From the Periphery to the Mainstream: Mentoring in Schools on the Curriculum at Cass Business School - Rob Compton, Professor Paul Palmer, Dr ...
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From the Periphery to the Mainstream: Mentoring in Schools on the Curriculum at Cass Business School Rob Compton, Professor Paul Palmer, Dr Marton Racz
CASS BUSINESS SCHOOL Contents Executive summary 1 Our story 3 What we teach 12 Measuring our impact 14 What have we achieved so far 16 Conclusion and call to action 22 Appendices 24 References and further reading 29 AUTHORS Professor Paul Palmer is Director of Cass Centre for Charity Effectiveness Cass CCE) at Cass Business School. He has served as an Associate Dean for nine years until the end of December 2018 leading the School’s initiative on ethical, sustainability and engagement education. In recognition of his work, he became a Principal Fellow of the Higher Education Academy in 2015. In 2018, he was elected to the UN PRME Advisory Committee. Paul is a Chartered Company Secretary and holds a doctorate in Internal Auditing and Control. He has held many charity trustee posts including serving as President of the Royal Society for Public Health and is currently Chair of the Grant Making Committee of the Hospital Saturday Fund. He has previously served on the Sustainability Committee of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales and is currently on the Ethics Committee of the Chartered Institute for Securities & Investment. Rob Compton is the UN PRME Programme Manager at Cass Business School and leads the School Mentoring Programme. Rob has worked in training development in the corporate sector and spent 10 years as a campaigner and practitioner developing corporate responsibility and community investment programmes at Business in the Community and as an independent consultant. He has worked with over 50 businesses on their partnerships with schools and charities and has extensive experience of brokerage, motivation and training of mentors working with vulnerable people. Rob has been teaching at Cass since 2012 as a Visiting Lecturer on the MSc and BSc Management programmes as well as mentoring a range of professionals building careers in corporate responsibility as well as charity professionals, students and even a Flight Lieutenant in the RAF. He has also been a school governor for five years and is currently researching a PhD on innovative pedagogy in business schools. Dr Marton Racz is a postdoctoral Research Fellow with the Ethics, Sustainability and Engagement unit at Cass Business School as well as Head of the Centre for Academic Services and Senior Lecturer at the International Business School in Budapest, Hungary. Marton is a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy, and currently co-manager of the editorial collective of the journal ephemera: theory and politics in organization. His doctoral thesis explored the meanings and practices of criticality in select UK business schools. Building on this, his research currently focuses on the organization of higher education; on innovative ways of educating management students for ethics, responsibility and reflexivity; and on the roles management academics’ organizational practices play in achieving this goal.
FROM THE PERIPHERY TO THE MAINSTREAM: MENTORING IN SCHOOLS ON THE CURRICULUM AT CASS BUSINESS SCHOOL 1 Cass Business School T: 0020 7040 8600 www.cass.city.ac.uk Executive Summary In 2009, Cass Business School In the course of the programme, we responded to the Global Financial have developed a variety of models for innovation in higher educational Crisis by evaluating what the role pedagogy and community investment that of a Business School in educating we are committed to sharing with other future business leaders should educational institutions and the business be. A number of projects have community. It is important to note that the been set up and shared in our bi- project was largely inspired by business practitioners’ innovative approaches to annual report to the UN Principles community investment and how this is for Responsible Management linked to the development of their people. Education (UN PRME). One of these We continually ask the question of what initiatives started out with a vision our role should be in producing the next for engaging students in their local generation of business leaders with an communities, encouraging social understanding of the social as well as economic challenges we face. mobility, building aspiration and driving innovation in our teaching As such, the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a critical inspiration and methods. That was in 2015 and reference point for this project and all that this report tells the story of how we do at Cass Business School. Later in we have made it happen, what we this report, we reflect in more detail on have learned and how we plan to how we apply the SDGs and the importance move the project forward. of sharing our progress with partners in the UN PRME Champions network. Since This is the story of a modern philanthropic our inception in 2015, the SDGs have partnership, a £1million jointly funded informed our approach even more directly five-year investment in a collaborative and our aims are best summarised in SDG programme where learning is shared commitment #4 Quality Education and openly and delivery methods evolve to #8 Decent Work and Economic Growth reflect our findings and fresh insight. This as well as #11 Sustainable Cities and is not a “one-off” attempt by a donor to Communities. fix a problem but the project illustrates This report seeks to record and the continued commitment of both the Sir disseminate what we have learned since John Cass’s Foundation and Cass Business the programme’s inception in 2015. It is School, initiated in 2002, to strategic also timely as the Charity Commission working together and the reporting of in its report published in December genuine impact over time rather than 2018 entitled “Public Benefit Reporting immediate outcomes.
