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UNESCO UNESCO 2010 United Nations United Nations Educational, Scientiﬁc and Educational, Scientiﬁc and Cultural Organization Cultural Organization Building peace in the minds of men and women unesco.org
Cover Mehdi Benchelah, who began working for UNESCO in Haiti in March 2010, organizes support for media productions and training for Haitian journalists. He has set up computer training and internet access for people made homeless by the earthquake and coordinates cultural activities. He is seen here after a book distribution for the children of Camp Carrefour. © UNESCO/Eddy Nohile Published in March 2011 by the Sector for External Relations and Public Information of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and For further information, Cultural Organization (UNESCO). please contact the Division of Public Information, 7, place de Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07 SP, France Sector for External Relations and Public Information © UNESCO 2011 UNESCO All rights reserved 7, place de Fontenoy, 75352 Paris 07 SP, Printed by UNESCO France The printer is certified Imprim’Vert®, the French www.unesco.org/en printing industry’s environmental initiative. email@example.com
Foreword by Ms Irina Bokova, Director-General of UNESCO I took up my duties as Director-General of UNESCO under the banner of reform. © UNESCO/M. Ravassard 2010 was marked by several decisive steps, from the formation of a new executive team and the shaping of a new management structure to significant administrative reorganization. Throughout all of our activities, we are strengthening synergies with our strategic partners, within the United Nations system and beyond. For instance in the field of education, for the first time in several years, thanks to UNESCO, the directors of the five Education for All agencies convened to coordinate better and move forward together. I decided to establish liaison offices with the African Union in Addis Ababa and with the European Union in Brussels. We have launched a reform of our network of field offices to strengthen our ability to respond to the expectations of Member States and their societies. We must take this deep change much further, refocusing our priorities to become more effective. UNESCO’s message will resonate best through concrete results. In 2010, the earthquake in Haiti and the floods in Pakistan underlined the urgent need to step up collective efforts. UNESCO intervened immediately to protect and reconstruct the educational, scientific and cultural fabric of these countries. Throughout the year, UNESCO took the lead in mobilizing resources for the deeper integration of education, science and culture into development policies. An important step was taken in September, when the link between culture, cultural diversity and development was explicitly recognized at the United Nations’ High-Level Meeting on the Millennium Development Goals in New York. This is an important step towards a new humanism. It is signal proof of the enduring relevance of UNESCO’s mission, 65 years after its creation. All of our fields of activity are undergoing change today. The internet has revolutionized the way people think and act for education, research, freedom of expression and culture. The growing importance of educational, scientific and cultural diplomacy is defining a new model of development and a new art of peace. UNESCO is placing itself at the forefront of these changes. This first annual review highlights the wealth of our programmes. It also shows the close links that exist between biodiversity and cultural diversity, between education and new technologies, between scientific research and respect for human rights. We will continue to move in these directions, and we will succeed as long as we all act together. New senior management team appointed by Irina Bokova. From left to right: Jānis Kārkliņš, Assistant Director-General for Communication and Information; Lalla Aïcha Ben Barka, Assistant Director-General, Africa Department; Gretchen Kalonji, Assistant Director-General for Natural Sciences; Qian Tang, Assistant Director-General for Education; Getachew Engida, Deputy Director-General; Irina Bokova, Director-General; Hans d’Orville, Assistant Director-General for Strategic Planning; Francesco Bandarin, Assistant Director-General for Culture; Khadija Ribes Zammouri, Assistant Director-General for Administration; María del Pilar Álvarez-Laso, Assistant Director-General for Social and Human Sciences; Eric Falt, Assistant Director-General for External Relations and Public Information.
Contents Chapitre 1 UNESCO’s post-disaster response 7 Chapitre 2 Working towards the Millennium Development Goals 19 Chapitre 3 Knowledge sharing 31 Chapitre 4 Safeguarding and promoting cultural diversity 43 Chapitre 5 Safeguarding our planet 55 Chapitre 6 Peace and dialogue 67 Chapitre 7 Defending human rights 79 Annexes 89 © UNESCO/M. Ravassard UNESCO’s blossoming garden heralds the arrival of spring.
Chapter 1 UNESCO’s post-disaster © UNESCO/F. Brugman response Close to 90% of schools in Haiti’s West Department were damaged or destroyed by the January earthquake. UNESCO developed an emergency curriculum and trained over 3,000 education workers to deal with trauma.
