Edition Axel Menges Architecture, Art, Design and Film - Spring 2019 New and recently published titles

Edition Axel Menges Architecture, Art, Design and Film - Spring 2019 New and recently published titles
Edition Axel Menges
Architecture, Art, Design and Film

                   Spring 2019
New and recently published titles
Edition Axel Menges Architecture, Art, Design and Film - Spring 2019 New and recently published titles
Erdmut Bramke, Werkverzeichnis. Bd. 1:                    Erich Engelbrecht. Introspektive Bilder /                 Klaus Kinold. Architekturphotographien /
Gemälde 1964–2002, Bd. 2: Arbeiten auf                    Introspective Images                                      Photographs of Architecture
Papier 1961–2002                                                                                                    With an essay by Wolfgang Pehnt. 120 pp. with
Edited on behalf of the Freunde der Staatsgalerie         Edited by Waltraud Engelbrecht. With contribu-            112 illus., 280 x 300 mm, hard-cover, German /
Stuttgart by Ulrike Gauß, Susanne Grötz and Ca-           tions by Waltraud Engelbrecht, Gottfried Knapp            English
rolin Jörg                                                and Renate Vogt. 156 pp. with 150 illus., 280 x           ISBN 978-3-936681-93-2
Vol. 1: 428 pp. with 556 illus., 220 x 280 mm, hard-      300 mm, hard-cover, German / English                      Euro 49.90, £ 39.90, US $ 59.90
cover, German                                             ISBN 978-3-86905-014-0
Vol. 2: 528 pp. with 1483 illus., 220 x 280 mm,           Euro 59.00, £ 49.90, US $ 69.90                           The work of Klaus Kinold, born 1939 in Essen, is
hard-cover, German                                        Enclosed is a DVD with a film by Helmut Kohn              part of a tradition of photography, and particular-
ISBN 978-3-00-053271-9 (Freunde der Staats-                                                                         ly of architectural photography. Architecture was
galerie Stuttgart)                                        Erich Engelbrecht (1928–2011) called his pictures         one of the most important themes even of early
ISBN 978-3-86905-004-1 (Edition Axel Menges)              »introspective«. He remarks on this: »The intro-          photography – not least because it stood still.
Euro 154.00, £ 129.00, US $ 169.00                        spective image inspects the arena of the soul, the        Initially this was an important characteristic, since
The two volumes are not sold separately.                  field of operation of archetypes, which constitute        exposure times were long. Thus began the affini-
                                                          the fundamental pattern of our behaviour.« We             ty of photography with the documentary. Reality
Erdmut Bramke, who was born in 1940 in Kiel and           are indebted to C. G. Jung for providing especial-        and representation were supposed to corres-
died in 2002 in Stuttgart, is one of the few 20th-        ly deep insights into the nature of archetypes. Ac-       pond. Quoting a statement by Roland Barthes,
century artists whose work consistently expressed         cording to him, they constitute, in their totality, the   Kinold has referred to the still »mysterious bonus
a purely painterly position. She worked only with         collective human unconsciousness, and determine           of confidence given to the documentary«. At a
colour and structures. The use of acrylic colours         our actions. These archetypes become visible on-          time when digital photographic techniques make
enabled her to create unique colour constellations.       ly in symbolic images. For Werner Haftmann such           all sorts of manipulation possible, the now rare
Her unusual palate of colours and novel shades of         images are the works of symbolist artists of all          quality of reliability is assigned to this attitude.
colour were a constant surprise. In her stylistic id-     times.                                                       It was self-evident for Kinold to explore the pe-
iom she emphasised flowing lines, interspersed                The works of Erich Engelbrecht, whether graph-        riod whose very name included the term objectiv-
colour shadowing with linear structures and experi-       ics, oil pictures, tapestries, or wooden and steel fig-   ity – the New Objectivity (in German: Neue Sach-
mented with images produced by dipping the im-            ures, appear planimetric and abstract. In his steel       lichkeit). The work of colleagues such as Werner
age body in colour and also by using different ma-        figures, for instance, the third dimension exists on-     Mantz, Hugo Schmölz, Arthur Köster and above
terials. Her works are represented in many public         ly in the thickness of the steel plates. This makes       all Albert Renger-Patzsch combined useful infor-
and private collections, including the Staatsgalerie      his artworks akin to folk tales. In his book Das eu-      mation and contemporary artistic expression.
Stuttgart, the Kunstmuseum Stuttgart, the Ulmer           ropäische Volksmärchen, Max Lüthi describes the           Walter Peterhans, photographer at the Bauhaus,
Museum, the Kunstmuseum Bonn, the Bundes-                 style of the folk tale as »planimetric« and »ab-          called it the »magic of precision«. At the same
kunsthalle, also in Bonn, and the Kunsthalle Kiel.        stract«, with projecting all happenings on the level      time, Kinold did not let himself be confused by
   Erdmut Bramke studied painting from 1961 to            of plot. When the sister cuts her little finger off       the special effects indulged in by some mod-
1967 at the academies in Berlin and Stuttgart. Her        and uses it to open the door to the glass castle          ernist artists. His photographs indicate the struc-
teachers were Heinz Trökes and K. R. H. Sonder-           to free her imprisoned brothers in the folk tale          ture of the surfaces of a building, the spatial
borg. Repeated study periods in France and Italy          The Seven Ravens, no blood flows and we hear              depth and the details concealed in its shadowed
took her creative work into constantly new direc-         no cry of pain.                                           sections, the proportions in which they present
tions. Particularly important for her artistic develop-       Both – the folk tale and the »introspective im-       themselves to the user.
ment was the time she spent as a stipendiary fel-         age« – tell a story and use primal images in order           The accuracy of observation, the precision
low at the Villa Massimo in Rome in 1979/80 and at        to do it. This mode of action – of creating a coher-      in detail, the translation of three-dimensional ob-
the Cité Internationale des Arts in Paris in 1986.        ence of meaning through a narrative of archetypal         jects into a convincingly construed image are
   The present catalogue raisonné of the artist’s         images such as forest, cavern, or sea that rests          among the virtues of the architectural photogra-
freelance work was commissioned by the Freunde            upon primal human experience – is described by            pher Klaus Kinold. What takes precedence in his
der Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, as prescribed by the         C. G. Jung as an »archetypal programme«, a pri-           work is not the moment at which a thing sud-
terms of the bequest of Erdmut Bramke – her artis-        mal behaviour pattern that all human beings fol-          denly reveals its essence, a lucky coincidence,
tic design of buildings will follow in a later volume.    low, regardless of race, culture, or epoch.               but rather the condition that is considered to
Volume one is devoted to the paintings. It is intro-          With the introspective image, as with the folk        be essential, set also by the right photographic
duced by essays of six people in her circle who fo-       tale, the creative process must be intuitive and          standpoint. For Kinold, who owed a great deal
cus on Bramke’s importance for painting in the lat-       meditative, an immersion in the unconscious. Erich        to his teacher Egon Eiermann at the Technische
ter half of the 20th century. Volume two presents         Engelbrecht had no plan or idea for an artwork,           Hochschule in Karlsruhe, including in his capacity
the sizable œuvre of her works on paper, which            merely an empty sheet of paper or canvas in front         as a photographer, logic, purity and clarity went
must be accorded equal weight in the artist’s work.       of him; he made himself receptive, waited, and            without saying. Accordingly, predominant in his
Reprinted in both volumes are contemporary texts          allowed himself to be guided by the images, a             work, we find photographs of buildings by archi-
from catalogues, newspaper articles and talks by          process that he experienced very much as an or-           tects whom he could expect to have such quali-
Reinhard Döhl, Eugen Gomringer, Karin von Maur            deal and even as a threat to his existence. He did,       ties: classic Modernists like Walter Gropius, Lud-
and others that show how the artist’s work was re-        however, have a sense for when his process of             wig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and con-
ceived during her lifetime.                               searching was at an end, albeit without under-            temporaries like Alvar Aalto, Hans Döllgast, Her-
   Until her retirement, Ulrike Gauß was the head of      standing the meaning of a picture created in this         man Hertzberger, Louis I. Kahn, Karljosef Schat-
the Graphische Sammlung of the Staatsgalerie              way. His wife Waltraud Engelbrecht would then try         tner, Rudolf Schwarz, Alvaro Siza.
