W. Ryan Geister - Feb 2017 v1b

Trane ASHRAE Refrigerant Update

                                                                    Refrigerant Update
                                                                    THE NEXT TRANSITION HAS BEGUN

       W. Ryan Geister
           Intelligent Systems Leader
           Trane, An Ingersoll-Rand Company

                                CONFIDENTIAL AND PROPRIETARY INFORMATION OF TRANE & Ingersoll-Rand
           All slides contained within this presentation are property of Trane and cannot be used without explicit consent from Trane.

       Learning Objectives
       After viewing the presentation, attendees will be able to:
       •    Discuss the science behind why & how HVAC refrigerants are evolving.

       •    Summarize the drivers behind the new regulations & legislation for
            HVAC refrigerants.

       •    Discuss the actions being taken both globally (via the Kigali Amendment
            to the Montreal Protocol) & domestically (via the U.S. EPA).

       •    Compare & contrast current & next-generation refrigerant options, in
            terms of environmental impact, efficiency & safety.

                               Understand the facts today; plan for tomorrow

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       World Motivation Driving Actions
      Montreal Protocol targets new global agreements on greenhouse gases (GHGs)

           Global agreement targeting GHGs, including HFCs in global phase-down
                     Montreal Protocol: October 2016 at Rwanda, Africa

       What is Driving Action in the USA?
      Dramatic global growth of high-GWP HFCs

                     Alignment with support to sign Montreal Protocol Amendment

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       Global Consumption of HFCs
                                                          Source: UNEP Ozone Secretariat Fact Sheet 2
                                                                  “Overview of HFC Market Sectors” (Oct 2015)                                        12%

                   R-134a                                                                                                 79%                             7%

                   R-125                                                                                        RACHP                                     2%
       R-410A                 40%                                                                               Foam                                 0.3%
                   R-32                                   13%                   Markets                         Aerosals

                   R-143a                                                       Using HFCs                      Fire Protection
                                                                                                                Solvents             Total Metric Tons
                   R-152a                               9%
                                           7%     6%
                   Other HFCs
                                         Total Metric Tons                                            7%

                                                                        86%                             4%
                                                              RACHP                                    3%
                                                              Fire Protection
                                                              Solvents           Percent of Tons of CO2

       Global HFC use of Refrigerants in RACHP
      Refrigeration, Air-Conditioning, Heat Pump                                                                              Refrigeration

                                    Refrig                                                                                                    20%

                 65%                                                                  Air-Conditioning
                                                                                                                                    2%             5%
                                                                                                                                  Domestic       Transport
                       Air-Cond                                                              Mobile                 15%

                                                                                          Air-to-Air                              4%
                                                                                                                             Heat only HP
        Source: UNEP Ozone Secretariat Fact Sheet 2                                             45%
                “Overview of HFC Market Sectors” (Oct 2015)

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       World Motivation Shaped Action
      Montreal Protocol Targets New Global Agreement on Greenhouse Gases
       November 6, 2015

        “Pleased with the progress made, Stephen
         Yurek, president and CEO of the US Air
         Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration
         Institute (AHRI), said “AHRI’s member
         companies – including refrigerant producers
         and original equipment manufacturers – have
         proactively been researching potential
         alternative refrigerants to ensure that the
         world’s air conditioning and refrigeration
         equipment manufacturers will have access to
         appropriate refrigerants.”


                          Global agreement to include HFCs in Montreal Protocol

       World Taking Action!
      Montreal Protocol Agreement Made
       October 15, 2016

                                                Global agreement made!