UNESCO’s post-disaster response A series of severe natural disasters in all parts of the world marked implementation of the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the 2010 with tragic consequences. These events tested to the full Caribbean and Adjacent Regions, in order UNESCO’s capacities for rapid response. The Organization participated to be prepared for future tsunamis. in 15 of the 25 humanitarian appeals launched by the United Emergency education relief Nations, with project proposals in 13 post-conflict and post-disaster Immediately after the disaster, countries and regions. Some of these initiatives are described below. UNESCO opened up its premises to host the Minister of Education and Meanwhile, post-conflict and post-disaster work continued in many his cabinet, whose buildings were other countries, including Iraq and Afghanistan. destroyed, and helped with a damage and needs assessment of schools and education institutions. With close to ■■ Haiti Strengthening risk preparedness 90% of schools in the country’s West Department damaged or destroyed, and Within hours of news of the devastation As part of the response, UNESCO’s more than 450,000 children displaced, an caused by the magnitude 7.0 earthquake Intergovernmental Oceanographic urgent priority was to re-open schools in and tsunami that struck Haiti on Commission (IOC) initiated a project to temporary facilities and provide students 12 January 2010, a crisis cell linking recover and strengthen Haiti’s Warning with learning materials. Paris Headquarters to the Port-au-Prince Services for Coastal Hazards. The By the time schools reopened, an and regional offices began to prepare project is focused on coastal hazards emergency curriculum had been developed UNESCO’s emergency response. In Haiti, risk assessment, technical assistance and disseminated with UNESCO’s support, UNESCO’s staff and office premises were such as installation of a tide gauge, as prioritizing the most important subjects, fortunately unharmed and throughout well as capacity-building and training, while others were left out or postponed to the year a significantly reinforced team in cooperation with the relevant fit the reduced school year and thus allow helped develop and deliver a series of national agencies. Besides working to students to pass to the next grade. short- and longer-term initiatives in the strengthen Haiti’s preparedness and Tackling the psychological impact Children in Haiti’s fields of education, science, culture and response to natural hazards, UNESCO also of the disaster on children, adolescents camps received six communication. renewed efforts to ensure the effective and teachers was another immediate thousands books. concern. To equip educators with the skills to recognize trauma and alleviate UNESCO’s post-disaster response stress-related symptoms both inside and A book for a child in Haiti outside the classroom, UNESCO with its Six thousand children’s books, many donated partners trained over 3,000 secondary- by UNESCO staff, were circulating in 12 camps school teachers and other educational and 22 schools by late 2010 thanks to UNESCO’s personnel on learner-centred psycho- initiative “Un livre pour un enfant d’Haïti” (“A book for a child in Haiti”), launched in Pétionville golf club transformed into refugee collaboration with NGO Bibliothèques sans camp. UNESCO launched Mobile Multimedia Frontières (Libraries without Borders). Units at this and other camps in Haiti. © UNESCO/M. Benchelah © UNESCO/M. Benchelah © UNESCO/M. Benchelah 8 9
UNESCO efforts helped safeguard valuable art “Culture must go hand in hand with humanitarian aid. It must be present in Haiti’s reconstruction collections. National Centre of Art, Haiti. strategies because culture and development are closely linked.” Irina Bokova, Director-General ensuring the safekeeping of collections who beacame unemployed after the training and internet access. A blog was © MINUSTAH/L. Abassi such as the archives of Haitian historian earthquake to produce two programmes created for each refugee camp to further Georges Corvington. UNESCO also joined a week for Radio nationale d’Haïti. A social networks onsite, and to provide forces with INTERPOL to prevent illicit art centre to house Haiti’s journalist unions internally displaced populations with trafficking by establishing a Red List of was funded by UNESCO and International an opportunity to communicate their artefacts. A temporary work space and Media Support. A Master’s in journalism everyday reality to the outside world. materials enabled over 200 craftspeople was created at the University of Quisqueya to continue preparing for the traditional and began in September 2010, set up in ■■ Chile Jacmel Carnival. Theatre performances cooperation with the Paris Training Center and creative workshops for children for Journalists (CFPJ), and with assistance Responding to the earthquake took place in six refugee camps. from UNESCO, the European Union and the and tsunami in Chile Technical assistance was provided for the French Embassy in Haiti. Just 12 minutes after a series of severe conservation of the National History Park earthquakes hit central Chile on – Citadel, Sans Souci, Ramiers, which is a Internet for youths 27 February 2010, the Pacific Tsunami Internally displaced World Heritage site, as well as the historic in the refugee camps Warning Center in Hawaii, USA, issued near-field. In the immediate aftermath youth improve their centre of Jacmel. Internet access and informal computer a regional warning. This first real-scale of the tsunami, a rapid survey was made computer skills at An International Coordination and search engine training was provided test of the system coordinated by the of zones affected, in order to improve the Tabarre Issa refugee camp with Committee for the Safeguarding of Haitian to young people living in six refugee IOC showed that it performed promptly preparedness plans in the future. A full the assistance of Cultural Heritage (ICC) was established camps in Port-au-Prince through a mobile and efficiently. However, close to the international tsunami team survey, UNESCO. to galvanize the international community multimedia unit. Some 1,500 young epicentre – too near for being warned conducted in partnership with the into action and to bring together all people living in the camps were able within 12 minutes – there were over UNESCO-supported International Tsunami © UNESCO/F. Brugman stakeholders to determine priorities to connect with the outside world 100 fatalities, indicating the need for Information Center, facilitated information in the short and medium term. On the and improve their educational and an upgrade of the system, especially gathering and sharing by international basis of the ICC’s recommendations, a professional prospects through this to meet warning requirements for the experts. series of project proposals was drawn up for submission to a donor conference social support. This was linked to basic Rebuilding Haiti’s social fabric in support of Haitian cultural heritage, Training for Haitian Women Community Radio Broadcasters disaster preparedness, with the