom to learn from                                                   per 100,000 in 1997 was 611. In 2016 the           prove that games ARE effective pedagogy,
phases to solve the problem and create a positive outcome.                            failure, applying that new knowledge
                                                                                                                                          of educators who use them.
                                                                                                                                                                                 rate was 386. This massive drop is over the        and we can expect them to be a standard tool
                                                                                      towards eventual success. The teacher can                                                  same period where video game playing has           in the 21st Century classroom.

                                                                                                                                                                                 Trilling & Fadel, 2009, p. 50

18                   ISSUE 6 . 2017                                                                                                                                                                                                          ISSUE 7 . 2018                    19
You can also read