Stuttgart, Susanne Grötz is a freelance art historian     to »read« these images and to derive a coherence             Architectural historian Wolfgang Pehnt, born
and exhibition curator, Carolin Jörg teaches artistic     of meaning from correspondences of form and               1931, has often reaped the benefits of insights
design at the Hochschule Augsburg.                        colour.                                                   gained from Kinold’s photographic art. Pehnt has
                                                          Renate Vogt                                               published monographs about German architec-
                                                                                                                    ture since 1900 and about Expressionist architec-
                                                          End of 2019                                               ture, but he has also written about numerous in-
                                                                                                                    dividual œuvres. He formerly taught at the Ruhr-
                                                                                                                    universität Bochum.

2   Work monographs                                                                                                                           www.AxelMenges.de
Edition Axel Menges Architecture, Art, Design and Film - Spring 2019 New and recently published titles
Gardens for the Senses. The Spanish                    Fritz Barth                                                Frei Otto / Bodo Rasch – Finding Form.
Gardens of Javier Mariátegui                           Konstantin Melnikow und sein Haus                          Towards an Architecture of the Mini-
With texts by Javier Mariátegui Valdés and pho-        64 pp. with 106 illus., 210,5 x 281 mm, hard-              mal
tographs by Javier Mariátegui Valdés, Casilda          cover, German edition                                      240 pp. with 540 illus. in b & w and colour,
Mariátegui and Mark Bentley. 188 pp. with 245          ISBN 978-3-936681-89-5                                     215 x 240 mm, hard-cover, English
illus., 305 x 259 mm, hard-cover, English              Euro 36.00, £ 29.00, US $ 46.00                            ISBN 978-3-930698-66-0
ISBN 978-3-936681-98-7                                 Konstantin Melnikov and his House                          Euro 49.00, £ 39.90, US $ 59.00
Euro 58.00, £ 42.90, US $ 64.00                        64 pp. with 106 illus., 210,5 x 281 mm, hard-
                                                       cover, English edition                                     »Primeval architecture is an architecture of neces-
It was not by chance nor by a trick of fate that       ISBN 978-3-936681-90-1                                     sity. Nothing is there to excess, no matter wheth-
Javier Mariátegui dedicated himself to garden-         Euro 36.00, £ 29.00, US $ 46.00                            er stone, clay, reeds or wood, animal skins or
ing. He grew up among gardens.                                                                                    hair are used. It is minimal. It can be very beauti-
   Both his grandmothers were gardening enthu-         Konstantin Melnikov (1890–1974) is unquestionab-           ful even amidst poverty and is good in the ethical
siasts, one of them, the Marchioness of Casa           ly one of the outstanding architects of the 20th           sense.
Valdés, wrote the book Spanish Gardens, which          century – in spite of the fact that he fell silent ear-        Good architecture seems to be more important
describes the history of Spanish gardening from        ly, leaving behind only limited work that was insuf-       than beautiful architecture. Beautiful architecture
Roman times to the present day. This book con-         ficiently publicized, and restricted almost exclu-         is not necessarily good. Only buildings that are
tinues to be a reference for all lovers of this par-   sively to Moscow, the city of his birth in which he        at the same time ethically good and aesthetically
ticular field of history and art.                      spent nearly his entire life and which did not ap-         beautiful are worth preserving.
   This enthusiasm was passed on to him by his         preciate him. He was raised in humble circum-                  We have too many buildings that have become
parents. From his earliest years he was making         stances, but enjoyed an excellent education.               useless and yet we still need new buildings, from
his own gardens, by reusing those plants dis-          Beginning in the mid-1920s, after the turmoil that         pole to pole, in the cold and in the heat.
carded by his father.                                  followed the war, revolution and civil war, his ca-            Man’s present areas of settlement are the new
   Mariátegui studied landscape gardening and          reer soared at almost meteoric speed as he took            ecological system in which technology is indis-
design at the Escuela de Paisajismo y Jardinerìa       the lead in the young Soviet architecture move-            pensable, even in hot and cold areas. ...
Castillo de Batres in Madrid. Subsequently he          ment with completely autonomous, highly artistic               Our age requires buildings that are lighter,
worked in England as a gardener. Back in Spain,        buildings that were free from dogmatism of any             more energy-saving, more mobile and more
he established the Jardines de España nursery,         kind. Even more rapid than his rise to fame was            adaptable, in brief more natural, without disre-
which looks after and employs handicapped chil-        his downfall: Treated with general hostility, he was       garding the need for safety and security.
dren, with whom he first started making gar-           unable to defend himself against the accusation                This logically leads to the further development
dens. For the past thirty years, he has created        of formalism when Stalin put an end to architec-           of light constructions, to the building of tents,
numerous gardens across Spain and in several           tural ventures and experiments around the mid-             shells, awnings and air-supported membranes.
other European countries. He has also published        1930s. He was expelled from the architects’ asso-          It also leads to a new mobility and changeability.
many articles on landscape-gardening topics in         ciation and was banned from practicing as an ar-           A new understanding of nature is forming under
specialized magazines and a book on one of his         chitect for the remaining four decades of his life.        one aspect of high performance form (also called
gardens: El Jardín de los Tapices /The Tapestry            In the late 1920s, at the peak of his career, he       ›classical form‹), which unites aesthetic and ethi-
Garden. Among the present garden architects of         had the opportunity to build a house for himself           cal viewpoints.