psycho- through culture organized at Headquarters in spring 2011. Gender balance in community radio is of great importance and REFRAKA, the Haitian Network of UNESCO’s post-disaster response UNESCO’s post-disaster response social support elements and disaster risk Convinced of the healing power and Women Community Radio Broadcasters, was given support following the destruction of its premises. reduction methodologies integrated into potential of culture for reconstruction The role of the media Women were trained in radio production techniques and gender-sensitive reporting. A community the national curricula and teacher training. and nation-building, UNESCO focused The media play a crucial role in radio station, Vedek FM, was created in Cap Rouge, a region home to some 18,000 people previously A nationwide census of all technical and on reactivating cultural industries and disseminating post-disaster information unable to capture radio signals. Training in radio production techniques, presenting and reporting was vocational centres was launched and the the performing arts, and safeguarding and a series of workshops on natural given to 25 local people. The radio focus is on the sustainable development of the community. © UNESCO/M. Benchelah first five centres are being reconstructed museums, archives and libraries as well as disaster reporting was organized for In response to the cholera outbreak, information sessions on the disease and methods of preventing its and equipped. In partnership with the Camp world and intangible heritage. 250 media professionals. Post-trauma spread were held for journalists in several regions. Five short animation clips to sensitize children to the Perrin technical training centre, a course In the emergency phase, efforts sessions were given to a total of cholera outbreak were produced in cooperation with the authorities, featuring the Haitian street-kid was established to instruct 240 masons in focused on protecting collapsed heritage 170 journalists. Over a three-month cartoon character, Ti-Joel, who explains vital methods for the prevention of its spread. earthquake-resistant construction. sites from looting, removal of rubble, and period, support was given to journalists 10 11
Education – the emergency response sector. On 17 March, Chile’s Minister of ■■ Pakistan One week prior to the earthquake, UNESCO Education announced its goal to have all held a capacity development workshop students in the affected areas back in class Helping the education system on Disaster Risk Reduction for technical in 45 days. This milestone was successfully recover specialists at ministries of education achieved on 26 April with support from Over 500,000 children were kept out of across Latin America and the Caribbean. the UN and UNESCO, which continues to school by Pakistan’s worst flood disaster Within hours of the earthquake, workshop support the Ministry of Education’s efforts in 80 years, which began in late July participants from Chile’s Ministry of to provide quality education for all in areas 2010 following heavy monsoon rains. Education contacted UNESCO to develop affected by the earthquake and tsunami, UNESCO helped prepare the Flood Impact a rapid needs assessment tool (a good and across the country. Analysis to enable the government practice addressed the previous week). to assess reconstruction needs and This was done and, with funds from the ■■ Namibia raise international funds to bridge the UN Central Emergency Relief Fund, UNESCO funding gap. To address the learning delivered urgent humanitarian relief to help Working with schools and radio needs of flood-affected communities, restart primary and secondary schooling stations to improve disaster risk 110 Adult Literacy and Skill Development and recover education infrastructure. reduction Centres were set up in various camps To ensure the immediate resumption Torrential rains caused significant and flood-affected areas, offering of classes for students in the affected flooding in Namibia that affected nearly some 3,000 women and girls classes in areas, the Organization built, equipped 17% of the country’s population and left basic literacy and training in income- and furnished 62 temporary premises for thousands of children without school generation skills. primary and secondary levels; provided for many months. UNESCO worked with Fourteen workshops provided training emergency repairs for primary and partners to introduce standards and for approximately 500 teachers and secondary schools with minor damage; tools for disaster risk reduction so that teacher trainers in psychosocial support, installed 14 water tanks at schools; teachers and learners are familiar with post-disaster management, and better distributed 6,250 basic school kits basic techniques and actively apply them. organization of educational activities in (backpacks, stationery, etc.) and other A pilot school manual on Emergency the camps and flood-affected areas where teaching and learning materials. Preparedness and Response, based on the school buildings were destroyed. Support Some 600 municipal staff, local lessons learned in Caprivi, was published management teams, teachers and school and sent by the Ministry of Education The principals were given training on providing to all schools in Caprivi, to all Regional International psychosocial support and implementing Education Offices in Namibia and all Tsunami UNESCO’s post-disaster response UNESCO’s post-disaster response an early recovery plan for the education national teacher training institutions. Information Community radio has a crucial role to Center, supported play in disaster risk reduction. Support by UNESCO, for workshop training for community gathers data radio volunteers and programme from ocean production led to a series of eight buoys. programmes in Khwe, Oshikwanyama, Temporary classroom built by UNESCO Silosi and English, made available to after the earthquake in Chile. national and community radios, as well © UNESCO as to youth centres. © UNESCO 12 13
was provided for the establishment of Corporation. The drama series began five early childhood education centres airing in 46 districts of Pakistan in in relief camps in Sukkur and 30 centres December 2010 and raises awareness on in southern Sindh, as well as for how to deal with psychological, post- provision of teaching-learning aids for trauma, and health issues, and to prepare 17 schools in flood-affected districts of for rehabilitation and future challenges. Punjab. Support was also given to the Each episode is followed by a focus Balochistan Department of Education for group session in four severely flood- educational recovery and reconstruction hit areas, with a feedback mechanism. © UNESCO/G. Seiti in the flood-affected district of This is Pakistan’s first low-cost radio Jaffarabad. entertainment for development purposes. Mobilizing the hydrological Conservation action for heritage Director-General and geological sciences On 12 August, it was reported that one © NASA/GSFC/METI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team Irina Bokova visited To support the national effort to million cubic feet of water per