Liberia Economy Profile - Doing Business 2019

 
Liberia Economy Profile - Doing Business 2019
Doing Business 2019   Liberia

                                Economy Profile

                                Liberia

                                                  Page 1
Liberia Economy Profile - Doing Business 2019
Doing Business 2019       Liberia

                                             Economy Profile of Liberia

                                          Doing Business 2019 Indicators
                                     (in order of appearance in the document)

Starting a business                 Procedures, time, cost and paid-in minimum capital to start a limited liability company

Dealing with construction permits   Procedures, time and cost to complete all formalities to build a warehouse and the quality
                                    control and safety mechanisms in the construction permitting system

Getting electricity                 Procedures, time and cost to get connected to the electrical grid, and the reliability of the
                                    electricity supply and the transparency of tariffs

Registering property                Procedures, time and cost to transfer a property and the quality of the land administration
                                    system

Getting credit                      Movable collateral laws and credit information systems

Protecting minority investors       Minority shareholders’ rights in related-party transactions and in corporate governance

Paying taxes                        Payments, time, total tax and contribution rate for a firm to comply with all tax regulations as
                                    well as post-filing processes

Trading across borders              Time and cost to export the product of comparative advantage and import auto parts

Enforcing contracts                 Time and cost to resolve a commercial dispute and the quality of judicial processes

Resolving insolvency                Time, cost, outcome and recovery rate for a commercial insolvency and the strength of the
                                    legal framework for insolvency

Labor market regulation             Flexibility in employment regulation and aspects of job quality

                                                                                                                                       Page 2
Doing Business 2019           Liberia

About Doing Business

The Doing Business project provides objective measures of business regulations and their enforcement across 190 economies and selected
cities at the subnational and regional level.

The Doing Business project, launched in 2002, looks at domestic small and medium-size companies and measures the regulations applying
to them through their life cycle.

Doing Business captures several important dimensions of the regulatory environment as it applies to local firms. It provides quantitative
indicators on regulation for starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit,
protecting minority investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts and resolving insolvency. Doing Business also
measures features of labor market regulation. Although Doing Business does not present rankings of economies on the labor market
regulation indicators or include the topic in the aggregate ease of doing business score or ranking on the ease of doing business, it does
present the data for these indicators.

By gathering and analyzing comprehensive quantitative data to compare business regulation environments across economies and over time,
Doing Business encourages economies to compete towards more efficient regulation; offers measurable benchmarks for reform; and serves
as a resource for academics, journalists, private sector researchers and others interested in the business climate of each economy.

In addition, Doing Business offers detailed subnational reports, which exhaustively cover business regulation and reform in different cities and
regions within a nation. These reports provide data on the ease of doing business, rank each location, and recommend reforms to improve
performance in each of the indicator areas. Selected cities can compare their business regulations with other cities in the economy or region
and with the 190 economies that Doing Business has ranked.

The first Doing Business report, published in 2003, covered 5 indicator sets and 133 economies. This year’s report covers 11 indicator sets
and 190 economies. Most indicator sets refer to a case scenario in the largest business city of each economy, except for 11 economies that
have a population of more than 100 million as of 2013 (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, the
Russian Federation and the United States) where Doing Business also collected data for the second largest business city. The data for these
11 economies are a population-weighted average for the 2 largest business cities. The project has benefited from feedback from
governments, academics, practitioners and reviewers. The initial goal remains: to provide an objective basis for understanding and improving
the regulatory environment for business around the world.

More about Doing Business (PDF, 5MB)

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Doing Business 2019                Liberia

         Ease of Doing Business in                                                                                                DB 2019 Rank
                                                  Region                  Sub-Saharan Africa
                                                                                                                 190                                         1
                Liberia
                                                  Income Category         Low income                                       174
                                                                                                                          DB 2019 Ease of doing business score
                                                  Population              4,731,906
                                                                                                                   0                               100

                                                  City Covered            Monrovia                                                      43.51

                                                               DB 2019 Ease of Doing Business Score

                       0                                                                                                                   100
                                                                                                               77.88: Rwanda (Rank: 29)

                                                                                                        70.31: Kenya (Rank: 61)

                                                                                           59.22: Ghana (Rank: 114)

                                                                                51.61: Regional Average (Sub-Saharan Africa)

                                                                             48.74: Sierra Leone (Rank: 163)

                                                                        43.51: Liberia (Rank: 174)

Note: The ease of doing business score captures the gap of each economy from the best regulatory performance observed on each of the indicators across all economies
in the Doing Business sample since 2005. An economy’s ease of doing business score is reflected on a scale from 0 to 100, where 0 represents the lowest and 100
represents the best performance. The ease of doing business ranking ranges from 1 to 190.

Rankings on Doing Business topics - Liberia

         1

         28

         55                                                                                                       67
                80
         82
 Rank

                                                                                     112                                                                           111
        109

        136

        163                                      172                                                                                               175
                                                                  182                             180                             179
                               185
        190

              Starting       Dealing            Getting        Registering       Getting        Protecting      Paying           Trading         Enforcing        Resolving
                 a            with             Electricity      Property         Credit          Minority       Taxes            across          Contracts       Insolvency
              Business     Construction                                                         Investors                        Borders
                             Permits

Ease of Doing Business Score on Doing Business topics - Liberia

        100
               88.14

        80                                                                                                       76.70
Score

        60

                                                                                 45.00
                                                                                                                                                                   40.50
        40                                      35.06                                                                                              35.23
                              28.94                              31.09
                                                                                                  26.67                           27.77

        20

         0

              Starting       Dealing            Getting        Registering       Getting        Protecting       Paying          Trading         Enforcing        Resolving
                 a            with             Electricity      Property         Credit          Minority        Taxes           across          Contracts       Insolvency
              Business     Construction                                                         Investors                        Borders
                             Permits

                                                                                                                                                                              Page 4
Doing Business 2019           Liberia

     Starting a Business

This topic measures the number of procedures, time, cost and paid-in minimum capital requirement for a small- to medium-sized limited
liability company to start up and formally operate in each economy’s largest business city.

To make the data comparable across 190 economies, Doing Business uses a standardized business that is 100% domestically owned, has
start-up capital equivalent to 10 times the income per capita, engages in general industrial or commercial activities and employs between 10
and 50 people one month after the commencement of operations, all of whom are domestic nationals. Starting a Business considers two
types of local limited liability companies that are identical in all aspects, except that one company is owned by 5 married women and the
other by 5 married men. The ranking of economies on the ease of starting a business is determined by sorting their scores for starting a
business. These scores are the simple average of the scores for each of the component indicators.

The most recent round of data collection for the project was completed in May 2018. See the methodology for more information.