2 CASS BUSINESS SCHOOL By Charities” encourages charities to It is an unusual and inspiring feeling to demonstrate their Public Benefit; this lead a project that is unique in the global publication sets out the work undertaken academic community. We believe from our with disadvantaged pupils from diverse literature reviews and engagement in UN backgrounds in four state-maintained PRME that no higher education institution secondary schools located in the London has formed an integrated connection boroughs of Tower Hamlets, Hackney, between teaching and engagement with Islington and Haringey. Sir John Cass’s local communities in this way. We are proud Foundation is the Trustee of Sir John Cass’s to be both pioneers and, more recently, to Foundation & Redcoat CE Secondary engage with other institutions looking to School and was therefore delighted that it replicate elements of this programme. was one of first schools to be involved in We look forward to growing our project the programme. beyond 2020, continuing to embrace sharing Our steering group, school partners and our learning with others and welcome critical countless advisors have guided and feedback on how we can improve what we do inspired the development of the project to deliver a greater impact in communities throughout with support on complex where the need is greatest. programme management with school Professor Paul Palmer partners, progressive thinking on teaching (Principal Investigator, Cass Business and assessment methodology and on School) developing an evaluation framework that captures the true benefits of our work. This Richard Foley group has increasingly included UN PRME (Chief Executive, Sir John Cass’s Foundation) Champion partners from universities around the world that we are exchanging knowledge with as the programme develops.
FROM THE PERIPHERY TO THE MAINSTREAM: MENTORING IN SCHOOLS ON THE CURRICULUM AT CASS BUSINESS SCHOOL 3 Our story WHY WE DEVELOPED THE PROGRAMME? essentially employers are looking for young The School Engagement Project was graduates with attributes such as resilience, established in August 2015 in partnership adaptability and the ability to communicate with Sir John Cass’s Foundation. It marked a effectively on a number of levels. The report fundamental commitment by Cass Business highlights areas where employers believe School to engaging with communities in business and management students are London, developing our students’ awareness deficient, creating an opportunity for us to of challenges in society and to providing an differentiate the Cass offer and move closer to education that is responsible, ethical and will the employers’ requirements. enhance their employment prospects. There is a further link to diversity and social Knowledge of the long tradition of mobility as we know that, in emerging philanthropic support from City of London London industries such as digital as well as institutions as donors and volunteers inspired more traditional City professions like law or our approach. Using our understanding of banking too few young people growing up in the historical context for example from the poverty get the opportunity to progress into University Settlements of the 19th century, skilled roles close to the communities where we wanted to develop a programme that they grow up. takes this learning and moves forward to The challenge for business schools in this connect with young Londoners today. To do context is raised most directly by Martin this, we are partners rather than donors and Parker in his book “Shut Down the Business our students are not volunteers helping the School: What’s Wrong with Management project; this is an important element in their Education” (2018). This is a critical account of study programme as managers of the future. how business schools conceal the historical As a school of the City University, an development of managerial capitalism and institution of the University of London, Cass promote its contemporary formation as Business School will always have its work one without alternatives. Parker calls for grounded in research and the strategy for exploring alternative forms of organising, teaching and learning at Cass is “a blend of taught at a currently utopian School for cutting-edge theory and practice” (www. Organising, which would transform what