2020-2021 Instructional Guidance for Diverse Learning Settings - Office of Standards and Instructional Support July 2020

 
2020-2021 Instructional Guidance
  for Diverse Learning Settings

   Office of Standards and Instructional Support
                     July 2020
Credits

Colorado Department of Education
Katy Anthes, Ph.D.                   Melissa Colsman, Ph.D.                Floyd Cobb, Ph.D.
Commissioner of Education            Associate Commissioner                Executive Director
                                     Student Learning Division             Teaching and Learning Unit

Office of Standards and Instructional Support
Joanna Bruno, Ph.D.
Director

Carla Aguilar, Ph.D.                                    Judi Hofmeister
Music Content Specialist                                Dance Content Specialist
                                                        Drama and Theatre Arts Content Specialist
Maya M. Garcia
Science Content Specialist                              Jamie Hurley, Ph.D.
                                                        Comprehensive Health Content Specialist
Olivia Gillespie
                                                        Physical Education Content Specialist
Reading, Writing, and Communicating Content
Specialist                                              Raymond Johnson, Ph.D.
                                                        Mathematics Content Specialist
Donna Goodwin, Ph.D.
Visual Arts Content Specialist                          Chris Summers
                                                        Computer Science Content Specialist
Stephanie Hartman, Ph.D.
Social Studies Content Specialist                       Alyssa Wooten
                                                        Financial Literacy Content Specialist

Additional Contributions
Shannon Milliken
Comprehensive Physical Education Senior Consultant
Office of Health and Wellness

Attribution
Significant portions of this document were adopted or adapted from Version 1.1 of “Supporting Science
Learning During COVID-19 School Closures” by the Council of State Science Supervisors, which is licensed
under CC BY 4.0.

                                                   2
Table of Contents
Credits ........................................................................................................................................................... 2
Purpose ......................................................................................................................................................... 4
Teaching and Learning in Diverse Learning Settings..................................................................................... 4
Content-Specific Resources to Support Diverse Learning Settings............................................................... 5
Equity Considerations for Learning Across Settings ..................................................................................... 5
General Considerations for Standards-Aligned Instruction .......................................................................... 7
Instructional Guidance by Content Area....................................................................................................... 8
   Comprehensive Health.............................................................................................................................. 9
   Computer Science ................................................................................................................................... 13
   Dance and Drama.................................................................................................................................... 17
   Mathematics ........................................................................................................................................... 22
   Music ....................................................................................................................................................... 27
   Physical Education .................................................................................................................................. 38
   Reading, Writing, and Communicating ................................................................................................... 55
   Science .................................................................................................................................................... 69
   Social Studies .......................................................................................................................................... 72
   Visual Arts ............................................................................................................................................... 81
   World Languages..................................................................................................................................... 90

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Purpose
When CDE describes best, first instruction, it is assumed that instruction is occurring in a traditional
environment: teachers and students gathered together in a classroom, working in small groups, large
groups, and individually, and that there are no safety risks posed by having people in close proximity of
each other or touching shared objects. Due to COVID-19, we can no longer assume that this traditional
environment is possible or preferable under the current circumstances. Districts and schools have had to
consider other options, including hybrid/blended learning, online-only options, or switching to remote
learning on an emergency basis when circumstances require it. For most educators, this has created
challenging teaching conditions—not only is teaching under these non-traditional settings challenging
compared to the classroom environments teachers are accustomed to, but the uncertainty of the
moment makes long-term planning and preparation especially difficult.

The purpose of this document is to provide some guidance under these uncertain times for each of the
content areas addressed by the Colorado Academic Standards. While some compromises are inevitable
when shifting instruction to non-traditional settings, maintaining high-impact instruction (or the highest-
impact instruction under the circumstances) requires adherence to certain principles, practices, and
strategies. Teaching is a very complex endeavor and while it isn’t possible to cover every approach, tool,
or practice for every situation, this document aims to inform educators about what teaching should
ideally look like given a variety of instructional settings.

Teaching and Learning in Diverse Learning Settings
In March of 2020, schools in Colorado made on-the-fly decisions and took quick action to change the
way teaching and learning worked across the state. Several terms emerged to describe the different
settings school was happening in, such as online, virtual, remote, and at home. To attempt to clarify the
language used to describe these settings, this document refers to the following categories:

    •   In-person learning: Face to face instruction within a brick and mortar structure.
    •   Hybrid/blended learning: A combination of in-person learning and remote learning.
    •   Online-only learning: Online learning in Colorado refers to schools that are providing online
        course offerings on a full or part-time basis. Students who engage in online learning in this
        context are enrolled in an approved school or program or may be taking an online course to
        supplement.
    •   Remote learning: Education that occurs away from a school building in response to emergency
        situations such as COVID-19 or natural disaster. Remote learning seeks to offer continuous
        educational opportunities that may or may not build upon previously taught content. Remote
        learning is both a temporary and longer-term option. Remote learning may include digital
        resources and/or hard copy resources and may include synchronous or asynchronous
        instruction and/or self-paced independent study work.
Even with these categories and definitions, other variations are possible. For example, in-person
learning with an enforcement of social/physical distancing will certainly have some constraints that in-
person learning without social/physical distancing. Similarly, online and remote learning looks very
different when it is conducted synchronously rather than asynchronously.

                                                    4
Content-Specific Resources to Support Diverse Learning
Settings
CDE’s top priority continues to be the health and safety of all students, educators, and communities in
Colorado. To help schools plan for educational continuity while the suspension of in-person learning is in
effect, we have curated a list of best practices for remote learning and teaching including free web-
based resources to help keep students academically engaged. We recognize that the multitude of
resources for remote learning can be overwhelming so we have collected and organized material by
content area and grade level that may be useful as educators develop plans for their students. While
remote learning through the Internet provides a great deal of flexibility in learning opportunities,
educators should also consider utilizing hard copy resources (e.g., packet work, textbooks).

There is no requirement for districts to offer remote learning via the Internet, but if educators decide to
go this path, they should strive to include equitable access to instruction for all students. Equitable
access does not require that all students receive instruction in the same format e.g., online instruction).
Districts should consider the individual learning needs of students in determining how to best meet
individual needs. Click here for a curated list of resources across content areas.

