Page created by Harvey Reyes

The behavior of SDGs
in Colombia until 2020


 The Sustainable Development Goals        3
 End of Poverty                           8
 Zero Hunger                              12
 Health and Well-being,                   16
 Quality Education states                 19
 Gender Equality                          22
 Decent Work and Economic Growth.         25
 Reduction of Social Inequality           26
 Clean Water and Sanitation               27
 Responsible Production and Consumption   28
 Climate Action                           29
 Underwater Life                          31
 Life of Terrestrial Ecosystem and
 Peace, Justice and Solid Institutions    32

The Sustainable Development Goals

                                                         picture was taken by Frank Marino

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)              are the result of a
general consensus sponsored by the United Nations and framed in a
measurable background. Their purpose is to achieve the minimum levels
that guarantee prosperity, people’s well-being and conservation of the
environment. The CONPES 3918 of 2018, a public policy document issued
by the Colombian government, set both the goals and the strategies to meet
the 2030 Agenda and its SDGs in the country. Further, this document
generated a roadmap for each of the established goals –including
indicators, accountable entities and necessary resources– to bring them to

Thereby, the CONPES document defines the tracker goals that guarantee
the fulfillment of each SDG, from 2018 to 2030.

The Sustainable Development Goals

People Combo:

               1) End of Poverty:
               multidimensional poverty

               2) Zero Hunger:
               mortality rate due to malnutrition in children
               under 5 years of age

               3) Health and Well-being:
               42-day maternal mortality ratio

               4) Quality Education:
               gross coverage rate in higher education

               5) Gender Equality:
               percentage of women in top positions in the
               Colombian State

The Sustainable Development Goals

Prosperity Combo:

                6) Affordable and Clean Energy:
                electric power coverage

               7) Decent Job and Economic Growth:
                labor formality rate

               8) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure:
               percentage of households with Internet access

               9) Reduction of Inequalities:
               Gini coefficient

               10) Sustainable Cities and Communities:
               percentage of urban households in conditions of
               quantitative deficit

The Sustainable Development Goals

Planet Combo:
                11) Clean Water and Sanitation:
                access to drinking water

                12) Responsible Production and
                recycling rate and new use of solid waste

                13) Climate Action:
                annual reduction of total greenhouse gas emissions

                14) Underwater Life:
                protected maritime areas of the System of National
                Natural Parks

                15) Life of Terrestrial Ecosystems:
                thousands of hectares of protected areas

The Sustainable Development Goals

Peace Combo:

                 16) Peace, Justice and Institutions:
                 homicide rate per 100,000 inhabitants

                 17) Trade:
                 total exports as a percentage of GDP

  The main goal of this document is to make a roughly balance of the
  progress made in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), taking into
  account the tracker goals and the prioritized goals of the National
  Development Plan during President Iván Duque term: “Pact for Colombia
  and Pact for Equity” for the 2018-2022 presidential period (PND

SDG 1: End of Poverty


“People Combo”

SDG 1: End of Poverty,
         the CONPES 3918 adopted as tracker goal “To reduce by at least
         half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in
         poverty in all its dimensions” (DNP, 2018). The assessment of this
         goal shows a reduction in the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)
         for the 2018-2019 period. According to estimations made by
         National Planning and DANE (the State Bureau of Statistics), there is
         a positive progress of a poverty reduction by 2.1 percentage points
         (pp.) nationwide, falling from 19.6% in 2018 to 17.5% in 2019.










