United Nations Security Council Simulation - Kashmir

INTERNATIONAL MINDS                                  Peace and Security

 United Nations Security Council Simulation – Kashmir

This simulation involves the following nations:

  - United States                      - Australia

  - United Kingdom                     - Bangladesh

  - Russian Federation                 - India

  - China                              - Pakistan

  - France                             - Afghanistan

  - Saudi Arabia

Topic information can be found at: www.CreativeDiplomacy.org/Kashmir

INTERNATIONAL MINDS                                                         Peace and Security

                                    United States
The United States continues to stand by their traditional position on Kashmir; It is for India and

Pakistan to determine the pace, scope and character of their dialogue on Kashmir. However, both

India and Pakistan view the United States as favoring the other. Pakistan increasingly views the

United States as preferential towards India, which was reinforced by the civilian nuclear agreement

between Washington and New Delhi. On the other hand Indian policy makers are worried that the

US will pressure India to appease Pakistan to ensure Pakistan’s continuing cooperation in

Afghanistan and the Global War on Terror. Both countries expect American intervention, yet both

sides have never requested American mediation in the matter.

The US would be ready and willing to help India and Pakistan defuse dangerous crises triggered

by the Kashmir dispute. The United States has been supportive of bilateral efforts to develop and

advance a peace process that could potentially lead to a Kashmir settlement. America’s role in the

peace process of Kashmir would remain supportive, but from a distance.

INTERNATIONAL MINDS                                                          Peace and Security

                                 United Kingdom
Great Britain maintained a presence in the region for over 200 years and directly controlled the

area of British India from 1858-1947. The Indian subcontinent was vital to Great Britain’s economic

and foreign policy. Even with Indian and Pakistani independence, Britain didn’t want to lose their

economic and military ties to the region. Britain believed if they allowed Pakistan to lose Kashmir,

the Muslims of the world would become enraged with Great Britain. In the scenario, it also was

detrimental for India to lose territory because Great Britain wanted to maintain their primary

position in the Commonwealth as a trade partner. At the time it was in the interest of Great Britain

for the Kashmir conflict to remain unresolved, thus the situation was prolonged to better serve

their political and economic interests.

Today the British Parliament is interested in finding a permanent solution to the dispute of

Kashmir between India and Pakistan. All political parties of the UK are united over the issue and

All Parties Parliamentary Group on Kashmir. The group, headed by Lord Nazir Ahmed visited

Pakistan in February 2011. Britain would be more than happy to help facilitate the resolution of

the Kashmir issue. The United Kingdom is highly interested in the resolution of the Kashmir

dispute and has made it evident to both India and Pakistan that they would assist in the peace

process in any way they can.

INTERNATIONAL MINDS                                                            Peace and Security

                                 Russian Federation
In the early 2000s, Russia pledged unequivocal support to India over the Kashmir dispute. Russia

believes India’s restraint is very admirable but cautioned that military action is not the best option.

As of 2012, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov stated “India and Pakistan are capable of

settling issues through bilateral discussions without outside help”; ruling out any potential Russian

role in resolving the dispute.

Notably the Consul of the Russian Federation of Pakistan, Andrey V. Demidov, pledged Russia’s

commitment in resolving the Kashmir dispute if and when India and Pakistan request it of them.

Russia’s mediation intervention history in Indo-Pakistani relations date back to the 1966 Tashkent

Pact, where both Pakistan and India requested the former Soviet Union to help mediate the long-

standing border dispute. As of now, neither government has made such a request.

INTERNATIONAL MINDS                                                            Peace and Security

China’s positions on the Kashmir issue have evolved over four distinct phases. In the 1950s, Beijing

upheld a neutral position on the Kashmir issue. The 1960s and 1970s saw China’s shift toward

public support of Pakistan’s views as Sino-Indian relations began deteriorating. By the early 1980s,

China and India began moving towards normalization of bilateral relations, and they returned to

a position of neutrality. China was caught between the need to satisfy Pakistan’s demand for

support as well as developing a better relationship with India. Finally, by the 1990s, China’s

position was that the Kashmir issue is solely a bilateral matter to be solved by India and Pakistan

through peaceful means.

Beijing is also interest in the evolving negotiations over Kashmir due to their own disarray as a

result of the 1963 Sino-Pakistani Border Agreement. India claims the Chinese controlled Aksai

Chin, 35,000 square kilometers of Ladaakh, Kashmir. A resolution of the Kashmir dispute between

New Delhi and Islamabad could re-open the sovereignty issues left in the 1963 Sino-Pakistani

border agreement. China has growing interest in seeing a stable South Asia and seeking better

relations with India. China is firmly grounded in the belief that the only realistic way to resolve the

Kashmir conflict is through peaceful negotiations between India and Pakistan.

INTERNATIONAL MINDS                                                         Peace and Security

France is the only permanent member of the Security Council that doesn’t hold a substantial

history with the Kashmir dispute. France is highly in favor of dialogue between India and Pakistan

as they are the two countries involved are the only ones able to resolve this dispute. France tends

to be more focused on the risks of terrorism associated with the dispute. In September 2013,

France condemned the terrorist attack on India, which claimed 12 victims in the Kashmir state.

They reaffirmed their solidarity with India in their fight against terrorism. France is also deeply

concerned with the terrorist presence in Pakistan, especially over the potential of terrorist

possession of nuclear weapons in Pakistan. The dispute in Kashmir, according to the French

government, must be resolved by Pakistan and India that is the only way to ensure peace over the


INTERNATIONAL MINDS                                                          Peace and Security

                                     Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia’s position on the Kashmir dispute is in support of Kashmiri’s right to self-

determination. Saudi Arabia is one of Pakistan’s strongest supporters, and an even stronger

supporter of the Pakistani stance on the Kashmir conflict. As two of world’s leading Islamic states,

Saudi Arabia and Pakistan have sought to expand upon commercial, cultural, religious, political

and strategic relations. Despite their strong support of Pakistan in the dispute, the desert kingdom

has also endorsed the Indo-Pakistani peace process.