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       Montreal Protocol HFC Amendment Agreement!
      Kigali Amendment drives global transitions based on GWP
       October 15, 2016
                                     A5 Group 1 (Developing Countries)                 A5 Group 2 (Developing Countries)               Non-A5 (Developed Countries)
        Baseline                     2020-2022                                         2024-2026                                       2011-2013
        Formula                      Average HFC consumption                           Average HFC consumption                         Average HFC consumption
        HCFC                         65% baseline                                      65% baseline                                    15% baseline*
        Freeze                       2024                                              2028                                            -
        1st step                     2029 – 10%                                        2032 – 10%                                      2019 – 10%
        2nd step                     2035 – 30%                                        2037 – 20%                                      2024 – 45%
        3rd step                     2040 – 50%                                        2042 – 30%                                      2029 – 70%
        4th step                                                                                                                       2034 – 80%
        Plateau                      2045 – 85%                                        2047 – 85%                                      2036 – 85%
         * For Belarus, Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan 25% HCFC component of baseline and different initial two steps – (1) 5% reduction in 2020
          and (2) 35% reduction in 2025
         1. Group 1: Article 5 parties not part of Group 2
         2. Group 2: GCC, India, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan
         3. Technology review in 2022 and every 5 years
         4. Technology review 4-5 years before 2028 to consider the compliance deferral of 2 years from the freeze of 2028 of Article 5 Group 2 to address growth in
            relevant sectors above certain threshold.                             * http://www.unep.org/NewsCentre/default.aspx?DocumentID=27086&ArticleID=36286

           Agreement goes into effect 1/1/19 if ratified by at least 20 countries*

       Montreal Protocol HFC Amendment Details
      Cooling Post: “The global HFC phase down – how it looks”                                                                                Developed (Article 2) Nations:
       October 16, 2016                                                                                                                        Developed Nations
                                                                                                                                               European Union
                                                                                                                                                Step down for developed nations
                                                                                                                                              Developing (Article 5) Nations:
                                                                                                                                               Group 1
                                                                                                                                               Group 2

                                                                          45% reduction by 2024

                                                                                                   70% reduction by 2029
                                                                                                                         80% reduction by 2034
                                                                                                                                 85% reduction by 2036


              Cap and phase down of HFCs starting in 2019 for developed nations

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      Global Pressure on Refrigerants Continues…

              The industry’s commitment to new solutions remains steadfast

       Where were we and where are we going?
                                                                                          Trane discussed ozone
         Past      (CFCs)                                                                 depletion, global warming,
           R-12, R-11, R-113, & more…             ODP                                    and energy efficiency as all
                                                                                          being equally important.
                    or no ODP                                                                  As stated in 1991 Trane Article
                                                                                                          for HPAC Magazine.

                Transitional (HCFCs & HFCs)
                         R-22, R-134a, R-410A, R-407C
                         R-123, R-404A R-245fa, & more…
                                                                        GWP            Balanced approach minimizes
                                                                                        overall environmental impact:
                                   GWP & De Minimis ODP                                 • Ozone depletion
                                                                                        • Energy efficiency
                                                                                        • Refrigerant emissions
                                   Next-Generation                    (HFOs & blends)
                                                                                        • Global warming
                                        R-1234yf, R-1234ze, R-1233zd, R-513A,
                                        R-1336mzz, R-514A, R-452B, R-454B, & more…      • Atmospheric life

                 Refrigerant selection focused on minimizing overall impacts

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      What Actions Have Been Taken Already
        European Union F-Gas Regulations
        1-1-2013 de facto ban on R-134a in new                                       Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE)
        model vehicles per
                                                                                     The 2012-2016 Standards offered credits for using low-GWP
        Directive 2006/40/EC for
                                                                                     refrigerants instead of R-134a, with ban in 2021:
        Mobile AC
                                                                                      • ~ 3-4 MPG for changing refrigerant
                                                                                      • ~ 5 MPG for overall system changes