              2018                                                               2019

SDG 1: End of Poverty

  14%                                           39%
12,5%                                           36%
  11%                                           34%

         2018                      2019                2018                         2019

The percentage of people in the                and dispersed rural areas, the reduction
multidimensional poverty situation in          was progressive, going down from
urban municipalities was 12.3% in 2019         38.6% in 2018 to 34.5% in 2019.
and 13.2% in 2018, showing a reduction
of 0.9 pp. In populated centers

However, despite the importance of poverty reduction at national level, the limitation
of this indicator is that it conceals the magnitude of the urban-rural gap of 22 pp.,
which reflects the persistence of territorial inequality or intra-country differences.
When disaggregating the 2018 MPI data in seven regions of the country, a range is
revealed which goes from 4.1 pp. for Bogotá, the capital city, to 32.8 pp in the Pacific
region and 32.9 pp. in the Caribbean region. In other words, the poverty rate triples in
these last regions. In short, although there is a progressive trend of reduction of the
IPM index at national level, it is possible that the current government will not achieve
the goal of the National Development Plan –that is to lower the MPI to 11.9% in 2022–
because the social and economic crisis generated by the Covid-19 pandemic has not
yet taken into account. Nor is it estimated a decrease in the persistence of territorial
inequality between regions and between urban and rural areas.

SDG 1: End of Poverty

             Since March 2020, the governments at national, departmental and
             municipal levels in Colombia have faced the perverse dilemma between
             saving people's lives from the Coronavirus pandemic or maintaining the
             livelihoods of the informal population who generates their daily income in
             the streets. This particular situation led the inter-institutional coordination
             to take mandatory and strict social isolation measures to avoid contagion
             and allow some exceptions to go out to work and get food, following
             biosafety protocols and mitigating the economic consequences. Even so,
             government strategic decisions could not prevent millions of people from
             facing hard situations such as reduced incomes, lack of food and hunger.





      2015   2016   2017   2018   2019   2020   2021   2022   2023   2024   2025   2026     2027   2028   2029    2030

              Before the pandemic, the plan was to achieve goal 1.2 in SDG 1: “By 2030,
              halve the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in
              poverty in all its dimensions according to the national definitions.” This goal
              is related to the Monetary Poverty Incidence indicator that proposes 27.8%
              as a baseline in 2015, with an intermediate goal for 2018 of 25%, and
              achieving the projected goal for 2030 of 18.7%. It also has as a reference
              "The 20 goals of the Pact for Colombia, Pact for Equity" of the National
              Development Plan 2018-2022: Goal 19, to get 1.5 million people out of
              extreme monetary poverty; and goal 20, to get 2.9 million people out of
              monetary poverty.

SDG 1: End of Poverty

Monetary poverty is an effective indicator to
verify the performance of the economic cycle
and also the impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic.
It shows an important increase in poverty and a
setback in the indicator of more than ten years.





        2019                                                      2020

The DANE reports, updated to 2021, clearly reflect the negative effects of
the pandemic and the economic recession crisis, with an increase in
poverty of 42.5% in 2020, at national level. Before the pandemic, the
increase in poverty was 35.7% compared to 2019.

SDG 1: End of Poverty


                                                       The figures of 42.5% of abso-
                                                       lute poverty mean an increa-
                                                       se in the number of poor by 4
                                                       million people. That is, an
                                                       increase from 17.4 million
                                                       poor people in 2019 to 21
                                                       million in 2020.

                                                       Taking into account only the
50%                                                    value of the basic food goods
                                                       –which represents the other
                                                       poverty baseline– there is an
                                                       increase from 9.6% to 15.1%
                                                       from 2019 to 2020, at natio-
25%                                                    nal level. This indicates a rise
                                                       of 3 million people, for a total
                                                       of 7.5 million in a situation of
                                                       indigence or extreme pover-

         2019                             2020

       These indicators show millions of people in a serious poverty state and
       vulnerability in Colombia. This is a result contrary to the ODS “End of
       Poverty,” estimated both in CONPES and National Development Plan.

       The Colombia Nutritional Status National Survey ENSIN-2015 is the main
       source for monitoring

SDG 2: Zero Hunger.

