Unesco.org - Building peace in the minds of men and women

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Unesco.org - Building peace in the minds of men and women

                                  UNESCO 2010
                                                           United Nations
                United Nations                  Educational, Scientific and
     Educational, Scientific and                     Cultural Organization
         Cultural Organization

     Building peace
      in the minds
  of men and women

Unesco.org - Building peace in the minds of men and women
Mehdi Benchelah, who began working for UNESCO in Haiti in March 2010, organizes support
for media productions and training for Haitian journalists. He has set up computer training
and internet access for people made homeless by the earthquake and coordinates
cultural activities. He is seen here after a book distribution for the children of Camp Carrefour.
© UNESCO/Eddy Nohile

Published in March 2011
by the Sector for External Relations and Public Information
of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and                                                             For further information,
Cultural Organization (UNESCO).                                                                                          please contact
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Unesco.org - Building peace in the minds of men and women
Unesco.org - Building peace in the minds of men and women
                                                                                                                                                                               by Ms Irina Bokova, Director-General of UNESCO
                                                                                                                                                                               I took up my duties as Director-General of UNESCO under the banner of reform.

                                                                                                                                                       © UNESCO/M. Ravassard
                                                                                                                                                                               2010 was marked by several decisive steps, from the formation of a new executive team and the shaping of
                                                                                                                                                                               a new management structure to significant administrative reorganization. Throughout all of our activities,
                                                                                                                                                                               we are strengthening synergies with our strategic partners, within the United Nations system and beyond.
                                                                                                                                                                               For instance in the field of education, for the first time in several years, thanks to UNESCO, the directors of
                                                                                                                                                                               the five Education for All agencies convened to coordinate better and move forward together. I decided to
                                                                                                                                                                               establish liaison offices with the African Union in Addis Ababa and with the European Union in Brussels. We
                                                                                                                                                                               have launched a reform of our network of field offices to strengthen our ability to respond to the expectations
                                                                                                                                                                               of Member States and their societies.
                                                                                                                                                                               We must take this deep change much further, refocusing our priorities to become more effective. UNESCO’s
                                                                                                                                                                               message will resonate best through concrete results. In 2010, the earthquake in Haiti and the floods
                                                                                                                                                                               in Pakistan underlined the urgent need to step up collective efforts. UNESCO intervened immediately to
                                                                                                                                                                               protect and reconstruct the educational, scientific and cultural fabric of these countries. Throughout the year,
                                                                                                                                                                               UNESCO took the lead in mobilizing resources for the deeper integration of education, science and culture
                                                                                                                                                                               into development policies. An important step was taken in September, when the link between culture,
                                                                                                                                                                               cultural diversity and development was explicitly recognized at the United Nations’ High-Level Meeting on
                                                                                                                                                                               the Millennium Development Goals in New York. This is an important step towards a new humanism.
                                                                                                                                                                               It is signal proof of the enduring relevance of UNESCO’s mission, 65 years after its creation. All of our fields
                                                                                                                                                                               of activity are undergoing change today. The internet has revolutionized the way people think and act for
                                                                                                                                                                               education, research, freedom of expression and culture. The growing importance of educational, scientific
                                                                                                                                                                               and cultural diplomacy is defining a new model of development and a new art of peace. UNESCO is placing
                                                                                                                                                                               itself at the forefront of these changes. This first annual review highlights the wealth of our programmes. It
                                                                                                                                                                               also shows the close links that exist between biodiversity and cultural diversity, between education and new
                                                                                                                                                                               technologies, between scientific research and respect for human rights. We will continue to move in these
                                                                                                                                                                               directions, and we will succeed as long as we all act together.
New senior management team appointed by Irina Bokova.
From left to right: Jānis Kārkliņš, Assistant Director-General for Communication and Information; Lalla Aïcha Ben Barka, Assistant Director-General,
Africa Department; Gretchen Kalonji, Assistant Director-General for Natural Sciences; Qian Tang, Assistant Director-General for Education;
Getachew Engida, Deputy Director-General; Irina Bokova, Director-General; Hans d’Orville, Assistant Director-General for Strategic Planning;
Francesco Bandarin, Assistant Director-General for Culture; Khadija Ribes Zammouri, Assistant Director-General for Administration;
María del Pilar Álvarez-Laso, Assistant Director-General for Social and Human Sciences;
Eric Falt, Assistant Director-General for External Relations and Public Information.
Unesco.org - Building peace in the minds of men and women
                                                             Chapitre 1
                                                                 UNESCO’s post-disaster response                     7
                                                             Chapitre 2
                                                                 Working towards the Millennium Development Goals   19
                                                             Chapitre 3
                                                                 Knowledge sharing                                  31
                                                             Chapitre 4
                                                                 Safeguarding and promoting cultural diversity      43
                                                             Chapitre 5
                                                                 Safeguarding our planet                            55
                                                             Chapitre 6
                                                                 Peace and dialogue                                 67
                                                             Chapitre 7
                                                                 Defending human rights                             79

                                                             Annexes                                               89
© UNESCO/M. Ravassard

                        UNESCO’s blossoming garden heralds
                        the arrival of spring.
Unesco.org - Building peace in the minds of men and women
Chapter 1

© UNESCO/F. Brugman

                      Close to 90% of schools in
                      Haiti’s West Department were
                      damaged or destroyed by the
                      January earthquake. UNESCO
                      developed an emergency
                      curriculum and trained over
                      3,000 education workers to deal
                      with trauma.
Unesco.org - Building peace in the minds of men and women
UNESCO’s post-disaster response
A series of severe natural disasters in all parts of the world marked                                                  implementation of the Tsunami and other
                                                                                                                       Coastal Hazards Warning System for the
2010 with tragic consequences. These events tested to the full                                                         Caribbean and Adjacent Regions, in order
UNESCO’s capacities for rapid response. The Organization participated                                                  to be prepared for future tsunamis.
in 15 of the 25 humanitarian appeals launched by the United                                                            Emergency education relief
Nations, with project proposals in 13 post-conflict and post-disaster                                                  Immediately after the disaster,
countries and regions. Some of these initiatives are described below.                                                  UNESCO opened up its premises to
                                                                                                                       host the Minister of Education and
Meanwhile, post-conflict and post-disaster work continued in many                                                      his cabinet, whose buildings were
other countries, including Iraq and Afghanistan.                                                                       destroyed, and helped with a damage
                                                                                                                       and needs assessment of schools and
                                                                                                                       education institutions. With close to
                      ■■   Haiti                                      Strengthening risk preparedness
                                                                                                                       90% of schools in the country’s West
                                                                                                                       Department damaged or destroyed, and
                      Within hours of news of the devastation         As part of the response, UNESCO’s                more than 450,000 children displaced, an
                      caused by the magnitude 7.0 earthquake          Intergovernmental Oceanographic                  urgent priority was to re-open schools in
                      and tsunami that struck Haiti on                Commission (IOC) initiated a project to          temporary facilities and provide students
                      12 January 2010, a crisis cell linking          recover and strengthen Haiti’s Warning           with learning materials.
                      Paris Headquarters to the Port-au-Prince        Services for Coastal Hazards. The                     By the time schools reopened, an
                      and regional offices began to prepare           project is focused on coastal hazards            emergency curriculum had been developed
                      UNESCO’s emergency response. In Haiti,          risk assessment, technical assistance            and disseminated with UNESCO’s support,
                      UNESCO’s staff and office premises were         such as installation of a tide gauge, as         prioritizing the most important subjects,
                      fortunately unharmed and throughout             well as capacity-building and training,          while others were left out or postponed to
                      the year a significantly reinforced team        in cooperation with the relevant                 fit the reduced school year and thus allow
                      helped develop and deliver a series of          national agencies. Besides working to            students to pass to the next grade.
                      short- and longer-term initiatives in the       strengthen Haiti’s preparedness and                   Tackling the psychological impact
Children in Haiti’s   fields of education, science, culture and       response to natural hazards, UNESCO also         of the disaster on children, adolescents
camps received six    communication.                                  renewed efforts to ensure the effective          and teachers was another immediate
thousands books.                                                                                                       concern. To equip educators with the
                                                                                                                       skills to recognize trauma and alleviate