                                                                                     Vehicles using R-1234yf refrigerant (United States)
                                                   During this, Interview,               BMW I3, I8                          Range Rover Sport
                                                   Stephen Yurek, president              Cadillac XTS                        Subaru BRZ, Forrester, Impreza
                                                   of AHRI, discusses new                Chevrolet Spark EV, Malibu, Trax    Tesla Model S
                                                   research collaboration                Chrysler 200, 300
                                                   with the USA DOE and                  Dodge Challenger, Charger, Dart
                                                   the international                     Ford Transit
                                                                                         Honda Fit EV
                                                   momentum for aggressive
                                                                                         Hyundai Santa Fe, i30
                                                   timelines to phase-down               Infinity Q50
                                                   HFCs along with how will              Jeep Cherokee
                                                   industry work to comply in            Kia Sorento, Optima, Carenz
       http://www.eenews.net/videos/2138?                                                Mazda CX-5
                                                   phasing-out of HFCs.
       platform=hootsuite                                                                Mitsubishi Mirage

                   Auto industry began transition in 2006; HVAC industry is next

       US Government Partnership with Industry
      Executive action to reduce GHG emissions & spur a global phasing-out of HFCs
                                            White House statement: “These industry associations and companies are making significant commitments
                                            to phase out or phase down their use of HFCs and transition to climate-friendly alternatives, good for the
                                            environment and good for business,”
                                            AHRI president and CEO Stephen Yurek stated: “Close to $2bn has been spent by the industry since 2009
                                            researching energy-efficient equipment and the utilization of low-GWP refrigerants,” Yurek stated, “and over
                                            the next 10 years, the HVACR industry will invest an additional $5bn for r&d and capital expenditures to
                                            develop and commercialize low-GWP technologies.”

        In 2014 22 companies committed to cutting GHG emissions by 2020 – Comments from Top 5 HVAC Companies

        Announced that its commitment to pursue the commercialization of HFC-free refrigerants in road transportation refrigeration by 2020.

        Announced that it’s championing a stakeholder task force to accelerate adoption of standards and building codes for next generation, low-
        GWP refrigerants.

        Announced that it commits to using the lowest GWP option for each application that best fits the needs of its customers. It also committed
        to spend an additional $50 million over the next three years to develop new products and improve and expand its existing portfolio.

        Commitment to help slash greenhouse gas emissions by developing low-global warming potential (GWP) air conditioners and/or heat
        pumps. Daikin aims to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions in 2020 to one-quarter of its 2005 emissions.

        Commitment to slashing greenhouse gas emissions at their operations by 35%, reduce refrigerant-related GHG associated with our products
        by 50% (increased unit efficiency and the transition to lower GWP refrigerants) and will invest $500M in research and development… all by

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      Industry Consensus & Agreement with NRDC
      AHRI support of the phase-out of HFCs
                                                                               “US Environmental group the Natural Resources
       February 1, 2016
                                                                                Defense Council (NRDC) and the Air Conditioning,
                                                                                Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) are said to
                                                                                have agreed on a schedule for eliminating the use of
                                                                                the refrigerants in new chillers of all types and sizes.”

                                Industry support of phase-out by January 1, 2025

      Proposed Changes to HFC Acceptability

         March 23, 2016                                                  March 29, 2016
        “…prohibit the manufacture and import of certain               “…this action proposes to list a number of
        refrigeration and air conditioning products that               substances as acceptable, subject to use
        contain HFCs with a global warming potential                   conditions; to list several substances as
        (GWP) greater than a specified value…”                         unacceptable…” changes status to
                                                                       “unacceptable” for certain HFC refrigerants:
        • Stand-alone Med Temp Commercial Refrigeration
            (Jan 1, 2020 – GWP > 650)                                  • Centrifugal Chillers (Jan 1, 2024)
        • Stand-alone Low Temp Commercial Refrigeration                  R-134a, R-410A, R-407C, R-245fa…
            (Jan 1, 2020 – GWP >1500)                                  • Positive Displacement Chillers (Jan 1, 2024)
        • Centralized Refrigeration                                      R-134a, R-410A, R-407C, R-245fa…
            (Jan 1, 2020 – GWP >1500)                                  • Cold Storage Warehouses (Jan 1, 2023)
        • Chillers - Centrifugal & Positive Displacement               • Retail Food Refrigeration (Jan 1, 2021)
           (Jan 1, 2025 – GWP >700)                                    • Household Refrigerators/Freezers (Jan 1, 2021)
        • Domestic Refrigeration                                                                          https://www.epa.gov/snap/snap-regulations
           (Jan 1, 2025 – GWP > 150)
        • Mobile Refrigeration                                                           • All HVAC Refrigerants >750 GWP (Jan 1, 2021)
           (Jan 1, 2025 – GWP > 2200)                                                          • Effectively phasing out R-134a, R-410A
         https://www.ec.gc.ca/ozone/default.asp?lang=En&n=77A94123-1    California EPA                  http://www.arb.ca.gov/cc/shortlived/shortlived.htm