SDG 2: Zero Hunger.
  Since this survey was carried out in 2015, the
  information has not been updated and it is difficult to
  follow it up. Despite this limitation, it is possible to
  analyze the current consequences of Covid-19 on food
  security for people and households with children in
  poverty and vulnerability. Access to healthy, nutritious
  and sufficient food continues to be at risk due to the
  Covid-19 pandemic. There are several reasons
  sustaining this fact: first of all, the virus crisis
  contributed to a rise in price of food and food
  shortages. Secondly, agricultural labor in rural areas
  became scarce due to people mobility restrictions and
  social distancing, affecting both food production and
  harvesting. A third cause was the decrease in means of
  food transportation between rural areas and cities.
  Finally, the dependence on imported food to cover
  domestic consumption made prices to rise and also
  this type of food became scarce due to the effects of
  the pandemic.

SDG 2: Zero Hunger.

        100%                                                                      100%



        0%                                                                        0%

                      April 2020                         April 2021

        The DANE Social Pulse Survey,          In contrast, in April 2021 there were
        published in April 2020, revealed      only 5,423,239 households having
        how the Covid-19 humanitarian          three meals per day, 70.2% of the
        crisis affected the food security of   total.
        Colombian households, where 15
        million children live. According to
        this survey, 7,024,672 households
        in Colombia used to consume
        three meals a day before the
        pandemic, equivalent to 90.9% of

SDG 2: Zero Hunger.

                 Therefore, 1.6 million households stopped
                 consuming three meals a day due to the
                 pandemic and the economic crisis.

-           -                                         +
    0%     10%      20%   30%    40%    50%     60%       70%       80%      90%      100%


    The same trend is observed in those households that consumed two meals
    daily in 2020, which went from 649,000 to 2.1 million families, an increase
    of 1.5 million households. Additionally, those who at present can afford just
    a single daily meal increased in number, going from 49,000 to 137,000

    To follow-up on

SDG 3: Health and Well-being,

SDG 3: Health and
         it is essential to focus on the complementary goal 3.8:
         “To achieve universal health coverage, including protection
         against financial risks, access to essential quality health
         services, and access to safe, effective, affordable and
         good-quality medicines and vaccines for all”.

        The respective indicator is the percentage of the population affiliated with
        the Social Security System in Health (SSSH) with a baseline for 2015 of
        95.7%, 97.0% for 2018 and 99% for 2030. According to the Unique Affiliate
        Database (UAD), based on reports provided by the Resource Manager of the
        General Social Security System in Health (GSSH),







       2015   2016   2017   2018   2019   2020   2021   2022   2023   2024   2025   2026   2027   2028   2029   2030

SDG 3: Health and Well-being,

for 2018 the total number of active members recorded in the contributory health
scheme was 21,963,347, while in the subsidized health regime there were 22,658,108
members. That means a coverage of 99% of the Colombian population. However, it is
necessary to differentiate between nominal affiliation and actual access to health


          The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the Covid-19 pandemic a
          public health emergency of international concern on January 30, 2020.
          Later, in March 2020, it was characterized as a pandemic. Covid-19 arrived
          in Colombia with strong effects on the health system and one year after its
          expansion, it continues to have an unprecedented historical impact in the
          country, both in health, socioeconomic performance and well-being.

As of May 30, 2021,
3,363,061 confirmed
cases were reported

and almost 87,747
deaths had occurred
throughout the
(Ministry of Health, May 30, 2021).

SDG 3: Health and Well-being,

There were infection peaks in three waves: the first one happened in
July-August 2020; the second in December-January 2021, collapsing the
capacity of the Colombian health system, reaching 100% of beds in
Intensive Care Units (ICU) in May 2021. Clinics and hospitals in the system
are still collapsed and overburdened by shortages of ICUs, medicine,
oxygen, and trained personnel. Those most affected was the poorest and
most vulnerable population sector, such as people displaced by the armed
conflict and migrants, due to the fact that they lack the economic resources
to access medical care. Inhabitants of rural areas were also deeply
affected, because they live far from health service centers, and, at the same
time, they feel neglect and discrimination in access to public services. On
the other hand, isolation and fear of contagion begin to dampen other
public health problems such as the health of infants. Parents of young
children decided to postpone the application of vaccines, to avoid visits to
health centers. This can eventually generate a new source of problems,
since thousands of children run the risk of not being vaccinated, being
exposed to diseases already eradicated with vaccination.