second some of Pakistan’s cope with the disaster, UNESCO sent was flowing in the vicinity of the most severely a number of missions comprising World Heritage archaeological site of flood-affected regions in August hydrological and geological experts. Moenjodaro (third century BC). To support and had meetings They collaborated with the Pakistani the Pakistani authorities in assessing on the recovery authorities to develop a comprehensive the damage to principal sites and to effort with Minister action plan to improve integrated flood determine conservation action required, of Education Sardar management capacity. The focus was a World Heritage Centre expert mission Aseff Ahmad Ali and other officials. on the restoration of degraded early was undertaken from 8 to 15 October warning and monitoring systems in 2010 to Moenjodaro, Taxila and Makli. order to better manage hydrological The mission confirmed that the flood extremes, to assess geo-hazards and damage to Moenjodaro has been limited predict landslides, and to identify thanks largely to the extensive measures groundwater resources as sources of to protect against erosion and flooding emergency drinking water. The plan undertaken during UNESCO’s International was endorsed by the government of Safeguarding Campaign for Moenjodaro Satellite map of the flood-affected zones Pakistan. (1974-1997). The Organization’s World UNESCO’s post-disaster response in Pakistan. Heritage Centre and Natural Sciences Sector Crisis communication developed a proposal for the reinforcement To enable flood-affected communities of the site’s vulnerable embankments to address problems posed by their and a disaster risk management plan was situation, and to bring hope and recommended for the sites visited. motivation to affected populations, UNESCO’s Islamabad Office produced Eli Rognerud, UNESCO Education Programme a radio soap opera in cooperation Specialist, discusses the reopening of schools in with the Commonwealth Broadcasting Balakot with Pakistan Army officials. Association and Pakistan Broadcasting © UNESCO/M. Sharif 14
■■ Indonesia ■■ Disaster follow-up Guidebook for Planning Education in Emergency Operation for the Following the devastating 2009 cyclone Emergencies and Reconstruction Safeguarding of the Borobudur in Myanmar, the UNESCO Asia-Pacific World Heritage Site The revised edition of the Guidebook Regional Bureau for Education provided for Planning Education in Emergencies A series of eruptions of the Mount Merapi training for over 2,000 school principals and Reconstruction from UNESCO’s volcano, which began on 26 October, and teachers in disaster risk reduction International Institute for Educational deposited damaging layers of volcanic in education in 2010. This benefited Planning (IIEP) aims to support ash on the renowned Borobudur World some 400,000 students, who also educational authorities in providing Heritage site. In response, UNESCO’s received education communication equal access to quality education for Jakarta Office, together with the materials on disaster preparedness. children affected by conflict or disaster. Indonesian authorities, launched an It also shows how disaster can provide emergency safeguarding operation ■■ Preventing disasters unique opportunities for educational reform. and worldwide funding campaign. The principal conservation threat results In 2010, UNESCO promoted the from the corrosive effect of the ash, Global Task Force on Building Codes An agreement signed in February 2010 which hardens when wet and can block (GTFBC) – a network of experts which between UNESCO and the Comprehensive the monument’s complex drainage became operational in the aftermath Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization system. The three-phase project will of the Haiti and Chile earthquakes. (CTBTO), enhances cooperation, notably focus on cleaning the stone monuments It supports the enforcement and for the benefit of tsunami early warning and drainage systems, identifying dissemination of building codes systems. The CTBTO uses cutting-edge comprehensive remedial conservation to achieve earthquake resilience. technologies and scientific methods to measures, and implementing activities to Participants share data and good monitor the planet for nuclear explosions. enhance the livelihoods of affected local practices on building codes, including The resulting data offer a wide range of communities via their involvement in the through forum discussions on civil and scientific applications and could tourism and cultural industries. Dating UNESCO’s GTFBC internet site. potentially be used for tsunami warning from the eighth and ninth centuries, the A new feasibility study on purposes. world famous Buddhist temple complex International Mobile Early Warning In the Pacific Region, the European was painstakingly restored thanks to an System(s) for Volcanic Eruptions Commission’s Directorate-General for international safeguarding campaign and Related Seismic Activities Humanitarian Aid (DG ECHO) funded piloted by UNESCO from 1972 to 1983. (IMEWS), commissioned by UNESCO, UNESCO’s tsunami preparedness at UNESCO’s post-disaster response UNESCO’s post-disaster response underscores the importance of community level in Peru, Ecuador and Chili, volcano monitoring worldwide, data reaching beneficiaries in six vulnerable sharing and international cooperation. municipalities. UNESCO applied learning The first findings of the study were mechanisms to build awareness and good presented at the “Cities on Volcanoes” practices at community levels, including international conference held in Spain updating existing plans and improving UNESCO responded swiftly to the volcanic eruption of Mount Merapi, launching in June 2010, where the need for and complementing local tsunami early emergency operations that began with international assistance under the warning systems through the installation cleaning of the corrosive ash. auspices of UNESCO was emphasized of sirens and signage for safe areas, hazard © UNESCO/Indonesian Ministry of Culture and Tourism by experts. zones, and evacuation routes. 16 17
Chapter 2 Working towards the Millennium Development Goals © UNICEF Millennium Development Goal 2, “Achieve universal primary education”, aims to ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling. Here, schoolchildren in Sri Lanka.