             US Final Rule pending; Canada & California still out for public review

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      Final Ruling on HFC Acceptability in Chillers

        September 26th 2016     https://www.epa.gov/snap/snap-regulati`ons

        “These two rules demonstrate the United States’
        continued leadership in protecting public health and
        the environment,” said EPA Administrator Gina
        McCarthy. “We are reducing emissions of HFCs
        that are harmful to the climate system and showing
        the world that we can do this responsibly and
        thoughtfully by working with businesses and
        environmental groups. I’m especially excited that
        we have taken these actions ahead of next month’s
        Montreal Protocol negotiations.”
        • Centrifugal Chillers (Jan 1, 2024)
          R-134a, R-410A, R-407C, R-245fa…
        • Positive Displacement Chillers (Jan 1, 2024)
          R-134a, R-410A, R-407C, R-245fa…
        • Cold Storage Warehouses (Jan 1, 2023)
        • Retail Food Refrigeration (Jan 1, 2021)
        • Household Refrigerators/Freezers (Jan 1, 2021)                                 http://www.coolingpost.com/world-news/us-places-bans-on-r404a-and-r134a/

                                    US phase-out of HFCs in chillers 1/1/2024

      Final Rule 21: Protection of Stratospheric Ozone:
      SNAP: Significant New Alternatives Policy


                                    EPA mechanism for managing regulations

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      Where can I learn more?
      U.S. EPA proposals & rulings documented in the Federal Register


          Federal mechanism for documenting rulings & proposals for the public

       Review of Current and Pending Regulations
      Ban on shipment of new equipment with HFCs

                     AC & Refrig – Retail Food             AC & Refrig – Motor Vehicles                  AC – Chillers (ALL)
                     R-404A, R-134a, R-507A…               R-134a                                        R-134a, R-407C, R-410A…

        Significant New             Aerosols & Propellants
        Alternatives Policy         R-134a, R-227ea & Blends

                                                                                         ALL HFCs – Com/Res
                                                                    2021 Model Year

                                                                                         Any HFC with a GWP > 750
        California EPA

                                                                                                                                        AC – Chillers (ALL)
                                                                                                                                        Any HFC with a GWP > 700
        Environment and
        Climate Change Canada
                   2016        2017         2018        2019                      2020       2021       2022        2023         2024         2025          2026

                                      Final Rulings                                                    Proposed Regulations
                 HFC phase-out dates for high-GWP refrigerants in US & Canada

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       US EPA Tightens HFC Regulations
       Changes to Section 608 Refrigerant Management Regulations of the Federal Clean Air Act

         Overview of Changes                                      Old Requirement                       EPA Final Rule (changes indicated in red)

                                                                                          CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs and all other replacement refrigerants (HFOs,
         Refrigerants Covered                                     CFCs and HCFCs
                                                                                                                HFO blends, etc.)
         Allowable Leak Rates (50+ lbs. of refrigerant)
                      Industrial Process Refrigeration                 35%                                                   30%
                           Commercial Refrigeration                    35%                                                   20%
                         Comfort Cooling Equipment                     15%                                                   10%
                                                                                                         If allowable leak rate is exceeded, then:
         Leak Inspections                                          None Required                               50-500 lbs.: annual inspections
                                                                                                               500+ lbs.: quarterly inspections
                                                                                                                    5+ lbs. for disposal
         Recordkeeping Requirement                                    50+ lbs.
                                                                                                                 50+ lbs. for service/repair
                                                                 None Required            If leaks ≥ 125% of charge in a calendar year, must submit detailed
         Chronic Leaks
                                                             (“should be repaired”)             reports of efforts to identify leaks and repair equipment