SDG 4: Quality Education states:

The tracker goal in

SDG 4:
Quality Education states:
     “To ensure equal access for all men and
     women to quality technical, professional and
     higher   education,     including  university
     education” (DNP, 2018).

     By tracking this goal, the Ministry of Education
     has not revealed new information on access to
     higher education and continues to show the
     coverage rate indicator equal to 52.01% for


SDG 4: Quality Education states:







       1993                   1999            2005              2011               2018

            Even so, according to the National Population and Housing Census, 5,329,026
            people have a higher or postgraduate education degree, a figure that has
            increased over the censuses, since 2,038,820 people with a high education
            degree were registered in the 1993 census (DANE, 2018). There is a progress
            in the coverage of the educational level of higher education; however,
            according to the Colombian Association of Universities (ASCUN), there is a
            trend towards a reduction in higher education enrollment. The diagnosis was
            made by 87 of the 88 Associated Higher Education Institutions (IES) in
            ASCUN, representing 1,304,827 students for the first semester of 2019.

            ASCUN found that there was
            a 3.3% decrease in total enro-
            llment in the first semester of
            2020 (prior to the pandemic),
            compared to the same period
            in 2019 –a percentage that is
            equivalent to 43,134 fewer
            students (21,946 in public
            institutions and 21,188 in
            private institutions).

SDG 4: Quality Education states:

    Education has been one of the most affected sectors by the Covid-19 crisis,
    and the consequences are beginning to be seen in the reduction of
    enrollment for the second semester of 2021, which will be reduced by 50%,
    according to ASCUN.

    The complementary objective 4.1 states:

    "By 2030, all girls and boys will complete elementary and secondary
    education, which must be free, equitable and of high quality and yield
    relevant and effective learning outcomes."







    2015   2018   2021   2024   2027   2030

                                              The Ministry of Education reported that
Its indicator is the average coverage
                                              according to the Integrated Enrollment
rate, established for 2015 at 77.8%, in
                                              System (SIMAT), the report of students
2018 at 83% and it is expected to reach
                                              who dropped out of school as of August
95% in 2030.
                                              2020 was 102,880 girls and boys, of the
                                              9,395,018 registered, which represents
                                              1.1% of enrollment. Due to the effects of
                                              the pandemic, school dropouts, which
                                              exceed 100,000 students, are already a
                                              public problem.

SDG 5: Gender Equality

SDG 5:
Gender Equality
  seeks to ensure the full and effective participation of
  women and equal opportunities for leadership at all
  decision-making levels in political, economic and
  public life. This objective is measured by the
  percentage of women in executive positions in the
  State. Despite the fact that the female population
  represents 51.2% of the country's total population,
  there is no gender equality in government
  decision-making. According to data from the National
  Registry of Civil Status, in the 2018 legislative
  elections, the distribution of legislative power in the
  House of Representatives was 18.7% for women and
  81.3% for men. In the territorial elections of 2019, two
  female governors and 132 female mayors were

SDG 5: Gender Equality


       According to the Wide Integrated Household Survey (GEIH)
       by DANE, in Colombia the average general salary gap
       between men and women was 12.9% for 2019. This
       indicates that for every 100 pesos a man receives as an
       income for his labor, a woman earns 87.1 pesos. Therefore,
       every working man earned an income of 1.23 million pesos
       every month from his work, while a woman received 1.07
       million pesos monthly, on average.


Restrictions on mobility imposed by the pandemic, social lockdown in
homes, economic difficulties, unemployment and disease, all these, led to
an increase in allegations of domestic violence.

Bogotá’s individuals defense office (Personería) found out that the 33
family commissaries operating in the city received 5,668 complaints for
alleged intra-family violence during the month of mandatory quarantine.

This means that in just 30 days, these type of demands reached 69.2% of
the total of 8,187 requests made in 2020.

SDG 5: Gender Equality



             The Secretary of Women
             informed that in a single
             month there was an increase
             of 230% of household violen-
             ce reported on its Purple Line.