Spain Mariátegui plays an outstanding role. Even       and his family in Moscow, in which he was then                 Tomorrow’s architecture will again be minimal
the Spanish TV has dedicated a monographic             able to live until the end of his life. This house, a      architecture, an architecture of the self-education
program to him and his gardens.                        memorable symbiosis of almost peasantlike sim-             and self-optimization processes suggested by
   It would be difficult to summarize in a few         plicity and extreme radicalness, is one of the most        human beings.«
words the essence of Mariátegui’s gardens, giv-        impressive, surprising and probably most enig-                 (Frei Otto and Bodo Rasch in their foreword
en the wide variety of styles, their versatility and   matic works produced by 20th-century architec-             of this book.)
numerous differences that perhaps becomes his          ture. Its simplicity is only outward; in reality this is       In 1992 the Bavarian branch of the Deutscher
»signature«. His style is not dogmatic, he loves       a highly complex work which links together the             Werkbund awarded its first prize to Frei Otto, un-
order and disorder, straight lines and curved, the     elements of architecture explicitly and inextricab-        doubtedly the most successful and many-sided
wild chaos of nature as well as strict geometri-       ly, which takes a clear and completely autono-             protagonist of modern light construction, and
cal patterns, varied and single species of plants,     mous stand and which, in a way that little else            with it a request to nominate a meritorious per-
colour and absence of colour. Moreover he en-          has done, raises the question as to the nature of          son to whom the prize could be passed on, and
joys bringing elements that clash together until       genuinely architectonic thinking. In essayistic form       to design a joint exhibition with that person. Frei
they harmonize.                                        the book attempts to follow the paths laid out in          Otto chose his pupil Bodo Rasch, who had real-
   Perhaps as a result of an intimate knowledge        the architect’s work from the perspective of an            ized Otto’s theories particularly in other cultures.
of the magic of water in Andalusian Moorish gar-       architect.                                                     Otto died on 9 March 2015; he was to be pub-
dens, Mariátegui uses water as an essential ele-           Fritz Barth studied architecture in Stuttgart and      licly announced as the winner of the 2015 Pritzker
ment in many of his gardens. He makes it »work«        Zurich. He runs an architect’s practice in Fellbach        Prize on 23 March, but his death meant the com-
in all its forms; in pumps, in cascades, in con-       near Stuttgart, teaches at the TU Darmstadt and            mittee announced his award on 10 March. Otto
stant gentle movement, or rocking in waves, in         is the author of a series of books, including a stu-       himself had been told earlier that he had won
disperse drops or in silence like a mirror that        dy on the iconography of 16th-century Italian gar-         the prize by the executive director of the Pritzker
adds the magic of its reflection.                      dens (Die Villa Lante in Bagnaia, 2001), a mono-           Prize, Martha Thorne. He was reported to have
                                                       graph about the Bohemian Baroque master build-             said: »I have never done anything to gain this
European Garden-Book Award                             er Johann Santini-Aichel (Santini, 2004) and a             prize. Prize winning is not the goal of my life.
                                                       study of the fortifications of Francesco di Giorgio        I try to help poor people, but what shall I say
                                                       Martini (Martial Signifiers. Fortress Complexes by         here – I am very happy.«
                                                       Francesco di Giorgio Martini, 2011).
                                                                                                                  Available again

www.AxelMenges.de                                                                                                                         Work monographs          3
Edition Axel Menges Architecture, Art, Design and Film - Spring 2019 New and recently published titles
Hans Dieter Schaal. Landscape Architec-                   Martha Schwartz Partners. Landscape                       Irme Schaber
ture / Landschaftsarchitektur                             Art and Urbanism                                          Gerda Taro – with Robert Capa as Photo-
With an introduction by Frank R. Werner and               With texts by Marc Treib, Martha Schwartz,                journalist in the Spanish Civil War
photographs by Peter C. Horn. 128 pp. with 104            Markus Jatsch and Edith Katz. 356 pp. with                156 pp. with 220 illus., 233 x 284,5 mm, hard-
illus., 280 x 300 mm, hard-cover, English/German          424 illus., 229 x 304 mm, hard-cover, English             cover, English
ISBN 978-3-86905-003-4                                    ISBN 978-3-86905-011-9                                    ISBN 978-3-86905-013-3
Euro 39.90, £ 32.90, US $ 42.90                           Euro 69.00, £ 59.00, US $ 76.00                           Euro 59.00, £ 49.90, US $ 69.90

If there is a plateau that continuously unites Hans       Martha Schwartz Partners (MSP) is a leading in-           Paris in the summer of 1937. A giant funeral pro-
Dieter Schaal’s numerous artistic fields of activity,     ternational design practice whose work focuses            cession wends its way from the city center east-
a kind of fundamental level, then it is surely that of    on activating and regenerating urban sites and            ward toward the Père-Lachaise Cemetery, ac-
landscape architecture. Landscape motifs are as           city centers. Situated at the intersection of pub-        companied by the sounds of Chopin’s Marche
convincingly present in his stage sets as they are        lic realm, urban design and site specific art, the        funèbre. The photojournalist Gerda Taro had
in his installations, his exhibition architectures, his   practice has over 35 years of experience design-          been killed in the Spanish Civil War a few days
texts, and, naturally, also his park and garden de-       ing and implementing installations, gardens, civic        earlier. Thousands come to pay their last re-
signs.                                                    plazas, parks, institutional landscapes, corporate        spects to the émigrée from Hitler’s Germany.
    Schaal has been on the track of the fascina-          headquarters, master plans, and urban regenera-           The poet Louis Aragon speaks at the graveside,
tion of landscapes since the 1960s. For him, en-          tion projects. MSP works with city leaders, plan-         young girls hold up a large portrait of the de-
countering the parterre or »carpet patterns« of the       ners and builders at a strategic level so as to ad-       ceased. Why did the French Communist Party
baroque Herrenhäuser Gärten in Hannover was a             vocate for the inclusion of the public landscape          honor a foreigner – one who was not even a
key experience. This was followed by an intensive         as a means to achieve environmental, econom-              member of the Party – with a »first-class« burial?
study of the early landscape gardens of Great             ic and social sustainability. With offices in Lon-           Taro is considered one of the path-breaking
Britain, the park complexes of the Romantics and          don, New York and Shanghai, the practice is en-           pioneers of photography. She captured some of
the Enlightenment in Weimar, Wörlitz, and Mus-            gaged in projects and consultation around the             the most dramatic and widely published images
kau, and by studies of the garden art ideas and           globe and has to date worked on projects in over          of the Spanish Civil War and was the first female
philosophical implications that underpinned each          20 countries and five continents.                         photographer to shoot images in the midst of
of them. As a twice-over »Artist-in-Residence« at            MSP has continually been recognized for its            battle. Her willingness to work close to the fight-
the Villa Massimo in Rome, Schaal was also able           contribution to the urban landscapes of the world         ing set new standards for war photography and
to absorb the whole cosmos of Italian garden and          and to the field of landscape architecture. The           ultimately cost her her life. Taro stands alongside
park planning, from the Renaissance to the pre-           firm has received many international award reco-          early 20th-century war photographers like Robert
sent day.                                                 gnitions, including the American Society of Land-         Capa and David »Chim« Seymour.