               Leak-tight machines gaining advantage – enhancing hermetic appeal

       What if the U.S. Senate does not ratify Kigali?
       Manufacturing members of AHRI still need to comply

                                                                                                                                                 January 30, 2017

        (Francis Dietz, vice president of public affairs, AHRI)

                  Compliance not optional; ratification enables orderly phase down

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       Industry Supporting Global Actions
      “AHRI has largely supported the phasedown of HFCs”

                             Industry Spokesperson Demonstrates Positive Support

       Industry Supports Ratification of Kigali Amendment
      Letter to Trump Administration

                                                                              January 6, 2017


                   HVACR Alliance urges alignment of US policy with global actions

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       AHRI Letter to Executive Branch
      Call for Congressional Action
         Vice President-Elect Mike Pence                         December 21, 2016

         “Congressional action should be taken to enable U.S. industry to
          solidify its position as the global leader of innovation, job creation,
          and production of energy efficient products and equipment. The
          industry encourages the following actions in pursuit of that goal.”
          • “Submit the Kigali Amendment on the usage of hydrofluorocarbons to the
            Montreal Protocol to the Senate for ratification.
          • …”

         “… AHRI… firmly support a number of current programs and
          regulations that bring predictability and consistency to our
         • Maintain the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Significant New
           Alternatives Program (SNAP) as established under Section 612 of the Clean Air
           Act. The EPA’s ability to list alternative refrigerants by issuing new rules and
           maintaining previous rules continues to allow for flexibility in our members’
           product designs while pursuing health and safety for consumers in the
         • …”

                                       Industry Support of Kigali Amendment

       US EPA to Tighten HFC Regulations
      EPA offers Documents to provide clarity


                                              See the EPA website for details

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      Next-Generation Refrigerants
      More variables; balancing offers challenges
                                                                                                             AHRI Low-GWP Alternative
                                                                                                           Refrigerant Evaluation Program


                                                                                                                                                In 2010 ASHRAE 34
                                                                                                                                             Development of a new class
                                                                                                                                                  “2L,” defined as:

                                                                                                                                                “Difficult to Ignite &
                                                                                                                                             Not all 2L refrigerant are equal

                                                                                     Some next-generation refrigerants offer new challenges

      HVAC Industry Next Transition Begins                                                                                                                                 Past       Transitional       Future
      Next-Generation Refrigerants now available…

                                                                                                                                                                                                                       2L refrigerants; range from 0-10 cm/sec.
                                                                                            Low Pressure                             Medium Pressure                                High Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                       BV represents “Burning Velocity” of
                                                                                                                                                      BV 0.0   BV 1.5                      BV 3.0    BV 3.8   BV 6.7
                                All variables held constant for comparison
       Refrigerant Efficiency

                                                                                                                                                       2L       2L                          2L        2L       2L

                                                                                   Non-   Non-                     Non-
                                                                                   ASME   ASME                     ASME
                                                                                   R-11   R-123   R-245fa R-1233zd R-514A   R-12    R-134a    R-513A R-1234ze R-1234yf   R-22     R-410A   R-452B    R-454B   R-32
       Operating Pressure



                                                                                      Industry available choices offer high efficiency options

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       High Pressure Replacements                                                                                                                     Blend
                                                                                                                                                    26% R-1234yf
           HCFC                                   HFC                                                  Low GWP                            R-452B      7% R-125
                                                                                                                                                      67% R-32