       Of the 996 assistances
       regarding violence against

           50% psychological aggressions;
           28%, physical;
           14%, economic;
           4%, patrimonial;
           3%, sexual, and
           1%, verbal

Decent Work and Economic Growth.


 "Prosperity Combo"
The Covid-19 pandemic slowed Colombia's economic growth. DANE reported that
the growth rate of the country's Gross Domestic

Product decreased 6.8% in 2020 compared to 2019. These official GDP figures
reflect the impact of the pandemic, confinements and restrictions on economic
activity. They also prove the Colombian economy faces one of the worst
recession crises in its economic history since 1975. Among the economic effects
left by this recession, we find a high unemployment rate and the loss of formal
employment, which was much worse than estimated in the Goal

SDG 8, Decent Work and
Economic Growth.

         2019                                                        2021

DANE reported that the unemployment rate of the national total stands at 12.6%, an
increase of 1.8 pp. compared to the same period in 2019 (10.8%). This percentage
equals 3,437,000 unemployed men and women in March 2021, an increase of 468,000
people compared to March 2020.

Likewise, the job occupancy rate was 51.7% in March 2021, a decrease of 4.7 pp.
compared to the same month of 2019 (56.4%). In other words, 1,583,000 people lost
their jobs.

SDG 10: Reduction of Social Inequality

SDG 10: Reduction of
Social Inequality
  is important from an economic and social point of view,
  as it is a factor that contributes not only to the
  reproduction of poverty, but also to the increasing of
  socio-political tensions and power conflicts. This SDG
  is linked to the Gini coefficient, which is also used to
  measure inequality in income distribution in a country
  or region.

  According to the National Household Survey (DANE,
  2021), inequality in the distribution of wealth at the
  national level has increased from 0.526 in 2019 to
  0.544 in 2020. This contrasts considerably with the
  goals of the 2018-2022 National Development Plan of
  the current government, whose purpose is to reduce
  the Gini coefficient from 0.508 to 0.470 in 2022.

SDG 6, Clean Water and Sanitation:


“Planet Combo”

SDG 6, Clean Water and Sanitation:
Universal and equitable access to drinking water at an affordable price for all, is
measured by the access to drinking water indicator and reveals a persistence in
territorial inequality between urban and rural areas.

According to figures from the National Quality of Life Survey, access to water through
aqueduct networks increased slightly from 86.8% to 87% (DANE, 2019).

 100%                                          80%

 90%                                           70%

 80%                                           60%

 70%                                           50%
        2018                           2019          2018                           2019

Despite this, the gap between cities and      Among rural households, the aqueduct
rural areas persists. In urban areas, the     was the public service with the highest
proportion of households with access to       availability: from 53.8% in 2018 went up
water improved slightly, from 97.1% in        to 54.6% in 2019. The persistence of
2018 to 97.2% in 2019.                        territorial inequality in access to water in
                                              rural areas is evident, where this service
                                              reaches only half of the population.

Responsible Production and Consumption

SDG 12:
Responsible Production
and Consumption
  The purpose of this goal is to reduce waste generation through prevention,
  reduction, recycling and reuse activities.

  According to the Technical Bulletin of the Environmental and Economic
  Account of Material Flows-Solid Waste (DANE 2020), for the 2017-2018
  period the recycling and new use rate amounted to 11.1%. In 2017, the rate
  grew by 0.3 pp.

  Similarly, in 2018 the utilization rate corresponded to 48.8% (12.1 million
  tons) of the total solid waste and residual products generated, reflecting a
  decrease of 1.8% compared to the previous year. The behavior of the
  indicator is explained by the 3.6% growth in the amount of waste used and
  5.5% in the total supply of solid waste and residual products.