we cass.city.ac.uk/about/more). In addition to today call business education into a truly insight from the voluntary sector looking at public good that serves the aim of social moving forward from one-way philanthropy equality. We believe our project also holds to shared value (Porter & Kramer, 2011), we the ambition of making a small step in this also approached this from the perspective of direction and informing how Cass and other the business community. What are employers business schools operate including what looking for in their workforce in terms of we teach and how we teach it – our core skills and attitudes? Best summarised in the pedagogical purpose. Chartered Management Institute’s publication A range of reports looking at secondary “21st Century Leaders: Building Employability school education influenced us and we through Higher Education” (CMI, 2018), consulted teachers and school leaders to
4 CASS BUSINESS SCHOOL ask what worked best in teaching STEM Following this research, we realised that:- ■■ Young volunteer mentors have limited (Science, Technology, Engineering and ■■ One to one mentoring in schools was an time available to train as well as Mathematics) in particular. Our thinking effective way of improving attainment participate in programmes. was further informed by the Sutton Trust in schools. ■■ There is relatively little reporting of the report “What Makes Great Teaching” long-term value of such activities. (2014) which makes the point that one-to- ■■ University students are motivated and one interventions are most effective, yet inspired by going into schools and ■■ Universities and business schools in also the most expensive way to improve working with young people. particular are not always providing pupils’ attainment. ■■ Mentoring programmes typically employers with the range of skills and follow a fixed structure in terms of their attributes as well as the knowledge to In the course of setting up the project, we succeed in business. also looked at careers education in schools methodology and application and are and considered the work of Professor not collaborative. These are big issues at the intersection Tristram Hooley, at the University of Derby ■■ There is a growing skills shortage between education and business that and the Careers and Enterprise Company, rooted in learning of STEM related no single programme can possibly particularly in relation to social mobility. subjects. resolve, yet they do form the basis for The question raised was is enough being the cumulative “business case” which ■■ Young people do not have enough underpins the project concept. done to create and support aspiration in guidance, at the right time, when school and are young people able to make The next step was to find the gaps and choosing career and higher education informed choices about their progress into consider what Cass Business School and pathways. Higher Education and, ultimately, work? Sir John Cass’s Foundation could do to We naturally took inspiration from existing deliver for the community. mentoring programmes operating in schools involving students, volunteers SUMMARY OF BENEFITS and employee volunteers. The Institute for Volunteering Research (IVR) and National Community Employability Educational Institutions Council for Voluntary Organisations Social mobility – building Practising people skills for Enhancing the (NCVO) provided evidence showing that aspiration and access to business. employability of a large number of programmes exist opportunity. undergraduate students. focusing on particular causes or school Improved attainment in Recognising the value of Connecting with local subjects and targeting particular age STEM subjects. people skills for managers communities and groups. The majority of these programmes and leaders. demonstrating social are undoubtedly effective and are often purpose. funded by the schools themselves; evidence of their added value. Projects More informed choices in Learning in a new Building and securing also run increasingly as social enterprises transition to adulthood. environment and partnerships with external as well as charities (and universities) and understanding the stakeholders. evidence reporting is improving to reflect challenge of growing up in impact rather than levels of activity and London. immediate outcomes.