                                                                                                                                                                                                  UNESCO’s post-disaster response
                                                                                                                       stress-related symptoms both inside and
                                                                      A book for a child in Haiti                      outside the classroom, UNESCO with its
                                                                      Six thousand children’s books, many donated      partners trained over 3,000 secondary-
                                                                      by UNESCO staff, were circulating in 12 camps    school teachers and other educational
                                                                      and 22 schools by late 2010 thanks to UNESCO’s   personnel on learner-centred psycho-
                                                                      initiative “Un livre pour un enfant d’Haïti”
                                                                      (“A book for a child in Haiti”), launched in       Pétionville golf club transformed into refugee
                                                                      collaboration with NGO Bibliothèques sans           camp. UNESCO launched Mobile Multimedia
                                                                      Frontières (Libraries without Borders).                   Units at this and other camps in Haiti.
                                                                                                                                                 © UNESCO/M. Benchelah
                                              © UNESCO/M. Benchelah                                                                                                       © UNESCO/M. Benchelah
8                                                                                                                                                                                                             9
Unesco.org - Building peace in the minds of men and women
UNESCO efforts helped
                                                                                                                                                    safeguard valuable art
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           “Culture must go hand in hand with humanitarian aid. It must be present in Haiti’s reconstruction
                                                                                                                                                    collections. National Centre
                                                                                                                                                    of Art, Haiti.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           strategies because culture and development are closely linked.” Irina Bokova, Director-General

                                                                                                                                                    ensuring the safekeeping of collections                                who beacame unemployed after the              training and internet access. A blog was

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               © MINUSTAH/L. Abassi
                                                                                                                                                    such as the archives of Haitian historian                              earthquake to produce two programmes          created for each refugee camp to further
                                                                                                                                                    Georges Corvington. UNESCO also joined                                 a week for Radio nationale d’Haïti. A         social networks onsite, and to provide
                                                                                                                                                    forces with INTERPOL to prevent illicit art                            centre to house Haiti’s journalist unions     internally displaced populations with
                                                                                                                                                    trafficking by establishing a Red List of                              was funded by UNESCO and International        an opportunity to communicate their
                                                                                                                                                    artefacts. A temporary work space and                                  Media Support. A Master’s in journalism       everyday reality to the outside world.
                                                                                                                                                    materials enabled over 200 craftspeople                                was created at the University of Quisqueya
                                                                                                                                                    to continue preparing for the traditional                              and began in September 2010, set up in        ■■   Chile
                                                                                                                                                    Jacmel Carnival. Theatre performances                                  cooperation with the Paris Training Center
                                                                                                                                                    and creative workshops for children                                    for Journalists (CFPJ), and with assistance   Responding to the earthquake
                                                                                                                                                    took place in six refugee camps.                                       from UNESCO, the European Union and the       and tsunami in Chile
                                                                                                                                                    Technical assistance was provided for the                              French Embassy in Haiti.                      Just 12 minutes after a series of severe
                                                                                                                                                    conservation of the National History Park                                                                            earthquakes hit central Chile on
                                                                                                                                                    – Citadel, Sans Souci, Ramiers, which is a                             Internet for youths                           27 February 2010, the Pacific Tsunami                                                                                      Internally displaced
                                                                                                                                                    World Heritage site, as well as the historic                           in the refugee camps                          Warning Center in Hawaii, USA, issued                                        near-field. In the immediate aftermath        youth improve their
                                                                                                                                                    centre of Jacmel.                                                      Internet access and informal computer         a regional warning. This first real-scale                                    of the tsunami, a rapid survey was made       computer skills at
                                                                                                                                                        An International Coordination                                      and search engine training was provided       test of the system coordinated by the                                        of zones affected, in order to improve        the Tabarre Issa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    refugee camp with
                                                                                                                                                    Committee for the Safeguarding of Haitian                              to young people living in six refugee         IOC showed that it performed promptly                                        preparedness plans in the future. A full      the assistance of
                                                                                                                                                    Cultural Heritage (ICC) was established                                camps in Port-au-Prince through a mobile      and efficiently. However, close to the                                       international tsunami team survey,            UNESCO.
                                                                                                                                                    to galvanize the international community                               multimedia unit. Some 1,500 young             epicentre – too near for being warned                                        conducted in partnership with the
                                                                                                                                                    into action and to bring together all                                  people living in the camps were able          within 12 minutes – there were over                                          UNESCO-supported International Tsunami

                                                                                                                              © UNESCO/F. Brugman
                                                                                                                                                    stakeholders to determine priorities                                   to connect with the outside world             100 fatalities, indicating the need for                                      Information Center, facilitated information
                                                                                                                                                    in the short and medium term. On the                                   and improve their educational and             an upgrade of the system, especially                                         gathering and sharing by international
                                                                                                                                                    basis of the ICC’s recommendations, a                                  professional prospects through this           to meet warning requirements for the                                         experts.
                                                                                                                                                    series of project proposals was drawn
                                                                                                                                                    up for submission to a donor conference
                                  social support. This was linked to basic       Rebuilding Haiti’s social fabric                                   in support of Haitian cultural heritage,                                                                             Training for Haitian Women Community Radio Broadcasters
                                  disaster preparedness, with the psycho-        through culture                                                    organized at Headquarters in spring 2011.                                                                            Gender balance in community radio is of great importance and REFRAKA, the Haitian Network of
UNESCO’s post-disaster response

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     UNESCO’s post-disaster response
                                  social support elements and disaster risk      Convinced of the healing power and                                                                                                                                                      Women Community Radio Broadcasters, was given support following the destruction of its premises.
                                  reduction methodologies integrated into        potential of culture for reconstruction                            The role of the media                                                                                                Women were trained in radio production techniques and gender-sensitive reporting. A community
                                  the national curricula and teacher training.   and nation-building, UNESCO focused                                The media play a crucial role in                                                                                     radio station, Vedek FM, was created in Cap Rouge, a region home to some 18,000 people previously
                                      A nationwide census of all technical and   on reactivating cultural industries and                            disseminating post-disaster information                                                                              unable to capture radio signals. Training in radio production techniques, presenting and reporting was
                                  vocational centres was launched and the        the performing arts, and safeguarding                              and a series of workshops on natural                                                                                 given to 25 local people. The radio focus is on the sustainable development of the community.

