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Information gathering template prepared for the Global Education Monitoring Report 2021 - Central and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia - Inclusion and education: All means all. Turkey This profile has been commissioned by NEPC as an input for the 2021 regional report on inclusion and education in Central and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia. This version is a working draft and will be subject to further copy-editing. Its content has not been edited nor verified by the GEM Report team. The views and opinions expressed in this paper, including anecdotal evidence from interviews, are those of the interviewees or researchers of this profile and should not be attributed to the Global Education Monitoring Report, to UNESCO or to NEPC. The information in this document was current in June 2020. The profile can be cited with the following reference: “Profile commissioned by NEPC for the Global Education Monitoring Report 2021 - Central and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia - Inclusion and education: All means all”. For further information, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org. PROFILE PREPARED BY: BURCU MELTEM ARIK, ÖZGENUR KORLU, MERVE MERT, FIDAN GÖZDE ERTEKIN AND KAYIHAN KESBIÇ, EDUCATION REFORM INITIATIVE 2021
Introduction 2 Survey reply and respondents 4 Country system overview 6 Section 1: Laws and policies 13 Section 2: Governance and finance 28 Section 3: Data 32 Section 4: Curricula, learning materials and assessments 38 Section 5: Teachers and support personnel 48 Section 6: Schools 54 Section 7: Communities, parents and students 59
Introduction The template for the Profiles was a survey designed to collect information from countries in order to collect structured information to be used as the basis for the GEM Regional Report analysis work. The survey respondents were specifically requested to not focus exclusively on children with disabilities, but include information on all of the groups considered to be vulnerable to exclusion or at risk of being marginalised, stereotyped or subject to discrimination, including for reasons such as gender, location, poverty, ethnicity, language, beliefs and religion, migration or displacement status, sexual orientation or gender identity expression. The overall goal for the Profile was that the information provided in relation to each country identifies: 1. challenges (barriers and hinderances) and opportunities (support and ways forward) for the implementation of inclusion in education policies; 2. the ways in which countries monitor inclusion and exclusion in education (at individual and system levels); 3. challenges (barriers and hinderances) and opportunities (support and ways forward) for supporting inclusion in education created by sectors other than education and arrangements needed to co- ordinate work among government sectors, tiers of government and with other stakeholders to overcome overlapping dimensions of exclusion; 4. key policy solutions that are being implemented and key drivers of policy change. The Profile begins with background information on the people completing the template. The next section provides a short descriptive overview of the country’s system of inclusive education. This is followed by main sections presenting quantitative and qualitative data linked to each of the seven themes for the report: 1.laws and policies; 2.governance and finance; 3.data; 4.curricula, learning materials and assessment; 5.teachers and support personnel; 6.schools; 7.communities, parents and students. Each section begins with a key guiding question (marked in italic text) that frames the overall information provided. This is followed by the specific questions on the main issues for the topic that should be answered.
Sections 1 and 2 focus on information relating to legislation and policies. Section 3 focuses upon available data and the aims and procedures for data collection. Sections 4 to 7 focus on information relating to policies and policy implementation in practice. The information provided focuses on compulsory education (i.e. potentially -pre-primary, primary and lower secondary, and possibly upper secondary education). Only specific issues related to inclusion in early childhood education and post-compulsory education were considered when necessary.
Survey reply and respondents Has the information in this profile been discussed with and validated by a government representative? No / We have discussed with MoNE experts but the information is not validated. Which other people have been key informants? What is their professional role? Expert Expertise Institution Prof. Dr. Hande Sart Special Needs Education Boğaziçi University Melisa Soran Inclusive Education, Special Istanbul Bilgi University Needs Education Seda Akço Right to Education, Rights in Humanist Buro Education, Law Ulaş Karan Right to Education, Rights in Istanbul Bilgi University Education, Law Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yelkin Diker Curriculum and Instruction Yeditepe University Coşkun Prof. Dr. Bülbin Sucuoğlu Special Needs Education, Early Hacettepe University Childhood Education What was the main challenge during the preparation of the profile? Partial transparency and lack of national inclusive education framework were key challenges. Please list the 5 most informative sources on inclusion in education (academic papers, policy reviews, evaluation studies etc.) for the country published since 2015 and provide links to the originals: 1. ECRI Country Monitoring for Turkey 2. UNICEF Annual Reports 3. 11th Development Plan 4. A Situation Analysis of Inclusive Education in Secondary Schools in Turkey 5. The Right of Children with Disabilities to Education: Situation Analysis and Recommendations for Turkey
If internal, non-public or working documents were used, please add a note here.