 What the indicators measure                              Case study assumptions

Procedures to legally start and formally operate        To make the data comparable across economies, several assumptions about the
a company (number)                                      business and the procedures are used. It is assumed that any required information is
                                                        readily available and that the entrepreneur will pay no bribes.
• Preregistration (for example, name verification or
  reservation, notarization)
                                                        The business:
• Registration in the economy’s largest business        - Is a limited liability company (or its legal equivalent). If there is more than one type
  city
                                                        of limited liability company in the economy, the most common among domestic firms
• Postregistration (for example, social security        is chosen. Information on the most common form is obtained from incorporation
  registration, company seal)                           lawyers or the statistical office.
                                                        - Operates in the economy’s largest business city. For 11 economies the data are
• Obtaining approval from spouse to start a
  business or to leave the home to register the         also collected for the second largest business city.
  company                                               - The entire office space is approximately 929 square meters (10,000 square feet).
                                                        - Is 100% domestically owned and has five owners, none of whom is a legal entity;
• Obtaining any gender specific document for            has a start-up capital of 10 times income per capita and has a turnover of at least
  company registration and operation or national        100 times income per capita.
  identification card
                                                        - Performs general industrial or commercial activities, such as the production or sale
                                                        of goods or services to the public. The business does not perform foreign trade
Time required to complete each procedure
                                                        activities and does not handle products subject to a special tax regime, for example,
(calendar days)
                                                        liquor or tobacco. It does not use heavily polluting production processes.
• Does not include time spent gathering                 - Leases the commercial plant or offices and is not a proprietor of real estate and the
  information                                           amount of the annual lease for the office space is equivalent to the income per
                                                        capita.
• Each procedure starts on a separate day (2
  procedures cannot start on the same day)              - Does not qualify for investment incentives or any special benefits.
                                                        - Has at least 10 and up to 50 employees one month after the commencement of
• Procedures fully completed online are recorded        operations, all of whom are domestic nationals.
  as ½ day                                              - Has a company deed that is 10 pages long.
• Procedure is considered completed once final
  document is received                                  The owners:

• No prior contact with officials                       - Have reached the legal age of majority. If there is no legal age of majority, they are
                                                        assumed to be 30 years old.
Cost required to complete each procedure (% of          - Are sane, competent, in good health and have no criminal record.
income per capita)                                      - Are married and the marriage is monogamous and registered with the authorities.
                                                        - Where the answer differs according to the legal system applicable to the woman or
• Official costs only, no bribes                        man in question (as may be the case in economies where there is legal plurality), the
• No professional fees unless services required by      answer used will be the one that applies to the majority of the population.
  law or commonly used in practice

Paid-in minimum capital (% of income per
capita)

• Funds deposited in a bank or with third party
  before registration or up to 3 months after
  incorporation

                                                                                                                                                     Page 5
Doing Business 2019         Liberia

Starting a Business - Liberia

  Standardized Company

 Legal form                                                             Private Limited Company

 Paid-in minimum capital requirement                                    LRD 0

 City Covered                                                           Monrovia

  Indicator                                             Liberia            Sub-Saharan            OECD high              Best Regulatory
                                                                           Africa                 income                 Performance

 Procedure – Men (number)                              5                   7.4                    4.9                    1 (New Zealand)

 Time – Men (days)                                     18                  23.3                   9.3                    0.5 (New Zealand)

 Cost – Men (% of income per capita)                   12.6                44.4                   3.1                    0.0 (Slovenia)

 Procedure – Women (number)                            5                   7.6                    4.9                    1 (New Zealand)

 Time – Women (days)                                   18                  23.4                   9.3                    0.5 (New Zealand)

 Cost – Women (% of income per capita)                 12.6                44.4                   3.1                    0.0 (Slovenia)

 Paid-in min. capital (% of income per capita)         0.0                 10.0                   8.6                    0.0 (117 Economies)

 Figure – Starting a Business in Liberia and comparator economies – Ranking and Score

                                                    DB 2019 Starting a Business Score

       0                                                                                            100

                                                                                        91.39: Rwanda (Rank: 51)

                                                                                        91.18: Sierra Leone (Rank: 55)

                                                                                     88.14: Liberia (Rank: 80)

                                                                                  84.29: Ghana (Rank: 108)

                                                                                 82.41: Kenya (Rank: 126)

                                                                           78.52: Regional Average (Sub-Saharan Africa)

Note: The ranking of economies on the ease of starting a business is determined by sorting their scores for starting a business. These scores
are the simple average of the scores for each of the component indicators.

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Doing Business 2019   Liberia

  Figure – Starting a Business in Liberia – Procedure, Time and Cost

                                                   Time (days)        Cost (% of income per capita)
               18                                                                                                                       10

               16

                                                                                                                                             Cost (% of income per capita)
                                                                                                                                        8
               14

               12
 Time (days)

                                                                                                                                        6
               10

               8
                                                                                                                                        4
               6

               4
                                                                                                                                        2

               2

               0                                                                                                                        0
                      1                     *2                        *3                        4                         5
                                                              Procedures (number)

* This symbol is shown beside procedure numbers that take place simultaneously with the previous procedure.

Note: Online procedures account for 0.5 days in the total time calculation. For economies that have a different procedure list for men and
women, the graph shows the time for women. For more information on methodology, see the Doing Business website
(http://doingbusiness.org/en/methodology ). For details on the procedures reflected here, see the summary below.

                                                                                                                                                                             Page 7
Doing Business 2019          Liberia

Details – Starting a Business in Liberia – Procedure, Time and Cost

No.     Procedures                                                                           Time to Complete      Associated Costs

1       Reserve a unique company name                                                        1 day                 LRD 1,400
        Agency : Liberia Business Registry
        The applicant can search the name online or at the Liberian Business Registry
        (LBR) helpdesk. The reservation of the name costs LRD 1,400 and lasts for 120
        days.

    2   Register at the Liberia Business Registry                                            1 day (simultaneous   no charge
        Agency : Liberia Business Registry                                                   with previous
        The entrepreneur submits the company registration application to the Liberia         procedure)
        Business Registry (LBR) office. The application must include the following
        documents:
        Consolidated application for a limited liability company contains:
        1. Registration Form (RF – 001)
        2. Articles of incorporation
        3. Copy of ID documents as attachments to forms A or B
        4. Additional parts:
        - Empowered person form (A) or Registered agent form (B) in case of a company
        representative
        - Incorporator(s) form (E)
        - Shares and shareholder(s) form (F)
        - Information for TAX authority form (Q)

        LBR officers review the application and request the Tax Identification Number
        (TIN) and BPS from the Ministry of Finance on behalf of the entrepreneur.

    3   Pay fees and obtain proof of payment                                                 1 day (simultaneous   LRD 4,000
        Agency : Liberia Business Registry (Central Bank window)                             with previous
        The entrepreneur proceeds to the bank window in order to pay the associated          procedure)
        registration fees. Upon payment of the fee, the Bank officer issues a flag receipt
        of the Government of Liberia as proof of payment. This receipt has to be returned
        to the initial officer who accepted the application.

4       Receive the Business Registration Certificate                                        14 days               no charge
        Agency : Liberia Business Registry
        The entrepreneur returns to the Liberia Business Registry office to submit the
        proof of fee payment. The officer then journalizes the dossier and provides the
        entrepreneur with the receipt slip, thereby approving the dossier for processing.
        The entrepreneur can track the status of the application online; and upon
        approval, the company receives a Business Registration Certificate. The amount
        of LRD 4,000 is charged for business registration. As of June 27 2012,
        companies no longer need to pay a fee of LRD 4,200 for the business license.