FROM THE PERIPHERY TO THE MAINSTREAM: MENTORING IN SCHOOLS ON THE CURRICULUM AT CASS BUSINESS SCHOOL 5 PROGRAMME DESIGN This combined with the Cass Business Paul Palmer meets quarterly to monitor Through the Centre for Charity School’s drive to develop the right skills for the progress of the project and provide Effectiveness (CCE) at Cass, there has business to inform the idea of a dedicated strategic guidance to the project team. been a collaborative partnership with Sir module giving time to the development The Group includes experts from the John Cass’s Foundation from before the of these skills with the practical option of world of business, education and the programme’s inception. This enabled a students going into schools and applying academic community as well as the partner dialogue from early drafts of the concept their learning while giving back to the organisations. Our representatives from to the final proposal stage. We were local community. business and education have experience all acutely aware of the importance of The other key element in the concept that of managing and overseeing project genuine collaboration and noted early in we were clear about from our research and connecting business with education, while discussions, and as an historical aside, experience was the approach to schools. our academics understand the university that Sir John Cass (1661-1718) was one of This had to be school-led and with a perspective as well as informing our the first proponents of “match funding”. flexible tool such as mentoring, we could research and evaluation. This ensured alignment to the objectives work with schools on their priorities rather The Steering Group provides an important of both institutions and established a than presenting a fixed offer. critical perspective, a forum to discuss working methodology as the idea was key strategic challenges related to the tested. It also allowed the programme to GOVERNANCE AND OVERSIGHT project and maintains a Risk Register that start quickly as a number of challenges The partnership approach was baked in tracks issues such as levels of school such as sign off for the development of a to the programme from its inception and engagement and student sign ups to new teaching module were provisionally is reflected in our governance structure. the module. agreed. A steering group chaired by Professor In our research, we were surprised to discover no other programmes where STEERING GROUP MEMBERSHIP university students receive formal Professor Paul Palmer, Chair Cass Business School, Principal Investigator accreditation for work in schools as part of their degree. There were examples of Richard Foley Chief Executive, Sir John Cass’s Foundation students receiving academic credits for Rob Compton Programme Manager mentoring internally with young students and some established literature on the Dr Peter Grant Cass Business School, Research Advisor benefits of “near peer” mentoring in Revd. Trevor Critchlow Governor, Sir John Cass’s Foundation & Red Coat CE universities. (2015-18) Secondary School We did understand that volunteers working Alkis Tsikardonis Santander, Sustainability Specialist in schools are not purely being altruistic Gabriella Wickes Slaughter & May, Community Manager and motivated by various forms of reward and recognition including City, University Dr Justin Davis-Smith Cass Business School, Social Pathway Leader of London’s own Employability Award. Dr Martin Rich Cass Business School, Course Leader Increasingly students realise the benefit of Ben Butler City, University of London, Student Development Manager these experiences and would be interested in tangible reward. Elizabeth Renshaw Cass Business School, School Engagement Manager Claire Molloy Cass Business School, Programme Co-ordinator
6 CASS BUSINESS SCHOOL “ Programmes like this are important because they equip students with the skills needed to prepare them for the world of business” Gabriella Wickes, Corporate Responsibility Adviser, Slaughter & May THE PILOT PHASE – SEPTEMBER 2015 TO mentors would need to have a strong specification calls for mentoring and MAY 2016 technical understanding of the current coaching concepts and practical models Once the Programme Manager started UK curriculum. to be assessed in the wider context of work in September 2015, the first months We also engaged at the most senior level management learning with reference were spent recruiting school partners in the schools – Headteacher, Haydn Evans to capstone literature. There is also a and developing curriculum content for CBE and Principal, Tim Clark respectively requirement for robust assessment of the module. – and held practical discussions about students, which has typically involved resourcing. Each school partner needs examinations and coursework essays. In School partners needed to reflect our addition to this, we are obliged to train our underlying principle of supporting young a lead contact member of staff with dedicated time to support the programme mentors and to ensure that they and their people growing up in disadvantaged mentees are safe at all times. communities. We also considered the and although offered free to schools this practicalities of travel and approached resource must be attributed to ensure it is Furthermore, this is an elective choice for schools that were in a good position properly managed. Each school committed second year students, so it is necessary to receive our student mentors. It was to the programme for the pilot phase to consider how to present and market also sensible to start where we had initially and, with no cost commitment, this option in the broader context of their connections, while making sure we