Equity Considerations for Learning Across Settings
Regardless of the instructional setting, or how it changes in 2020-2021, we suggest you
consider the following do support students and their families:
    •   Support flexible scheduling and limited technology access when shifting to hybrid/blended or
        remote learning settings. Student learning should not be solely dependent on access to devices
        and the internet. Encourage approaches that can be pursued without technology and/or
        asynchronously to set students up for success.
    •   Engage students in meaningful explorations, investigations, inquiries, analysis, and/or sense-
        making. Equitable learning experiences should be both responsive to the current need as well as
        meaningful to learners.
    •   When in remote or hybrid settings, encourage students to engage in activities that already
        happen in their homes with materials that families already have (especially so families do not
        need to purchase additional supplies). Families in poverty may be experiencing several of the
        considerations described above, along with additional concerns including regular access to
        meals, utilities, health services, or shelter. Undocumented students and students receiving
        special education services may face challenges in accessing resources that they need. Encourage
        educators to prioritize the physical, mental, and emotional well-being of all students.
    •   Help students make explicit connections to their interests and identities.
    •   Invite family members to be a partner in students’ learning. Students and families may need to
        juggle home, caretaking, school, and work responsibilities. Consider a menu of options for
        learning experiences that allow for different types and levels of engagement during remote
        learning.
    •   Provide students with choices for how they engage, what they investigate/research, or how
        they demonstrate learning.
    •   Support students in self-reflection related to content and process to support their learning.
    •   Exercise sensitivity when referencing the current pandemic as a topic for instruction.

                                                     5
•   Encourage, support, and facilitate first-language family participation in the learning across
    multiple settings. Take steps to bridge the gap in access to bilingual and native language
    resources that support learning for students and their families.

                                                6
General Considerations for Standards-Aligned Instruction
The guidance provided below gives educators insights into “traditional” teaching practices and how
shifts in those teaching practices can lead to student learning experiences that are more authentic and
engaging in diverse learning settings. These shifts support instructional alignment with the 2020
Colorado Academic Standards.

 Learning experiences should look less like…            Learning experiences should look more like…
 An attempt to recreate school at home during           Flexible goals and structures for learning
 learning:                                                • extended time for learning and reflection
    • assuming a strict “school day” schedule             • use of commonly available materials
    • requiring special materials (e.g. materials         • purposeful selection of learning targets
       not commonly found at home)                        • allowing students to explore their interests
    • pacing with the planned scope and                   • meaningful, manageable tasks and
       sequence in remote learning environment                projects
    • assigning readings to stay “caught up”              • opportunities to learn without the use of
    • packet of worksheets and busy-work                      devices or the internet
    • all learning experiences happen virtually
 Teacher-centered instruction                           Purposeful teacher-student interactions
     • virtual lectures/classes that all students           • optional opportunities to connect with
         synchronously attend                                  teachers and peers virtually and at a
     • teachers delivering information and                     variety of times
         assignments                                        • teachers providing coaching, feedback,
     • teacher instruction and feedback as the                 and encouragement
         primary mode of facilitating learning              • encouraging students to engage in
                                                               learning and reflection with their
                                                               families and communities
                                                            • encouraging self-reflection on what
                                                               students learn and how they learn it
 Assignments to “get through” content                   Assignments that promote authentic learning
     • emphasizing memorizing content or                    • connecting experiences to household
        “checking off” tasks on lists                          activities, like cooking, fixing things, or
     • asking students to complete tasks that                  gardening, community interactions
        are irrelevant, lack authenticity, or are           • asking students to identify relevant
        redundant in nature (e.g., “busy work”)                problems in their lives and leverage
     • trying to cover content through a volume                content knowledge to address them
        of activities or skipping from topic to             • allowing students to deeply explore
        topic                                                  concepts, topics, phenomena (science),
                                                               and/or problems of interest through
                                                               investigation, analysis, research, and
                                                               other sense-making strategies to build
                                                               understanding and practice over time

                                                    7
Instructional Guidance by Content Area
CDE’s Office of Standards and Instructional Support stands behind the saying, “All Students, All
Standards.” The Colorado Academic Standards define learning goals in each content area. By providing a
high-quality, standards-based educational experience for students in each of the content areas, schools
open doors of opportunity to students’ futures. By experiencing high-quality teaching and learning in a
variety of content areas, upon graduation students should be prepared to seek out and find success in
multiple career fields, college majors, or other future endeavors connecting to any one or more of the
content areas for which Colorado has academic standards.

Unlike other sources of guidance for the 2020-2021 school year, the guidance below gives equal
preference to each content area. This is not a guide for narrowing the curriculum down to
mathematics and English language arts. Instead, it is our goal that schools consider the guidance
provided and strive to offer well-rounded, enriching, opportunity-creating educational experiences for
all students, regardless of the instructional setting.

                                                   8
Comprehensive Health
Instructional strategies and learning experiences should be student centered, interactive, and
experiential. The strategies include group discussions, cooperative learning, problem solving, role
playing, and peer-led activities. Learning experiences correspond with students’ cognitive and emotional
development and help them personalize information and maintain their interest and motivation while
accommodating diverse capabilities and learning styles. Instructional strategies and learning experiences
include methods for the following:

        1. Addressing key health-related concepts
        2. Encouraging creative expression
        3. Sharing personal thoughts, feelings, and opinions
        4. Developing critical thinking skills

Curricular materials, strategies and instruction should be free of culturally biased information but also
include information, activities, and examples that are inclusive of diverse cultures and lifestyles, such as
gender, race, ethnicity, religion, age, physical/mental ability, and appearance. Strategies promote
values, attitudes, and behaviors that support the cultural diversity of students; optimize relevance to
students from multiple cultures in the school community; strengthen the skills that are necessary to
engage intercultural interactions; and build on the cultural resources of families and communities. The
table below contains content-specific instructional strategies and tools to help health educators provide
high-quality learning experiences.

 Moving from less        Moving to more like…            Instructional              Tools to Try
 like…                                                   Strategies
 Rote memorization       Facts and terminology           Health Skills              Health Skills
 of facts, concepts,     learned as needed while         Development                Investigation/Inquiry
 and terminology         developing explanations         Investigation/Inquiry      Project Based
                         and designing solutions         Project Based Learning     Learning
                         supported by evidence-          Problem-Based              Problem-Based
                         based reasoning and             Learning                   Learning
                         arguments.                      Teacher Modeling           Teacher Modeling
                         Focus on building key           Think-aloud                Think-aloud
                         health skills, accessing
                         information, analyzing
                         influence, communication,
                         decision making, goal
                         setting, self-management,
                         and advocacy skills.
 Concepts and skills     Students are practicing         Simulated Practice         Health Skills
 are taught once with    skills across various health    Role Play/Simulations      Simulated Practice
 little to no practice   topical areas and across                                   Role Play/Simulations
 of the skills           multiple content areas.
                         Focusing on introduction,
                         reinforcement (practice),
                         and mastery of skills over a
                         period of time.