                                                                                                                                                                                                   © UNESCO/M. Benchelah
                                  first five centres are being reconstructed     museums, archives and libraries as well as                         disaster reporting was organized for                                                                                 In response to the cholera outbreak, information sessions on the disease and methods of preventing its
                                  and equipped. In partnership with the Camp     world and intangible heritage.                                     250 media professionals. Post-trauma                                                                                 spread were held for journalists in several regions. Five short animation clips to sensitize children to the
                                  Perrin technical training centre, a course         In the emergency phase, efforts                                sessions were given to a total of                                                                                    cholera outbreak were produced in cooperation with the authorities, featuring the Haitian street-kid
                                  was established to instruct 240 masons in      focused on protecting collapsed heritage                           170 journalists. Over a three-month                                                                                  cartoon character, Ti-Joel, who explains vital methods for the prevention of its spread.
                                  earthquake-resistant construction.             sites from looting, removal of rubble, and                         period, support was given to journalists
    10                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                11
Unesco.org - Building peace in the minds of men and women
Education – the emergency response             sector. On 17 March, Chile’s Minister of        ■■   Pakistan
                                  One week prior to the earthquake, UNESCO       Education announced its goal to have all
                                  held a capacity development workshop           students in the affected areas back in class    Helping the education system
                                  on Disaster Risk Reduction for technical       in 45 days. This milestone was successfully     recover
                                  specialists at ministries of education         achieved on 26 April with support from          Over 500,000 children were kept out of
                                  across Latin America and the Caribbean.        the UN and UNESCO, which continues to           school by Pakistan’s worst flood disaster
                                  Within hours of the earthquake, workshop       support the Ministry of Education’s efforts     in 80 years, which began in late July
                                  participants from Chile’s Ministry of          to provide quality education for all in areas   2010 following heavy monsoon rains.
                                  Education contacted UNESCO to develop          affected by the earthquake and tsunami,         UNESCO helped prepare the Flood Impact
                                  a rapid needs assessment tool (a good          and across the country.                         Analysis to enable the government
                                  practice addressed the previous week).                                                         to assess reconstruction needs and
                                  This was done and, with funds from the         ■■   Namibia                                    raise international funds to bridge the
                                  UN Central Emergency Relief Fund, UNESCO                                                       funding gap. To address the learning
                                  delivered urgent humanitarian relief to help   Working with schools and radio                  needs of flood-affected communities,
                                  restart primary and secondary schooling        stations to improve disaster risk               110 Adult Literacy and Skill Development
                                  and recover education infrastructure.          reduction                                       Centres were set up in various camps
                                      To ensure the immediate resumption         Torrential rains caused significant             and flood-affected areas, offering
                                  of classes for students in the affected        flooding in Namibia that affected nearly        some 3,000 women and girls classes in
                                  areas, the Organization built, equipped        17% of the country’s population and left        basic literacy and training in income-
                                  and furnished 62 temporary premises for        thousands of children without school            generation skills.
                                  primary and secondary levels; provided         for many months. UNESCO worked with                 Fourteen workshops provided training
                                  emergency repairs for primary and              partners to introduce standards and             for approximately 500 teachers and
                                  secondary schools with minor damage;           tools for disaster risk reduction so that       teacher trainers in psychosocial support,
                                  installed 14 water tanks at schools;           teachers and learners are familiar with         post-disaster management, and better
                                  distributed 6,250 basic school kits            basic techniques and actively apply them.       organization of educational activities in
                                  (backpacks, stationery, etc.) and other        A pilot school manual on Emergency              the camps and flood-affected areas where
                                  teaching and learning materials.               Preparedness and Response, based on the         school buildings were destroyed. Support
                                      Some 600 municipal staff, local            lessons learned in Caprivi, was published
                                  management teams, teachers and school          and sent by the Ministry of Education                                                       The
                                  principals were given training on providing    to all schools in Caprivi, to all Regional                                                  International
                                  psychosocial support and implementing          Education Offices in Namibia and all                                                        Tsunami
UNESCO’s post-disaster response

                                                                                                                                                                                             UNESCO’s post-disaster response
                                  an early recovery plan for the education       national teacher training institutions.                                                     Information
                                                                                     Community radio has a crucial role to                                                   Center,
                                                                                 play in disaster risk reduction. Support                                                    by UNESCO,
                                                                                 for workshop training for community                                                         gathers data
                                                                                 radio volunteers and programme                                                              from ocean
                                                                                 production led to a series of eight                                                         buoys.
                                                                                 programmes in Khwe, Oshikwanyama,
                                  Temporary classroom built by UNESCO            Silosi and English, made available to
                                  after the earthquake in Chile.                 national and community radios, as well
                                  © UNESCO                                       as to youth centres.
                                                                                                                                 © UNESCO
    12                                                                                                                                                                                        13
Unesco.org - Building peace in the minds of men and women
was provided for the establishment of       Corporation. The drama series began
                                                                                                                                                   five early childhood education centres      airing in 46 districts of Pakistan in
                                                                                                                                                   in relief camps in Sukkur and 30 centres    December 2010 and raises awareness on
                                                                                                                                                   in southern Sindh, as well as for           how to deal with psychological, post-
                                                                                                                                                   provision of teaching-learning aids for     trauma, and health issues, and to prepare
                                                                                                                                                   17 schools in flood-affected districts of   for rehabilitation and future challenges.
                                                                                                                                                   Punjab. Support was also given to the       Each episode is followed by a focus
                                                                                                                                                   Balochistan Department of Education for     group session in four severely flood-
                                                                                                                                                   educational recovery and reconstruction     hit areas, with a feedback mechanism.

                                                                              © UNESCO/G. Seiti
                                                                                                                                                   in the flood-affected district of           This is Pakistan’s first low-cost radio
                                                                                                                                                   Jaffarabad.                                 entertainment for development purposes.
                                                                                                                                                   Mobilizing the hydrological                 Conservation action for heritage
                                                                                                                                                   and geological sciences                     On 12 August, it was reported that one
                                                                                © NASA/GSFC/METI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team
    Irina Bokova visited                                                                                                                           To support the national effort to           million cubic feet of water per second
    some of Pakistan’s                                                                                                                             cope with the disaster, UNESCO sent         was flowing in the vicinity of the
    most severely                                                                                                                                  a number of missions comprising             World Heritage archaeological site of
    regions in August                                                                                                                              hydrological and geological experts.        Moenjodaro (third century BC). To support
    and had meetings                                                                                                                               They collaborated with the Pakistani        the Pakistani authorities in assessing
    on the recovery                                                                                                                                authorities to develop a comprehensive      the damage to principal sites and to
    effort with Minister                                                                                                                           action plan to improve integrated flood     determine conservation action required,
    of Education Sardar                                                                                                                            management capacity. The focus was          a World Heritage Centre expert mission
    Aseff Ahmad Ali and
    other officials.                                                                                                                               on the restoration of degraded early        was undertaken from 8 to 15 October
                                                                                                                                                   warning and monitoring systems in           2010 to Moenjodaro, Taxila and Makli.
                                                                                                                                                   order to better manage hydrological         The mission confirmed that the flood
                                                                                                                                                   extremes, to assess geo-hazards and         damage to Moenjodaro has been limited
                                                                                                                                                   predict landslides, and to identify         thanks largely to the extensive measures
                                                                                                                                                   groundwater resources as sources of         to protect against erosion and flooding
                                                                                                                                                   emergency drinking water. The plan          undertaken during UNESCO’s International
                                                                                                                                                   was endorsed by the government of           Safeguarding Campaign for Moenjodaro
                                  Satellite map of the flood-affected zones                                                                        Pakistan.                                   (1974-1997). The Organization’s World
UNESCO’s post-disaster response