Working towards the Millennium Development Goals © UNESCO EFA Global Monitoring Report 2 0 1 0 With the UN High-level Meeting on the Millennium Development Goals exhibition held at UN Headquarters, which used numbers graphically to show how NOKIA now partnering with Education for All (MDGs) in New York in September, the year was marked by intensive education can help to achieve the MDGs. Education for All advocacy for an approach to development that gives a central role The exhibition ran from 9 September to UNESCO and the telecommunications 20 November. The “Education Counts” to education and fully harnesses the potential of science, culture messages were further reinforced at a side company Nokia signed an agreement in October 2010 to promote the use of mobile and communication. During the “MDG Summit”, UNESCO stressed the event on “The Central Role of Education technologies to further the aims of Education importance of education as a foundation for human development in the Millennium Development Goals” for All. Research into potential applications that UNESCO organized in collaboration and the role of culture was clearly reaffirmed at the High-Level Round of mobile technology to support education Reaching with UNICEF, the State of Qatar and Save will lead to the development of guidelines Table on Culture for Development organized in cooperation with the the Children, and at the World Innovation for policy-makers in developing countries. Summit for Education, which took place European Union and the African Union. Nokia will also support the use of mobile the marginalized in December in Doha, Qatar. technologies in teacher training and capacity building for the management of educational ■■ Reaching the marginalized institutions. ■■ Positive outcomes UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon joined The Summit emphasized in its Outcome Director-General Irina Bokova at UN Document, “the importance of culture Headquarters in New York to launch the Director-General along with the Executive for development and its contribution to 2010 Education for All Global Monitoring Heads of UNFPA, UNICEF, UNIFEM, ILO the achievement of the MDGs”. Then, Report, Reaching the Marginalized, on and WHO in March 2010. The Statement in December, the UN General Assembly 19 January. The Report, presented in expresses a common vision among the adopted a resolution reaffirming the role detail in the next chapter, shows how signatories to intensify their agencies’ of culture in development and calling marginalization is compromising access support for advancing policies and for its integration in global development to education and sets out an agenda programmes that empower the hardest-to- policies. This recognition by the United to speed up progress and address reach girls, particularly those aged Nations represents a historic shift in the the inequalities that are the greatest 10 to 14 years old. prevailing international development challenge facing education. The Director-General also stressed paradigm. The Report’s analysis and conclusions the essential contribution of education The Outcome Document’s drove discussions at the High-Level Group to development at the FIFA World Cup recommendations on education also on Education for All held in Addis Ababa, Education Summit, hosted by President represented a step towards the holistic Ethiopia in February 2010, at which Zuma of South Africa in Pretoria on 11 July. © UNESCO When a British NGO (CamfedUK) tweeted this approach advocated by UNESCO, going ministers of education, donors, multilateral Summit participants recommitted to ensure message from UNESCO’s “Education Counts” beyond primary schooling – the focus organizations and civil society partners quality basic education for all and called exhibition, it was retweeted so many times that of MDG 2 – to encompass progression pledged to target and respond to the upon the world community to step up efforts it made Twitter’s homepage. The exhibition through the school system as well needs of the marginalized and enhance the to reach the MDGs of universal primary design was by Zago, New York. as youth and adult literacy, with an relevance and quality of education. education and gender equality in education. emphasis on tackling inequalities. Empowering adolescent girls was “Education is the most basic the aim of the UN Joint Statement on insurance against poverty” was the “Accelerating Efforts to Advance the Reaching the Marginalized: UNESCO EFA message of the “Education Counts” Rights of Adolescent Girls”, signed by the Global Monitoring Report, 2010. 20 21
“There is no better place to set development on the right track © UNICEF than in the first years of a child’s life.” Irina Bokova, Director-General New data released on the eve of the Early Childhood Care and Education, in Bangladesh has increased teaching posts MDG Summit put the spotlight on gender partnership with the Russian Federation reserved for women to encourage enrolment disparities in primary and secondary and the City of Moscow, the Organization of girls. UNESCO works to enhance women’s literacy and empowerment. education: these affect two out of three put the spotlight on the critical role of the countries and as many as half will not early years in achieving the Millennium achieve gender parity in education by Development Goals. Extensive evidence 2015. The 2010 Global Education Digest, shows the lifetime benefits of investing in the first time, with Laura Bush, UNESCO published by the UNESCO Institute for early care and education programs, with a Honorary Ambassador for the UN Literacy Statistics (UIS), reported that in South particularly strong and positive impact on Decade. This year’s events focused on and West Asia, only about 87 girls start the most disadvantaged groups. women’s literacy and empowerment. primary school for every 100 boys, while More than 65 ministers, along with UNESCO awarded International Literacy in sub-Saharan Africa, about 93 girls experts, academics and practitioners Prizes to innovative literacy programmes begin their primary education for every attended the Conference. Participants focusing on women’s empowerment 100 boys. At both the primary and adopted the Moscow Framework through literacy in Cape Verde, Colombia, secondary level, once girls gain access to of Action to expand and improve Germany, Egypt, Malawi and Nepal. Early childhood education education, they tend to complete their comprehensive early childhood care and Over the year, Benin, Burkina Faso, represents a studies more often than boys. education, especially for the world’s most the Central African Republic and Guinea window of hope vulnerable and disadvantaged children. formulated or improved national for disadvantaged children. The ■■ Early childhood The Framework outlines a number of literacy policies, strategies and action challenges that must be tackled: these plans. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Moscow Conference on early childhood UNESCO’s advocacy work aims to promote include a lack of political commitment, Mali, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan insisted on the a holistic approach to education and inadequate public funding and low and Senegal launched major literacy importance of learning throughout life. By organizing external support. programmes. Additional funds were tackling this the first ever World Conference on mobilized for literacy and adult education challenge. ■■ Literacy and women’s in Benin, Burkina Faso, China and India. empowerment Nigeria was the host country for a ■■ Teachers: the key to in developing viable national teacher Hamad Bin Isa Al-Khalifa Prize for the Use of meeting of the leaders of the nine most policies. The initiative uses technology to ICTs in Education and the UNESCO–Hamdan Comprehensive policies to increase youth highly-populated countries of the South quality education improve school leadership and classroom bin Rashid Al-Maktoum Prize for Outstanding and adult literacy are also fundamental (E-9), who adopted an ambitious action From early childhood and literacy training teaching and operates in 17 pilot Practice and Performance in Enhancing the for achieving development. The impact agenda to mobilize stronger commitment through to higher education, teachers are countries while open to all countries in Effectiveness of Teachers. of literacy is tremendous, ranging from to literacy, boost effective delivery the most important element in ensuring sub-Saharan Africa. The International better child and maternal health, to of literacy programmes, harness new quality education. Yet UNESCO data shows Institute for Capacity Building in Africa improved livelihoods, delayed age of resources and continue their successful that achieving universal primary education helped teachers’ colleges and education LIFE in Afghanistan marriage, lower fertility rates, better HIV teamwork. Their meeting in Abuja, alone will require an additional 1.9 million faculties in five African countries to offer In Afghanistan a 2010 LIFE (Literacy Initiative for Empowerment) Action © UNICEF/Noorani and AIDS prevention and broader political Nigeria in June, jointly organized with the teachers in classrooms by 2015. distance education degree programmes to Plan was developed focusing on coordination, advocacy, campaigning, participation. The Director-General Nigerian Government, tackled the theme The Teacher Training Initiative for Sub- improve the quality of teacher education. capacity, quality and resource mobilization. On International Literacy Day, marked International Literacy Day on of “Literacy for Development” with a Saharan Africa (TTISSA) was strengthened Two prizes concerning teachers were a LIFE good practices website in English, Dari and Pashto was launched. 8 September at the United Nations for special focus on girls and women. in 2010 to better assist governments awarded in 2010: the UNESCO–King 22 23
Welile, an HIV-positive primary teacher in Swaziland who has disclosed her status, “Literacy helps women come into their own: to gain confidence, play an active surrounded by her students. Photo featured in the “Photo-Voice: HIV and AIDS Education role in public life and defend their rights.” Qian Tang, Assistant Director-General for Education for Young People in Africa” exhibition held at UNESCO Headquarters as part of the © UNESCO/E. Deumo Noubessi Organization’s work with the Virginio Bruni- Tedeschi Foundation in Angola, Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland. © UNESCO/Swannepha education sector response to the needs of ■■ Fighting HIV and AIDS HIV-positive educators and learners. through education The project “Building Knowledge, Skills and Hope: HIV and AIDS Education Education remains the best prevention for African Children” benefited some against HIV and AIDS. As the lead 2,275 schools, 20,660 teachers and agency for EDUCAIDS, UNESCO initiated over 416,000 students in four countries. a programme in 17 countries in east Implemented in Angola, Lesotho, Namibia and southern Africa, in partnership and Swaziland, countries greatly affected with the OPEC Fund for International by the HIV epidemic, activities focused Development. The programme aims to on improving teacher training on HIV and enhance knowledge on education and AIDS as well as enhancing the quality of HIV and AIDS in the region, develop new relevant learning materials. In addition, partnerships, and rally resources to train the project worked to improve access new national staff to strengthen the to psychosocial support services for education personnel and learners affected Working towards the Millennium Development Goals by HIV and AIDS. World AIDS Day 2010 UNESCO also organized an exhibition in Senegal, Cape Verde of photos and texts on HIV education for and Guinea-Bissau young people in Africa in the context of a project funded by the Virginio Bruni A variety of activities took place in Senegal, Tedeschi Foundation. Young people and Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau, organized teachers from Angola, Lesotho, Namibia with support from the UNESCO Office in and Swaziland were given cameras, Dakar. In Senegal, a month-long national campaign was run; in Cape Verde, the National Commission for UNESCO organized four Winners of the HIV and AIDS poster interactive seminars for students attending competition and local authorities at the the UNESCO Associated Schools in Praia; Foumban Palace Museum, Cameroon, with similar student lectures were organized by the Benoît Sossou, Director of UNESCO Yaounde, UNESCO National Commission in Guinea- Karalyn Monteil, Culture Assistant Programme Bissau at four private secondary schools. Specialist and Vincent Seck, Culture Programme Specialist, Yaounde. 24 25
“It’s time to strengthen our collective thinking and action in order to move from an assisted Africa to a developed and respected continent.” Lalla Aïcha Ben Barka, Assistant Director-General, Africa Department As Convenor of the MDG Achievement affordable technologies in developing © UNESCO/B. Krasner Fund, Culture and Development Thematic countries, in order to strengthen Window, UNESCO implements 18 national national innovation and research and programmes jointly with a dozen other development capacity. UN bodies. As an example, in the region UNESCO’s African Science, Technology of Guelmim in southern Morocco, and Innovation Policy Initiative and its 17 crafts associations and cooperatives Institute for Statistics partnered with the involved in the production of carpets, African Union and the New Partnership for basket-making and dates significantly Africa’s Development (NEPAD) to hold two increased their revenues thanks to major workshops on “Science, Technology training and promotional activities and Innovation” (STI). In January 2010, a designed to promote local products and workshop entitled “Unlocking the Potential creative industries. Some 600 individuals, of Science, Technology and Innovation including 400 women, participated in to achieve the Millennium Development formulation and reviews. The workshop Director-General these income-generating activities. Goals in Rwanda” sought to identify was financed by the Spanish Agency for Irina Bokova at the concrete steps in STI development already International Cooperation for Development, second meeting of the Broadband ■■ Mobilizing science, contributing or able to contribute to the UNESCO and the UIS. Commission for achievement of the MDGs in Rwanda. In technology and innovation Digital Development May 2010 a regional workshop co- Digital development and with Carlos Slim for development ■■ organized with the Ministry of Higher Helú, Honorary Education and Scientific Research of Mali access to information Lifetime Chairman of Mexico’s Grupo UNESCO’s science programmes, related brought together participants from the Launched at the World Summit Carso, UN Secretary- © UNESCO to the environment and to the promotion 16 countries of the Economic Community on the Information Society Forum General Ban of science and technology, are guided of West African States (ECOWAS) as well 2010, the Broadband