                                                     9
Moving from less       Moving to more like…           Instructional           Tools to Try
like…                                                 Strategies
Learning ideas         Systems thinking and           Case Studies            Case Studies
disconnected from      modeling to give context       Mock Trial              Mock Trial
questions or real-     for the ideas to be learned.   Cooperative Learning    Cooperative Learning
world situations       Build in culturally                                    Examples of
                       responsive examples and                                Cooperative Learning
                       opportunities to connect                               Collaborative Learning
                       with health concepts and
                       skills providing
                       opportunities for students
                       to make content real,
                       relevant, and right now.
Teachers providing     Students conducting            Investigation/Inquiry   Investigation/Inquiry
information to the     investigations, solving        Cooperative Learning    Cooperative Learning
whole class            problems, and engaging in                              POGIL
                       discussions with teachers’
                       guidance. Learning
                       experiences correspond
                       with students’ cognitive
                       and emotional
                       development that help
                       them personalize
                       information and maintain
                       their interest and
                       motivation while
                       accommodating diverse
                       capabilities and learning
                       styles.
Addresses individual   Instructional methods          Socratic Seminar        Socratic Seminar
influences,            explore relevant personal      Investigation/Inquiry   Investigation/Inquiry
pressures, and         and social pressures that      Cooperative Learning    Cooperative Learning
norms.                 influence risky behaviors,                             POGIL
                       such as the influence of the
                       media, peer pressure, social
                       barriers. They provide
                       opportunities for students
                       to accurately assess the
                       level of risk-taking
                       behaviors, and correct
                       misperceptions while
                       reinforce health enhancing
                       attitudes and beliefs.
Teachers posing        Students discussing open-      Socratic Seminar        Socratic Seminar
questions with only    ended questions that focus     Discipline-based        Question Formulation
one answer             on the strength of evidence    Questions               Technique
                       used to generate claims.       Roleplay & Simulation   Roleplay & Simulation
                                                                              Discussion

                                                 10
Moving from less        Moving to more like…            Instructional            Tools to Try
like…                                                   Strategies
                                                        Document Based           Voice Thread
                                                        Questions
                                                        Discussion
                                                        Voice Thread
Students reading        Instructional methods           Problem/Project Based    Project Based
textbooks and           which allow students to         Learning                 Learning
answering questions     actively engage with the        Document Based           Problem-Based
at the end of the       content in a more inclusive     Questions                Learning
chapter, or the use     manner. Direct textbook         Accessing Information    Document Based
of worksheets as the    instruction, or the use of                               Questions
sole route of           worksheets as the sole                                   Accessing Information
knowledge transfer.     method of knowledge
                        transfer do not consider
                        the many different learning
                        styles seen in students.
                        Students reading multiple
                        sources, including content-
                        related magazine and
                        journal articles and web-
                        based resources; students
                        analyzing the information
                        for validity and reliability;
                        and developing summaries
                        of information.
Pre-planned             Multiple investigations         Problem Based            Project Based
outcomes for            driven by student’s             Learning                 Learning
“cookbook”              questions/interests with a      Project Based Learning   Problem-Based
activities              range of possible outcomes                               Learning
                        that collectively lead to a
                        deep understanding of
                        established core ideas
Oversimplification of   Provisions for support so       Authentic Learning       Authentic Learning
activities for          that all students can           Problem-Based            Problem-Based
students who are        engage in sophisticated         Learning                 Learning
perceived to be less    lessons and practices.          Socratic Seminar         Socratic Seminar
able than their peers                                   Stereotype Threat        Stereotype Threat
                                                        Mitigation               Universal Design for
                                                        Culturally Responsive    Learning
                                                        Teaching
                                                        Universal Design for
                                                        Learning
Use scare tactics to    Use trauma sensitive            Accessing Information    Accessing Information
change behavior         practices that support
                        behavior change. Provide
                        medically accurate

                                                   11
Moving from less      Moving to more like…           Instructional           Tools to Try
like…                                                Strategies
                      information with students
                      and build their skills to
                      identify valid and reliable
                      resources. Scare tactics
                      have not been shown to
                      change behavior.
Provides limited      Expand linkages for            Authentic Learning      Authentic Learning
opportunities to      students to other              Problem-Based           Problem-Based
make connections      influential persons who        Learning                Learning
with other            affirm and reinforce health-   Socratic Seminar        Socratic Seminar
influential persons   promoting norms, beliefs,      Stereotype Threat       Stereotype Threat
beyond the teacher    and behaviors. Instructional   Mitigation              Universal Design for
                      strategies build on            Culturally Responsive   Learning
                      protective factors that        Teaching
                      promote healthy behaviors      Universal Design for
                      and enable students to         Learning
                      avoid or reduce health risk
                      behaviors by engaging
                      peers, parents, families,
                      and other positive adult
                      role models in student
                      learning.

                                                12
Computer Science
Moving from less     Moving to more like…         Instructional Strategies &   Tools to Try
like…                                             Computer Science
                                                  Practices
Rote memorization    Facts and terminology        Discipline-based             Question Formulation
of facts and         learned as needed            Questions                    Technique
terminology          while developing             Investigation/Inquiry        STEM Teaching Tools
                     explanations and             Teacher Modeling             Teacher Modeling
                     designing solutions          Problem-Based Learning       Problem-Based Learning
                     supported by                 Think-aloud                  Think-aloud
                     evidence-based                                            Investigation/Inquiry
                     reasoning and
                     arguments.
Learning ideas       Systems thinking and         Discipline-based             Question Formulation
disconnected from    modeling to give             Questions                    Technique
questions            context for the ideas to     Concept Attainment           Concept Attainment
                     be learned                   Investigation/Inquiry        Investigation/Inquiry
                                                  Teacher Modeling             Teacher Modeling
Teachers providing   Students conducting          Problem-Based Learning       Problem-Based Learning
information to the   investigations, solving      Process Oriented Guided      POGIL
whole class          problems, and                Inquiry Learning             STEM Teaching Tools
                     engaging in discussions      Cooperative Learning         Cooperative Learning
                     with teachers’               Activities                   Collaborative Learning
                     guidance
Siloed activities    Collaborative learning       Pair Programming             On Pair Programming
which focus on       to build critical thinking   Peer Instruction             POGIL
independent          and problem solving in       Process Oriented Guided      Cooperative Learning
learning.            order to promote a           Inquiry Learning             Collaborative Learning
                     more inclusive student       Cooperative Learning
                     community. This              Activities
                     encourages students to
                     develop important 21st
                     century skills such as
                     communication
                     teamwork, and an
                     appreciation of
                     diversity.