Country system overview (i) Provide a brief (maximum 1 page) narrative of the country’s compulsory educational system. Specifically, provide information about: a. the different types of schools, institutions and educational provision within the system and the age range / ISCED levels of learners they cater for In Turkey, compulsory education covers primary, lower secondary and upper secondary education. Primary education is for learners aged 6 to 9. There are private and public primary schools. Private schools are under the General Directorate of Private Education Institutions. Public schools are under the General Directorate of Basic Education and special education schools are under the General Directorate of Special Education and Guidance Services. ISCED Level 1 Lower secondary schools cover the age range of 10 to 13 and also can be public or private. Private schools are under the General Directorate of Private Education Institutions. Most public schools are under the General Directorate of Basic Education. İmam and Preacher Schools are under the General Directorate of Religious Education and some under the General Directorate of Special Education and Guidance Services. At the lower secondary level, there is an open lower secondary school which is under the General Directorate of Lifelong Learning, however, this school is only available to individuals above the compulsory lower secondary education age, with the exception of children with certain disabilities and children who are convicts. The open lower secondary school is not an alternative to lower secondary schools. It is aimed at individuals who were not able to complete lower secondary education and now are above the age. ISCED Level 2 Upper secondary level covers ages 14 to 17. At this level, schools are under five different General Directorates: General Directorate of Private Education Institutions, General Directorate of Secondary Education, General Directorate of Religious Education, General Directorate of Vocational and Technical Education, General Directorate of Special Education and Guidance Services. At the upper secondary level, compulsory education can also be completed in Open Education High School which is under the General Directorate of Lifelong Learning. ISCED Level 3 b. the different authorities responsible for different types of provision etc. The Ministry of National Education is responsible for the provision of education in Turkey. Different general directorates are responsible for the operation of different levels and types of schools as stated above. c. any major external support programmes provided in the past 5 years e.g. bilateral - GIZ (German Society for International Cooperation) and USAID; or multi-lateral e.g. UNICEF, European Union, ADB (Asian Development Bank).
One of the major external support programmes provided in the past 5 years is “Promoting Integration of Syrian Kids into the Turkish Education System” (PICTES), which is implemented as part of the EU Facility for Refugees in Turkey (FRIT). The project’s first phase was carried out between 2016 and 2018. The second phase (PICTES II) that started in 2018, focuses on early childhood education and vocational training and will last 3 years. As part of PICTES, various kinds of support are being provided to Syrian children, including Turkish and Arabic language education, back-up and catch-up training and provision of educational material. UNICEF provides education material, physical capacity (container classrooms), teacher training and programs to facilitate adaptation to school with the purpose of decreasing absence and dropout rates. UNICEF also collaborates with the MoNE to establish intervention programs for children in third grade who have not attained the necessary proficiency level in reading and mathematics. GIZ provided support to the MoNE with the “Supporting Syrian Refugees and Turkish Host Communities – Educational Programme” which included strengthening capacities of educational institutions through teacher training. IPA funds were/are also available for Turkey. (ii) Are there specific features of the compulsory education system that impact on inclusion that should be kept in mind when reading the country's response? Area Yes/No Description of the feature Early tracking of learners Yes Address-Based Population Register System into a particular Science and Art Centers (BİLSEM), which offer unique educational pathway public education for gifted elementary and secondary-school aged children. ‘Double-shift’ patterns to Yes Not all students attend double-shift patterns. In the school day (i.e. learners 2018-19, the percentage of students attending attend for either a morning double shift patterns was 37.8% for primary or afternoon session) education, 29.9% for lower secondary education and 5.8% for higher secondary education. Grade retention Yes Grade retention is possible at all levels. However, in primary education, grade retention is highly discouraged by the regulation yet can be possible once during primary education, with an official demand from the parent or due to absence. 1 In 1 https://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/Metin.Aspx?MevzuatKod=7.5.19942&MevzuatIliski=0&sourceXmlSearch=Okul%20%C3%96ncesi (article 31, 1)
lower secondary education, grade retention is possible with the decision of a board of teachers, due to absence or academic performance. 2 In higher secondary education, grade retention is possible due to absence or academic performance. Mainstreamed children cannot be subject to grade retention due to academic performance at any level. 3 Multiple languages of No instruction Policies on access to N/A Turkey has a centralised decision making and compulsory education in education system. local schools Option of open education Yes In upper secondary education, students are in upper secondary transferred to open high school in cases where the education student falls into grade retention for a second time or if the student marries. In lower secondary education, if a child fails to complete lower secondary education by the age they should, they have the right to stay in lower secondary education for two more years. 4 If the child reaches 8th grade (last year of lower secondary school) at the end of those two years, they are given an extra year to complete 8th grade. 5 If they fail to complete during this time, they are transferred to open lower secondary education. 2 https://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/Metin.Aspx?MevzuatKod=7.5.19942&MevzuatIliski=0&sourceXmlSearch=Okul%20%C3%96ncesi (article 31, 2b) 3 https://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/Metin.Aspx?MevzuatKod=7.5.19942&MevzuatIliski=0&sourceXmlSearch=Okul%20%C3%96ncesi (article 31, 3) 4 https://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/Metin.Aspx?MevzuatKod=7.5.19942&MevzuatIliski=0&sourceXmlSearch=Okul%20%C3%96ncesi (article 19, 1b) 5 https://www.mevzuat.gov.tr/Metin.Aspx?MevzuatKod=7.5.19942&MevzuatIliski=0&sourceXmlSearch=Okul%20%C3%96ncesi (article 19, 1c)