    In 1978, Schaal published his first book, We-         scape Architects Landmark and Honour Awards,                 Despite this, Gerda Taro has largely fallen in-
ge und Wegräume (Paths and Passages), today               the British Association of Landscape Industries           to oblivion, especially in comparison to her com-
considered a classic. Wege und Wegräume has               Award in the Regeneration Category, the Chicago           panion and lover Robert Capa. Whether gender
become required reading and an artistic leitmotif         Athenaeum Award for Best New Global Design,               and religion played a role in this would require a
for generations of landscape designers and ar-            the Urban Land Institute Award for Excellence             separate investigation. In any case, in her study
chitects. In 1994, a fourth Hans Dieter Schaal key        and the Cooper-Hewitt National Design Award.              of women resisting fascism, Ingrid Strobl comes
work appeared entitled Neue Landschaftsarchi-                Martha Schwartz: »When we design, our big-             to the conclusion that a combination such as
tektur / New Landscape Architecture. It proved to         gest objective is to create environments that peo-        woman-Communist-Jew represented a threefold
be among the late 20th century’s most compre-             ple enjoy and come to love. We try to create en-          stigma, and would almost guarantee Taro’s ex-
hensive studies of the topic of »landscape« in the        vironments that people take pride in and are hap-         clusion from official history, both in the East and
wider sense. Above all, it prompts an existential         py to adopt these places that they live and work          the West.
subjective excursus into all those spheres that           in as part of their identity. If this happens, people        It has been almost twenty years since the first
are inscribed into landscape beyond the profes-           will strive to take care of it, maintain it and pre-      biography of Gerda Taro, written by Irme Scha-
sional mainstream. Schaal was subsequently able           serve it. People’s love of place is fundamental to        ber, led to Taro’s rediscovery as a photographer.
to build a large number of spectacular »follies«          sustainability. That is not to say we don’t work in       Since that time, the detection of the »Mexican
and installations in gardens and parks.                   the most ecologically sound way. We work with             Suitcase«, containing more than 800 of her pho-
    From 1998 to 2014, he was finally able to actu-       engineers, water specialists, horticulturists, soil       tos – amongst them many which were thought
ally realise a whole city park, complete with artis-      specialists in order to do our best in capturing          to be Capa’s –, has made new research on Taro
tic installations: the Wielandpark in Biberach. The       and recycling water, using planting that was indi-        possible.
complex architectonic and artistic layout of this         genous to the area and sourcing our materials lo-            In this new, fully revised biography, now pub-
park embodies, as it were, the distilled essence          cally. But having people feel pride about where           lished for the first time also in English, Irme Scha-
of decades of working with the bridle paths at            they live and feel they are living in a beautiful envi-   ber presents groundbreaking insights regarding
the boundaries of landscape.                              ronment that they wish to protect and preserve is         cameras, copyrights and the circumstances sur-
    Frank R. Werner studied painting, architecture        the big win.«                                             rounding Taro’s death. The exact track of Taro’s
and architectural history in Mainz, Hanover and              With a foreword by Marc Treib, professor of            work also helps to shed light on Capa’s iconic
Stuttgart. From 1990 to 1994 he was professor             architecture emeritus at the University of Califor-       Fallen Soldier photo – but without solving its mys-
of history and theory of architecture at the Staat-       nia in Berkeley), and an introduction by Martha           tery.
liche Akademie der Bildenden Künste Stuttgart,            Schwartz, this monograph is the first publication            Irme Schaber studied cultural and art history
from 1994 until his retirement in 2011 he was             to document 55 built projects and a selection of          in Marburg. She lives as a freelance author and
director of the Institut für Architekturgeschichte        master plans by this internationally acclaimed            curator near Stuttgart. Documentary and war
und Architekturtheorie at the Bergische Univer-           practice.                                                 photography, exile and cultural history, and pho-
sität in Wuppertal. Peter C. Horn is a trained ar-                                                                  tographic art are the focus of her work. She be-
chitect. After working for several years in his orig-                                                               came known above all for her research work on
inal profession in South America, he now runs a                                                                     Gerda Taro.
studio for architectural photography in Stuttgart.
                                                                                                                    Spring 2019

4   Work monographs                                                                                                                           www.AxelMenges.de
Edition Axel Menges Architecture, Art, Design and Film - Spring 2019 New and recently published titles
Opus 16                                                 Opus 65                                                  Opus 80
Fundación César Manrique, Lanzarote                     Le Corbusier, Unité d’habitation, Marseille              Oswald Mathias Ungers, Haus Belvedere-
With an introduction by Simón Marchán Fiz and           With texts by Alban Janson and Carsten Krohn             straße 60, Köln-Müngersdorf
photographs by Pedro Martínez de Albornoz.              and photographs by Anja Grunwald. 80 pp. with            With an essay by Wolfgang Pehnt and photo-
60 pp. with 52 illus. in b & w and colour, 280 x        80 ill., 280 x 300 mm, hard-cover, German / Eng-         graphs by Walter Ehmann, Bernd Grimm, Dieter
300 mm, hard-cover, German / English / Spanish          lish                                                     Leistner and Stefan Müller. 64 pp. with ca. 70
ISBN 978-3-930698-16-5                                  ISBN 978-3-932565-65-6                                   illus., 280 x 300 mm, hard-cover, German / Eng-
Euro 36.00, £ 24.00, US $ 44.50                         Euro 39.00, £ 36.00, US $ 48.00                          lish
                                                                                                                 ISBN 978-3-932565-80-9
Over the last decade the island of Lanzarote            If there is one building by Le Corbusier that rep-       Euro 36.00, £ 29.00, US $ 39.90
has become one of the favourite tourism desti-          resents a synthesis of his basic concepts it is
nations in the Canary Islands. However, our inter-      certainly the Unité d’habitation built in Marseille      »A house is a representation of the idea of the
est is more one of artistic than of touristic discov-   in 1946–52. This built manifesto does not simply         world, of life, of existence.« For the Cologne ar-
ery, and this would be virtually unthinkable with-      put forward a social model as a utopia, but also         chitect Oswald Mathias Ungers (1926–2007),
out the work of an artist who fell in love with this    the unity of architecture and town planning. It is       owner of a famous collection of books on archi-
wonderful paradise. We refer to César Manrique          one of the most significant buildings there has          tecture, who also repeatedly addressed the theo-
(1919–1992), who was able to see and reveal to          even been, but it also triggered a great deal of         retical aspects of building, the construction of his
us the unique beauties arising out of the happy         controversy. The story of the response to it has         own house, in 1958/59, was more than a private
marriage of the four elements believed by the           been recorded in order to investigate why this           adventure. For him it meant a chance to gain spa-
Greeks to form the whole of creation: air, earth,       extremely ambitious project in particular should         tial experience and explore what was possible. It
fire and water.                                         have caused such a conflict between intention            was a laboratory, »a little universe«, »a piece of
    In fact, after returning to his island in 1968      and effect.                                              world«.