                                                   13
Moving from less      Moving to more like…       Instructional Strategies &   Tools to Try
like…                                            Computer Science
                                                 Practices
Teaching computer     Making use of              Problem-Based Learning       Problem-Based Learning
science within a      computer science's         Interdisciplinary            Interdisciplinary
vacuum.               ability to make            Connections                  Connections
                      interdisciplinary
                      connections. In our
                      society computer
                      science has an ever-
                      increasing presence
                      within other fields such
                      as medicine,
                      manufacturing, energy,
                      and agriculture to
                      name a few. Making
                      use of colleagues or
                      community members
                      from other fields can
                      also supply students
                      with role models, and
                      the ability to see
                      themselves within the
                      field.
Teachers posing       The idea that effective    Socratic Seminar             Socratic Seminar
questions with only   question development       Discipline-based             Question Formulation
one answer            often requires             Questions                    Technique
                      advanced preparation       Roleplay & Simulation        Roleplay & Simulation
                      in order to engage the     Document Based
                      desired thinking within    Questions
                      students. Use
                      questions which
                      encourage students to
                      explore the reasoning
                      behind their answer,
                      and if using single
                      answer questions
                      require content-based
                      answers rather than
                      simple "yes" or "no."

                                                  14
Moving from less      Moving to more like…       Instructional Strategies &   Tools to Try
like…                                            Computer Science
                                                 Practices
Students reading      Instructional methods      Problem-Based Learning       Student Engagement
textbooks and         which allow students       Design Journal               Problem-Based Learning
answering             to actively engage with    Culturally Responsive        Design Journal
questions at the      the content in a more      Teaching                     Addressing Diverse
end of the chapter,   inclusive manner.          Universal Design for         Learners
or the use of         Direct textbook            Learning                     Universal Design for
worksheets as the     instruction, or the use                                 Learning
sole route of         of worksheets as the
knowledge             sole method of
transfer.             knowledge transfer do
                      not consider the many
                      different learning
                      styles seen in students.
                      For others with
                      cognitive delays or
                      English learners this
                      can be an
                      insurmountable
                      challenge.
Pre-planned           Much like building         Authentic Learning           Authentic Learning
outcomes for          endurance when             Problem-Based Learning       Problem-Based Learning
“cookbook”            reading computer           Design Journal               Design Journal
activities            science encourages         Roleplay & Simulation        Roleplay & Simulation
                      students to build
                      persistence in the face
                      of challenging
                      concepts. It is
                      recognized that
                      students are more
                      likely to persist in the
                      face of a challenge
                      when the content is
                      personally relevant.
                      This can be achieved
                      by designing lessons to
                      include real-world
                      issues, problems, and
                      applications.

                                                  15
Moving from less       Moving to more like…      Instructional Strategies &   Tools to Try
like…                                            Computer Science
                                                 Practices
Oversimplification     Stereotyping a student    Authentic Learning           Authentic Learning
of activities for      with expectation of       Problem-Based Learning       Problem-Based Learning
students who are       poor performance will     Socratic Seminar             Socratic Seminar
perceived to be less   often affect their        Stereotype Threat            Stereotype Threat
able than their        performance. This         Mitigation                   Universal Design for
peers                  possibility can be        Culturally Responsive        Learning
                       mitigated through         Teaching
                       communicating your        Universal Design for
                       high expectations for     Learning
                       the student, the use of
                       frequent effective
                       feedback, and
                       providing positive role
                       models.

                                                  16
Dance and Drama
Strategy          In-Person              Hybrid/Blended        Online only           Remote

Brainstorming     Encourage              Students may          Encourage             Students may
or Developing     students to use        demonstrate           students to view      collect photos or
Artistic Vision   their imaginations     movement,             other artistic        video clips.
                  for envisioning        character choices,    works that            Students may
                  dance works,           or share production   inspire them to       develop a power
                  character              ideas in person, or   create. Ask them      point presentation
                  development,           using an online       to share what
                  scene work, or         platform.             they have found.
                  production                                   (To structure
                  elements. Allow                              students with
                  students time to                             less experience,
                  independently                                give students an
                  brainstorm.                                  online resource
                                                               bank with guided
                                                               handouts to
                                                               access.)

Inquiry-Based     Triggering and         In a hybrid           Allow students to     The same strategies
Learning          activating students’   situation, the        explore and           for online learning
                  curiosity of an        teacher may           discover artistic     work here for
                  artistic question or   introduce the         inspirations in       remote learning.
                  idea. This may be      students to the       which they would
                  accomplished by        content of the task   like to create. Ask
                  grouping students      or unit project.      students to share
                  to gather              During the time of    video clips,
                  information based      remote learning,      sketches and/or
                  on the needs of the    the students may      movement
                  task or project.       be preparing their    concepts.
                                         findings to           Students may
                  Always practice
                                         movement              previously video
                  safe social
                                         sequences,            their creative
                  distancing.
                                         monologues or         ideas.
                                         scene performances
                                         to present to the
                                         teacher when in
                                         person.

                                                  17
Strategy        In-Person             Hybrid/Blended        Online only        Remote

Demonstration   No special            During times of       There are many     There are obviously
or Modeling     considerations,       remote learning,      strategies for     many online dance
                demonstrating         students may          modeling not       and theatre
                movement, or          rehearse what was     only dramatic      resources for
                blocking for a        demonstrated or       instruction, but   students to access.
                scene would           modeled to them       movement           Making sure those
                continue as it has.   when in person.       techniques.        resources are
                                                            Please access      appropriate is a
                Always practice
                                                            either the         priority. Asking
                safe social
                                                            Educational        students to select a
                distancing.
                                                            Theatre            dance work, a
                                                            Association or     monologue, scene
                                                            the Dance          or set design and to
                                                            Magazine for       replicate a segment
                                                            resources.         of that video is a
                                                                               great way to utilize
                                                                               a resource as a
                                                                               model or
                                                                               demonstration.