(iii) In the country’s system which groups are considered to be vulnerable to exclusion from education? Who has identified these groups as being vulnerable to exclusion? Children with special needs – MoNE Girls – MoNE Children of seasonal mobile agricultural worker families – MoNE Children in poverty – MoNE Children who are forced to work – MoNE Roma children – MoNE Refugee children – MoNE Children in foster care – MoNE Children living in rural areas – MoNE Children with illness & who are hospitalized - MoNE LGBTİ+ individuals – NGOs Children of internal forced migration – NGOs Children whose mother tongue is not Turkish – NGOs Children who are pushed to commit crime - NGOs (iv) Please provide a brief narrative overview of the historical development of inclusion of vulnerable groups in education in the country. In 1921, a private deaf and blind School was founded in İzmir. Starting from 1950, the responsibility of the special education services passed over to the Ministry of National Education from the Ministry of Health. The perception of special needs became an education issue rather than a health issue. To train teachers, the first Special Education Department in Gazi University in Ankara was founded in 1952. In 1955 the Research and Guidance Centre was founded in Ankara, with a role to make research and to provide a necessary and individualized education for students with special needs. Two special education classes were opened in a primary school in Ankara. In 1965, the Special Education Department in Ankara University was founded, which launched a Special Education Teaching Certificate Program in 1978. The Ministry of National Education’s Department of Special Education, Guidance and Counselling services was established in 1983. Special Education Departments were founded in Anadolu University (1983) and in Gazi University (1986) to train teachers of the blind and intellectually disabled children. ‘The law about children needing to be protected’ was enacted in 1957 as the first regulation, stating that the Ministry of National Education will implement programs for children with special education needs. Then in 1961, Primary Instruction and Education Law enacted, which clearly stated that for students with mental, physical, psychological, emotional and social disabilities special needs education must be available. Children with Special Education Needs Law (1983) was very critical in several terms: 1. “inclusive education” was mentioned with a statement that children with special needs education should be educated in regular schools with their normal peers, and 2. “special education should start at an early age” was stated. Soon after the First Special Education Committee was gathered in 1991, an
individual education plan (IEP) for every disabled child was considered. In 1997, The Statutory Decree No.573 on Special Education ratified. It clearly stated the mainstreaming of education within national legislation. “Person showing significant difference from the levels expected from their peers in terms of personal characteristics and educational proficiency due to a variety of reasons.” reflected as the person in need of special education. The definition of the special education is as “the type of education provided by specially trained personnel and with specially developed teaching programs and methods, in order to meet the needs of persons requiring special education in environments suitable to their disabilities and characteristics.” With the Decree, mainstreaming the education prioritized and the educational environments became places where individuals with special needs could receive their right to education with others. Beginning at an early age, personalized education plans and involvement of parents were also emphasized. Then in 2012, The Special Education Services Regulation which passed in 2006, revised. For refugees, Turkey’s humanitarian response has faced changes since the crisis in Syria first took off in 2011. The number of enrolled students increased from 230,000 in 2014-15 to 610,278 in 2017-18, 643.058 in 2018-19 and 684,919 as of January 2020. However, the percentage of children who do not go to school still remains high at close to 40 percent. Syrian refugees fleeing the conflict started entering Turkey in April 2011. The first Temporary Refuge Center opened by the Disaster and Emergency Management Authority (AFAD) in May 2011 in Hatay. Syrian refugees living in the cities began to open their private schools for their children. In April 2013, Law on Foreigners and International Protection was published and broadly defined the educational rights of foreigners who have residence permits. In September 2013 the MoNE declared the right to education for all Syrian children who are under temporary protection, in September 2014 announced new arrangements through its circular and removed the requirement to have a residence permit to enroll in schools for Syrian children. In 2014, all non-public schools that provide education for Syrian children in and outside the camps were accredited as Temporary Education Centers (TECs) so that Syrian children could continue their education in the period they spend in Turkey before going back to their own country. In October 2014, provisions were made on the The Temporary Protection Regulation to make public schools open and official for all Syrian students who are under temporary protection including early childhood education, K-12, higher education and non-formal education programmes. To monitor the registration and the attendance of the refugee children, the MoNE with the assistance of the United Nations Children Fund, developed “Foreign Students Information Operation System”, referred as YÖBİS, in 2014. School attendance of Syrian children is collected through YÖBİS in TECs, and through e- okul in public schools. In September of 2016, MoNE announced that all TECs would be closed down within four years. As of 2019, most are closed, only 10.720 (%1,57) students are enrolled in TECs. In 1997 an amendment to Law no. 4306 turned compulsory education into eight continuous years. In 2004 there was a risk of achieving gender parity. However, MoNE launched the “Hey Girls, Let’s Go to School” campaign with support from UNICEF in 2003. The campaign ran in 10 provinces where the gender gap was highest, and by 2006 scaled up to 81 provinces. For secondary education, two projects launched in 2011 and 2015 with financial support from the European Commission to increase girls’ enrolment rate. It took until 2007-08 for girls’ net enrolment rates to match