5       Registration with the National Association of Social Security                        1 day                 no charge
        Agency : National Association of Social Security (NASSCORP)

Takes place simultaneously with previous procedure.

                                                                                                                                      Page 8
Doing Business 2019              Liberia

     Dealing with Construction Permits

This topic tracks the procedures, time and cost to build a warehouse—including obtaining necessary the licenses and permits, submitting all
required notifications, requesting and receiving all necessary inspections and obtaining utility connections. In addition, the Dealing with
Construction Permits indicator measures the building quality control index, evaluating the quality of building regulations, the strength of
quality control and safety mechanisms, liability and insurance regimes, and professional certification requirements. The most recent round of
data collection was completed in May 2018. See the methodology for more information

 What the indicators measure                              Case study assumptions

Procedures to legally build a warehouse                 To make the data comparable across economies, several assumptions about the
(number)                                                construction company, the warehouse project and the utility connections are used.

• Submitting all relevant documents and obtaining       The construction company (BuildCo):
  all necessary clearances, licenses, permits and
  certificates                                          - Is a limited liability company (or its legal equivalent) and operates in the economy’s
                                                        largest business city. For 11 economies the data are also collected for the second
• Submitting all required notifications and receiving   largest business city.
  all necessary inspections
                                                        - Is 100% domestically and privately owned; has five owners, none of whom is a
• Obtaining utility connections for water and           legal entity. Has a licensed architect and a licensed engineer, both registered with
  sewerage                                              the local association of architects or engineers. BuildCo is not assumed to have any
• Registering and selling the warehouse after its       other employees who are technical or licensed experts, such as geological or
  completion                                            topographical experts.
                                                        - Owns the land on which the warehouse will be built and will sell the warehouse
Time required to complete each procedure                upon its completion.
(calendar days)
                                                        The warehouse:
• Does not include time spent gathering
  information                                           - Will be used for general storage activities, such as storage of books or stationery.
                                                        - Will have two stories, both above ground, with a total constructed area of
• Each procedure starts on a separate day—              approximately 1,300.6 square meters (14,000 square feet). Each floor will be 3
  though procedures that can be fully completed
                                                        meters (9 feet, 10 inches) high and will be located on a land plot of approximately
  online are an exception to this rule
                                                        929 square meters (10,000 square feet) that is 100% owned by BuildCo, and the
• Procedure is considered completed once final          warehouse is valued at 50 times income per capita.
  document is received                                  - Will have complete architectural and technical plans prepared by a licensed
                                                        architect. If preparation of the plans requires such steps as obtaining further
• No prior contact with officials
                                                        documentation or getting prior approvals from external agencies, these are counted
Cost required to complete each procedure (% of          as procedures.
income per capita)                                      - Will take 30 weeks to construct (excluding all delays due to administrative and
                                                        regulatory requirements).
• Official costs only, no bribes
                                                        The water and sewerage connections:
Building quality control index (0-15)
                                                        - Will be 150 meters (492 feet) from the existing water source and sewer tap. If there
• Quality of building regulations (0-2)                 is no water delivery infrastructure in the economy, a borehole will be dug. If there is
• Quality control before construction (0-1)             no sewerage infrastructure, a septic tank in the smallest size available will be
                                                        installed or built.
• Quality control during construction (0-3)             - Will have an average water use of 662 liters (175 gallons) a day and an average
• Quality control after construction (0-3)              wastewater flow of 568 liters (150 gallons) a day. Will have a peak water use of
                                                        1,325 liters (350 gallons) a day and a peak wastewater flow of 1,136 liters (300
• Liability and insurance regimes (0-2)                 gallons) a day.
• Professional certifications (0-4)                     - Will have a constant level of water demand and wastewater flow throughout the
                                                        year; will be 1 inch in diameter for the water connection and 4 inches in diameter for
                                                        the sewerage connection.

                                                                                                                                                   Page 9
Doing Business 2019                  Liberia

Dealing with Construction Permits - Liberia

       Standardized Warehouse

    Estimated value of warehouse                                                                 LRD 2,141,300

    City Covered                                                                                 Monrovia

       Indicator                                                           Liberia                  Sub-Saharan          OECD high               Best Regulatory
                                                                                                    Africa               income                  Performance

    Procedures (number)                                                   25                       14.7                  12.7                    None in 2017/18

    Time (days)                                                           87                       145.7                 153.1                   None in 2017/18

    Cost (% of warehouse value)                                           38.1                     8.8                   1.5                     None in 2017/18

    Building quality control index (0-15)                                 2.0                      8.5                   11.5                    15.0 (3 Economies)

  Figure – Dealing with Construction Permits in Liberia and comparator economies – Ranking and Score

                                                              DB 2019 Dealing with Construction Permits Score

                    0                                                                                                     100

                                                                                        67.01: Rwanda (Rank: 106)

                                                                                        66.16: Ghana (Rank: 115)

                                                                                      63.49: Kenya (Rank: 128)

                                                                                58.59: Regional Average (Sub-Saharan Africa)

                                                            38.43: Sierra Leone (Rank: 182)

                                                  28.94: Liberia (Rank: 185)

Note: The ranking of economies on the ease of dealing with construction permits is determined by sorting their scores for dealing with
construction permits. These scores are the simple average of the scores for each of the component indicators.

  Figure – Dealing with Construction Permits in Liberia – Procedure, Time and Cost

                                                                       Time (days)          Cost (% of warehouse value)
                                                                                                                                                                      18
               80
                                                                                                                                                                      16   Cost (% of warehouse value)

               70
                                                                                                                                                                      14

               60
                                                                                                                                                                      12
 Time (days)

               50                                                                                                                                                     10

               40                                                                                                                                                     8

               30                                                                                                                                                     6

               20                                                                                                                                                     4

               10                                                                                                                                                     2

               0                                                                                                                                                      0
                        1   *2   *3   4   5      6      7    8     9     10     11     12   13     14     15   16   17   18     19   20   * 21   22   23   24   25
                                                                                     Procedures (number)

* This symbol is shown beside procedure numbers that take place simultaneously with the previous procedure.

Note: Online procedures account for 0.5 days in the total time calculation. For economies that have a different procedure list for men and
women, the graph shows the time for women. For more information on methodology, see the Doing Business website
(http://doingbusiness.org/en/methodology ). For details on the procedures reflected here, see the summary below.

                                                                                                                                                                                                         Page 10
Doing Business 2019                      Liberia

Figure – Dealing with Construction Permits in Liberia and comparator economies – Measure of Quality

              15                                                                                      14.0

                                                       11.0
Index score
              10                                                             9.0                                                                8.5
                                                                                                                           7.0

                  5

                               2.0

                  0

                             Liberia                Ghana                   Kenya                 Rwanda               Sierra Leone     Sub-Saharan Africa

Details – Dealing with Construction Permits in Liberia – Procedure, Time and Cost

  No.                 Procedures                                                                             Time to Complete         Associated Costs

1                     Obtain an environmental clearance                                                      13 days                  USD 1,125
                      Agency : Environmental Protection Agency
                      The environmental clearance must be obtained before requesting the building
                      plans approval by the Ministry of Public Works.