                                  in Pakistan.                                                                                                                                                 Heritage Centre and Natural Sciences Sector
                                                                                                                                                   Crisis communication                        developed a proposal for the reinforcement
                                                                                                                                                   To enable flood-affected communities        of the site’s vulnerable embankments
                                                                                                                                                   to address problems posed by their          and a disaster risk management plan was
                                                                                                                                                   situation, and to bring hope and            recommended for the sites visited.
                                                                                                                                                   motivation to affected populations,
                                                                                                                                                   UNESCO’s Islamabad Office produced            Eli Rognerud, UNESCO Education Programme
                                                                                                                                                   a radio soap opera in cooperation           Specialist, discusses the reopening of schools in
                                                                                                                                                   with the Commonwealth Broadcasting                     Balakot with Pakistan Army officials.
                                                                                                                                                   Association and Pakistan Broadcasting                                      © UNESCO/M. Sharif

■■   Indonesia                                        ■■   Disaster follow-up
                                                                                                                                     Guidebook for Planning Education in
                                  Emergency Operation for the                           Following the devastating 2009 cyclone       Emergencies and Reconstruction
                                  Safeguarding of the Borobudur                         in Myanmar, the UNESCO Asia-Pacific
                                  World Heritage Site                                                                                                         The revised edition of the Guidebook
                                                                                        Regional Bureau for Education provided
                                                                                                                                                              for Planning Education in Emergencies
                                  A series of eruptions of the Mount Merapi             training for over 2,000 school principals
                                                                                                                                                              and Reconstruction from UNESCO’s
                                  volcano, which began on 26 October,                   and teachers in disaster risk reduction
                                                                                                                                                              International Institute for Educational
                                  deposited damaging layers of volcanic                 in education in 2010. This benefited
                                                                                                                                                              Planning (IIEP) aims to support
                                  ash on the renowned Borobudur World                   some 400,000 students, who also
                                                                                                                                                              educational authorities in providing
                                  Heritage site. In response, UNESCO’s                  received education communication
                                                                                                                                                              equal access to quality education for
                                  Jakarta Office, together with the                     materials on disaster preparedness.
                                                                                                                                                              children affected by conflict or disaster.
                                  Indonesian authorities, launched an
                                                                                                                                                              It also shows how disaster can provide
                                  emergency safeguarding operation                      ■■   Preventing disasters                                       unique opportunities for educational reform.
                                  and worldwide funding campaign. The
                                  principal conservation threat results                 In 2010, UNESCO promoted the
                                  from the corrosive effect of the ash,                 Global Task Force on Building Codes             An agreement signed in February 2010
                                  which hardens when wet and can block                  (GTFBC) – a network of experts which        between UNESCO and the Comprehensive
                                  the monument’s complex drainage                       became operational in the aftermath         Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization
                                  system. The three-phase project will                  of the Haiti and Chile earthquakes.         (CTBTO), enhances cooperation, notably
                                  focus on cleaning the stone monuments                 It supports the enforcement and             for the benefit of tsunami early warning
                                  and drainage systems, identifying                     dissemination of building codes             systems. The CTBTO uses cutting-edge
                                  comprehensive remedial conservation                   to achieve earthquake resilience.           technologies and scientific methods to
                                  measures, and implementing activities to              Participants share data and good            monitor the planet for nuclear explosions.
                                  enhance the livelihoods of affected local             practices on building codes, including      The resulting data offer a wide range of
                                  communities via their involvement in the              through forum discussions on                civil and scientific applications and could
                                  tourism and cultural industries. Dating               UNESCO’s GTFBC internet site.               potentially be used for tsunami warning
                                  from the eighth and ninth centuries, the                  A new feasibility study on              purposes.
                                  world famous Buddhist temple complex                  International Mobile Early Warning              In the Pacific Region, the European
                                  was painstakingly restored thanks to an               System(s) for Volcanic Eruptions            Commission’s Directorate-General for
                                  international safeguarding campaign                   and Related Seismic Activities              Humanitarian Aid (DG ECHO) funded
                                  piloted by UNESCO from 1972 to 1983.                  (IMEWS), commissioned by UNESCO,            UNESCO’s tsunami preparedness at
UNESCO’s post-disaster response

                                                                                                                                                                                                           UNESCO’s post-disaster response
                                                                                        underscores the importance of               community level in Peru, Ecuador and Chili,
                                                                                        volcano monitoring worldwide, data          reaching beneficiaries in six vulnerable
                                                                                        sharing and international cooperation.      municipalities. UNESCO applied learning
                                                                                        The first findings of the study were        mechanisms to build awareness and good
                                                                                        presented at the “Cities on Volcanoes”      practices at community levels, including
                                                                                        international conference held in Spain      updating existing plans and improving
                                  UNESCO responded swiftly to the volcanic
                                  eruption of Mount Merapi, launching                   in June 2010, where the need for            and complementing local tsunami early
                                  emergency operations that began with                  international assistance under the          warning systems through the installation
                                  cleaning of the corrosive ash.                        auspices of UNESCO was emphasized           of sirens and signage for safe areas, hazard
                                  © UNESCO/Indonesian Ministry of Culture and Tourism   by experts.                                 zones, and evacuation routes.
    16                                                                                                                                                                                                      17
Chapter 2

                                                        Working towards
                                                        the Millennium

 Millennium Development Goal 2, “Achieve
 universal primary education”, aims to ensure that
 all boys and girls complete a full course of primary
 schooling. Here, schoolchildren in Sri Lanka.
Working towards the Millennium Development Goals

                                                                                                                                                                                                             © UNESCO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               EFA Global
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Monitoring Report   2   0   1   0
With the UN High-level Meeting on the Millennium Development Goals                                           exhibition held at UN Headquarters, which
                                                                                                             used numbers graphically to show how            NOKIA now partnering with

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Education for All
(MDGs) in New York in September, the year was marked by intensive                                            education can help to achieve the MDGs.         Education for All
advocacy for an approach to development that gives a central role                                            The exhibition ran from 9 September to
                                                                                                                                                             UNESCO and the telecommunications
                                                                                                             20 November. The “Education Counts”
to education and fully harnesses the potential of science, culture                                           messages were further reinforced at a side
                                                                                                                                                             company Nokia signed an agreement in
                                                                                                                                                             October 2010 to promote the use of mobile
and communication. During the “MDG Summit”, UNESCO stressed the                                              event on “The Central Role of Education
                                                                                                                                                             technologies to further the aims of Education
importance of education as a foundation for human development                                                in the Millennium Development Goals”
                                                                                                                                                             for All. Research into potential applications
                                                                                                             that UNESCO organized in collaboration
and the role of culture was clearly reaffirmed at the High-Level Round                                                                                       of mobile technology to support education

                                                                                                             with UNICEF, the State of Qatar and Save
                                                                                                                                                             will lead to the development of guidelines
Table on Culture for Development organized in cooperation with the                                           the Children, and at the World Innovation
                                                                                                                                                             for policy-makers in developing countries.
                                                                                                             Summit for Education, which took place
European Union and the African Union.                                                                                                                        Nokia will also support the use of mobile