those of boys’. A national administrative database (e-School) was launched in 2007-08. Several policy research projects were implemented to monitor non-attendance, understand the impact of the 2008 economic crisis on attendance, understand the determinants of transition to secondary education. An induction program for secondary schools to facilitate students’ transition to and improve their success in 9th grade was initiated. In 2012, law no. 6287 stipulated that the education system be compulsory for 12 years, with a 4+4+4 system. The net enrolment rates for girls in secondary education rose from 69.31% in 2012-13 to 82.38%, 83.39% and 83.88% during the 2016-17, 2017- 18 and 2018-19 school years, respectively. This new regulation resulted in a similar increase in the enrolment rates of boys. As a result of all these efforts, national and regional improvements have been achieved and the gender gap has narrowed considerably. However, there is still a discrepancy in enrolment rates between boys and girls at the secondary education level, which requires measures to eliminate it. In certain regions (particularly in Southeast Anatolia and Central East Anatolia), the discrepancy in net enrolment rates in secondary education are more pronounced. The Project for Increasing Enrolment Rates, Especially for Girls Project (KEP I) was implemented between 2011-2013 with the goals of increasing girls’ enrolment rates and the quality of education, as well as bringing more investments in human resources through collaborations with the private sector. The pilot project was implemented in 16 provinces. 2000 children were registered to school. Promoting Gender Equality in Education Project (ETCEP I) was implemented during 2014-2016 in order to mainstream gender equity in national educational policies and curricula. The project was implemented in 40 schools in 10 pilot provinces. Education legislation and policies and textbooks were analyzed in terms of gender equity. The Project for Increasing Enrolment Rates, Especially for Girls II (KEP II) was the continuation of KEP I and began in 2016 and implemented in 15 pilot cities. The Project for Expanding Gender-Sensitive-Approach Standards at Schools project began in 2018 to contribute to the achievements of ETCEP, with the goal of “developing standards for a gender sensitive approach and expanding this approach nationwide”. The project was planned to span over two years, 2018 and 2019, and targeted 162 institutions in 81 provinces. However, this project was terminated due to the controversies that emerged. The ETCEP project had been completed in 2016 but it drew some criticism in the media, where opinions against gender equity were expressed. Various media organizations published content that targeted ETCEP and other projects promoting gender equity. A press release was made on MoNE’s website stating that there were no current projects on gender equity. To this date, “gender equality” content of the strategies, programs were removed. The social policy measures that address children in poverty are not enough. There is a şack of early childhood specific social policies, thus the gap between poor children and not-poor children increases. Schools in poor neighbourhoods left only to the resources that families can create for themselves. Conditional cash transfers that are targeted for the very poor are helpful. However the amount is far from addressing the need for more comprehensive social policies. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified by Turkey in 1990 and it came into effect in 1995. Turkey has objections to articles 17, 29 and 30 of the convention, that are related to protecting minority cultural rights. Although,
the Lausanne Treaty grants rights to the non-Muslim minorities by protecting the right of these communities to have their own schools and education in the mother tongue; there is no similar cultural rights to the Kurdish or other population. Although Turkey has strong legislations and regulations for some vulnerable groups, the implementation remains weak. Child poverty, child labour, and child marriage problems; gaps in accessing quality inclusive education, protection from violence and abuse continues. These gaps are particularly critical for the most vulnerable groups, including Roma children. The 2013-2017 national children’s rights strategy and action plan has not been renewed and was not well monitored. Strategy for prevention of violence against children was not updated or renewed since 2018. Systematic monitoring and research on these issues remain inadequate.
Section 1: Laws and policies What is the framework of legislation, policy and guidelines for supporting the development of an inclusive education system? 1.1 Have international/UN conventions/declarations to protect the rights of groups who are potentially vulnerable to discrimination and exclusion been integrated into national and/or regional law? Convention/declaration on Law Comments Child rights (UNCRC) 14 Sep 1990 - signed Turkey has placed a 04 Apr 1995 - ratified reservation to the 17th, 29th and 30th articles of the UNCRC. Disability (UNCRPD) 30 Mar 2007 - signed According to the 24th 28 Sep 2009 - ratified article of the Convention, states are obligated to take precautionary measures to ensure that children with disabilities have rights equal to other children, to acknowledge the right to education of those with disabilities, and to provide them full access to this right on all levels of the educational system without being subjected to any kind of discrimination. Gender (Convention on 20 Dec 1985 - accession CEDAW is highly discrimination against women controversial in Turkey. CEDAW) Ethnicity or language (UN No Declaration on Rights of persons belonging to National, ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities) Other (e.g. Rights of indigenous No people)
International Convention on the 13 Oct 1972 - signed There is a discrimination Elimination of All Forms of Racial 16 Sep 2002 - ratified towards particularly to Discrimination (CERD) (ENG) minorities in Turkey. United Nations International 2000 - signed Turkey has placed a Covenant on Civil and Political 2003 - ratified reservation on the 27th Rights (ICCPR) (ENG) article of the ICCPR, which concerns minority groups. This article is related to the right of minority groups to benefit from their own cultures, believe in and practice their own religions, and use their own languages. European Convention of Human 04 Nov. 1950 - signed Rights (ECHR) (ENG) 18 May 1954 - ratified United Nations International 2000 - signed Although disability is not Covenant on Economic, Social and 2003 - ratified among the kinds of Cultural Rights (ICESCR) (ENG) discrimination forbidden by the convention, it is explicitly mentioned in the General Comment No. 5 published by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) – the body responsible for monitoring the implementation of the Covenant – that forbidding disability based discrimination is indeed part of the framework of the Covenant. This General Comment also emphasizes the right of persons with