              2       Obtain a geo-technical study/soil test                                                 11 days                  USD 788
                      Agency : Private firm
                      A geo-technical study / soil test is mandatory to obtain a building permit in
                      Monrovia

              3       Obtain a topographical survey of the land                                              2 days                   USD 725
                      Agency : Private surveyor
                      A topographical survey is done to study the slope of the land for the design of the
                      building plans, mainly the water and sewage.

4                     Submit plans to Ministry of Public Works                                               1 day                    no charge
                      Agency : Ministry of Public Works (MPW)
                      The application file should include 2 copies of the site plan; letter of request
                      addressed to the Deputy Minister; the land deed; and the architectural, structural,
                      and mechanical drawings. These documents are passed from one official to
                      another for approval at the Ministry of Public Works (MPW) before the building
                      permit is issued. Physically all departments are located in different parts of the
                      city which may delay the approval.

                      The documents are submitted internally at the MPW in the following order:
                      • Office of the Deputy Minister, Technical Services
                      • Office of the Assistant Minister, Technical Services (initial recipient)
                      • Land-Use Planning and Zoning Division (initial site plan and document review).
                      There are no thorough checks with the National Archives on the authenticity of
                      the land documents, ensuring that is the responsibility of the owner of the
                      warehouse.
                      • Chief of Zoning (physical site approval)
                      • Chief of Architecture (design approval)
                      • Chief of Electromechanical Engineering (electrical and mechanical approval)
                      • Chief of Engineering (structural approval and billing)
                      • Finance Section (payments)
                      • Land-Use Planning and Programming (signature on permit)
                      • Office of the Deputy Minister, Technical Services (permit attached)

                      A temporary building permit can be granted after the second step above, when
                      the Land-Use Planning and Zoning Division conducts an initial site plan and
                      document review. This temporary permit can be obtained within one week. It is
                      granted for a maximum of 90 days, but this is an exception rather than the rule.
                      In practice, a permit is accorded after all steps mentioned above have been
                      completed. As a result of the weak enforcement of building regulations, partly a
                      result of the post-conflict situation, many private construction projects take place
                      without following the official guidelines.

5                     Receive inspection from Ministry of Public Works (Zoning Division)                     1 day                    no charge
                      Agency : Ministry of Public Works (Zoning Division)
                      It takes about 3 days for the Zoning Division to process an application. The
                      Zoning Division will contact the applicant to inform them that they will need an
                      inspection. There are only 4 inspectors and resources are limited, so the
                      applicant has to provide transportation for them.

6                     Obtain payment slip from the Ministry of Public Works                                  1 day                    USD 700
                      Agency : Ministry of Public Works (MPW)
                      Once all the technical departments have reviewed the application, the Finance
                      Department creates a payment slip. BuildCo must pick up the payment slip and
                      then go the Central Bank to pay the fees. The fee for design approval for
                      commercial buildings is USD 0.05 per sq. ft.
                                                                                                                                                             Page 11
Doing Business 2019         Liberia

7    Obtain construction permit from the Ministry of Public Works                             28 days   no charge
     Agency : Ministry of Public Works (MPW)
     BuildCo must return to the Ministry of Public Works (MPW) with the payment
     receipt and the application is then processed for final approval. The process at
     the MPW from submission of plans (procedure 1) to approval used to take 3
     months, but reforms introduced in 2008 reduced the processing time for simple
     building permits to 1 month. The MPW established a 30-day statutory time limit
     for the issuance of building permits. The MPW also introduced a checklist to
     clearly define all of the documents required to complete the application. Now all
     applications are scrutinized on submission to check for completeness and
     accuracy before being forwarded for processing. The reform eliminated the
     Minister’s signature on building permits for simple construction projects. By rule,
     the Minister's consent is only required for projects with a value greater than USD
     1 million or that involve a foreign government. However, in practice the Minister
     or Deputy Minister still approves projects that are less than USD 1 million in
     value.

8    Obtain construction clearance from the City Corporation of Monrovia                      2 days    USD 560
     Agency : City Corporation of Monrovia
     After obtaining the design approval from the MPW, BuildCo must obtain a
     separate construction clearance from the Planning Department at the City
     Corporation of Monrovia. The Planning Department takes 1 day to review the
     plans and then prepares a payment slip which is usually paid the next day.

     City Corporation of Monrovia as of May 1, 2009 abolished 3% fee charge, based
     on project value, for issuing a building permit and replaced it with a fixed fee of
     USD 0.04 per sq. ft. for new commercial and industrial construction projects.

     However, practitioners note that this fee is "negotiable". Applicants can pay a
     less amount, which is official, for a clearance that will last for a shorter period of
     time. There are no fee schedules posted at the City Corporation and often,
     builders are asked to pay much higher fees.

9    Receive inspection from the Ministry of Public Works - I                                 1 day     no charge
     Agency : Ministry of Public Works (MPW)
     The construction of the warehouse can commence after the building permit is
     obtained. There is no requirement to request inspections at any stage of the
     construction process. However, building inspectors and engineers are often
     dispatched from the Ministry of Public Works to inspect construction sites to see
     to what extent the construction conforms with the originally submitted drawings.
     Over the course of 6 -- 7 months, inspections occur randomly at a rate of every 3
     weeks or as often as every week. Construction work stops only if the plans have
     not been complied with.

10   Receive inspection from the Ministry of Public Works - II                                1 day     no charge
     Agency : Ministry of Public Works (MPW)

11   Receive inspection from the Ministry of Public Works - III                               1 day     no charge
     Agency : Ministry of Public Works (MPW)

12   Receive inspection from the Ministry of Public Works - IV                                1 day     no charge
     Agency : Ministry of Public Works (MPW)

13   Receive inspection from the Ministry of Public Works - V                                 1 day     no charge
     Agency : Ministry of Public Works (MPW)

14   Receive inspection from the Ministry of Public Works - Vl                                1 day     no charge
     Agency : Ministry of Public Works (MPW)

15   Receive inspection from the Ministry of Public Works - VII                               1 day     no charge
     Agency : Ministry of Public Works (MPW)

16   Receive inspection from the Ministry of Public Works - VIII                              1 day     no charge
     Agency : Ministry of Public Works (MPW)

17   Receive inspection from the Ministry of Public Works - IX                                1 day     no charge
     Agency : Ministry of Public Works (MPW)

18   Receive inspection from the Ministry of Public Works - X                                 1 day     no charge
     Agency : Ministry of Public Works (MPW)

19   Receive inspection from the Ministry of Public Works - XI                                1 day     no charge
     Agency : Ministry of Public Works (MPW)

20   Receive inspection from the Ministry of Public Works - XII                               1 day     no charge
     Agency : Ministry of Public Works (MPW)

     Install the septic tank                                                                  1 day     USD 3,281
21   Agency : Liberia Water and Sewer Corporation (LWSC)
                                                                                                                    Page 12
Doing Business 2019          Liberia

22    Receive inspection from the Liberia Water and Sewer Corporation                         1 day     no charge
      Agency : Liberia Water and Sewer Corporation (LWSC)
      The Liberia Water and Sewer Corporation inspects the site to prepare a cost
      estimate for the pipes and installation.