       2019                                                       2020

SDG 13: Climate Action

The main objective of

SDG 13:
Climate Action
    is to incorporate climate change measures into national policies, strategies
    and plans. The Balance of the 2019 Results Plan by the 2018-2020 National
    Development Plan is accountable for the process of consolidating the
    commitment of productive activities regarding sustainability and mitigation
    of climate change. A first achievement reported for 2019 was the reduction
    in energy consumption. The energy intensity of Colombia was 2.16
    terajoules/billion Colombian pesos in 2015.

    This is a positive result for the country, given the reduction in 0.02 basis
    points compared to 2018. This means that Colombia is more efficient in
    energy consumption when it comes to getting greater wealth and
    consolidates a sustainable, productive, and innovative economy. It is also
    reported that the Intersectoral Commission on Climate Change (CICC)
    approved the procedure for updating the goals of Nationally Determined
    Contributions (NDC), whose implementation will allow the identification of
    adaptation and mitigation needs and the definition of climate change goals
    in the medium and long term. Likewise, the roadmap for the development of
    the Climate Action Strategy 2050 was approved, which aims to guide the
    country towards a carbon neutral economy.

SDG 13: Climate Action

                                          As a significant result, it is reported
                                          that during 2019 there were advan-
                                          ces in accumulated reductions of
                                          Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions
                                          with respect to the national refe-
                                          rence scenario, in 11.73 million
                                          tCO2eq32, complying with the
                                          commitment established for the
                                          validity of 0 tCO2eq reduced.

                                          In this framework, it is important to
                                          highlight the consolidation of
                                          Bogotá as the cycling capital of
                                          Latin America as a successful
                                          practice. The effects of the pande-
                                          mic expanded the use of bicycles
                                          and managed to have 53 miles of
                                          temporary bicycle lanes, in addition
                                          to the pre-existing 344 miles of
                                          bike lanes in the city.

The 2020-2024 District Development Plan: "Bogota, A New Social and
Environmental Contract of the 21st Century" prioritizes the problem of
climate change with the aim to correct everything that causes damage to life
and the environment, thus, making Bogota a sustainable city. In this sense,
in March 2021 the Mayor of the City of Bogota presented the Public Bicycle
Policy, which guarantees Col$2.2 trillion for the execution of bike projects
until 2039. Here, the main objective is to improve physical conditions, and
socio-economic and cultural activities of the city for the use and enjoyment
of bicycles, as a public transport alternative for people to get out of the car
and thus contribute to the reduction of CO2.

SDG 14: Underwater Life

SDG 14:
Underwater Life
  aims to conserve at least 10% of coastal areas, in accordance with national
  laws and international right. An outstanding practice is that of the
  Yuruparí-Malpelo Marine Protected Area. In 2017, the Ministry of
  Environment and Sustainable Development, along with the National
  Aquaculture and Fisheries Authority (AUNAP), defined a strategic area for
  the development of sustainable and responsible fishing activities, which
  resulted in the declaration of the National District of Integrated
  Management (DNMI) Yuruparí-Malpelo. Thanks to this action, more than
  4.5 million new marine protected hectares were declared to improve
  productivity and make sustainable use of resources. It constitutes a
  management model that guarantees sustainable fishing activity for the
  inhabitants of the Pacific Coast and, especially, of cities such as
  Buenaventura and Tumaco.

SDG 15 and 16

SDG 15: Life of Terrestrial
to ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems
and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands,
mountains and arid areas. Regarding this goal, Colombia has a setback. According to
reports given by Fundación Pares, Paz y Reconciliación, the areas of the National
System of Protected Areas in Colombia have been trying to consolidate themselves as
foci of conservation of the country's strategic ecosystems, for many years. However,
the protected areas became in corridors of the domestic armed conflict, particularly of
both guerrilla groups and economies of war.

The disarming of FARC and their territorial grouping would mean a relief in the
environmental administration of the Protected Areas; nevertheless, the picture is
totally different. Several national parks, which have a long history as the scene of war,
today remain in the midst of distress after the remnants of the armed conflict between
the State and illegal armed groups.