disabilities to receive an education in an integrated environment. In its General Comment No. 13, the CESCR notes that the accessibility of education is one of the fundamental principles of the Covenant’s 13th article, the article regulating the right to education. According to the Committee, there should be no de jure or de facto discrimination in education, and educational services must be both physically and economically accessible in order to achieve truly accessible education. When states party to the ICESCR disregard the special needs of children with disabilities, this is defined as discrimination by the Committee. In line with the CRC (Committee), the CESCR also places emphasis on the training of teachers in a manner that equips them to educate children with disabilities within the formal education system. In General Comment No. 5, where it states that persons with disabilities
must receive education in integrated environments, special emphasis is also given to the training of teachers in a manner that equips them to meet the needs of children with disabilities within regular schools that are part of the general education system, as well as to the provision of necessary equipment and support mechanisms for the education of children with disabilities. European Social Charter (ESC) 1989 - ratified European The implementation of this (ENG) and Revised European Social Social Charter Charter is monitored by the Charter (RESC) (ENG) 2007 - ratified Revised European Committee of European Social Charter Social Rights (ECSR). Although disability is not among the kinds of discrimination forbidden under the ESC or the RESC, the ECSR has declared that disability is considered to be within the scope of nondiscrimination. The ECSR emphasizes the right to equal education within general education schools and repeats that states party to the Charter must take measures to ensure this right. This Committee also declares the right of persons with disabilities to
receive equal education in regular schools and places responsibility on the states party to the Charter to take proper measures to ensure this right. The ECSR also monitors whether signatory states are transitioning from a special education model to an inclusive education model, and requests the following information from states: • “Whether children’s disabilities have been taken into account in designing the regular curriculum, and if so, in what way this has been done, • Whether individual education plans have been prepared for students with disabilities, and how this has been done, • Whether financial and human resources – including support personnel and other technical forms of support – have been made directly available to children in order to ensure their education, • Whether any adaptation has been made in methods for evaluating the results of
education, and what kind of adaptation this is, • Whether the diplomas and degrees received at the end of the educational period are the same as those received by other children, and whether these are officially recognized”. 1.2 Provide an overview of general education legislation impacting on the inclusion of learners from vulnerable groups: Name and link Year and status Description of key content (enacted, under preparation etc.) Constitution of the 1982, enacted Article 42 of the Constitution of the Republic of Republic of Turkey Turkey provides for the right to education. It states that “[n]o one shall be deprived of the right of education” and that “[t]he scope of the right to education shall be defined and regulated by law.” It also declares, “[t]he freedom of education does not relieve the individual from loyalty to the Constitution.” Article 42 calls for education to be “based on contemporary scientific and educational principles, under the supervision and control of the State” and disallows the establishment of educational institutions that contravene these principles. Primary education, compulsory for all citizens of both sexes, is to be free of charge in state schools. Private primary and secondary schools are to operate by principles regulated
by law in keeping with the standards of the state schools. “The state will provide scholarships and other means of assistance to enable students of merit lacking financial means to continue their education” and will adopt measures of rehabilitation for persons in need of special education. Article 42 states that only the Turkish language will be taught to Turkish citizens at institutions of education; the foreign languages to be taught in educational institutions and the rules for education in a foreign language will be determined by law, but the provisions of international treaties are reserved. Article 24, paragraph 4, of the Turkish Constitution states, “[r]eligious and moral education and instruction shall be conducted under state supervision and control. Instruction in religious culture and morals shall be one of the compulsory lessons in the curricula of primary and secondary schools. Other religious education and instruction shall be subject to the individual’s own desire, and in the case of minors, to the request of their legal representatives.” Fundamental Law of 1973, enacted Article 4 guarantees the right to access to National Education educational institutions, regardless of people’s language, race, sex and religion, and states that no privi- lege shall be given to any person, family, class or category of people in education. Article 8 states that everyone, both women and men, is guaranteed equal opportunities and means in education, and those that are lacking financial means can receive scholarships, free hostels and other
assistance. Special measures are taken for children who need special education and protection. The Law No.5378 for 2005, enacted The law states that the education of persons Persons with with disabilities cannot be prevented on any Disabilities grounds whatsoever. Individuals with disability may prefer of the option of life-long education, with their difference being taken into due consideration, on the basis of full equality, and without being subjected to any form of discrimination. According to the law, the state must make the necessary planning within the educational system so that persons with disabilities are able to receive all levels of education, and take measures for the inclusion of persons with disabilities who, for whatever reason, have made a late start into formal education programs. The law places responsibility on the Ministry of National Education (MoNE) for the provision of materials such as audiobooks, or other items that use the sign language system or Braille alphabet – which may be needed by persons with disabilities. According to the 13th article of the law, measures must be taken to ensure that persons with disabilities are able to choose a profession and receive education in their field. The same article states that vocational training programs are to be developed through the cooperation of the Ministry of Labor and Social Security and MoNE. The law also stipulates that public facilities must be rendered accessible to persons with disabilities; and, although it is not