after a period spent in New York, Manrique de-              The Unité d’habitation in Marseille is now very         In the course of his life, Ungers built himself
dicated himself passionately to realizing his uto-      popular with the people who live in it as a build-       and his family no less than three houses, two in
pia, to renew Lanzarote out of his own sources.         ing. Despite all the criticism, it obviously still of-   the Cologne suburb of Müngersdorf, one in the
Among Manrique’s best known works on Lan-               fers functional advantages that make it easier for       Eifel highlands. Even the first house, to which this
zarote are the Casa Museo del Campesino, the            individuals and the community to live together.          richly illustrated volume is dedicated, caused an
Jameos del Agua, the Mirador del Río, the Cac-          The enormous sculptural force and the charac-            international sensation; it was considered to be
tus Garden and his own house in the Taro de             teristic interplay of light and colour shown in the      an important example of so-called Brutalism. It
Tahíche.                                                photographs make the building into a »personali-         showed »everything I knew how to do at the
    Manrique’s house in Taro de Tahíche, which          ty« that can be identified with.                         time«, Ungers wrote regarding the building. He
nowadays houses the César Manrique Founda-                  As well as this, the building also offers some-      wanted a house that enveloped and sheltered,
tion, can be considered as a »work in progress«         thing special in terms of concrete spatial experi-       he wanted metamorphosis and transformation;
as it was built over a period of almost 25 years        ence. In the age of a superficial »adventure soci-       architecture that was autonomous but at the
and was still not completed upon the artist’s           ety« it claims the intensity of an everyday experi-      same time respected the genius loci. At the time,
death. Arising out of the five interconnected vol-      ence that is both casual and at the same time            architects preferred to build their private homes
canic bubbles of the underground storey, it has         complex, embracing all the senses. This extends          as freestanding bungalows in the countryside.
become a metaphor for the amorous meeting of            from the reception in the imposing foyer to the          Ungers, on the other hand, settled in a place
man with Mother Earth, the latter being under-          »theatre« of figures on the roof terrace in the          where there were traces of the Roman past and
stood, to use Bruno Taut’s expression, as »a fine       light of the landscape, from the inverted urban          purchased a plot of land adjacent to an already
home for living«. The spaces on the upper floor         scenery of the promenade publique to twilight            existing row of terraced houses.
can be virtually mistaken for the white cubic build-    seclusion in the silent residential streets. And it         Three decades later, Ungers expanded the
ings dispersed throughout the island. But when          includes the flats themselves, which open up             cataract of forms of his first home by adding a
we cross their thresholds, we have the unique           expansively to draw in the sea and mountain              geometrically strict cube, intended to house his
feeling that here something was created which           mood. Le Corbusier used his architectural re-            library. The shock aesthetics of the early work had
is really new. In fact, Manrique – enemy in equal       sources atmospherically and scenically to give           evolved into the rigorous abstractness of his late
measure of the »pastiche« of regionalism and            the Unité d’habitation a succinct coherence that         work. This building too – one of a kind, and in in-
the off-key International Style blind to differentia-   also forms the basis for individual lives within         terplay with its predecessor – became a manifes-
tion – sifted the vernacular with certain modern        its rooms and spaces. Precise observation and            to. It corresponded to the idea of a house as a
filters such as Frank Lloyd Wright, Mies van der        description reveal the mechanisms of these ef-           small town and the town as a large house, an
Rohe or Le Corbusier, and at the same time he           fects.                                                   idea that has run through European architectural
gave it such a specific stamp that the final result         All three authors are qualified architects. Until    history since Alberti. In spite of all their differ-
became indigenous and unmistakeable.                    his retirement Alban Janson was professor of the         ences, the two contrasting formats make com-
    Simón Marchán Fiz is professor of aesthet-          fundamentals of architecture at the Karlsruher           mon cause. They show »a world full of contradic-
ics in Madrid. Like Marchán Fiz, Pedro Martínez         Institut für Technology, Carsten Krohn lives and         tions, illusions and realities that reflects the entire
de Albornoz lives in Madrid. The photographs            works as an author in Berlin, and Anja Grunwald          spectrum of the image of architecture, from the
shown in this book are the best photographic            is professor of architectural photography and            fiction to the reality of the function«. Today the
interpretation of one of Manrique’s work up to          typography at the Hochschule Karlsruhe – Tech-           house and the library are the seat of the UAA, the
now.                                                    nik und Wirtschaft.                                      Ungers Archiv für Architekturwissenschaft, and
                                                                                                                 open to the public.
Sixth edition                                           Third, revised edition                                      Wolfgang Pehnt often visited Ungers. The author
                                                                                                                 of an authoritative book about the architecture of
                                                                                                                 Expressionism, he profited by Ungers’ collection of
                                                                                                                 material back in the years when Ungers was still in-
                                                                                                                 terested in Expressionism. Thus he is familiar with
                                                                                                                 the house in all its details. As portrayed by him, the
                                                                                                                 history of the house gives access to the impressive
                                                                                                                 œuvre of a great German architect.

www.AxelMenges.de                                                                                                                 Work monographs / Opus             5
Edition Axel Menges Architecture, Art, Design and Film - Spring 2019 New and recently published titles
Opus 81                                                     Opus 82                                               Opus 84
Carlo Scarpa, Museo di Castelvecchio,                       Bodensee-Wasserversorgung, Sipplingen                 Parc de sculptures Erich Engelbrecht,
Verona                                                      With an essay by Andreas Schwarting and pho-          Château des Fougis
With texts by Alba Di Lieto, Paola Marini and Va-           tographs by Heinz Kabus. 56 pp. with 70 illus.,       With essays by Gottfried Knapp and João J.
leria Carullo, and photographs by Richard Bryant.           280 x 300 mm, hard-cover, German / English            de Abreu Vares and photographs by Philippe
52 pp. with 43 illus., 280 x 300 mm, hard-cover,            ISBN 978-3-932565-82-3                                Hervouet. 60 pp. with 46 illus., 280 x 300 mm,
Italian / English                                           Euro 36.00, £ 29.90, US $ 39.90                       hard-cover, French / English
ISBN 978-3-932565-81-6                                                                                            ISBN 978-3-932565-84-7
Euro 36.00, £ 29.90, US $ 39.90                             Autumn 1958 marked the launching of the Bo-           Euro 36.00, £ 29.90, US $ 39.90
                                                            densee-Wasserversorgung (Lake Constance
During the 1960s Italy’s museum sector witnessed            water supply), an infrastructure project whose        In their sculptural works, artists have always
a fertile period of renewal. A generation of archi-         largest part is underground, hidden from view.        broken out of the workshop or studio and into
tects, working in partnership with the directors of         Even in the first phase of the project, 2160 litres   open-air spaces. After all, the place where
museums, set about transforming into exhibition             of water per second were taken from Lake Con-         sculptures are best able to show their three-di-
spaces a number of ancient monumental complex-              stance at a depth of roughly 60 m, treated on         mensional quality is in an open space not en-
es located in the historic centres of some of the           Sipplinger Berg and transported over hundreds         closed by walls and ceiling, in which all flows
most important Italian cities. Among these was the          of kilometres of pipeline through the Swabian         of power and movement can have free rein.
brilliant and solitary Venetian architect Carlo Scarpa      Alb to the greater Stuttgart area. What is remark-    However, because public spaces offer only very
who revitalised the discipline of museography by            able about this project, however, is not only the     limited possibilities for sculpture development,
sagaciously combining it with restoration. His lucid        technological challenge of a combination of the       sculpture parks have been developed almost
intervention at Verona’s Museo di Castelvecchio is          lake-water treatment and the overland water           everywhere in the world where artists can work
emblematic of this approach: the medieval castle,           pipeline, but particularly the special quality of     without restrictive conditions.