23    Obtain water and sewage connection                                                      14 days   USD 54
      Agency : Liberia Water and Sewer Corporation (LWSC)
      Water connections can be made if existing pipelines pass through the
      construction site. If that is the case, then the water connection should take 1 -- 2
      weeks. The cost for water connection includes LRD 250.00 for the connection
      itself and USD 50.00 for the meter. If a water pipeline does not pass through the
      area, then BuildCo must buy all the necessary materials to extend an existing
      pipeline to the construction site before the connection is made. This will inevitably
      add cost and time to the utility connection process.

24    Request and obtain occupancy permit                                                     10 days   no charge
      Agency : Ministry of Public Works (MPW)
      In the recent year the Ministry of Public Works started more rigorously enforcing
      the regulations of the Zoning Law. According to article 5. A of the Zoning Law all
      new building must obtain an occupancy permit before being used. Stricter
      enforcement has led to wider practice by companies to obtain the occupancy
      permit. This is issued within 10 days.

25    Register the building at the Probate Court                                              3 days    LRD 300
      Agency : Probate Court
      This registration of the completed building occurs in two stages. First BuildCo
      must register the building with the Probate Court, similar to a notarization
      procedure. Registration at the Probate Court takes 3 days and costs LRD
      300.00. The case considered here assumes that BuildCo does not employ a
      lawyer (lawyer’s fees would amount to USD 250.00). Registration is not required,
      but companies do so to increase the resale value.

Takes place simultaneously with previous procedure.

                                                                                                                    Page 13
Doing Business 2019         Liberia

Details – Dealing with Construction Permits in Liberia – Measure of Quality

                                                                                                      Answer               Score

Building quality control index (0-15)                                                                                      2.0

Quality of building regulations index (0-2)                                                                                0.0

  How accessible are building laws and regulations in your economy? (0-1)                             Not easily           0.0
                                                                                                      accessible.

  Which requirements for obtaining a building permit are clearly specified in the building            List of required     0.0
  regulations or on any accessible website, brochure or pamphlet? (0-1)                               documents; Fees
                                                                                                      to be paid.

Quality control before construction index (0-1)                                                                            1.0

  Which third-party entities are required by law to verify that the building plans are in             Licensed             1.0
  compliance with existing building regulations? (0-1)                                                architect;
                                                                                                      Licensed
                                                                                                      engineer.

Quality control during construction index (0-3)                                                                            0.0

  What types of inspections (if any) are required by law to be carried out during construction?       Unscheduled          0.0
  (0-2)                                                                                               inspections.

  Do legally mandated inspections occur in practice during construction? (0-1)                        Mandatory            0.0
                                                                                                      inspections are
                                                                                                      not always done
                                                                                                      in practice during
                                                                                                      construction;
                                                                                                      Mandatory
                                                                                                      inspections are
                                                                                                      done most of the
                                                                                                      time during
                                                                                                      construction.

Quality control after construction index (0-3)                                                                             0.0

  Is there a final inspection required by law to verify that the building was built in accordance     Final inspection     0.0
  with the approved plans and regulations? (0-2)                                                      is not required by
                                                                                                      law.

  Do legally mandated final inspections occur in practice? (0-1)                                      Final inspection     0.0
                                                                                                      does not always
                                                                                                      occur in practice.

Liability and insurance regimes index (0-2)                                                                                0.0

  Which parties (if any) are held liable by law for structural flaws or problems in the building      No party is held     0.0
  once it is in use (Latent Defect Liability or Decennial Liability)? (0-1)                           liable under the
                                                                                                      law.

  Which parties (if any) are required by law to obtain an insurance policy to cover possible          No party is          0.0
  structural flaws or problems in the building once it is in use (Latent Defect Liability Insurance   required by law
  or Decennial Insurance)? (0-1)                                                                      to obtain
                                                                                                      insurance .

Professional certifications index (0-4)                                                                                    1.0

  What are the qualification requirements for the professional responsible for verifying that the     University degree    1.0
  architectural plans or drawings are in compliance with existing building regulations? (0-2)         in architecture or
                                                                                                      engineering;
                                                                                                      Being a
                                                                                                      registered
                                                                                                      architect or
                                                                                                      engineer.

  What are the qualification requirements for the professional who supervises the construction        Being a              0.0
  on the ground? (0-2)                                                                                registered
                                                                                                      architect or
                                                                                                      engineer.

                                                                                                                                   Page 14
Doing Business 2019              Liberia

     Getting Electricity

This topic measures the procedures, time and cost required for a business to obtain a permanent electricity connection for a newly
constructed warehouse. Additionally, the reliability of supply and transparency of tariffs index measures reliability of supply, transparency of
tariffs and the price of electricity. The most recent round of data collection for the project was completed in May 2018. See the methodology
for more information.

 What the indicators measure                                Case study assumptions

Procedures to obtain an electricity connection             To make the data comparable across economies, several assumptions about the
(number)                                                   warehouse, the electricity connection and the monthly consumption are used.

• Submitting all relevant documents and obtaining          The warehouse:
  all necessary clearances and permits
                                                           - Is owned by a local entrepreneur and is used for storage of goods.
• Completing all required notifications and                - Is located in the economy’s largest business city. For 11 economies the data are
  receiving all necessary inspections
                                                           also collected for the second largest business city.
• Obtaining external installation works and possibly       - Is located in an area where similar warehouses are typically located and is in an
  purchasing material for these works                      area with no physical constraints. For example, the property is not near a railway.
                                                           - Is a new construction and is being connected to electricity for the first time.
• Concluding any necessary supply contract and
  obtaining final supply                                   - Has two stories with a total surface area of approximately 1,300.6 square meters
                                                           (14,000 square feet). The plot of land on which it is built is 929 square meters
Time required to complete each procedure                   (10,000 square feet).
(calendar days)
                                                           The electricity connection:
• Is at least 1 calendar day
                                                           - Is a permanent one with a three-phase, four-wire Y connection with a subscribed
• Each procedure starts on a separate day                  capacity of 140-kilo-volt-ampere (kVA) with a power factor of 1, when 1 kVA = 1
• Does not include time spent gathering                    kilowatt (kW).
  information                                              - Has a length of 150 meters. The connection is to either the low- or medium-voltage
                                                           distribution network and is either overhead or underground, whichever is more
• Reflects the time spent in practice, with little         common in the area where the warehouse is located and requires works that involve
  follow-up and no prior contact with officials
                                                           the crossing of a 10-meter road (such as by excavation or overhead lines) but are all
Cost required to complete each procedure (% of             carried out on public land. There is no crossing of other owners’ private property
income per capita)                                         because the warehouse has access to a road.
                                                           - Does not require work to install the internal wiring of the warehouse. This has
• Official costs only, no bribes                           already been completed up to and including the customer’s service panel or
• Value added tax excluded                                 switchboard and the meter base.