explicitly mentioned in the relevant article, it is presumed that school buildings. Turkish Civil Code (i.e. 2002, enacted Parents are responsible for educating their Law No.4721) children and for ensuring and protecting their physical, mental, psychological and social development. Parents of children with disabilities must provide them “general and vocational education in a manner corresponding to their specific talents and dispositions.” Parents of children with disabilities are forbidden from preventing their children from exercising their right to education. Primary Education The 52nd article of the Law No.222 on Primary and Education Law Education also requires that as part of compulsory primary education, parents are to ensure the continued attendance of their children in educational facilities. Law on Private 2007, enacted Article 2 on minority schools and special Education Institutions education schools 1.3 Provide an overview of education policy or guidelines impacting on inclusion of learners from vulnerable groups: Name and link Year and status Description of key content (enacted, under preparation etc.) Textbooks and 2012 According to Article 5 (c), textbooks cannot Education Tools contain discrimination based on gender, race, Regulation religion, language, color, political thought, philosophical belief, sect and similar features and positions. The Pre-School and 2014 Education support rooms may also be opened Primary Education in pre-primary and primary education Institutions institutions in order to provide special Regulation education support for mainstreamed students. According to the regulation, “Those who have
been determined in reports by special education evaluation boards to have high levels of inability and thus be unable to receive full- time mainstreaming education, as well as those who have more than one type of impairment” are to be registered in special education classes that are to be opened if the physical conditions of the institution in question are suitable. Special education teachers must be employed to work in these classes. Special Education 2018 Rights of individuals with special educational Services Regulation needs Secondary Education 2013 Article 157 Institutions Regulation Access to Education 2014 Article 1, students who are at risk of being by Transport deprived of their education rights Regulation Regulation on the 2002 Article 1 education of migrant worker children Open High School 2012 Right to education Regulation 1.4 Please describe any specific plans and strategies designed to support inclusion in education (e.g. national strategy on migrant learners): Name and link Year and status Description of the focus (approved, under preparation etc.) Strategic Plan of 2019 Five-year goals and strategies and actions to MoNE / 2019-2023 achieve these goals
Education Vision 2018 The 2023 Education Vision serves as the 2023 roadmap for Turkey’s strategy to advance and rise in the area of education and aims that every single child will be able to transit from education to career in line with his/her interests, skills, and temperament and will have the possibility to realize his/her potential Strategy (2016-2021) 2015, 2019 Increasing the capacities of institutions in the and Action Plan field of social protection, supporting the (2019-2021) for functioning of mechanisms and ensuring Roma Citizens coordination with the aim of facilitating the integration of Roma / disadvantaged individuals into society. Teacher Strategy 2017 Yet, it is not in action Document 2017-2023 Cooperation Protocol 2018 Safety regulations between the Ministry of Family, Labor and Social Services, the Ministry of Interior, and the Ministry of National Education to Make Schools and Its Environment Safer 1.5 Is there a definition of inclusion in education? ⬜ No ⬜ No information available ⬜ Yes Turkey’s national legislation includes a number of significant regulations regarding the rights of vulnerable groups. In particular, the Law for Persons with Disabilities passed in 2005 constitutes an important step in ensuring this right. However, in light of international human rights documents, the national legislation still has room to improve. It is important that the current emphasis in the legislation on mainstreaming/integration be gradually transformed into a framework for inclusion and inclusive education as defined in international documents. Currently, there is no framework. However, UNICEF Turkey and MoNE implement 18 different inclusive education projects. Although the list of these and their scope were not shared, several international definitions of “inclusive” education” are included in the Inclusive Education for School Leaders Project module.
“Inclusive education is not only for children who need special education, but it is also for children living in rural areas, with different ethnic and cultural backgrounds, and girls (UNESCO, 2001).” In this sense, “inclusive education values diversity and underlines that nobody is excluded from education due to gender, ethnic background, social class, health, social participation and success, and thus everyone is embraced by the system (UNESCO, 2009; Ouane, 2008).” “Inclusive education is an effort to make schools able to serve all students” within the framework of “every student is equally important” (UNESCO, 2017; UNESCO, 1994). 1.6 Is there a definition of vulnerable groups? ⬜ No ⬜ No information available ⬜ Yes Groups that require special policy or practice (disadvantaged groups): It refers to groups consisting of individuals such as women, young people, long-term unemployed and disabled people who have more difficulties in education or employment compared to other groups. MoNE’s 2019-2023 Strategic Plan 1.7 Is there a definition of special educational needs? ⬜ No ⬜ No information available ⬜ Yes If yes, please provide the definition and give the official source: Individuals who show a significant difference from their peers in terms of individual and developmental characteristics and educational competencies. 1.8 Please provide information on any future developments planned for inclusion in education. High quality and inclusive education is among the aims shared in the 3-YEAR CONCRETE TARGETS Gaps across schools will begin to be closed Schools will turn into living spaces for children Vocational high schools will become preferable Exam pressure will be reduced Children will feature modern-age skills The professional satisfaction of teachers and school administrators will be bolstered Early childhood education will be expanded Children with special needs will be given the educational opportunities they deserve 1.9 Please provide information on any reports, evaluations and/or reviews of legislation and/or policy relating to inclusion in education, since 2015. This could include official and parallel reports on UNCRPD etc.