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            the marginalized
                                                                                                             in December in Doha, Qatar.
                                                                                                                                                             technologies in teacher training and capacity
                                                                                                                                                             building for the management of educational
                                                                                                             ■■   Reaching the marginalized                  institutions.
                                                                ■■   Positive outcomes
                                                                                                             UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon joined
                                                                The Summit emphasized in its Outcome         Director-General Irina Bokova at UN
                                                                Document, “the importance of culture         Headquarters in New York to launch the         Director-General along with the Executive
                                                                for development and its contribution to      2010 Education for All Global Monitoring       Heads of UNFPA, UNICEF, UNIFEM, ILO
                                                                the achievement of the MDGs”. Then,          Report, Reaching the Marginalized, on          and WHO in March 2010. The Statement
                                                                in December, the UN General Assembly         19 January. The Report, presented in           expresses a common vision among the
                                                                adopted a resolution reaffirming the role    detail in the next chapter, shows how          signatories to intensify their agencies’
                                                                of culture in development and calling        marginalization is compromising access         support for advancing policies and
                                                                for its integration in global development    to education and sets out an agenda            programmes that empower the hardest-to-
                                                                policies. This recognition by the United     to speed up progress and address               reach girls, particularly those aged
                                                                Nations represents a historic shift in the   the inequalities that are the greatest         10 to 14 years old.
                                                                prevailing international development         challenge facing education.                        The Director-General also stressed
                                                                paradigm.                                        The Report’s analysis and conclusions      the essential contribution of education
                                                                    The Outcome Document’s                   drove discussions at the High-Level Group      to development at the FIFA World Cup
                                                                recommendations on education also            on Education for All held in Addis Ababa,      Education Summit, hosted by President
                                                                represented a step towards the holistic      Ethiopia in February 2010, at which            Zuma of South Africa in Pretoria on 11 July.
              When a British NGO (CamfedUK) tweeted this        approach advocated by UNESCO, going          ministers of education, donors, multilateral   Summit participants recommitted to ensure
              message from UNESCO’s “Education Counts”          beyond primary schooling – the focus         organizations and civil society partners       quality basic education for all and called
              exhibition, it was retweeted so many times that   of MDG 2 – to encompass progression          pledged to target and respond to the           upon the world community to step up efforts
              it made Twitter’s homepage. The exhibition        through the school system as well            needs of the marginalized and enhance the      to reach the MDGs of universal primary
              design was by Zago, New York.
                                                                as youth and adult literacy, with an         relevance and quality of education.            education and gender equality in education.
                                                                emphasis on tackling inequalities.               Empowering adolescent girls was
                                                                    “Education is the most basic             the aim of the UN Joint Statement on
                                                                insurance against poverty” was the           “Accelerating Efforts to Advance the                  Reaching the Marginalized: UNESCO EFA
                                                                message of the “Education Counts”            Rights of Adolescent Girls”, signed by the                   Global Monitoring Report, 2010.
20                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              21
“There is no better place to set development on the right track

                                                                                                                                                                                     © UNICEF
                     than in the first years of a child’s life.”
                          Irina Bokova, Director-General

                         New data released on the eve of the                         Early Childhood Care and Education, in                Bangladesh has increased teaching posts
                     MDG Summit put the spotlight on gender                          partnership with the Russian Federation            reserved for women to encourage enrolment
                     disparities in primary and secondary                            and the City of Moscow, the Organization            of girls. UNESCO works to enhance women’s
                                                                                                                                                         literacy and empowerment.
                     education: these affect two out of three                        put the spotlight on the critical role of the
                     countries and as many as half will not                          early years in achieving the Millennium
                     achieve gender parity in education by                           Development Goals. Extensive evidence
                     2015. The 2010 Global Education Digest,                         shows the lifetime benefits of investing in     the first time, with Laura Bush, UNESCO
                     published by the UNESCO Institute for                           early care and education programs, with a       Honorary Ambassador for the UN Literacy
                     Statistics (UIS), reported that in South                        particularly strong and positive impact on      Decade. This year’s events focused on
                     and West Asia, only about 87 girls start                        the most disadvantaged groups.                  women’s literacy and empowerment.
                     primary school for every 100 boys, while                            More than 65 ministers, along with          UNESCO awarded International Literacy
                     in sub-Saharan Africa, about 93 girls                           experts, academics and practitioners            Prizes to innovative literacy programmes
                     begin their primary education for every                         attended the Conference. Participants           focusing on women’s empowerment
                     100 boys. At both the primary and                               adopted the Moscow Framework                    through literacy in Cape Verde, Colombia,
                     secondary level, once girls gain access to                      of Action to expand and improve                 Germany, Egypt, Malawi and Nepal.
Early childhood
education            education, they tend to complete their                          comprehensive early childhood care and              Over the year, Benin, Burkina Faso,
represents a         studies more often than boys.                                   education, especially for the world’s most      the Central African Republic and Guinea
window of hope                                                                       vulnerable and disadvantaged children.          formulated or improved national
for disadvantaged
children. The        ■■   Early childhood                                            The Framework outlines a number of              literacy policies, strategies and action
                                                                                     challenges that must be tackled: these          plans. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India,
Moscow Conference
on early childhood   UNESCO’s advocacy work aims to promote                          include a lack of political commitment,         Mali, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan
insisted on the      a holistic approach to education and                            inadequate public funding and low               and Senegal launched major literacy
importance of        learning throughout life. By organizing                         external support.                               programmes. Additional funds were
tackling this        the first ever World Conference on                                                                              mobilized for literacy and adult education
                                                                                     ■■   Literacy and women’s                       in Benin, Burkina Faso, China and India.
                                                                                          empowerment                                Nigeria was the host country for a                         ■■   Teachers: the key to                      in developing viable national teacher          Hamad Bin Isa Al-Khalifa Prize for the Use of
                                                                                                                                     meeting of the leaders of the nine most                                                                   policies. The initiative uses technology to    ICTs in Education and the UNESCO–Hamdan
                                                                                     Comprehensive policies to increase youth        highly-populated countries of the South                         quality education                         improve school leadership and classroom        bin Rashid Al-Maktoum Prize for Outstanding
                                                                                     and adult literacy are also fundamental         (E-9), who adopted an ambitious action                     From early childhood and literacy training     teaching and operates in 17 pilot              Practice and Performance in Enhancing the
                                                                                     for achieving development. The impact           agenda to mobilize stronger commitment                     through to higher education, teachers are      countries while open to all countries in       Effectiveness of Teachers.
                                                                                     of literacy is tremendous, ranging from         to literacy, boost effective delivery                      the most important element in ensuring         sub-Saharan Africa. The International
                                                                                     better child and maternal health, to            of literacy programmes, harness new                        quality education. Yet UNESCO data shows       Institute for Capacity Building in Africa
                                                                                     improved livelihoods, delayed age of            resources and continue their successful                    that achieving universal primary education     helped teachers’ colleges and education         LIFE in Afghanistan
                                                                                     marriage, lower fertility rates, better HIV     teamwork. Their meeting in Abuja,                          alone will require an additional 1.9 million   faculties in five African countries to offer    In Afghanistan a 2010 LIFE (Literacy Initiative for Empowerment) Action
                                                                  © UNICEF/Noorani