Commission for Ki-moon, and by the principles of sustainable as international experts. They exchanged Digital Development is a UNESCO-ITU President Paul In 2010, UNESCO workshops in Rwanda and Kagame of Rwanda. Mali focused on how to harness science, information about HIV/AIDS prevention. tattooing, excision and circumcision. Plans development. The Outcome Document of experience and lessons learnt in conducting (International Telecommunications Union) technology and innovation to achieve the The game, entitled “Fast Car: Travelling are underway to organize similar projects at the Millennium Summit emphasized the science, technology and innovation policy joint initiative to accelerate the adoption Millennium Development Goals. Safely around the World”, targets young other museums in Africa. strategic role of science and technology, audiences. Players can race on circuits in including information technology and ICTP after 45: a celebration of science and five different continents, paying virtual ■■ The role of culture innovation, for the achievement of development for a changing world took photos and wrote short texts on visits to some of the UNESCO World the Millennium Development Goals, their experience of living with HIV. Heritage sites. On a different note, for development in particular agricultural productivity, Nobel Prize winners, government ministers and leaders of aid agencies, representing developed and The exhibition ran from 1 December to UNESCO in collaboration with the Royal Through a series of advocacy initiatives, water management and sanitation, developing countries, convened at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) 14 January at Headquarters in Paris. Palace Museum in Foumban, Cameroon, UNESCO successfully repositioned culture at energy security and public health. The in Trieste, Italy, to celebrate the Centre’s 45 years of existence with a look to the future. The first interactive multimedia tool launched a poster competition designed the heart of the international development Document also strongly advocates for The event, entitled “ICTP After 45: Science and Development for a Changing World”, was held from on HIV and AIDS prevention for youth was to raise awareness among students of paradigm, as outlined above. It also capacity-building in technological 8 to 10 November 2010. Its goal was to nurture an international dialogue to determine new, effective launched in December 2010 to provide the risk of HIV and AIDS from traditional continued to deliver the programmes on innovation and corresponding know- strategies for scientific research and education in developing countries. young people with accurate and reliable practices such as piercing, scarification, which that advocacy draws. how in environmentally sound, 26 27
initiatives in the area of open access to ■■ Nurturing excellence in ICT and gender scientific information, through a joint African journalism An interactive session on gender mapping exercise and also on science, and ICTs was organized at the technology and innovation policy Twenty journalism schools in Africa were World Summit on the Information reviews. Work was initiated on a joint the focus of action to enhance the skills Society (WSIS) Forum in Geneva, UNGIS five-year strategy. UNGIS was and competencies of the continent’s Switzerland, to measure progress created to foster consistency between next generation of journalists. This towards gender equality in access the work of different UN bodies in the included support for the adoption and to ICTs since the summit in 2005. area of information and communication implementation of UNESCO’s model Inclusiveness, respect for human technologies. curricula to improve standards in rights, and increased participation of journalism education, training to build women in knowledge societies were ■■ Setting standards for capacities of teaching staff, exchange programmes with other universities, and © UNESCO all emphasized, as were issues such as media development the provision of learning materials and the creation of opportunities for women through the development of ICTs and the access of women from developing countries to ICTs. The media have a pivotal role to play equipment for training in both new and in development in general and in traditional media techniques. supporting efforts to reach the MDGs. As part of an agreement with the But for many countries, a thriving, Knight Center for Journalism in the of broadband to speed up progress independent and diverse media sector Americas to enhance African journalism towards the MDGs. UNESCO emphasizes is in itself a goal still to be fulfilled. professors’ teaching skills, an online the production and dissemination of Assistance from the International course, “Teaching Online Journalism”, local content, as well as important Programme for the Development of was completed by 23 professors from issues of linguistic and cultural diversity Communication (IPDC) enabled the Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, in cyberspace, as key elements that go launch of 83 media development Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda hand-in-hand with the infrastructure projects in 56 developing countries. and Zimbabwe. Working towards the Millennium Development Goals towards the Millennium Development Goals and connectivity dimension of broadband Six countries completed assessments roll-out. The Broadband Commission’s Final using the UNESCO-developed Media ■■ IPDC Prize for Rural Report and Declaration were presented Development Indicators, enabling to UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon on the identification of gaps in the Communication 2010 the eve of the 2010 MDG Review summit media landscape, and assisting the The Mexican community radio station in September, urging world leaders to formulation of media-related policies “La voz de los campesinos” and the agree that “the future will be built on and targeted media development Egyptian journalist Amr Mamdouh Ellissy broadband”. efforts. Twenty-five community media were the joint laureates of the UNESCO- The importance of respect for human projects were supported by UNESCO IPDC Prize for Rural Communication in rights and internet openness, including in 2010, focusing on developing 2010, sharing the US $20,000 award. freedom of expression, diversity, and countries. Projects in this area have Journalism students from the Centre interoperability, were stressed by provided assistance for the creation d’Etudes des Sciences et Techniques UNESCO at Information Society-related of community radio stations, policy de l’Information (CESTI), Senegal, © UNESCO events throughout 2010. As Chair of the advocacy in support of community a training institution that receives Working UN Group on the Information Society media, the promotion of standard- support from UNESCO. (UNGIS), UNESCO also advanced joint setting tools, and capacity-building. © UNESCO 28 29
Chapter 3 Knowledge sharing © Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion Knowledge can be transmitted through verbal instruction and demonstration, master-disciple relations, as well as formal academic education.