Turkey is up for the third cycle of Universal Periodic Review (UPR), a process that involves reviewing the human rights records of all UN Member States. The documents submitted by Turkey and the stakeholders will be considered during the 35th session, on 28 January 2020. The documents submitted for Turkey and the stakeholders contain relevant developments in the field of education. The National Report submitted by Turkey addresses updates and explanations on areas related to minority schools (para. 71), mandatory religion classes (para. 77, 78), elective language classes offered under the “Living Languages and Dialects” course (para. 122), revised content of education to promote inclusive education (para. 113) as well as democratic culture and human rights in schools (para. 112, 114). Also related to promoting democratic culture, the report points to trainings organized to raise awareness of the public personnel on human rights (para. 123), gender equality and violence against women (para. 130). The report also points to projects to improve technology and infrastructure, along with efforts to increase access to education in rural areas (para. 115), to provide financial support to students who have difficulties in pursuing education (para. 118), to increase girls’ schooling rates (para. 116), and to increase the efficiency of the lifelong learning system and to support disadvantaged women’s access to education (para.132). Regarding inclusive education, the report states that “promoting the education of persons with disabilities is among the key objectives of Turkey’s education policy” (para. 118). In line with this objective, “Regulation on MNE’s Special Education Services” was issued in 2018. “In ‘SERÇEV Inclusive Vocational and Technical High School’, where considerable planning and research were undertaken to develop the curriculum and teaching resources, 200 students with cerebral palsy are integrated with 200 of their non-disabled peers through “crossharmonization” method. SERÇEV High School was selected a “Major Award Winner” at the 2018 World Cerebral Palsy Day Awards” (para. 119). Furthermore, Paragraph 120 of the National Report states that: “Project titled “Inclusive Education Program” is implemented by the MNE since 2015, within the scope of which braille devices capable of storing 300.000 books, including all textbooks, are distributed to schools around Turkey. Over 10.000 visually impaired students benefit from said devices each year. Another MNE project, “Inclusive Early Childhood Education for Children with Disabilities (2017-2020)”, which is implemented through a close partnership with UNICEF, aims at increasing the number of children with disabilities enrolled in early childhood education by using evidence-based data to increase the awareness of families, caregivers, decision makers and community leaders about inclusive education rights. The project equips teachers, administrators and other education personnel with the essential knowledge and skills to foster inclusive education environments” (para. 120). Another component of the UPR is the stakeholders’ submissions. In the Summary of Stakeholders’ submissions on Turkey it is stated that some stakeholders recommended Turkey to ratify various conventions including, but not limited to the UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education, Council of Europe Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities and other international instruments relating to minority rights, Protocol No. 12
to the European Convention on Human Rights (para. 3). Issues raised by the stakeholders in relation to right to education included closing the gender gap in secondary education, prioritizing girl's education in the rural areas, and reforming education materials and free school books with nondiscriminatory discourses in line with the CRC and UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education (para. 54). Another issue raised was the lack of access for Kurds to education in their mother tongue (para. 12). The third component of UPR is the Compilation of Turkey. In the compilation, there were some notable concerns stated by various committees, ● UNESCO encouraged ratification of the Convention against Discrimination in Education (para. 3). ● “The Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women remained concerned about the high dropout rate and underrepresentation among girls and women in vocational training and higher education, particularly in deprived rural areas and refugee communities. The same Committee noted with concern that in parts of the south-east of Turkey, it was reported that nearly 50 per cent of girls were illiterate and even more did not continue education after primary school, given that public education was not accessible in Kurdish” (para. 46). ● “UNESCO encouraged revision of the regulatory framework to ensure at least one year of effectively free and compulsory pre-primary education, and encouraged increased availability of pre-primary education to ensure that all children, particularly refugees, could enrol” (para. 47). ● “The Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities was concerned about the intersectional discrimination against and exclusion of Roma girls with disabilities, particularly from education” (para. 47). ● “The Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities was concerned about the persistence of segregated education, which was discriminatory at all levels, and the absence of an inclusive education system. It recommended recognizing inclusive education in the legislation and adopting policies and strategies to implement it” (para. 59). ● “The Committee [on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities] recommended that Turkey repeal discriminatory provisions against persons with disabilities and harmonize its anti-discrimination legislation with the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities” (para. 61). 1.10 What are the perceived main challenges (barriers and hindrances) and opportunities (support and ways forward) for inclusion in education in relation to laws and policies in the country? Although the legislation related to inclusive education is quite comprehensive, there is a considerable disconnect between the legislation and application. Moreover, the existing legislation carries greater weight in theoretical/principle aspects of inclusive education rather than the mechanisms to uphold inclusive education. The lack of clear guidelines for inclusive education practices result in inconsistent educational approaches and practices
throughout the state. Additionally, the said lack of guidance carries the potential to leave stakeholders confused in searching for legal or other type of remedies should a right violation occur. The main challenge is the lack of overarching policy and framework on inclusive education. And the main opportunity is that there is no opposition against disability rights and children’s rights.
Section 2: Governance and finance How far are inclusive principles underpinning policies at national and local levels effectively supported by governance and financing mechanisms? 2.1 Is there formal collaboration across ministries on inclusion in education? ⬜ No ⬜ No information available ⬜ Yes If yes, in which areas does this take place and who is involved? Area Yes/No Description: what mechanism, who is involved and how Policy development, Yes Other than education of children which MoNE is implementation and responsible for, the policies concerning children are coordination also developed by the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Services. Identification of needs / Yes The Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Services is referral for services responsible for developing social policies that prevent children from being in need of protection and care. Data sharing Yes The Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Services and Ministry of Interior shares data. Monitoring and evaluation Yes The Intersectoral Child Council meets at least once a year to evaluate the country program, in agreement with UNICEF and the Presidency of Republic of Turkey Directorate of Strategy and Budget. The country program involves Conditional Cash Transfer Program and Conditional Education Assistance Program for Refugee Children. The council monitors general planning and implementation of the country cooperation program. Quality assurance and Yes While monitoring the country cooperation program, accountability the Intersectoral Child Council is responsible for ensuring that progress is regularly reported and evaluated, making necessary corrections, and addressing the support mechanism for the country program.