                                                              50% R-125
                                                               50% R-32
                                                                                                                                                             31% R-1234yf
                                                 R-410A                                                                                            R-454B      69% R-32

                                                                   52% R-134a
                                                                    25% R-125
                                                      R-407C         23% R-32

       Driving Factors
       • Performance
       • Safety                        R-32
       • Cost

                                      Next transition with high pressure refrigerants

       High Pressure Refrigerant Replacements
      Drop-in test results
                                                                                                                     Efficiency [Drop-in test R-410A unit]

       •   Drop-in of R-452B into York
           residential heat pump designed                                                                                                                          (R-452B)
                                                                                          COP [Relative to R-410A]

           for R-410A

       •   Chemours made no system or
           lubricant changes to the unit

       •   R-452B delivered:
              nearly 5% improvement in energy efficiency
              equivalent cooling capacity
              discharge temperatures similar to R-410A.


                R-452B: Better performance than R-410A at all 3 global conditions

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       Flammability Properties Vary

                                  The definition of “2L” is being evaluated

       High Pressure Refrigerant Replacements
      Safety review

       Tests have shown that R-452B exhibits:
         a slower burning velocity (BV) and
         higher minimum ignition energy (MIE) requirement
            when compared to R-32

        R-452B is 5X less flammable than R-32

       Although R-452B has the same A2L “mildly flammable”
       classification as R-32, Chemours maintains that some global
       OEMs have indicated that the lower flammability properties
       are compelling and are likely to be an important
       consideration in product selection, especially for larger
       charge size equipment.
                                                                     R-452B    R-454B   R-32
        AND… Almost 70% reduction in GWP vs. R-410A                 (DR-55)

                                    Not all 2L refrigerants are the same…

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       Visual Examples of Burning Velocity
       Differences with 2L Flammable Refrigerants

           R-32                                             R-1234yf

           Burning Velocity                                 Burning Velocity
            6.7 cm/sec                                       1.5 cm/sec

           Minimum Ignition Energy                          Minimum Ignition Energy
             >30 mj                                           >5000 mj

             Not all 2L refrigerants have the same flammability characteristics

      Refrigerant Choices & Comparison
      Screw & Centrifugal Technology Options

                       Chiller efficiency impacted by refrigerant choice

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       What refrigerant do I buy?
       •    There are no perfect refrigerants

       •    Take a balanced approach:
            Safety, Environmental Impact, Efficiency

       •    R-123, R-134a, R-410A, R-404A, R-407C are all responsible HVAC
            refrigerant choices… today

       •    Leak tightness is key!
            Means lower emissions, higher efficiencies, lower cost, safer

       •    Next-generation alternatives are available; only A1/B1 refrigerants
            offer clear and immediate solutions… it’s time to evaluate your options

                          Understand the facts today; plan for tomorrow

       How Can I Protect My Investment?
      Total cost of ownership encompasses total carbon footprint

           “First Cost” (chiller + refrigerant )    4.92%
           Lifetime Service Costs*                 6.53%
           Lifetime Refrigerant Supply*            0.04%
           Lifetime Electrical Costs               88.51%
            All refrigerants used today are and will be
             – available for the life of the equipment.
                Focus on reliable, efficient designs!

            And let the manufacturer worry about the        30 Year Investment
                         A balanced approach, with a focus on efficiency
                                                                   * Based on low-pressure, hermetic design

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        History of HVAC/R Refrigerants
                  1st Generation                     2nd Generation                3rd Generation            4th Generation
          “What Ever Worked”                    “Safety & Stability”       “Ozone Protection”            “Global Warming”

                 1830’s – 1930’s                      1930’s – 1990’s            1990’s – 2010’s              2010 - ??