                                                                                     and AIDS prevention and broader political       Nigeria in June, jointly organized with the                teachers in classrooms by 2015.                distance education degree programmes to         Plan was developed focusing on coordination, advocacy, campaigning,
                                                                                     participation. The Director-General             Nigerian Government, tackled the theme                         The Teacher Training Initiative for Sub-   improve the quality of teacher education.       capacity, quality and resource mobilization. On International Literacy Day,
                                                                                     marked International Literacy Day on            of “Literacy for Development” with a                       Saharan Africa (TTISSA) was strengthened           Two prizes concerning teachers were         a LIFE good practices website in English, Dari and Pashto was launched.
                                                                                     8 September at the United Nations for           special focus on girls and women.                          in 2010 to better assist governments           awarded in 2010: the UNESCO–King
22                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       23
Welile, an HIV-positive primary teacher in
                                                                                                     Swaziland who has disclosed her status,                                         “Literacy helps women come into their own: to gain confidence, play an active
                                                                                                     surrounded by her students. Photo featured
                                                                                                     in the “Photo-Voice: HIV and AIDS Education
                                                                                                                                                                                     role in public life and defend their rights.” Qian Tang, Assistant Director-General for Education
                                                                                                     for Young People in Africa” exhibition held
                                                                                                     at UNESCO Headquarters as part of the

                                                                                                                                                        © UNESCO/E. Deumo Noubessi
                                                                                                     Organization’s work with the Virginio Bruni-
                                                                                                     Tedeschi Foundation in Angola, Lesotho,
                                                                                                     Namibia and Swaziland.

       © UNESCO/Swannepha
                                                                                                     education sector response to the needs of
                                                    ■■ Fighting HIV and AIDS                         HIV-positive educators and learners.
                                                      through education                                  The project “Building Knowledge,
                                                                                                     Skills and Hope: HIV and AIDS Education
                                                   Education remains the best prevention             for African Children” benefited some
                                                   against HIV and AIDS. As the lead                 2,275 schools, 20,660 teachers and
                                                   agency for EDUCAIDS, UNESCO initiated             over 416,000 students in four countries.
                                                   a programme in 17 countries in east               Implemented in Angola, Lesotho, Namibia
                                                   and southern Africa, in partnership               and Swaziland, countries greatly affected
                                                   with the OPEC Fund for International              by the HIV epidemic, activities focused
                                                   Development. The programme aims to                on improving teacher training on HIV and
                                                   enhance knowledge on education and                AIDS as well as enhancing the quality of
                                                   HIV and AIDS in the region, develop new           relevant learning materials. In addition,
                                                   partnerships, and rally resources to train        the project worked to improve access
                                                   new national staff to strengthen the              to psychosocial support services for
                                                                                                     education personnel and learners affected
Working towards the Millennium Development Goals

                                                                                                     by HIV and AIDS.
                                                    World AIDS Day 2010                                  UNESCO also organized an exhibition
                                                    in Senegal, Cape Verde                           of photos and texts on HIV education for
                                                    and Guinea-Bissau                                young people in Africa in the context of
                                                                                                     a project funded by the Virginio Bruni
                                                    A variety of activities took place in Senegal,
                                                                                                     Tedeschi Foundation. Young people and
                                                    Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau, organized
                                                                                                     teachers from Angola, Lesotho, Namibia
                                                    with support from the UNESCO Office in
                                                                                                     and Swaziland were given cameras,
                                                    Dakar. In Senegal, a month-long national
                                                    campaign was run; in Cape Verde, the National
                                                    Commission for UNESCO organized four
                                                                                                                 Winners of the HIV and AIDS poster
                                                    interactive seminars for students attending              competition and local authorities at the
                                                    the UNESCO Associated Schools in Praia;               Foumban Palace Museum, Cameroon, with
                                                    similar student lectures were organized by the       Benoît Sossou, Director of UNESCO Yaounde,
                                                    UNESCO National Commission in Guinea-              Karalyn Monteil, Culture Assistant Programme
                                                    Bissau at four private secondary schools.                    Specialist and Vincent Seck, Culture
                                                                                                                    Programme Specialist, Yaounde.
       24                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                25
“It’s time to strengthen our collective thinking and action in order to move
                                                                                                                                                  from an assisted Africa to a developed and respected continent.”
                                                                                                                                                       Lalla Aïcha Ben Barka, Assistant Director-General, Africa Department

                                                                                                                                                      As Convenor of the MDG Achievement               affordable technologies in developing

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           © UNESCO/B. Krasner
                                                                                                                                                  Fund, Culture and Development Thematic               countries, in order to strengthen
                                                                                                                                                  Window, UNESCO implements 18 national                national innovation and research and
                                                                                                                                                  programmes jointly with a dozen other                development capacity.
                                                                                                                                                  UN bodies. As an example, in the region                  UNESCO’s African Science, Technology
                                                                                                                                                  of Guelmim in southern Morocco,                      and Innovation Policy Initiative and its
                                                                                                                                                  17 crafts associations and cooperatives              Institute for Statistics partnered with the
                                                                                                                                                  involved in the production of carpets,               African Union and the New Partnership for
                                                                                                                                                  basket-making and dates significantly                Africa’s Development (NEPAD) to hold two
                                                                                                                                                  increased their revenues thanks to                   major workshops on “Science, Technology
                                                                                                                                                  training and promotional activities                  and Innovation” (STI). In January 2010, a
                                                                                                                                                  designed to promote local products and               workshop entitled “Unlocking the Potential
                                                                                                                                                  creative industries. Some 600 individuals,           of Science, Technology and Innovation
                                                                                                                                                  including 400 women, participated in                 to achieve the Millennium Development                                     formulation and reviews. The workshop         Director-General
                                                                                                                                                  these income-generating activities.                  Goals in Rwanda” sought to identify                                       was financed by the Spanish Agency for        Irina Bokova at the
                                                                                                                                                                                                       concrete steps in STI development already                                 International Cooperation for Development,    second meeting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               of the Broadband
                                                                                                                                                  ■■   Mobilizing science,                             contributing or able to contribute to the                                 UNESCO and the UIS.                           Commission for
                                                                                                                                                                                                       achievement of the MDGs in Rwanda. In
                                                                                                                                                       technology and innovation                                                                                                                                               Digital Development
                                                                                                                                                                                                       May 2010 a regional workshop co-                                               Digital development and                  with Carlos Slim
                                                                                                                                                       for development                                                                                                           ■■
                                                                                                                                                                                                       organized with the Ministry of Higher                                                                                   Helú, Honorary
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Education and Scientific Research of Mali                                      access to information                    Lifetime Chairman
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               of Mexico’s Grupo
                                                                                                                                                  UNESCO’s science programmes, related                 brought together participants from the                                    Launched at the World Summit                  Carso, UN Secretary-