Although, Saudi Arabia rejected a seat on the on the United Nations Security Council, the country

still recognizes the impact of the Council on the world. They look forward to peace talks between

India and Pakistan but would always stand behind Pakistan in all their efforts to bring peace and

security to the Kashmir regions.

INTERNATIONAL MINDS                                                           Peace and Security

The Commonwealth of Australia stands firmly behind the idea that the Kashmiri conflict is a

bilateral issue between Pakistan and India. Australia’s Department of Foreign Affairs and trade

view the Kashmir dispute as a hindrance to normalization between the two neighboring countries.

The resolution of this dispute would guarantee peace between the two nations and put an end to

60 years of conflict and strife. Australia has placed India on the forefront of its international

partnerships. Their relationship has been categorized as a strategic partnership. Due to their close

ties with India, Australia would stand behind India in their effort to resolve the Kashmir conflict.

In an effort to subdue the tensions between Pakistan and India, Australian soldiers have served as

military observers along the cease-fire line known as the Line of Control, established by the UN.

Australia also sent over jurist Sir Owen Dixon, to act as a mediator between the two countries.

They even dabbled in the idea of sending a brigade to police the Kashmir region, to no avail.

Unless Pakistan and India resolves this issue amongst themselves, Kashmir would continue to be

an area of conflict.

INTERNATIONAL MINDS                                                          Peace and Security

Bangladesh has a very particular opinion about the Kashmir issue having been in the midst of

conflicts between India and Pakistan, and ultimately seceded from Pakistan in 1971. Bangladesh

believes secession is the best choice for the resolution of the Kashmir problem. Historically, while

under Pakistani rule, as East Pakistan Bengalis were faced with a campaign of mass murder, rape

and ethnic cleansing in the name of religious unity. After facing numerous problems caused by

military coups, instability and political assassinations, the people of Bangladesh rose up and

emerged as a nation with a future and the determination to succeed.

Kashmir is an ideal region to grant secession, they already possess autonomy in the Indian Union.

If the region is ready and willing to stand on its own, and put an end to the years of conflict that

have existed because of it; that region should be granted the right of secession. The right of

secession would allow Kashmir to reach its full potential as a state.

INTERNATIONAL MINDS                                                        Peace and Security

The Kashmir dispute dates as far back as the partition of India in 1947. The republic of India

possesses a legitimate presence in the Kashmir region due to the Instrument of Accession signed

by Hari Singh. Due to the fighting between India and Pakistan the Simla Agreement was

implemented, creating the Line of Control. Both countries have participated in further

complicating the issue over Kashmir. However, India and Pakistan have participated in talks on

improving ties across the Kashmiri Line of Control.

India promises amnesty to those who participated in the violent protests of 2010. Prime Minister

Manmohan Singh sat down with Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif to discuss Kashmir in

September. Both leaders promised to decrease tensions in Kashmir and push for “effective means”

of restoring a cease-fire in Kashmir. The long conflict between India and Pakistan has become a

major preoccupation of the security measures in both countries. As talks continue to progress, the

efficiency of those agreements have yet to be seen.

INTERNATIONAL MINDS                                                         Peace and Security

Kashmir stands as Pakistan’s core dispute with India. India’s forcible occupation of Kashmir in

1947, is the cause of the dispute. Despite faulty claims of the signing of the Instrument of

Accession, India’s claim isn’t legitimized on any front. The UN doesn’t consider India’s claim over

the region as valid, Kashmir is recognized as disputed territory. The Kashmir region has a majority

Muslim population, it possesses geographic proximity with Pakistan and shares economic linkages

with the country as well. The nation of Pakistan upholds Kashmir’s right to self-determination in

accordance with UN Security Council resolutions.

In the past year, talks between Pakistan and India concerning the Kashmir crisis have occurred. A

diffusion of military tensions in Kashmir is highly welcomed by the two states, but both face

significant obstacles in order to ensure random clashes won’t ensue. The Line of Control doesn’t

serve as an adequate border. The Muslim Kashmir Valley would remain as part of India Granting

self-determination, under UNSC resolution principles would ensure the satisfaction of all parties.

INTERNATIONAL MINDS                                                            Peace and Security

Many experts believe the wars in Afghanistan to be at some level proxy wars between India and

Pakistan caused by the conflict in Kashmir. Numerous Taliban fighters have either come from the

Kashmir region, or have spent time there during periods of conflict. As a result Pakistan has sought

to support the Taliban as they see them as potentially ‘strategic depth’ against India, that is to say,

it is to the benefit of Pakistan to have a ready and experienced fighting force ready for action

should the situation in Kashmir demand it. India has largely supported the enemies of the Taliban,

first the United Front (called the Northern Alliance in the West), and then the government of

Hamid Karzai. A rivalry is stewing between India and Pakistan over who will be the primary

influence in a post US withdrawal Afghanistan, some of which manifested in terrorist attacks on

Indian diplomats and road workers in the country. This growing concern can potentially have

grave repercussions for the security of the region, including in Kashmir.

Afghanistan strongly supports peace talks and an ultimate resolution of the dispute. Afghans

believe that if Kashmir were no longer an issue between India and Pakistan, that there is the

possibility the two nations could cooperate to aid Afghanistan and that Pakistan might cease its

support of the Taliban. While Afghanistan is not in a position to serve as a direct broker between

the two nations, any efforts at peace will be welcomed.

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