(others … ) Yes Ministry of Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Services with the support of European Union funds conditional cash transfer for education. If no, please give further information: 2.2 Are there shared responsibilities between central and local governments on inclusion in education? ⬜ No ⬜ No information available ⬜ Yes There is no local government in Turkey. 2.3 Are non-governmental organisations and/or associations involved in governance processes? ⬜ No ⬜ No information available ⬜ Yes The involvement of the non-governmental organisations and/or associations in the governance process is limited. They can participate only if the public institutions invite them or ask their opinion. Generally, these organizations participate in workshops for policies on education of vulnerable groups organized by MoNE. Also, NGOs are invited to steering committees of inclusive education projects funded by international organizations, such as UNICEF, EU Delegation, and ECHO. 2.4 Are there any accountability mechanisms to promote the inclusion of learners from vulnerable groups? ⬜ No ⬜ No information available ⬜ Yes Area Yes/No Description of the focus/actors involved (e.g. state/non state) Appeal process for rights violations Yes Since the subject of the lawsuit is children’s rights, the Ministry of Family, Labor and Social Services intervened the lawsuit as taking the side of the plaintiff. School inspection Yes MoNE is responsible for school inspections in Turkey. However, it is hard to say that controlling inclusive education practices in the school environment is the main goal of these inspections. Other quality assurance processes Yes For the professional development of teachers on (e.g. standards for teaching, inclusive education practices, MoNE provides teacher support services etc) training modules on inclusive education. These modules can be considered as support services for teachers in Turkey.
Monitoring and evaluation (e.g. Yes Teachers are responsible for class-level data data collection on attendance, collection, such as attendance. School-level data is participation, achievement, collected by school principles and is sent to the district funding) national education directorates. District-level data is collected in provincial national directorates and provincial-level data is sent to MoNE. (others … ) 2.5 Please describe the general mechanisms for funding schools. Give details on: which institutions provide funding; what they provide; how they provide it and to whom, which mechanisms they use to allocate resources; and their respective roles and responsibilities. Funding mechanisms Description of who, what, to whom and how Central funding MoNE sends the budget to schools. The budget is determined on the basis of the number of students and previous year’s expenditure. In this funding scheme, school administrations have limited authority on budget setting. Changing the central funding framework is part of MoNE’s 2023 strategy. MoNE planning to give more resources to disadvantaged schools. Also, increasing flexibility of budget setting by giving more power to school administrations is a part of 2023 strategy. Self-funding Since central funding is limited, school administrations look for additional funds. Most schools create additional funds via school-parents associations. In addition to donations, school-parents association can generate funds by renting school’s parking lots, multipurpose halls and gyms. 2.6 Do schools have flexibility to use funding allocations to support the inclusion of learners from vulnerable groups? ⬜ No ⬜ No information available ⬜ Yes The budget allocation is centralized in Turkey. 2.7 Please describe the specific mechanisms for funding the inclusion of vulnerable learners and their families in education (e.g. benefits, cash transfers, scholarships). Give details on: which institutions provide funding; what they provide; how they provide it and to whom, which mechanisms they use to allocate resources; and their respective roles and responsibilities. Funding mechanisms Description of the who, what, to whom and how
Scholarships MoNE gives scholarships to socioeconomically disadvantaged students in primary and secondary education. Students whose household income is below a certain amount can take the “Primary and Secondary Educational Institutions Scholarship Exam”. According to the number of available places for the year, the most successful students can get the scholarship in the form of monetary benefit or benefit from school housing. The information about “Primary and Secondary Educational Institutions Scholarship Exam 2020” can be found at: http://www.meb.gov.tr/meb_iys_dosyalar/2020_02/03135736_202 0_IOKBS_Basvuru_ve_Uygulama_Kilavuzu.pdf Conditional Cash Transfer UNICEF, MoNE, Ministry of Ministry of Family, Labour and Social for Education Program Services and Turkish Red Crescent is the carry out of the program, funded by ECHO. The program aims to improve the enrollment rate of Syrian children and other refugee groups. Other than refugees, socioeconomically disadvantaged students in Turkey also benefit from other conditional cash transfers for education programs, executed by the Ministry of Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Services. The recipients of the cash benefit is determined by the Integrated Social Assistance Information System. The information about the program can be found at: https://www.unicef.org/turkey/en/conditional-cash-transfer- education-ccte-programme 2.8 Please provide information (main conclusions, reference and a link if available) on any recent reports, evaluations and/or reviews, since 2015 of funding and resourcing relating to inclusive education. Conditional cash transfers in Turkey: A case to reflect on the AKP’s approach to gender and social policy by Meltem Yılmaz Şener This paper discusses “the gender aspect of social policy provision in Turkey during the Justice and Development Party” (AKP) with a focus on conditional cash transfers. AKP implemented this a poverty alleviation programme. Combating Social Inequalities in Turkey through Conditional Cash Transfers (CCT)? by Christian Bergmann, Mine Tafolar The article focuses on CCTs that aims to have helped to diminish social inequalities in Turkey by concentrating on three crucial areas of interest: gender inequalities, transition to labour market as well as regional imbalances. 2.9 Overall, what are the perceived main challenges (barriers and hinderances) and opportunities (support and ways forward) for inclusion in education in relation to governance and finance issues in the country?
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