                                                                                                                                       © UNESCO
                                                                                                                                                  to the environment and to the promotion              16 countries of the Economic Community                                    on the Information Society Forum              General Ban
                                                                                                                                                  of science and technology, are guided                of West African States (ECOWAS) as well                                   2010, the Broadband Commission for            Ki-moon, and
                                                                                                                                                  by the principles of sustainable                     as international experts. They exchanged                                  Digital Development is a UNESCO-ITU           President Paul
     In 2010, UNESCO workshops in Rwanda and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Kagame of Rwanda.
     Mali focused on how to harness science,    information about HIV/AIDS prevention.       tattooing, excision and circumcision. Plans          development. The Outcome Document of                 experience and lessons learnt in conducting                               (International Telecommunications Union)
     technology and innovation to achieve the   The game, entitled “Fast Car: Travelling     are underway to organize similar projects at         the Millennium Summit emphasized the                 science, technology and innovation policy                                 joint initiative to accelerate the adoption
     Millennium Development Goals.              Safely around the World”, targets young      other museums in Africa.                             strategic role of science and technology,
                                                audiences. Players can race on circuits in                                                        including information technology and
                                                                                                                                                                                                         ICTP after 45: a celebration of science and
                                                five different continents, paying virtual    ■■   The role of culture                             innovation, for the achievement of
                                                                                                                                                                                                         development for a changing world
     took photos and wrote short texts on       visits to some of the UNESCO World                                                                the Millennium Development Goals,
     their experience of living with HIV.       Heritage sites. On a different note,              for development                                 in particular agricultural productivity,               Nobel Prize winners, government ministers and leaders of aid agencies, representing developed and
     The exhibition ran from 1 December to      UNESCO in collaboration with the Royal       Through a series of advocacy initiatives,            water management and sanitation,                       developing countries, convened at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP)
     14 January at Headquarters in Paris.       Palace Museum in Foumban, Cameroon,          UNESCO successfully repositioned culture at          energy security and public health. The                 in Trieste, Italy, to celebrate the Centre’s 45 years of existence with a look to the future.
        The first interactive multimedia tool   launched a poster competition designed       the heart of the international development           Document also strongly advocates for
                                                                                                                                                                                                         The event, entitled “ICTP After 45: Science and Development for a Changing World”, was held from
     on HIV and AIDS prevention for youth was   to raise awareness among students of         paradigm, as outlined above. It also                 capacity-building in technological
                                                                                                                                                                                                         8 to 10 November 2010. Its goal was to nurture an international dialogue to determine new, effective
     launched in December 2010 to provide       the risk of HIV and AIDS from traditional    continued to deliver the programmes on               innovation and corresponding know-
                                                                                                                                                                                                         strategies for scientific research and education in developing countries.
     young people with accurate and reliable    practices such as piercing, scarification,   which that advocacy draws.                           how in environmentally sound,
26                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             27
initiatives in the area of open access to    ■■   Nurturing excellence in
                             ICT and gender                                                            scientific information, through a joint           African journalism
                                                              An interactive session on gender         mapping exercise and also on science,
                                                              and ICTs was organized at the            technology and innovation policy             Twenty journalism schools in Africa were
                                                              World Summit on the Information          reviews. Work was initiated on a joint       the focus of action to enhance the skills
                                                              Society (WSIS) Forum in Geneva,          UNGIS five-year strategy. UNGIS was          and competencies of the continent’s
                                                              Switzerland, to measure progress         created to foster consistency between        next generation of journalists. This
                                                              towards gender equality in access        the work of different UN bodies in the       included support for the adoption and
                                                              to ICTs since the summit in 2005.        area of information and communication        implementation of UNESCO’s model
                                                              Inclusiveness, respect for human         technologies.                                curricula to improve standards in
                                                              rights, and increased participation of                                                journalism education, training to build
                                                              women in knowledge societies were        ■■   Setting standards for                   capacities of teaching staff, exchange
                                                                                                                                                    programmes with other universities, and
                            © UNESCO                          all emphasized, as were issues such as        media development                       the provision of learning materials and
                            the creation of opportunities for women through the development of
                            ICTs and the access of women from developing countries to ICTs.            The media have a pivotal role to play        equipment for training in both new and
                                                                                                       in development in general and in             traditional media techniques.
                                                                                                       supporting efforts to reach the MDGs.            As part of an agreement with the
                                                                                                       But for many countries, a thriving,          Knight Center for Journalism in the
                                                   of broadband to speed up progress                   independent and diverse media sector         Americas to enhance African journalism
                                                   towards the MDGs. UNESCO emphasizes                 is in itself a goal still to be fulfilled.   professors’ teaching skills, an online
                                                   the production and dissemination of                 Assistance from the International            course, “Teaching Online Journalism”,
                                                   local content, as well as important                 Programme for the Development of             was completed by 23 professors from
                                                   issues of linguistic and cultural diversity         Communication (IPDC) enabled the             Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar,
                                                   in cyberspace, as key elements that go              launch of 83 media development               Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda
                                                   hand-in-hand with the infrastructure                projects in 56 developing countries.         and Zimbabwe.
Working towards the Millennium Development Goals

                                                                                                                                                                                                               towards the Millennium Development Goals
                                                   and connectivity dimension of broadband             Six countries completed assessments
                                                   roll-out. The Broadband Commission’s Final          using the UNESCO-developed Media             ■■   IPDC Prize for Rural
                                                   Report and Declaration were presented               Development Indicators, enabling
                                                   to UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon on              the identification of gaps in the                 Communication 2010
                                                   the eve of the 2010 MDG Review summit               media landscape, and assisting the           The Mexican community radio station
                                                   in September, urging world leaders to               formulation of media-related policies        “La voz de los campesinos” and the
                                                   agree that “the future will be built on             and targeted media development               Egyptian journalist Amr Mamdouh Ellissy
                                                   broadband”.                                         efforts. Twenty-five community media         were the joint laureates of the UNESCO-
                                                       The importance of respect for human             projects were supported by UNESCO            IPDC Prize for Rural Communication in
                                                   rights and internet openness, including             in 2010, focusing on developing              2010, sharing the US $20,000 award.
                                                   freedom of expression, diversity, and               countries. Projects in this area have
                                                                                                                                                              Journalism students from the Centre
                                                   interoperability, were stressed by                  provided assistance for the creation                    d’Etudes des Sciences et Techniques
                                                   UNESCO at Information Society-related               of community radio stations, policy                       de l’Information (CESTI), Senegal,

                                                                                                                                                                                                         © UNESCO
                                                   events throughout 2010. As Chair of the             advocacy in support of community                         a training institution that receives

                                                   UN Group on the Information Society                 media, the promotion of standard-                                     support from UNESCO.
                                                   (UNGIS), UNESCO also advanced joint                 setting tools, and capacity-building.                                              © UNESCO

       28                                                                                                                                                                                               29
Chapter 3

© Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion

      Knowledge can be transmitted through
      verbal instruction and demonstration,
      master-disciple relations, as well as formal
      academic education.
Knowledge sharing