          • Limited applications              • Innovation enabled         • Preserved 2nd gen.         • Fewer optimal choices
            mainly industrial                   exponential societal         innovations, safety,       • Safety & design
          • Poor safety & high cost             improvements                 stability and efficiency     challenges

          •    Carbon Dioxide (CO2)           • Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)       • Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)       • Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)
          •    Water (H2O)                    • CFCs & HCFCs               • HCFCs & HFCs               • HFOs & HFC/HFO Blends
          •    Ammonia (NH3)                     •   R-11    • R-113         •    R-123 • R-404A          • R-1234yf • R-1233zd
          •    Various HCs                       •   R-12    • R-114         •    R-134a • Many more      • R-1234ze • Blends….
          •    Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)              •   R-22    • Many more     •    R-407C   blends….     • Renewed Interest “Natural”
          •    Methyl Chloride (CH3Cl)           •   R-502     blends….      •    R-410A                  • CO2      • HCs

                       Societal demands continue to drive refrigerant innovations

       Documentation & Sources


                                           Data sources & additional information

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      How do I Find Out More?
       November 2015 meetings:

       …and industry support:


                      Rule 20 (July 2015) – Prohibition on the use of certain high-GWP HFCs as alternatives
                      Final Rule: https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2015-07-20/pdf/2015-17066.pdf
                      Fact Sheet: http://www.epa.gov/snap/final-rule-protection-stratospheric-ozone-change-listing-status-certain-substitutes-under

       AHRI/NRDC petition (February 1, 2016):

                  Additional references to learn more about impending transitions

      How do I Find Out More? (cont.)
      R-452B (formerly “DR-55”):

                       AHRI’s Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program

                       Kujak S., Thompson, M. “Future of refrigeration and air conditioning in 2032; insights into design and market challenges with lower global
                       warming potential (GWP) refrigerant candidates.” Cryogenics and Refrigeration-Proceedings of ICCR2013. Paper ID: B-4-10.

      Trane / Ingersoll Rand:

      Considerations for Next-Generation HVAC Refrigerants (February 2015)

      HVAC Refrigerants: A Balanced Approach (June 2011)

      CenTraVac™ Chiller Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) – UL Environment Sustainable Products Guide

                  Additional references to learn more about impending transitions

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      Other References:
       (Overview of HFC Market Sectors, April 2015)
                                                                                         Global Pressure on ALL Refrigerants:
       http://www.epa.gov/ozone/downloads/HFC_Amendment_2013-Summary.pdf                 • Powell, Peter. “HFCs Are On Shaky Ground.” ACHR News.
       (Nice summary of North American proposal to Montreal Protocol)                      July 26, 2004.
       http://www.achrnews.com/articles/122923-the-future-of-hfcs-in-montreal-protocol • Powell, Peter. “Refrigerant Talk Turns to HFOs.” ACHR News.
       (April 2013, quotes from other HVAC companies)                                      August 11, 2008.
                                                                                         • Turner, Fred. “Commentary: Midgley’s Legacy.” ASHRAE
       http://www.epa.gov/ozone/intpol/mpagreement.html                                    Journal. July 2010.
       (Sept 2013, fact sheets on the right side of page – focuses on refrigeration, but • Wilkins, Robert. “The Global Debate On The Phasedown of
        shows next refrigerants)                                                           HFC Refrigerants.” Engineered Systems. December 2011.
       (Sep 2013, G20 nations sign agreement to curtail HFCs)
       (Oct 2013, U.S. and India joint agreement on HFC phasedown)
       (Mar 2014, New EU F-gas regulation passed)
       (Learn more about The Alliance for Responsible Atmospheric Policy)
       (Jul 2014, Article on proposed EPA bans/reductions on HFC refrigerants through SNAP)

                  Additional references to learn more about impending transitions

      SNAP Ruling Documentation
      (Unacceptable Refrigerants & Those Subject to Restrictions)
       U.S. Government Publishing Office/Electronic Code of Federal Regulations
       Title 40 > Chapter I > Subchapter C > Part 82 > Subpart G

                                                                                  Find the Appendix with the ruling of interest:

                                                                                   Appendix U -- http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-

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                     Thank you for your time and attention!

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