SDG 16: Peace, Justice and Solid
seeks to significantly reduce all forms of violence and the corresponding mortality
rates throughout the world. The homicide rate indicator per 100,000 inhabitants
measures it. This objective shows a positive advance: the decrease in the homicide
rate in the months of pandemic and social isolation. The January 2021 reports from
the Ministry of Defense and figures from the National Police estimate that homicides
fell by 4.6%, during 2020 amid the Covid-19 pandemic. In 2020, the lowest homicide
rate in the last 46 years was registered: 23.79 per 100,000 inhabitants. This means that
homicides went from 11,609 cases between January and December 2019, to 11,070
cases in the same period of 2020. Police figures also highlight the reduction in deaths
amid fights, as they went from 2,663 cases in 2019 to 2,238 in 2020.


Considering that
•     By 2020, the Covid19 pandemic has worsened the poverty situation of the
Colombian people, reaching 42.5% of total population (21 million people living in
monetary poverty), while extreme poverty reached to 15.1% (7.5 million people living in
extreme poverty or indigence) …

•      The hunger situation has also worsened, as the number of households able to
afford three meals a day decreased by 1.6 million, while households that have only one
meal a day went up to 137,000…

•     As of March 2021, the number of unemployed amounted to 3,437,000 men and
women, a figure that reflects the deep economic crisis in the country, being this the
worst situation in the history of Colombia since 1975…

•      The poverty that affects nearly half of the Colombian people has structural
causes, since Colombia is one of the countries with the greatest inequality in the world
(According to the official DANE figures, taken from the household survey, inequality in
the distribution of wealth at the national level has increased significantly, according to
the Gini coefficient, going from 0.526 in 2019 to 0.544 in 2020, moving away from the
goal of the national government to reduce this indicator to 0.470 by 2022)…

•       The Covid19 pandemic brought to light that access to drinking water is vital and
it also showed that, regarding this fundamental service, in Colombia there is a huge gap
between households in urban areas, with a coverage above 97%, and households in
rural areas that reached a coverage just above 50%...

searched on July 2nd 2021.
•      In regards to actions in favor of the climate and the environment, a positive
effect of the pandemic was the expansion of the use of bicycles, especially in the
capital city of Colombia, which also expanded the temporary bike lanes by 55 miles.

•     Although for 2020 the homicide rate showed an improvement compared to
previous years, it is highly worrying that violence continues against social leaders and
human rights defenders. During 2020, 101 of them were murdered..…

We call upon the Colombian government to:
•      Establish as a State Policy an unconditional basic income for households in
situations of monetary poverty and extreme poverty, including migrant families. To
cover this goal, the government could get resources from different social programs
currently used to subsidize families in poverty, and also from a redistributive tax reform
of income and wealth.

•      Set a territorial approach to both national and provincial development plans in
order to overcome the existing gap between urban and rural areas in access to vital
public services, such as drinking water.

•      Carry out a redistributive tax reform of income and wealth so that the richest
segment of the population pays more taxes, and the resources thus obtained are used
for unconditional basic income, overcoming the gaps in living conditions between rural
and urban areas, and other items destined for education, health and job creation.

•     Generate incentives so that other cities in the country replicate the successful
experience in which the use of bicycles for mobility in Bogotá has been constituted.

•     Strengthen the protection measures for social leaders and Human Rights
defenders while confronting the actions of those who threaten their integrity and life.

We call upon General Society to:
•      Support initiatives that promote unconditional basic income policies as
well as tax reforms that provides the necessary resources in the terms set forth

•       Adopt practices that, in addition to being healthy, contribute to the
reduction of environmental pollution, such as commuting by bicycle instead of
using private or public service vehicles.

•     Support and promote respect for the integrity and life of social leaders
and Human Rights defenders.

We call on International Cooperation to include the following
issues in their advocacy agendas:
•     Support for the generation and / or strengthening of capital registration
and control actions that evade the payment of taxes by transferring them to tax
havens or similar practices.

•     Permanent monitoring and accompaniment in situations of violence
against social leaders and Human Rights defenders.

Report made by:

With the consulting of
Esteban Nina Baltazar

Executive Summary

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