the museum of ancient art, and modern architec-             the design of the visible parts of the waterworks,       During his search for a place in France where
ture all harmoniously coexisting in a monument lo-          a result of the collaboration of engineers, archi-    he could present his large sculptures, Erich En-
cated at the heart of a city designated a UNESCO            tects, landscape designers and artists.               gelbrecht discovered in 2000 the open, mead-
World Heritage Site.                                           Hermann Blomeier, who had settled in Con-          ow-like land, with the château tucked into a
   The far-sighted choice of Scarpa was owed to             stance in 1932 after graduating from the Bau-         piece of forest behind it. This open space, pic-
the then director of the museum, Licisco Maga-              haus Dessau under Ludwig Mies van der Rohe,           turesquely framed by groups of trees, was pre-
gnato, who tenaciously argued the case for the ap-          was commissioned with implementing the Sipp-          cisely what he had imagined. And the fact that
pointment of an architect specialising in this field to     lingen pumping station following a competition        a château was waiting for its new owner at the
work on the city’s principal museum of ancient art.         and, with functionally and transparently designed     end of this tract of land made this discovery a
   In his work on the Castelvecchio, carried out at         buildings, created a counterpoint to the expres-      stroke of luck rarely experienced by anyone in
a significant point in his career, Scarpa attained a        sive landscape of Lake Constance that was as          general, and almost never by artists in particular.
remarkable balance between various aesthetic ele-           restrained as it was confident. The treatment            His monumental sculptures that dominate the
ments that is particularly evident in the sculpture         plants on Sipplinger Berg, built by a team com-       landscape have given Erich Engelbrecht a place
gallery, where the renovations harmonise with the           prising Blomeier and the architect and academic       in the history of modern sculpture. His method
power of the 14th-century Veronese works exhibit-           Günter Wilhelm, from the »Quelltopf« (source pot)     of drawing images plastically in the space, and
ed in this section of the museum. One of the most           and the filter basins to the clean-water reservoir,   of using these drawings transformed into solid
striking details – extraordinarily rich in historical       exactly meet functional requirements and at the       bodies to occupy whole landscapes, is unparal-
and symbolic significance – is the location of the          same time impressively illustrate the technical       leled. The enigma balanced between represen-
equestrian statue of Cangrande I della Scala, an            processes. The long distance travelled by the         tationality and the abstract, the multiplicity of
exceptional medieval sculpture of the famous Lord           water is accompanied by seemingly subordinate         meaning, which invites freely poetic titles, is es-
of Verona. For the presentation of this work – a            buildings designed by architect Wolf Irion, subt-     sential to the unique charm of Erich Engelbrecht’s
symbol of the city and its museum – the architect           ly integrated in the landscape as a kind of way-      visual work. In the park of Château des Fougis,
conceived a backdrop of great poetry, drawing the           side chapels, housing the pipe-rupture safety de-     29 of these artworks, at once plainly revealing
visitor’s attention to its historical stratifications and   vices and line valves. The high quality of the de-    and mystifying, communicate with each other in
simultaneously creating an exemplary essay in               sign is evident not only in the buildings, but also   such a relaxed way that visitors are prompted to
modern architecture.                                        in the work of landscape architect Walter Rossow      think and to enjoy. One strolls through a garden
   The book is introduced with a text by Alba Di            and of visual artists Hans-Dieter Bohnet as well      of poetic artworks, through a park of beautiful
Lieto, the architect of Verona’s art museums, a             as Brigitte and Martin Matschinsky-Denninghof.        riddles and silent secrets. There has been noth-
scholar of Scarpa’s drawings, and the author of                Andreas Schwarting is professor of architec-       ing comparable to this in Europe since the gar-
monographs on his work. She describes the ar-               tural history and architecture theory at the Hoch-    dens of Italian Mannerism.
chitect’s renovation and locates it in the context          schule Konstanz. His research has focussed par-          Gottfried Knapp works as an editor in the feuil-
of Italy’s architectural panorama.                          ticularly on 20th-century architecture, its recep-    leton of the Süddeutsche Zeitung in the fields of art,
   The essay is followed by a brief history of the          tion and historiography, and on specific issues of    architecture and film. Of his numerous works on
castle by Paola Marini, who was the director of             conservation and maintenance. His publications        artistic and architectural topics, six have been pub-
Verona’s art museums and monuments for 22                   include the monograph on Walter Gropius’ Des-         lished by Edition Axel Menges. João J. de Abreu
years. In 2015 she has taken on a new role as di-           sau-Törten estate, and he was instrumental in         Vares, a graduated architect, advised Erich Engel-
rector of the Gallerie dell’Accademia in Venice.            the publication of the Stiftung Wüstenrot on the      brecht on the installation of the sculpture park and,
   Valeria Carullo, curator of the The Robert Elwall        preservation of contemporary buildings. He was        together with his wife Sarah Engelbrecht, he as-
Photographs Collection in the RIBA British Archi-           appointed by the International Council on Mon-        sists the artist’s widow in the care of her husband’s
tectural Library, writes about her experience assist-       uments and Sites (ICOMOS) to monitor the              inheritance. After studying art history and photog-
ing Bryant when he photographed the castle.                 UNESCO world-heritage sites of the Bauhaus            raphy Phillipe Hervouet was commissioned to par-
   Richard Bryant is one of the best-known archi-           in Weimar and Dessau.                                 ticipate in the care of the cultural heritage of the
tectural photographers, working all over the world.                                                               Ain department. He also actively contributes to the
He and Hélène Binet are the only photographers to                                                                 artistic inventory of the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes re-
have been awarded a RIBA Honorary Fellowship                                                                      gion. He teaches photography in the Université
of the Royal Institute of British Architects.                                                                     Jean Monnet in Saint-Etienne.

                                                                                                                  Spring 2019

6   Opus                                                                                                                                    www.AxelMenges.de
Edition Axel Menges Architecture, Art, Design and Film - Spring 2019 New and recently published titles
A Home of One’s Own. Emigrierte Archi-                  Avi Friedman                                         Stefan Koppelkamm
tekten und ihre Häuser / Émigré Archi-                  Innovative Apartment Buildings. New                  The Imaginary Orient. Exotic Buildings
tects and Their Houses. 1920–1960                       Directions in Sustainable Design                     of the 18th and 19th Centuries in Europe
Edited by Burcu Dograma and Andreas Schätzke.           233 x 284,5 mm, 188 pp. with 300 illus., hard-       192 pp. with 280 illus., 242 x 297,5 mm, hard-
204 pp. with 126 illus., 233 x 284,5 mm, hard-          cover, English                                       cover, English
cover, German/English                                   ISBN 978-3-86905-009-6                               ISBN 978-3-936681-77-2
ISBN 978-3-86905-008-9                                  Euro 69.00, £ 59.90, US $ 79.00                      Euro 68.00, £ 59.90, US $ 78.00
69.00 Euro, 59.90 £, 79.00 US $
                                                        Current design of apartment buildings is facing      In the 18th century the idea of the landscape gar-
When architects design a house for themselves,          challenges of philosophy and form. Past ap-          den, which had originated in England, spread all
the often tense relationship between clients and        proaches no longer sustain new demands and           over Europe. The geometry of the Baroque park
builders is usually absent. That is why in many         require innovative thinking. The need for a new      was abandoned in favour of a »natural« design.