The reliability of supply and transparency of              The monthly consumption:
tariffs index (0-8)
                                                           - It is assumed that the warehouse operates 30 days a month from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00
• Duration and frequency of power outages (0–3)            p.m. (8 hours a day), with equipment utilized at 80% of capacity on average and that
• Tools to monitor power outages (0–1)                     there are no electricity cuts (assumed for simplicity reasons) and the monthly energy
                                                           consumption is 26,880 kilowatt-hours (kWh); hourly consumption is 112 kWh.
• Tools to restore power supply (0–1)                      - If multiple electricity suppliers exist, the warehouse is served by the cheapest
• Regulatory monitoring of utilities’ performance          supplier.
  (0–1)                                                    - Tariffs effective in January of the current year are used for calculation of the price of
                                                           electricity for the warehouse. Although January has 31 days, for calculation
• Financial deterrents limiting outages (0–1)              purposes only 30 days are used.
• Transparency and accessibility of tariffs (0–1)
Price of electricity (cents per kilowatt-hour)*

• Price based on monthly bill for commercial
  warehouse in case study

*Note: Doing Business measures the price of
electricity, but it is not included in the ease of doing
business score nor the ranking on the ease of
getting electricity.

                                                                                                                                                         Page 15
Doing Business 2019           Liberia

Getting Electricity - Liberia

  Standardized Connection

 Price of electricity (US cents per kWh)                                  39.0

 Name of utility                                                          Liberia Electricity Corporation (LEC)

 City Covered                                                             Monrovia

  Indicator                                               Liberia             Sub-Saharan           OECD high         Best Regulatory
                                                                              Africa                income            Performance

 Procedures (number)                                     4                   5.2                    4.5               3 (25 Economies)

 Time (days)                                             482                 112.0                  77.2              18 (3 Economies)

 Cost (% of income per capita)                           3491.7              3456.5                 64.2              0.0 (3 Economies)

 Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff        0                   1.6                    7.5               8.0 (27 Economies)
 index (0-8)

 Figure – Getting Electricity in Liberia and comparator economies – Ranking and Score

                                                        DB 2019 Getting Electricity Score

        0                                                                                             100

                                                                             78.72: Rwanda (Rank: 68)

                                                                            76.80: Kenya (Rank: 75)

                                                                         74.02: Ghana (Rank: 86)

                                                     49.00: Regional Average (Sub-Saharan Africa)

                                           35.06: Liberia (Rank: 172)

                                       31.70: Sierra Leone (Rank: 178)

Note: The ranking of economies on the ease of getting electricity is determined by sorting their scores for getting electricity. These scores are
the simple average of the scores for all the component indicators except the price of electricity.

                                                                                                                                                    Page 16
Doing Business 2019             Liberia

  Figure – Getting Electricity in Liberia – Procedure, Time and Cost

                                                       Time (days)     Cost (% of income per capita)
                                                                                                                                      2500

                                                                                                                                               Cost (% of income per capita)
                   400
                                                                                                                                      2000
 Time (days)

                   300
                                                                                                                                      1500

                   200                                                                                                                1000

                   100                                                                                                                500

                       0                                                                                                              0
                                     1                   2                               3                            4
                                                                Procedures (number)

* This symbol is shown beside procedure numbers that take place simultaneously with the previous procedure.

Note: Online procedures account for 0.5 days in the total time calculation. For economies that have a different procedure list for men and
women, the graph shows the time for women. For more information on methodology, see the Doing Business website
(http://doingbusiness.org/en/methodology ). For details on the procedures reflected here, see the summary below.

  Figure – Getting Electricity in Liberia and comparator economies – Measure of Quality

                   8
                   7
                   6
     Index score

                                                                                        5
                   5
                                                   4             4
                   4
                   3
                   2                                                                                                            1.6
                   1
                             0                                                                             0
                   0

                           Liberia             Ghana           Kenya                  Rwanda           Sierra Leone       Sub-Saharan Africa

                                                                                                                                                                               Page 17
Doing Business 2019         Liberia

Details – Getting Electricity in Liberia – Procedure, Time and Cost

No.    Procedures                                                                             Time to Complete    Associated Costs

1     Submit application to LEC and await estimate                                            30 calendar days    LRD 0
      Agency : Liberia Electricity Corporation (LEC), Monrovia
      The company has to submit an application letter along with a copy of the
      business registration (in the future, also a photo) to the Customer Service
      Department. Customer service forwards the application letter to the commercial
      manager, who screens the application and forwards it to the Technical
      Department.

2     Receive external inspection by LEC                                                      1 calendar day      LRD 0
      Agency : Liberia Electricity Corporation (LEC), Monrovia
      The Technical Department will come out and inspect the premises.The main
      purpose of the inspection (as with most business-activity-related inspections in
      Liberia) is to prove that the business exists. The inspector will draw sketches of
      the location, etc. to determine Liberia Electricity Corporation’s capacity to deliver
      power. Inspectors submit a report to their department, which then gets forwarded
      to the Commercial Department. Once the Commercial Department approves the
      application, it notifies the Computer section to prepare an invoice. Once the
      invoice is prepared, it gets sent back to the Commercial Department and they
      contact the customer to come pick up the invoice. The customer comes to LEC
      and signs a ledger to accept payment invoice.

3     Obtain external works from LEC                                                          75 calendar days    USD 8,400
      Agency : Liberia Electricity Corporation (LEC), Monrovia
      Only Liberia Electricity Corporation (LEC) can carry out the external works. The
      utility currently has the material readily available in stock, which has greatly
      reduced delays by many months.
      The works consist of expanding the overhead network by installing poles, a
      transformer and its accessories and extending wires to the warehouse.

4     Obtain internal wiring inspection, meter installation and final connection              376 calendar days   USD 4,868.27
      from LEC
      Agency : Liberia Electricity Corporation (LEC), Monrovia
      When the external works have been completed, and the electrician has finished
      doing the internal installation, the utility will inspect the wiring and turn on the
      supply.
      The client will need to pay a security deposit and a registration fee. The cost of
      the meter is included in the registration fee.

      Security deposit: based on one month of consumption

      Registration fee: There is also a registration fee equivalent to 20% of the Bill of
      Quantity. When the type of material and the quantity needed has been
      determined, and also what needs to be done, and the labor cost, the customer
      will be required to pay a registration fee equivalent to 20% of the Bill of Quantity.

Takes place simultaneously with previous procedure.

                                                                                                                                     Page 18
Doing Business 2019           Liberia

 Details – Getting Electricity in Liberia – Measure of Quality

                                                                                                                            Answer

 Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index (0-8)                                                              0

 Total duration and frequency of outages per customer a year (0-3)                                                         0

    System average interruption duration index (SAIDI)                                                                     ..