Cooperative     No special            Again, during times   Please access      During remote
Learning        considerations,       of remote learning,   either the         learning, it is
                teachers may          the students may      Educational        suggested to
                group students in     connect with each     Theatre            continue
                collaborative         other online to       Association or     encouraging
                teams for             rehearse.             the National       students to work
                choreographing                              Dance Education    collaboratively.
                and scene work as                           Organization for   When using online
                usual.                                      resources.         platforms, utilize
                                                                               breakout rooms,
                Always practice
                                                                               giving small student
                safe social
                                                                               groups structured
                distancing.
                                                                               tasks to complete.

                                               18
Strategy        In-Person             Hybrid/Blended         Online only           Remote

Role Play       No special          During the hybrid        Please access the     In a remote
                considerations,     model, the teacher       Educational           learning situation,
                teachers may        may guide students       Theatre               the teacher may
                encourage           in selecting             Association for       encourage students
                students to role    appropriate roles        resources.            to use different
                play characters, or that are at the                                modalities while
                even to role play   student’s ability                              role playing. Also
                leadership roles    level. Once the                                allow students to
                within the creative remote learning                                select roles that are
                process.            begins, the students                           at the appropriate
                                    then may continue                              ability level.
                Students may work
                                    to develop the role,
                independently or in
                                    rehearse, then
                small groups.
                                    perform for the
                Always practice     teacher and/or
                safe social         class.
                distancing.

Improvisation   No special            In the hybrid model    Please access the     Encouraging
                considerations,       students may work      Educational           students to
                teachers may allow    independently on       Theatre               continue to build
                students to use       improvising, or with   Association for       relationships and
                improvisation         a small group. Once    resources or          community is
                techniques when       the students have      access this article   imperative during
                developing            to the remote          for Keeping           remote learning.
                movement, scene       portion, they may      Improv Alive          Asking theatre
                work, or designing    record their           During                students to focus
                sets.                 improvisations to      Coronavirus           on listening skills by
                                      share with the                               paying attention to
                Always practice                              For dance
                                      teacher, and or                              what is being said
                safe social                                  students, this
                                      class.                                       by other student
                distancing.                                  resource from
                                                                                   actors is key.
                                                             DanceSpirit has
                                                             some great
                                                             points.

                                                19
Strategy        In-Person              Hybrid/Blended         Online only           Remote

Close Reading   In small groups        In a hybrid            Close reading         This strategy works
Protocol        students read          situation, the         protocol may not      well for scoring
                through                students may begin     be “intuitive” for    scripts for dramatic
                monologues,            the activity either    dance                 activities. Students
                scenes or inquiry-     independently, or in   instruction, but is   may upload their
                based information      small groups. Once     easy to do when       scored scripts into
                three times to gain    students have          students are          an online platform,
                deeper                 moved to their         given structured      such as a Google
                understanding of       remote learning,       resources such as     drive. Teachers
                the content.           they may               short stories or      may comment on
                                       experiment with 2-     fairytales to         the scored script to
                Always practice
                                       3 different ways of    adapt into            help students go
                safe social
                                       bringing the           movement              deeper into the
                distancing.
                                       character to life.     sequences, or         playwright’s
                                                              dance works.          meaning.
                                       Dance students may
                                       develop 2-3 short
                                       movement
                                       sequences based on
                                       the overall themes
                                       from the reading.

Reflecting on   Students may write     Teachers may blend     Students may          Students may
the Creative    or discuss in small    both in person and     write journal         upload journal
Process         groups their           remote learning        entries or discuss    entries into an
                reflections of their   strategies for         reflections in        online platform,
                learning during the    reflecting on the      small groups as       such as a Google
                process of creating.   creative process.      they answer           drive. Journal
                                                              structured            entries may include
                Always practice
                                                              questions of the      written, oral,
                safe social
                                                              creative process.     sketched
                distancing.
                                                                                    reflections.

                                                 20
Strategy          In-Person             Hybrid/Blended         Online only         Remote

 Evaluations       Students view         Teachers may blend     Students may        Students may give
 and Critiques     performances and      both in person and     evaluate their      an oral critique in
                   evaluate/critique     remote learning        own                 the form of an
                   final outcomes.       strategies for         performances, or    interview,
                   Teachers may ask      evaluating and         give constructive   answering guided
                   students to           critiquing self, the   critiques guided    questions.
                   evaluate their        creative process, or   by a structured
                   personal              an ensemble            rubric.
                   performances, or      performance.
                   to evaluate how
                   the ensemble
                   worked together.

Notes to consider for Dance and Drama/Theatre Arts instruction: Instruction works best when the
concepts of Imagine, Create, Perform, Evaluate and Discuss are implemented. When a student is able to
express their art form while imagining, creating, performing, writing and discussing, they have utilized
five different ways of expressing their artistic craft. Using these five strategies during the creative
process will reach many different types of learners.

Educational Theatre Association Guide for Reopening School Theatre Programs

                                                   21
Mathematics
In June of 2020, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) and NCSM: Leadership in
Mathematics Education jointly released Moving Forward: Mathematics Learning in the Era of COVID-19.
This document was organized around three major areas to consider when planning for the 2020-2021
school year: (1) structural considerations, (2) teaching practices, and (3) advocacy. The table below
summarizes some of the major points of that document, but in no way should it replace reading and
carefully considering all the major points, guiding questions, and recommendations from the original 18-
page document.

 Moving from less like…       Moving to more like…       Strategies               Resources or Tools to
                                                                                  Try
 Structures that organize     Structures that            Educators should (a)     Catalyzing Change
 students for instruction     organize students for      assign students to       Just Equations Go
 that (a) tracks or groups    instruction that (a)       teachers that ensure     Figure Report
 students by ability,         detracks students into     heterogeneous ability    Visibly Random Groups
 either within a class or     heterogeneous              groups, (b) be mindful
 across classes, (b) relies   groupings, with high       of potential
 on singular or inflexible    expectations for all,      inequalities, such as
 approaches to learning       (b) provides support in    access to technology,
 in Tier 1 instruction,       Tier 1 instruction that    (c) create groups of
 and/or (c) replaces          allows for a range of      students with mixed
 grade-level instruction      approaches to              strengths within
 with remedial                problem solving, and       classes to collaborate
 mathematics for              (c) uses formative         on rich tasks using a
 students based on some       assessment to provide      variety of digital and
 prior standardized test      just-in-time, as needed    print media, and (d)
 score.                       interventions during       prioritize mathematics
                              the school day that do     by providing time for
                              not replace daily,         planning and
                              grade-level                implementing
                              instruction.               instruction and
                                                         interventions.