such buildings the architect-designer’s artistic        outlook is propelled by fundamental changes that     At the same time the garden became the »land of
stance and political position, preferences and an-      touch upon environmental, economic, cultural         illusion«: Chinese pagodas, Egyptian tombs and
tipathies, temperament and character are more           and social aspects that led to the writing of this   Turkish mosques, along with Gothic stables and
pronounced than usual. Moreover the architec-           book.                                                Greek and Roman temples, formed a miniature
tural theories, debates and trends of an epoch             The depletion of non-renewable natural re-        world in which distance mingled with the past.
also leave their traces in them in a particular way.    sources and climate change are a few of the en-          The keen interest in a fairy-tale China, which
We encounter both attachment to tradition and           vironmental challenges that prompted designers       was manifested not only in the gardens but al-
commitment to the avant-garde, willingness to           to reconsider conceptual approaches in favour        so in the chinoiseries of the Rococo, abated in
experiment and pragmatism, distinctive artistry         of ones that promote a better suitability between    the 19th century. The increasing expansion of the
and views shaped by the fact that a building is         buildings and their environments. Concepts that      European colonial powers was reflected in new
also a product of engineering. And last but not         minimize the building’s carbon footprint, passive    exotic fashions. While in England it was primarily
least, expressed in their houses are the personal       solar gain, net-zero structures and water harvest-   the conquest of the Indian subcontinent that cap-
life circumstances of the people concerned, or          ing system are some of the contemporary strate-      tured the imagination, for France the occupation
the messages the houses are meant to convey             gies that architects and builders are integrating    of Algiers triggered an Orient-inspired fashion
above and beyond their actual purpose: as a             into their thought processes and design.             that spread from Paris to encompass the entire
»manifesto«, as the »self-portrait« of the archi-          Increasing costs of material, labour, land and    Continent and found its expression in paintings,
tect, but also as an advertising tool or as a sign      infrastructure have posed economic challenges        novels, operas and buildings. This »Orient«, which
of connection to specific milieus or positions.         with affordability being paramount among them.       could not be clearly defined geographically, was
    Building for oneself has a special connota-         The need to do with less brings about concepts       characterised by Islamic culture: It extended
tion under the conditions of migration and exile.       that include adaptable dwellings, and smaller-       around the Mediterranean Sea from Constan-
Among the most prominent examples are the               sized yet quality-designed housing. Social chal-     tinople to Granada. There, it was the Alhambra
private homes of Rudolph Schindler in West              lenges are also drawing attention. As the »ba-       that fascinated writers and architects.
Hollywood (1921/1922), Richard Neutra in Los            by-boom« generation plans now for retirement,            The Islamic styles seemed especially appropri-
Angeles (1932), Walter Gropius in Lincoln, Mas-         housing an elderly population will take priority.    ate for »buildings of a secular and cheerful char-
sachusetts (1937/1938), Ernst May near Nairobi          Walkable communities, aging in place, live-work      acter«. In contrast to ancient Egyptian building
(1937/1938), Bruno Taut in Istanbul (1937/1938),        residences, and multigenerational living are some    forms, which, being severe and monumental,
Ernö Goldfinger in London (1937–1939), Marcel           of the concepts considered.                          were preferably used for cemetery buildings, pris-
Breuer in New Canaan, Connecticut (1947/1948               The book offers information on contemporary       ons or libraries, they promised earthly sensuous
and 1951), Josep Lluís Sert in Lattingtown, New         design concepts and illustrates them with plans      pleasures. The promise of happiness associated
York (1947–1950) and Max Cetto in Mexico City           and photographs of outstanding international ex-     with an Orient staged by architectural means was
(1948/1949).                                            amples.                                              intended to guarantee the commercial success of
    What expression could voluntary migration or           Avi Friedman received his Bachelor’s degree       coffeehouses and music halls, amusement parks
forced change of location find in these buildings?      in architecture and town planning from the Israel    and steam baths.
To what extent do the architects’ other buildings       Institute of Technology, his Master’s degree from        But even extravagant summer residences and
differ from such »homes of one’s own« in a for-         McGill University, and his Doctorate from the Uni-   middle-class villas were often built in faux-Orien-
eign country, to use an expression borrowed and         versity of Montréal. He co-founded the Affordable    tal styles: In Brighton, the Prince Regent George
modified from Virginia Woolf?                           Homes Program at the McGill School of Architec-      (George IV after 1820) built himself an Indian pal-
    The book is a collection of contributions by in-    ture where he teaches. He also holds an Honor-       ace; in Bad Cannstatt near Stuttgart, a »moorish«
ternationally renowned authors and examines not         ary Professor position in Lancaster University in    refuge was erected for Württemberg’s King Wil-
only the buildings themselves but also other as-        the U.K. Avi is known for his housing innovation     helm I; and the French town of Tourcoing was
pects of the topic that have hitherto received little   and is the author of 18 books. He is the principal   the site of the Palais du Congo, a bombastic vil-
attention.                                              of Avi Friedman Consultants Inc. and the reci-       la in the Indian Moghul style that belonged to a
    Burcu Dogramaci teaches art history at the          pient of numerous awards including the Life Time     wealthy perfume and soap manufacturer.
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität of Munich. Her           Achievement Award from Sustainable Buildings             Stefan Koppelkamm studied at the Gesamt-
research focuses on exile and migration, and            Canada and the World Habitat Award. In 2000 he       hochschule in Kassel, and after a longer stay in
20th-century and contemporary art and architec-         was selected by Wallpaper magazine as one of         the USA he now lives in Berlin and teaches com-
ture. Architectural historian Andreas Schätzke          ten people from around the world »most likely to     munication design at the Kunsthochschule Ber-
teaches at the Hochschule Wismar. Among his             change the way we live«.                             lin-Weißensee. Since the publication of his book
key research areas are 20th-century architecture                                                             Gewächshäuser und Wintergärten im 19. Jahrhun-
and urban development, and migration and cultural                                                            dert (Stuttgart, 1981), he has repeatedly engaged
transfer in the field of architecture and the visual                                                         with historic and current aspects of architecture.