    System average interruption frequency index (SAIFI)                                                                    ..

    What is the minimum outage time (in minutes) that the utility considers for the calculation of SAIDI/SAIFI             N/A

 Mechanisms for monitoring outages (0-1)                                                                                   0

    Does the distribution utility use automated tools to monitor outages?                                                  No

 Mechanisms for restoring service (0-1)                                                                                    0

    Does the distribution utility use automated tools to restore service?                                                  No

 Regulatory monitoring (0-1)                                                                                               0

    Does a regulator—that is, an entity separate from the utility—monitor the utility’s performance on reliability of      No
    supply?

 Financial deterrents aimed at limiting outages (0-1)                                                                      0

    Does the utility either pay compensation to customers or face fines by the regulator (or both) if outages              No
    exceed a certain cap?

 Communication of tariffs and tariff changes (0-1)                                                                         0

    Are effective tariffs available online?                                                                                No

    Link to the website, if available online                                                                               n.a

    Are customers notified of a change in tariff ahead of the billing cycle?                                               No

Note:

If the duration and frequency of outages is 100 or less, the economy is eligible to score on the Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff
index.

If the duration and frequency of outages is not available, or is over 100, the economy is not eligible to score on the index.

If the minimum outage time considered for SAIDI/SAIFI is over 5 minutes, the economy is not eligible to score on the index.

                                                                                                                                                    Page 19
Doing Business 2019           Liberia

     Registering Property

This topic examines the steps, time and cost involved in registering property, assuming a standardized case of an entrepreneur who wants to
purchase land and a building that is already registered and free of title dispute. In addition, the topic also measures the quality of the land
administration system in each economy. The quality of land administration index has five dimensions: reliability of infrastructure, transparency
of information, geographic coverage, land dispute resolution, and equal access to property rights. The most recent round of data collection for
the project was completed in May 2018. See the methodology for more information.

 What the indicators measure                               Case study assumptions

Procedures to legally transfer title on                  To make the data comparable across economies, several assumptions about the
immovable property (number)                              parties to the transaction, the property and the procedures are used.

• Preregistration procedures (for example,               The parties (buyer and seller):
  checking for liens, notarizing sales agreement,
  paying property transfer taxes)                        - Are limited liability companies (or the legal equivalent).
                                                         - Are located in the periurban area of the economy’s largest business city. For 11
• Registration procedures in the economy's largest       economies the data are also collected for the second largest business city.
  business city.
                                                         - Are 100% domestically and privately owned.
• Postregistration procedures (for example, filling      - Have 50 employees each, all of whom are nationals.
  title with municipality)                               - Perform general commercial activities.

Time required to complete each procedure                 The property (fully owned by the seller):
(calendar days)
                                                         - Has a value of 50 times income per capita, which equals the sale price.
• Does not include time spent gathering                  - Is fully owned by the seller.
  information                                            - Has no mortgages attached and has been under the same ownership for the past
• Each procedure starts on a separate day -              10 years.
  though procedures that can be fully completed          - Is registered in the land registry or cadastre, or both, and is free of title disputes.
  online are an exception to this rule                   - Is located in a periurban commercial zone, and no rezoning is required.
                                                         - Consists of land and a building. The land area is 557.4 square meters (6,000
• Procedure is considered completed once final           square feet). A two-story warehouse of 929 square meters (10,000 square feet) is
  document is received
                                                         located on the land. The warehouse is 10 years old, is in good condition, has no
• No prior contact with officials                        heating system and complies with all safety standards, building codes and legal
                                                         requirements. The property, consisting of land and building, will be transferred in its
Cost required to complete each procedure (% of           entirety.
property value)                                          - Will not be subject to renovations or additional construction following the purchase.
• Official costs only (such as administrative fees,      - Has no trees, natural water sources, natural reserves or historical monuments of
  duties and taxes).                                     any kind.
                                                         - Will not be used for special purposes, and no special permits, such as for
• Value Added Tax, Capital Gains Tax and illicit         residential use, industrial plants, waste storage or certain types of agricultural
  payments are excluded                                  activities, are required.
                                                         - Has no occupants, and no other party holds a legal interest in it.
Quality of land administration index (0-30)

• Reliability of infrastructure index (0-8)
• Transparency of information index (0–6)
• Geographic coverage index (0–8)
• Land dispute resolution index (0–8)
• Equal access to property rights index (-2–0)

                                                                                                                                                     Page 20
Doing Business 2019      Liberia

Registering Property - Liberia

       Indicator                                             Liberia             Sub-Saharan         OECD high         Best Regulatory
                                                                                 Africa              income            Performance

    Procedures (number)                                     10                  6.2                  4.7               1 (4 Economies)

    Time (days)                                             44                  53.9                 20.1              1 (New Zealand)

    Cost (% of property value)                              13.8                7.6                  4.2               0.0 (Saudi Arabia)

    Quality of the land administration index (0-30)         3.5                 8.8                  23.0              None in 2017/18

  Figure – Registering Property in Liberia and comparator economies – Ranking and Score

                                                          DB 2019 Registering Property Score

                    0                                                                                     100

                                                                                             93.70: Rwanda (Rank: 2)

                                                              55.97: Kenya (Rank: 122)

                                                              55.54: Ghana (Rank: 123)

                                                           52.62: Regional Average (Sub-Saharan Africa)

                                                  43.50: Sierra Leone (Rank: 167)

                                        31.09: Liberia (Rank: 182)

Note: The ranking of economies on the ease of registering property is determined by sorting their scores for registering property. These
scores are the simple average of the scores for each of the component indicators.

  Figure – Registering Property in Liberia – Procedure, Time and Cost

                                                          Time (days)       Cost (% of property value)
                                                                                                                                            14

               40
                                                                                                                                            12

                                                                                                                                                 Cost (% of property value)
               35

                                                                                                                                            10
               30
 Time (days)

               25                                                                                                                           8

               20
                                                                                                                                            6

               15
                                                                                                                                            4
               10

                                                                                                                                            2
               5

               0                                                                                                                            0
                        1   2            *3           4                5            6          7                8      9          10
                                                                   Procedures (number)

* This symbol is shown beside procedure numbers that take place simultaneously with the previous procedure.

Note: Online procedures account for 0.5 days in the total time calculation. For economies that have a different procedure list for men and
women, the graph shows the time for women. For more information on methodology, see the Doing Business website
(http://doingbusiness.org/en/methodology ). For details on the procedures reflected here, see the summary below.

                                                                                                                                                                              Page 21
Doing Business 2019                      Liberia

Figure – Registering Property in Liberia and comparator economies – Measure of Quality

              30                                                                                    28.5

              25
Index score
              20
                                                                             16.0
              15

              10                                       8.0                                                                                       8.8
                                                                                                                            6.5
                  5            3.5

                  0

                             Liberia                Ghana                   Kenya                 Rwanda                Sierra Leone       Sub-Saharan Africa

Details – Registering Property in Liberia – Procedure, Time and Cost

  No.                 Procedures                                                                              Time to Complete         Associated Costs

1                     Obtain a Transfer deed form                                                             1 day                    USD 4
                      Agency : Shop
                      The parties obtain a Transfer deed form to provide to the surveyor who will be
                      surveying that property. At that time, the seller will also provide a copy of the
                      deed to the new owner. The transfer deed form can be obtained in shops.