                                                    22
Moving from less like…      Moving to more like…        Strategies                 Resources or Tools to
                                                                                   Try
Structures for teachers     Structures for teachers     Educators should (a)       Looping
that (a) tracks teachers    that (a) assign             create vertical teams      Team or Co-Teaching
so that the most            heterogeneous classes       that design and
experienced and             of students to all          implement tasks that
successful teachers only    teachers, and balance       incorporate relevant
teach the most              entry-level with upper-     material from previous
successful or privileged    level classes for high      grades into grade-level
students and/or (b) rely    school teachers, and        work and (b) provide
on teachers to make         (b) provide regular         teachers with relevant
their own way or to         professional learning       professional learning,
improvise/stumble their     to grow their skills,       like teaching students
way to providing better     plan collaboratively for    with trauma or
instruction.                flexible instruction,       engaging students
                            and focus on cycles of      remotely.
                            continuous
                            improvement.
Determine essential         Determine essential         Educators should (a)       Catalyzing Change
learning for all students   learning for all            focus most, but not all,   Series
that (a) assumes            students that (a)           time and energy on         Progressions of
students need to be met     collaboratively             those standards            Learning Resources
“where they’re at,” (b)     develops a shared           recognized as major        Focus by Grade Level
reflects the limited        understanding of the        work of the grade, (b)     Curriculum Focal
challenges from low-        mathematics that is         deeply understand the      Points for
quality instructional       absolutely essential        progressions of            Prekindergarten
materials, whether from     for all students to         learning represented in    through Grade 8
a textbook or cobbled       learn, (b) provides a       the mathematics            Mathematics
together from hastily       viable curriculum that      standards, and (c)         Developing Essential
vetted internet sources,    focuses on the major        communicate essential      Understanding Series
and/or (c) relies on        work of each grade          learnings to all
unilateral decisions        and moves students          stakeholders and
about curriculum            along a progression of      allocate the time and
planning.                   learning across grades,     resources to make it
                            and (c) strategically       happen.
                            uses topics designated
                            as supporting and
                            additional work of the
                            grade to build and
                            reinforce students’
                            learning of major
                            work.

                                                   23
Moving from less like…        Moving to more like…        Strategies                  Resources or Tools to
                                                                                      Try
Determine necessary           Determine necessary         Educators should (a)        Progressions of
prior knowledge by (a)        prior knowledge by (a)      Know which prior            Learning Resources
viewing students in           viewing students in         grade-level standards       Coherence Gap
terms of their                terms of their              students did and did        spreadsheet
weaknesses or “lost”          strengths and creating      not have an                 Mathematics Unit
learning, (b) using back-     learning opportunities      opportunity to learn,       Planning in a PLC at
to-school testing of a        to move them                (b) know which topics       Work
laundry list of               forward, (b)                were addressed              Protocol to Determine
prerequisite                  collaboratively             primarily through           Prior Knowledge for a
understandings, and/or        identifying                 remote instruction, (c)     Mathematics Unit
(c) begining the school       prerequisite                collaborate to identify
year with (re)teaching        understandings for          and weigh the possible
content from prior            each unit of study and      consequences of
grades.                       planning to support         unfinished learning
                              students to make            from the prior year.
                              connections with past
                              learning, and (c)
                              strategically teaching
                              necessary skills or
                              understandings “just
                              in time” as they are
                              needed throughout
                              the school year.
Determine what                Determine what              Educators should (a)        Great Modeling Tasks
students know and             students know and           use rich tasks to           in Three Acts
introduce new learning        introduce new               replace typical pre-        NCSM Great Tasks for
by (a) relying on pre-        learning by (a)             testing and post-           Mathematics Series
tests (or last year’s post-   selecting and using         testing, (b) analyze rich   High School
tests) and/or (b) looking     formative assessment        tasks to predict how        Mathematics Lessons
only at right and wrong       strategies to               they may provide            to Explore,
answers (or some              understand what             insights about              Understand, and
abstracted scale score)       students know and           unfinished learning on      Respond to Social
as a measure of current       plan to build new           prior essential             Injustice
student understanding.        learning on their           understandings, (c)         NCTM Activities with
                              strengths and (b) use       maximize instructional      Rigor and Coherence
                              open-ended and              time to focus on math       Principles to Actions
                              constructive response       teaching and learning,      Professional Learning
                              tasks to gather insights    and (d) leverage            Toolkit
                              about student               technology to gather        Using Talk to Make
                              successes and               insights about what         Sense of Mathematics
                              struggles before            students know and           The Formative Five
                              modifying instruction       understand.                 Jump Start Formative
                              accordingly.                                            Assessment

                                                     24
Moving from less like…     Moving to more like…      Strategies              Resources or Tools to
                                                                             Try
Teaching practices that    Teaching practices       Educators should (a)     Good Questions
follow a simple cycle of   that reflect the full    focus student learning More Good Questions
working examples for       range of effective       goals on meaningful      5 Practices for
students, assigning        mathematics teaching shifts of understanding Orchestrating
practice problems, and     practices to set quality to be brought about      Productive
scoring work as right or   goals, choose good       through instruction,     Mathematics
wrong.                     tasks, engage students not just tasks to be       Discussions
                           in high-quality          completed or routines 5 Practices in Practice
                           discourse, build         to be performed and      Series
                           fluency on top of        (b) engage in            Discourse Actions to
                           understanding, and       collaborative planning Promote Student
                           use evidence of          to choose quality tasks, access
                           student thinking.        pre-select purposeful    High-Yield Routines for
                                                    questions, anticipate    Grades K-8
                                                    student strategies and Taking Action Series
                                                    struggles, and learn     Principles to Action
                                                    from each other over     Professional Learning
                                                    time.                    Toolkit
                                                                             Strengths-Based
                                                                             Teaching and Learning
                                                                             in Mathematics
Policies and budgetary     Policies and budgetary Educators should (a)
decision making that (a)   decision making that     look for and
tries to do more with      (a) ensures schools      understand the
less, (b) assumes that     have the means,          resources available at
overcoming obstacles is    resources, and support national, state, and
a simple matter of         to provide meaningful local levels, (b)
individual teacher time    mathematics teaching humanize the situation
and effort, and/or (c)     and learning, (b) plans with policymakers and
spends money and           for contingencies that stakeholders so
allocates resources in a   could disrupt            everyone understands
patchwork fashion          mathematics learning, the impact of fiscal
rather than making a       such as school           decisions, (c) allocate
long-term investment in    closures or modified     resources so that every
teacher capability and     schedules, and (c)       student is provided
student learning.          ensures that all         access to grade-level
                           students have the        content and quality
                           tools, technology, and teaching, and (d)
                           access to fully engage   advocate for the
                           in mathematics           necessary leadership
                           learning regardless of   and support that
                           instructional setting.   teachers need to work
                                                    through challenging
                                                    conditions.