Spring 2019

www.AxelMenges.de                                                                                                                   History and theory       7
Edition Axel Menges Architecture, Art, Design and Film - Spring 2019 New and recently published titles
Ali Malkawi, Marius Nygaard, Anne Beim, and            Hans-Ulrich von Mende                                   Marios C. Phocas
Erik Stenberg (eds.)                                   Car Design. Von der Kutsche zur Auto-                   Technology-Driven Design Approaches
Sustainability in Scandinavia: Architec-               Mobilität. From the Carriage to Auto-                   to Utopia
tural Design and Planning                              Mobility                                                180 pp. with 153 illus., 230 x 170 mm, hard-cover,
192 pp. with 200 illus., 233 x 284,5 mm, hard-         152 pp. with 440 illus., 233 x 287.5 mm, hard-          English
cover, English                                         cover, German / English                                 ISBN 978-3-86905-002-7
ISBN 978-3-86905-012-6                                 ISBN 978-3-86905-010-2                                  Euro 39.00, £ 29.90, US $ 42.90
Euro 59.00, £ 49.90, US $ 68.00                        Euro 49.90, £ 42.90, US $ 58.90
                                                                                                               Together with his colleagues and students at the
The challenges of the global climate crisis are        If laziness is the mother of all inventions, then the   University of Cyprus, Phocas challenges tradi-
heightened in large part by a pervasive uncertain-     car is its masterpiece. The earliest means of lo-       tional definitions of utopia by presenting us with
ty regarding how architects and designers can          comotion was walking, followed by riding on hor-        analytical research and clearly delineated visions
address this challenge most effectively. In a situ-    ses or camels; finally, with the invention of the       of some architectural futures, which defy easy
ation where action is needed, but the correct          wheel, came the ability to use carriages, which         description.
strategies remain unknown, it is essential for ar-     not only made locomotion far more comfortable               Some may view the architecture-diploma
chitects to share their experiences and knowl-         but also brought the transportation of goods to a       projects in this book skeptically as fantastical or
edge as broadly as possible. They must seek out        whole new level. However, it then took millennia        even as frightening visions of some technologi-
perspectives that can help them overcome these         for carriages to go from being propelled by hor-        cally driven future, but they are anything but fan-
impasses. When climate change was put at the           ses or oxen to engines, initially steam-driven,         tasy. They should be appreciated as a continu-
top of the international environmental agenda          then propelled by internal combustion engines           ing creative search for the defining of what is
more than a decade ago, Scandinavian countries         and early experiments with electric propulsion.         the meaning in our 21st-century world of »utopia«
were ready and able to respond quickly and me-             Cars were initially the result of pure craftsman-   and the role of architectural technology in ex-
thodically. Today, Scandinavia is still on the fore-   ship, and as passenger cars were based on the           pressing it. This search takes us beyond the tra-
front of sustainable development, reorienting cul-     concept of the carriage. The assembly line had          ditional notions of utopia, which have historically
tural engagement and economic growth to face           not entirely abandoned the carriage look, but al-       been illustrated as overtly romantic, whimsical
climate change. The experience and knowledge           ready showed a typical automobile profile: equal-       images along with a plethora of mechanistic for-
accumulated by architects from Denmark, Nor-           sized wheels, engine bonnet, passenger com-             mal architectural or architectonic proposals for
way and Sweden have the potential to enrich the        partment. The predominant body colour of cars           utopian cities or communities. Some of these
exchange of ideas that is vital to a shift towards     manufactured between 1910 and 1930 was black,           utopian visions, which were realized as isolated
holistic thinking and sustainable architectural        while all makes of car had an almost uniform ap-        acts during the first half of the 20th century, in as
practice.                                              pearance. As manufacturers moved away from              socio-economically and culturally diverse places
   In this book, essential aspects of sustainability   metal-panelled wooden frames to an all-steel            such as the United Kingdom, suburban North
in architecture and planning are approached from       design, they hesitantly ventured to adopt new           America or the Indian sub-continent proved to
many diverse perspectives. They exemplify the          forms. Improved undercarriages and higher en-           be, once inhabited, less than utopian.
breadth and depth of explorations underway. The        gine performance were initially limited by air re-         In studying the student proposals, one could
collection of writings is based on six years of vis-   sistance, which above a speed of 60 kilometres          argue that these architectural visions are derived
its made to the three Scandinavian countries,          per hour is the strongest of all driving resistances.   from an evolution of human technology and an
and sustained engagements with the schools of          This led to the development of new body shapes          understanding of growth and adaptability in na-
architecture in the capital cities of Copenhagen,      that offer less resistance to the airstream.            ture. For instance, some of the projects propose
Oslo and Stockholm. The book aims to illuminate            Engineers still determined the form of the car,     new »building blocks« which can be likened to
lessons being learned by architects in Scandina-       sometimes even achieving formal elegance. It            the ancient technology of making bricks and the
via, that are also relevant in a global perspective.   was only rarely that members of other profes-           quarrying and shaping of stone which led to the
   The main drivers of sustainability are highlight-   sions, such as the architects Le Corbusier or           development of masonry construction and an en-
ed through case studies that cover all scales          Walter Gropius, were commissioned to design             tire new architecture. Other proposals can be
from planning and infrastructure to buildings and      a car. Between the two World Wars North Ameri-          likened to the self-generating growth and renew-
components. The cases illustrate central themes        ca had the world’s largest fleet of cars; this also     al process of plant life. Like in nature, we see in
such as energy, lifecycles, industrialization, dura-   meant that their design became an increasingly          the students’ work proposals for structural sys-
bility, transformation, and history. More acutely      important sales factor. Professsional automobile        tems that grow vertically out of constructed or
architectural topics such as adaptability, integrat-   design was established. As they continued to de-        natural landscapes in a symbiotic relationship
ed design, and architectural education/tradition       velop technically, cars in the 1950s moved further      with the forces of gravity, wind and sun, while
further permeate the cases. At the same time,          and further away from the physically logical form       mining these primal forces to enable human habi-
the projects exemplify the best practices of sus-      of a moving body. One of the last – and most            tation. Others appear as in natural growth, as
tainable architecture in Scandinavia including         outstanding – examples of a form with optimum           expandable adaptable infrastructure systems.
housing, offices, cultural buildings, and urban de-    resistance to the airstream is the Citroën ID/DS           Marios C. Phocas is currently associate pro-
velopment.                                             of 1955. Others, indeed almost all, opted for           fessor at the Department of Architecture of the
   Ali Malkawi is professor of architectural tech-     the pure symbolism of speed and power, whose            University of Cyprus. From 2006 until 2013 he
nology at the Harvard Graduate School of De-           most important ingredients were tail fins and           served as interim head of the Department of
sign and founding director of the Harvard Center       chrome. Today, with a global annual production          Architecture and was responsible among others
for Green Buildings and Cities, Marius Nygaard         of close to 100 million passenger cars, automo-         for the development and implementation of the
is professor of architecture at the Oslo School        tive style has come to be represented by a wide         programs of undergraduate and graduate studies
of Architecture and Design (AHO), Anne Beim            range of almost every imaginable form.                  in architecture at the University of Cyprus. From
is professor of architecture at the Royal Danish           Architect Hans-Ulrich von Mende has worked          2011 until 2015 he served as member of the Ad-
Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture,          with partners in an independent practice since          visory Committee of the European Network of
Design and Conservation in Copenhagen (KADK),          1990. For 50 years his writings and drawings            Heads of Schools of Architecture. Since 2007
Erik Stenberg is associate professor of architec-      on automotive design have appeared in books,            he serves as a national representative in the Euro-
ture at the KTH School of Architecture and the         trade journals (mot, autobild) and the daily press      pean Committee on Education and Training in the
Built Environment in Stockholm.                        (Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Süddeutsche Zei-       Field of Architecture.

8   History and Theory                                                                                                                   www.AxelMenges.de
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