Knowledge sharing © UNESCO Knowledge sharing is at the heart of UNESCO’s mandate. Over the years, integrating education strategies into research and development than before, wider anti-marginalization policies. among them Brazil, Mexico, South Africa UNESCO has mobilized partners to capture and organize a wealth of Launched, distributed and promoted and Turkey. The Report records a shift in information, data, technical expertise and analytical capacity in a way in over 50 countries, the Report was global influence, with China overtaking translated into many languages, including both the USA and the European Union for that helps international cooperation for peace and development. In Bangla, Farsi, German, Japanese, Korean, the number of researchers and publishing 2010, several landmark world reports provided invaluable data and Portuguese and Swahili, with the support more scientific articles than Japan. analysis for a wide array of stakeholders in key areas for development. of UNESCO National Commissions and The 2010 Report also reveals that Field Offices. Some 15,600 printed copies technological progress is allowing As in previous years, a great number of experts from all over the world of the 2010 Global Monitoring Report countries with a lesser scientific capacity worked together on a voluntary basis around initiatives ranging were distributed in 2010, along with to acquire, adopt and sometimes even 24,900 summaries and 12,500 regional transform existing technology and from the Tsunami Early Warning Systems to Education for All (EFA). overviews. Over 43,000 copies were thereby bypass certain costly investments. A selection of these initiatives can be found below. downloaded via UNESCO’s website. This trend is fostering a democratization Every five years, the UNESCO Science of science worldwide, as countries Report offers a unique analysis of the participate more actively than before in spurring governments and donors to rise trends and developments that shape international science. In turn, science ■■ World Reports – to the challenge of meeting education scientific research, innovation and higher diplomacy is becoming a key instrument giving a global picture goals. The 2010 EFA Global Monitoring education worldwide. The 2010 edition of peace-building and sustainable Report, Reaching the Marginalized, was was launched on World Science Day for development in international relations. The EFA Global Monitoring Report, launched at UN headquarters in New York Peace and Development on 10 November, The World Social Science Report 2010: produced by an independent team led on 19 January. both at UNESCO Headquarters in Paris Knowledge Divides, produced by the by UNESCO, is the world’s foremost The report highlights the ongoing and simultaneously in a number of International Social Science Council (ISSC) publication on progress towards failure of governments to address Field Offices, including those of Beijing, and co-published with UNESCO, is the Professionals have education for all. Serving as a unique extreme national inequalities and of Brasilia, Brazzaville, Montevideo and first comprehensive overview of the field a responsibility to transmit knowledge policy tool for decision-makers, the donors to mobilize resources on the Tashkent. Other launches took place after in over a decade. Over 80 social scientists to the younger Report aims to inform, influence and required scale. The authors estimate 10 November in Ecuador, Guatemala and from around the world contributed generations. sustain commitment towards EFA, the annual financing gap for achieving elsewhere. A number of UNESCO National their expertise to the publication, which universal primary education by 2015 at Commissions collaborated actively in was officially launched at UNESCO US$16 billion – a significant increase launching the report. Headquarters in Paris on 25 June. over previous assessments. It also The latest Science Report depicts an The Report focuses on how social identifies policies that successfully increasingly competitive environment, but sciences are evolving in the face of counteract persistent inequalities, also one in which the flow of information, unequal conditions and diverging trends. including improving accessibility knowledge, personnel and investment It shows that while social science from and affordability by cutting fees and is becoming a two-way traffic. Both Western countries continues to have © L’OREAL-UNESCO/M. Pelletier Knowledge sharing Knowledge sharing informal charges and offering targeted China and India, for instance, are using the greatest global influence, the field incentives; strengthening the learning their newfound economic might to is expanding rapidly in Asia and Latin environment by providing highly skilled invest in high-tech companies in Europe teachers and expanded intercultural and elsewhere to acquire technological bilingual teaching; and expanding expertise. Other large emerging UNESCO Science Report 2010: The Current entitlements and opportunities by economies are also spending more on Status of Science around the World. 32 33
“Science, technology and innovation are the new ‘hot’ assets and part of the soft power many countries seek to acquire in order to advance their development and their position in the world arena.” Hans d’Orville, Assistant Director-General for Strategic Planning America, particularly in China and Brazil. and opportunities for engineering, as levels. In 2010, the UIS organized In sub-Saharan Africa, social scientists well as promoting public and policy three regional workshops on education from three countries – South Africa, understanding of engineering and its statistics involving about 25 countries, Nigeria and Kenya – produce 75% of role in society. The report addresses such three regional workshops on science and academic publications. In South Asia, issues as how to make engineering and technology statistics involving about barring some centres of excellence in engineering education more attractive 25 countries, two sub-regional workshops India, social sciences as a whole have low to young people, especially women, on cultural statistics for 30 countries and priority. and how to ensure that the engineering a training workshop on media statistics In October, UNESCO published the community engages with wider audiences for five countries from different regions. first ever global report on engineering, and shows its relevance for development. Engineering – Issues and Challenges ■■ Sharing data on education for Development. Produced in ■■ UNESCO Institute systems conjunction with major national and international engineering organizations, for Statistics UNESCO’s International Bureau of with 120 contributors from over The global data on education, science and Education (IBE) provides a unique 40 countries, it identifies the challenges technology, culture and communication database, “World Data on Education” collected by the UNESCO Institute for (WDE), with over 160 profiles of Statistics (UIS) are used by diverse education systems. In 2010, the profiles Findings from the World partners, including governments, donor of 67 countries were updated with recent Social Science Report 2010 agencies and other UN organizations. information on curricula made available The UIS education database, updated on the IBE website. The Institute’s Digital Sub-Saharan Africa has fallen dramatically behind in its share of world three times a year, is the most Library of National Education Reports science production – from 1 per cent in 1987 to 0.7 per cent in 1996, comprehensive in the world, from primary on the Development of Education, a with no sign of recovery. school enrolments to tertiary graduation database with more than 3,000 reports An estimated average of 20,000 highly qualified professionals left the rates. It is the primary education data covering the period 1932-2008, is another African higher education system each year from 1990 onward for jobs source for the Education for All (EFA) unparalleled source of information about in the United States, Europe, Global Monitoring Report, the World educational trends and was consulted the Middle East and Australia. Banks’ World Development Indicators and just under 500,000 times in 2010. Five Social sciences and humanities the UNDP Human Development Report, issues of the IBE’s journal, Prospects: were particularly badly hit. among others. Quarterly Review of Comparative The number of doctoral In 2010, the UIS increased the Education, published in 2010, reached graduates increased overall coverage of literacy data to 146 countries over 5,400 institutions in 69 countries by 40% between 1998 compared to 121 in 2009; and from 91 to through consortia. Knowledge sharing Knowledge sharing and 2006, but those in the 119 countries in 2009 for educational social sciences grew even attainment data. In addition, it organized regular training workshops to reinforce In sub-Saharan Africa, about 93 girls more rapidly – by 50% – begin primary education for every partly due to the increased the capacities of national statistical 100 boys, according to UNESCO statistics. participation of women. authorities in order to improve data Metsimotlhabe, Botswana. quality at the national and international © Steven Hite XXXX 34 35
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