                                                25
Moving from less like…     Moving to more like…        Strategies                Resources or Tools to
                                                                                 Try
Assessment practices       Assessment practices        Educators should (a)
that (a) assume            that (a) grapple with       think about systemic
summative test results     the systemic impacts        impacts that can affect
are always valid and       school disruptions          the validity and
reliable, (b) assess all   have on assessment          reliability of
students frequently at     results (particularly       assessment results, (b)
the cost of lost           large-scale summative       consider other metrics
instructional time,        assessments) and how        to understand the
and/or (c) assess all      their validity and          educational health,
students the same way      reliability could be        wellbeing, and
out of regard for          compromised and (b)         recovery of the local
“fairness,” without        ensure assessments          educational system, (c)
considering other          are demonstrably            carefully weigh the
evidence or individual     connected to content        benefits of any
student needs.             and can result in           assessment against the
                           action.                     sacrifice of
                                                       instructional time.
Professional learning      Professional learning       Educators should (a)
and collaboration that     and collaboration that      increase transparency
relies on one-shot,        (a) creates a culture of    with stakeholders
content-agnostic           sustained, job-             using clear, frequent
approaches to staff        embedded                    communication and (b)
development.               professional                elevate teachers’
                           development through         voices and solicit
                           the use of                  feedback from all
                           mathematics coaches         stakeholder groups,
                           and instructional           including
                           specialists and (b)         administrators,
                           prioritizes time for        teachers, and parents.
                           regular meetings
                           between grade-level
                           and course-alike
                           teachers with efforts
                           focused on shared
                           visions of assessment,
                           grading, intervention,
                           and lesson planning.

Resources to Support Diverse Learning Settings in Mathematics
   •   https://www.cde.state.co.us/comath - CDE’s main page for mathematics standards, curriculum
       support, instructional support, and community information
   •   https://www.cde.state.co.us/comath/2020-2021 - Resources and guidance specific to planning
       for and teaching mathematics in the 2020-2021 school year

                                                  26
Music
This document offers suggestions for music teachers and administrators to use when organizing and
leading instruction in diverse learning settings. In addition to these ideas, the National Association for
Music Education (NAfME) has produced this document to support learning in music classrooms for Fall
2020. Other resources from NAfME can be accessed at this website.

Information and recommendations on Instrument Hygiene can be found in this document. (See page 6.)

Information and recommendations on copyright can be found in this document. (See footnote on page
21.)

High-Impact Instructional Strategies for Diverse Learning Settings in Music
Research has identified that music instruction needs to engage all students with performing, creating,
analyzing, and evaluating over long periods of time. Such practices include a broad range of intellectual
habits for students —asking questions, developing and trying out different ways to perform and create,
working with peers, and constructing their own understanding of what they are performing. Thus music
practices are not synonymous simply with “hands-on” or “performance-based” activities. Wiggins (2014,
2007) identifies three common patterns of learning and engaging in music and the other performing
arts:

    •   Facilitating student construction of their own understandings in learning;
    •   Grounding learning in “real world” (authentic) experiences; and
    •   Assisting students in synthesis.

In choosing high-impact instructional strategies, teachers need to take into account the culture of the
students in the classroom (CRT), the ways that we know learning takes place (constructivism), and the
stage of teaching that we are in (prepare, present, practice, evaluate, reflect). High-impact instructional
strategies also consider the different environments for learning (face-to-face, blended/hybrid, on-line,
or remote).

    •   Moving from less like: Rote memorization of facts and terminology.
    •   Moving to more of: Facts and terminology learned as needed while developing explanations
        and designing solutions supported by evidence-based reasoning and arguments.

 Instructional Strategy      In-Person            Hybrid/Blended       Online only        Remote

 Cooperative Learning:       Engage pairs or      Engage in-person     Engage             Engage
 (e.g. Brainstorm, Think-    small groups and     prompts and          technology (i.e.   technology and
 Pair-Share)                 discuss topics or    technology/paper     chat, hand         paper packets
                             ideas.               packets to           raising,           to brainstorm.
                                                  brainstorm.          breakout
                                                                       rooms) to
                                                                       brainstorm.

                                                    27
Instructional Strategy     In-Person            Hybrid/Blended       Online only         Remote

Modeling                   Engage students/     Engage in-person     Engage              Engage
                           other leaders in     strategies and use   technology (i.e.    technology (i.e.
                           modeling             technology (i.e.     recordings,         recordings,
                           information and      recordings,          videos) to share    videos) to
                           ideas.               videos) to share     modeling.           share
                                                modeling.                                modeling, if
                                                                                         available.

Questioning (posing        Engage students      Engage in-person     Engage              Engage
problems)                  by asking            prompts and          technology to       technology and
                           questions or with    technology/paper     share               paper packets
                           problem              packets to share     questions.          to share
                           prompts.             questions.                               questions.

Reflective Feedback        Engage pairs or      Engage in-person     Engage through      Engage through
                           small groups to      and/or through       technology (i.e.    technology
                           discuss and          technology/paper     full class, chat,   and/or paper
                           provide              packets              breakout            packet.
                           feedback.                                 rooms)

Disciplinary Literacy      Engage students      Engage in-person     Engage              Engage
(engaging through          in practical         disciplinary         technology for      technology and
reading and writing)       applications of      literacy             disciplinary        paper packets
                           information to       techniques.          literacy.           for disciplinary
                           build disciplinary   Determine                                literacy.
                           literacy.            possible use of
                                                technology.

  •    Moving from less like: Learning of concepts disconnected from questions
  •    Moving to more like: Conceptual (dimension) thinking and modeling to give context for the
       ideas to be learned.