2                     Buyer contacts a surveyor to survey the property                                        21 days                  USD 125
                      Agency : Private licensed surveyor
                      One of the requirements before transferring property in Liberia is to conduct a
                      survey of that property by a licensed surveyor. The potential buyer will contact a
                      certified surveyor to do the study of the property to be transferred. The property
                      cannot be surveyed during the notice period. Any person wishing to introduce a
                      claim of ownership on that property must come forward during the notice period.
                      If there are no disputes recorded after the notice period, then the surveyor will
                      conduct the survey of the property with the potential buyer as a witness, and
                      anyone else who wishes to be present.

              3       Publication of survey in newspaper and radio by the surveyor                            1 day                    included in Procedure
                      Agency : Newspaper/radio                                                                                         2
                      By law, the surveyor must inform the public that the survey or re-survey of a
                      particular property will be conducted on a set date. The notice will also provide
                      the location of that property. The announcement is published in local newspapers
                      and is also aired for 15 days. But the law is silent as to the length of this notice.

4                     Parties contract a lawyer to start the official transfer process                        2 days                   USD 2,375; (10% -
                      Agency : Lawyer                                                                                                  15% property value)
                      The parties give the lawyer the deed on which the licensed surveyor has
                      sketched the property. The transfer process will then start.

5                     Lawyer visits Registry to check the status and ownership of the property                4 days                   USD 85
                      Agency : Center for National Documents & Records / National Archives (CNDRA)
                      The records are kept in ledgers, and the search for ownership is done manually
                      by checking the ledgers. An application for the search of Deeds/Titles document
                      is completed. It takes a week for CNDRA to search for the deeds. CNDRA will
                      contact MOFA in case they do not have the entire file.

6                     Lawyer visits Bureau of Internal Revenue of the Ministry of Finance (Real               3 days                   no charge
                      Estate Division) to check for outstanding taxes on the property
                      Agency : Bureau of Internal Revenue at the Ministry of Finance
                      The Real Estate Tax division will issue an official Tax Receipt evidencing that all
                      delinquent real property taxes have been paid in full. This Tax Receipt is
                      mandatory, as of June 1st, 2009 to have the deed probated at the Probate Court.

7                     Parties sign the deed form at the lawyer's office                                       1 day                    no charge
                      Agency : Lawyer
                      Once all verifications are done by the lawyer to ensure that the property is free of
                      all encumbrances and established the rightful owner of the property, both parties
                      can now sign the deed, which will be probated at the Probate Court. The deed
                      must have a vivid description of the building.

8                     Lawyer visits Probate Court to request the transfer                                     7 days                   no charge
                      Agency : Probate Court
                      The lawyer visits the Probate Court to request the transfer (1 business day). The
                      Court will then publish a notice of the transaction for 4 business days. If there are
                      no objections, on the fifth business day, the lawyer can pick up the deed with the
                      seal of approval from the Court. The Probate court rules state that only lawyers
                      are allowed to submit the deed for probate.

                                                                                                                                                                Page 22
Doing Business 2019         Liberia

9     Parties register the deed at the Registry                                             4 days   USD 25
      Agency : Land Registry
      The buyer will complete the Registration Form for Deeds and Titles Documents.
      A bill form will be provided at that time and payment is made at the MOF.
      Documents to be provided at the time of registration:

      1. A copy of the Real Estate Tax receipt (obtained in procedure 6)
      2. Flag receipt from the Ministry of Finance as proof of payment
      3. Original and Two copies of Bill form
      4. Probated Deed

10    Seller goes to Bureau of Internal Revenues to change the owner’s name on              1 day    no charge
      the property
      Agency : Bureau of Internal Revenues
      The parties will change the ownership name at the Bureau of Internal Revenues.
      It is in the interest of the seller to ensure that the name is adjusted so that the
      new owner is responsible for future taxes.

Takes place simultaneously with previous procedure.

                                                                                                                 Page 23
Doing Business 2019          Liberia

Details – Registering Property in Liberia – Measure of Quality

                                                                                                    Answer               Score

Reliability of infrastructure index (0-8)                                                                                0.0

  What is the institution in charge of immovable property registration?                             CENDRA

  In what format are the majority of title or deed records kept in the largest business city—in a   Paper                0.0
  paper format or in a computerized format (scanned or fully digital)?

  Is there an electronic database for checking for encumbrances (liens, mortgages, restrictions     No                   0.0
  and the like)?

  Institution in charge of the plans showing legal boundaries in the largest business city:         Ministry of Lands,
                                                                                                    Mines and
                                                                                                    Energy

  In what format are the majority of maps of land plots kept in the largest business city—in a      Paper                0.0
  paper format or in a computerized format (scanned or fully digital)?

  Is there an electronic database for recording boundaries, checking plans and providing            No                   0.0
  cadastral information (geographic information system)?

  Is the information recorded by the immovable property registration agency and the cadastral       Separate             0.0
  or mapping agency kept in a single database, in different but linked databases or in separate     databases
  databases?

  Do the immovable property registration agency and cadastral or mapping agency use the             No                   0.0
  same identification number for properties?

Transparency of information index (0–6)                                                                                  1.0

  Who is able to obtain information on land ownership at the agency in charge of immovable          Only                 0.0
  property registration in the largest business city?                                               intermediaries
                                                                                                    and interested
                                                                                                    parties

  Is the list of documents that are required to complete any type of property transaction made      Yes, on public       0.5
  publicly available–and if so, how?                                                                boards

  Link for online access:

  Is the applicable fee schedule for any property transaction at the agency in charge of            Yes, online          0.5
  immovable property registration in the largest business city made publicly available–and if
  so, how?

  Link for online access:                                                                           http://www.cndra.
                                                                                                    gov.lr/CSC-
                                                                                                    COST.php?
                                                                                                    main=30&related
                                                                                                    =30&pg=mp

  Does the agency in charge of immovable property registration commit to delivering a legally       Yes, in person       0.0
  binding document that proves property ownership within a specific time frame–and if so, how
  does it communicate the service standard?

  Link for online access:

  Is there a specific and separate mechanism for filing complaints about a problem that             No                   0.0
  occurred at the agency in charge of immovable property registration?

  Contact information:

  Are there publicly available official statistics tracking the number of transactions at the       No                   0.0
  immovable property registration agency?

  Number of property transfers in the largest business city in 2017:

  Who is able to consult maps of land plots in the largest business city?                           Only                 0.0
                                                                                                    intermediaries
                                                                                                    and interested
                                                                                                    parties

  Is the applicable fee schedule for accessing maps of land plots made publicly available—          No                   0.0
  and if so, how?

  Link for online access:
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