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           © UNESCO
  Knowledge sharing is at the heart of UNESCO’s mandate. Over the years,                                                                     integrating education strategies into        research and development than before,
                                                                                                                                             wider anti-marginalization policies.         among them Brazil, Mexico, South Africa
  UNESCO has mobilized partners to capture and organize a wealth of                                                                              Launched, distributed and promoted       and Turkey. The Report records a shift in
  information, data, technical expertise and analytical capacity in a way                                                                    in over 50 countries, the Report was         global influence, with China overtaking
                                                                                                                                             translated into many languages, including    both the USA and the European Union for
  that helps international cooperation for peace and development. In                                                                         Bangla, Farsi, German, Japanese, Korean,     the number of researchers and publishing
  2010, several landmark world reports provided invaluable data and                                                                          Portuguese and Swahili, with the support     more scientific articles than Japan.
  analysis for a wide array of stakeholders in key areas for development.                                                                    of UNESCO National Commissions and               The 2010 Report also reveals that
                                                                                                                                             Field Offices. Some 15,600 printed copies    technological progress is allowing
  As in previous years, a great number of experts from all over the world                                                                    of the 2010 Global Monitoring Report         countries with a lesser scientific capacity
  worked together on a voluntary basis around initiatives ranging                                                                            were distributed in 2010, along with         to acquire, adopt and sometimes even
                                                                                                                                             24,900 summaries and 12,500 regional         transform existing technology and
  from the Tsunami Early Warning Systems to Education for All (EFA).                                                                         overviews. Over 43,000 copies were           thereby bypass certain costly investments.
  A selection of these initiatives can be found below.                                                                                       downloaded via UNESCO’s website.             This trend is fostering a democratization
                                                                                                                                                 Every five years, the UNESCO Science     of science worldwide, as countries
                                                                                                                                             Report offers a unique analysis of the       participate more actively than before in
                                                                                                   spurring governments and donors to rise   trends and developments that shape           international science. In turn, science
                          ■■   World Reports –                                                     to the challenge of meeting education     scientific research, innovation and higher   diplomacy is becoming a key instrument
                               giving a global picture                                             goals. The 2010 EFA Global Monitoring     education worldwide. The 2010 edition        of peace-building and sustainable
                                                                                                   Report, Reaching the Marginalized, was    was launched on World Science Day for        development in international relations.
                          The EFA Global Monitoring Report,                                        launched at UN headquarters in New York   Peace and Development on 10 November,            The World Social Science Report 2010:
                          produced by an independent team led                                      on 19 January.                            both at UNESCO Headquarters in Paris         Knowledge Divides, produced by the
                          by UNESCO, is the world’s foremost                                           The report highlights the ongoing     and simultaneously in a number of            International Social Science Council (ISSC)
                          publication on progress towards                                          failure of governments to address         Field Offices, including those of Beijing,   and co-published with UNESCO, is the
    Professionals have    education for all. Serving as a unique                                   extreme national inequalities and of      Brasilia, Brazzaville, Montevideo and        first comprehensive overview of the field
    a responsibility to
  transmit knowledge      policy tool for decision-makers, the                                     donors to mobilize resources on the       Tashkent. Other launches took place after    in over a decade. Over 80 social scientists
        to the younger    Report aims to inform, influence and                                     required scale. The authors estimate      10 November in Ecuador, Guatemala and        from around the world contributed
          generations.    sustain commitment towards EFA,                                          the annual financing gap for achieving    elsewhere. A number of UNESCO National       their expertise to the publication, which
                                                                                                   universal primary education by 2015 at    Commissions collaborated actively in         was officially launched at UNESCO
                                                                                                   US$16 billion – a significant increase    launching the report.                        Headquarters in Paris on 25 June.
                                                                                                   over previous assessments. It also            The latest Science Report depicts an         The Report focuses on how social
                                                                                                   identifies policies that successfully     increasingly competitive environment, but    sciences are evolving in the face of
                                                                                                   counteract persistent inequalities,       also one in which the flow of information,   unequal conditions and diverging trends.
                                                                                                   including improving accessibility         knowledge, personnel and investment          It shows that while social science from
                                                                                                   and affordability by cutting fees and     is becoming a two-way traffic. Both          Western countries continues to have
                                                                   © L’OREAL-UNESCO/M. Pelletier
Knowledge sharing

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Knowledge sharing
                                                                                                   informal charges and offering targeted    China and India, for instance, are using     the greatest global influence, the field
                                                                                                   incentives; strengthening the learning    their newfound economic might to             is expanding rapidly in Asia and Latin
                                                                                                   environment by providing highly skilled   invest in high-tech companies in Europe
                                                                                                   teachers and expanded intercultural       and elsewhere to acquire technological
                                                                                                   bilingual teaching; and expanding         expertise. Other large emerging                    UNESCO Science Report 2010: The Current
                                                                                                   entitlements and opportunities by         economies are also spending more on                     Status of Science around the World.
  32                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  33
“Science, technology and innovation are the new ‘hot’ assets and part of the soft power many countries
  seek to acquire in order to advance their development and their position in the world arena.”
                    Hans d’Orville, Assistant Director-General for Strategic Planning

                                      America, particularly in China and Brazil.        and opportunities for engineering, as        levels. In 2010, the UIS organized
                                      In sub-Saharan Africa, social scientists          well as promoting public and policy          three regional workshops on education
                                      from three countries – South Africa,              understanding of engineering and its         statistics involving about 25 countries,
                                      Nigeria and Kenya – produce 75% of                role in society. The report addresses such   three regional workshops on science and
                                      academic publications. In South Asia,             issues as how to make engineering and        technology statistics involving about
                                      barring some centres of excellence in             engineering education more attractive        25 countries, two sub-regional workshops
                                      India, social sciences as a whole have low        to young people, especially women,           on cultural statistics for 30 countries and
                                      priority.                                         and how to ensure that the engineering       a training workshop on media statistics
                                          In October, UNESCO published the              community engages with wider audiences       for five countries from different regions.
                                      first ever global report on engineering,          and shows its relevance for development.
                                      Engineering – Issues and Challenges                                                            ■■   Sharing data on education
                                      for Development. Produced in                      ■■   UNESCO Institute                             systems
                                      conjunction with major national and
                                      international engineering organizations,               for Statistics                          UNESCO’s International Bureau of
                                      with 120 contributors from over                   The global data on education, science and    Education (IBE) provides a unique
                                      40 countries, it identifies the challenges        technology, culture and communication        database, “World Data on Education”
                                                                                        collected by the UNESCO Institute for        (WDE), with over 160 profiles of
                                                                                        Statistics (UIS) are used by diverse         education systems. In 2010, the profiles
          Findings from the World                                                       partners, including governments, donor       of 67 countries were updated with recent
          Social Science Report 2010                                                    agencies and other UN organizations.         information on curricula made available
                                                                                        The UIS education database, updated          on the IBE website. The Institute’s Digital
          Sub-Saharan Africa has fallen dramatically behind in its share of world       three times a year, is the most              Library of National Education Reports
          science production – from 1 per cent in 1987 to 0.7 per cent in 1996,         comprehensive in the world, from primary     on the Development of Education, a
          with no sign of recovery.                                                     school enrolments to tertiary graduation     database with more than 3,000 reports
          An estimated average of 20,000 highly qualified professionals left the        rates. It is the primary education data      covering the period 1932-2008, is another
          African higher education system each year from 1990 onward for jobs           source for the Education for All (EFA)       unparalleled source of information about
                                                  in the United States, Europe,         Global Monitoring Report, the World          educational trends and was consulted
                                                  the Middle East and Australia.        Banks’ World Development Indicators and      just under 500,000 times in 2010. Five
                                                  Social sciences and humanities        the UNDP Human Development Report,           issues of the IBE’s journal, Prospects:
                                                  were particularly badly hit.          among others.                                Quarterly Review of Comparative
                                                  The number of doctoral                    In 2010, the UIS increased the           Education, published in 2010, reached
                                                  graduates increased overall           coverage of literacy data to 146 countries   over 5,400 institutions in 69 countries
                                                  by 40% between 1998                   compared to 121 in 2009; and from 91 to      through consortia.
Knowledge sharing

                                                                                                                                                                                                Knowledge sharing
                                                  and 2006, but those in the            119 countries in 2009 for educational
                                                  social sciences grew even             attainment data. In addition, it organized
                                                                                        regular training workshops to reinforce                In sub-Saharan Africa, about 93 girls
                                                  more rapidly – by 50% –                                                                         begin primary education for every
                                                  partly due to the increased           the capacities of national statistical              100 boys, according to UNESCO statistics.
                                                  participation of women.               authorities in order to improve data                             Metsimotlhabe, Botswana.
                                                                                        quality at the national and international                                        © Steven Hite   XXXX
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