                                                  28
Instructional Strategy     In-Person            Hybrid/Blended       Online only    Remote

Direct Instruction         Facilitator leads    Information          Information    Information
                           the presentation     provided in-         provided       provided through
                           of information for   person and           through        technology and
                           students.            through              technology.    paper packet.
                                                technology
                                                (presentation)

Modeling                   Engage students/     Engage in-person     Engage         Engage technology
                           other leaders in     strategies and use   technology     (i.e. recordings,
                           modeling             technology (i.e.     (i.e.          videos) to share
                           information and      recordings,          recordings,    modeling, if
                           ideas.               videos) to share     videos) to     available.
                                                modeling.            share
                                                                     modeling.

Questioning (posing        Engage students      Engage in-person     Engage         Engage technology
problems)                  by asking            prompts and          technology     and paper packets
                           questions or with    technology/paper     to share       to share
                           problem prompts.     packets to share     questions.     questions.
                                                questions.

Disciplinary Literacy      Engage students      Engage in-person     Engage         Engage technology
(engaging through          in practical         disciplinary         technology     and paper packets
reading and writing)       applications of      literacy             for            for disciplinary
                           information to       techniques.          disciplinary   literacy.
                           build disciplinary   Determine            literacy.
                           literacy.            possible use of
                                                technology.

  •    Moving from less like: Teachers providing information to the whole class
  •    Moving to more like: Students collaborating, solving problems, and engaging in discussions with
       teachers’ guidance

                                                 29
Instructional Strategy    In-Person           Hybrid/Blended        Online only      Remote

Cooperative Learning:     Engage pairs or     Engage in-person      Engage           Engage
(e.g Brainstorm, Think-   small groups and    prompts and           technology       technology and
Pair-Share)               discuss topics or   technology/paper      (i.e. chat,      paper packets
                          ideas.              packets to            hand raising,    to brainstorm.
                                              brainstorm.           breakout
                                                                    rooms) to
                                                                    brainstorm.

Modeling                  Engage students/    Engage in-person      Engage           Engage
                          other leaders in    strategies and use    technology       technology (i.e.
                          modeling            technology (i.e.      (i.e.            recordings,
                          information and     recordings, videos)   recordings,      videos) to
                          ideas.              to share modeling.    videos) to       share
                                                                    share            modeling, if
                                                                    modeling.        available.

Compare/Contrast          Engage students     Use in-person         Use              Use technology
                          individually, in    strategies and        technology       and paper
                          pairs, or small     technology (i.e.      (i.e. breakout   packets to
                          groups to discuss   recordings, videos)   rooms, chat)     share.
                          topics or ideas.    to share.             to share.

Questioning (posing       Engage students     Engage in-person      Engage           Engage
problems)                 by asking           prompts and           technology to    technology and
                          questions or with   technology/paper      share            paper packets
                          problem             packets to share      questions.       to share
                          prompts.            questions.                             questions.

Project-based Learning    Facilitate a        Engage with           Engage           Engage
                          project based on    students in-person    through          through
                          student ideas       and through           technology.      technology and
                          and interests to    technology and                         paper packets.
                          meet learning       paper packets.
                          concepts.

                                               30
Instructional Strategy     In-Person            Hybrid/Blended          Online only         Remote

Disciplinary Literacy      Engage students      Engage in-person        Engage              Engage
(engaging through          in practical         disciplinary literacy   technology          technology and
reading and writing)       applications of      techniques.             for                 paper packets
                           information to       Determine               disciplinary        for disciplinary
                           build disciplinary   possible use of         literacy.           literacy.
                           literacy.            technology.

Reflective Feedback        Engage pairs or      Engage in-person        Engage              Engage
                           small groups to      and/or through          through             through
                           discuss and          technology/paper        technology          technology
                           provide              packets                 (i.e. full class,   and/or paper
                           feedback.                                    chat,               packet.
                                                                        breakout
                                                                        rooms)

  •    Moving from less like: Teachers posing questions with only one right answer
  •    Moving to more like: Students discussing open-ended questions that include more than one
       right way to respond.

Instructional Strategy     In-Person            Hybrid/Blended           Online only          Remote

Cooperative Learning:      Engage pairs or      Engage in-person         Engage               Engage
(e.g Brainstorm, Think-    small groups and     prompts and              technology (i.e.     technology
Pair-Share)                discuss topics or    technology/paper         chat, hand           and paper
                           ideas.               packets to               raising,             packets to
                                                brainstorm.              breakout             brainstorm.
                                                                         rooms) to
                                                                         brainstorm.

Compare/Contrast           Engage students      Use in-person            Use technology       Use
                           individually, in     strategies and           (i.e. breakout       technology
                           pairs, or small      technology (i.e.         rooms, chat) to      and paper
                           groups to discuss    recordings, videos)      share.               packets to
                           topics or ideas.     to share.                                     share.

                                                 31
Instructional Strategy      In-Person              Hybrid/Blended          Online only         Remote

Project-based Learning      Facilitate a project   Engage with             Engage through      Engage
                            based on student       students in-person      technology.         through
                            ideas and interests    and through                                 technology
                            to meet learning       technology and                              and paper
                            concepts.              paper packets.                              packets.

Disciplinary Literacy       Engage students in     Engage in-person        Engage              Engage
(engaging through           practical              disciplinary literacy   technology for      technology
reading and writing)        applications of        techniques.             disciplinary        and paper
                            information to         Determine               literacy.           packets for
                            build disciplinary     possible use of                             disciplinary
                            literacy.              technology.                                 literacy.

Questioning (posing         Engage students        Engage in-person        Engage           Engage
problems)                   by asking              prompts and             technology to    technology
                            questions or with      technology/paper        share questions. and paper
                            problem prompts.       packets to share                         packets to
                                                   questions.                               share
                                                                                            questions.

Reflective Feedback         Engage pairs or        Engage in-person        Engage through      Engage
                            small groups to        and/or through          technology (i.e.    through
                            discuss and            technology/paper        full class, chat,   technology
                            provide feedback.      packets                 breakout            and/or
                                                                           rooms)              paper
                                                                                               packet.

  •    Moving from less like: Pre-planned outcomes from “canned” performance-based activities
  •    Moving to more like: Multiple activities driven by students’ interest with a range of possible
       engagement outcomes that lead to a deeper understanding of established core dimensions.

                                                   32
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