did there was no need for a formal contract learning on the Management and Business not complicate existing relationships held arrangement at this stage. Studies BSc programmes. by City, University of London through From a curriculum and assessment In the first year of the programme, Spring volunteer programmes. perspective, it is important for Term 2016, students were taught in a Sir John Cass’s Foundation & Red Coat undergraduates to demonstrate a series of lectures which combined learning CE Secondary School in Stepney and critical understanding of the concepts about mentoring and coaching with the Skinners’ Academy in Woodbury of mentoring and coaching. The module training about how to mentor in schools. Downs have high levels of disadvantaged pupils, good transport connections to Cass Business School and school leaders who supported the idea. Working with “ Skinners’ Academy, a large, multi-cultural 11-18 Sir John Cass’s Foundation & Red Coat comprehensive school in a disadvantaged community CE Secondary School also provided the in Hackney, the second most deprived borough in the opportunity to connect further with the capital, has worked closely with Cass Business School Cass family of education institutions. on the mentoring programme for the past four years, with The Skinners’ Academy is located on the Woodbury Green estate, one of London’s extremely positive results. Pupils at the Academy have largest social housing concentrations. benefited from small group tuition, which has increased In each case, we asked the school where their confidence both socially and in maths lessons. In they needed the most help on STEM- return, students from the Business School have been able related subjects and mathematics was to benefit from working with groups of young people, identified as a key area for additional many of whom struggle socially and academically. From one-to-one support in Year 8 at Skinners’ Academy and in Year 11 at Sir John Cass’s the Academy’s point of view, the programme has been Foundation & Red Coat CE Secondary mutually very beneficial – long may it continue.” School. We discussed supporting GCE Tim Clark, Principal, Skinners’ Academy A level students in Year 12 and 13, but decided against this on the basis that
FROM THE PERIPHERY TO THE MAINSTREAM: MENTORING IN SCHOOLS ON THE CURRICULUM AT CASS BUSINESS SCHOOL 7 All students working in schools on a one- Having established a choice for mentors to-one basis with children (anybody under between mentoring in one of two schools Feedback Observation 18) or vulnerable adults need DBS clearance and supporting first year BSc Management (from the (including a through the Vetting and Barring Service and students, the next challenge was to find mentee and viva reflective it is also important to recognise that not all the right form of academic assessment. school partner) discussion) students will be suitable or willing to mentor Colleagues at City, University of London in schools. We therefore developed the shared guidance on assessment by University Pathway, which allows students structured observation instead of an 10% to opt to support a group of first year examination and we already call on Cass students instead. A first year module running students to introduce reflective writing to concurrently provided opportunity for this, their essays. We also wanted to bring in as it was an experiential option that feedback from mentees and school partners Assessment 50% students often struggled to understand. to the assessment process. Student mentors were therefore able to 40% structure In the pilot year, there was relatively little support first year counterparts through time for communication to students to a wide range of activities while gaining promote the module and we actively sought experience as mentors. KEY FINDINGS FROM THE PILOT PHASE Strengths Areas for Development Essay School partners recognised the value Not enough time spent on either the teaching or (combining a literature review of the programme and committed to a practical mentoring to make a difference. and reflective writing about their further year. experience as a mentor) Enough students were interested in the Most students not really understanding what the module and gave positive feedback on module involves and how it relates to their studies. the value of their mentoring. Reflective essays gave interesting Hard to engage and train student mentors in a insights from student mentors showing relatively large group in a conventional teaching deep understanding of the programme room. and supporting the evaluation process. Observation assessments worked well Some students struggled with the complexity of and understood by business students. the assessment process. School mentees gave very positive Manual DBS checking through the City system was feedback and showed signs of time-consuming and slow. Some students did not improving attainment in maths. get clearance in time to mentor in schools. Safeguarding procedures worked well. Project management – needed to clarify challenges and resources required to deliver the project. Positive feedback on the quality of the Timetabling challenges emerged between teaching. mentors’ and mentees’ availabilities limiting choice and the matching process.
8 CASS BUSINESS SCHOOL pioneers willing to take a risk with an now able to introduce alternative practical disadvantaged backgrounds. The school untried concept so were delighted that 30 models for mentoring and coaching has a strong reputation for connecting students signed up, with 20 choosing the together with emerging concepts such as with local businesses and wanted Cass school option while 10 supported groups of wellbeing and mindfulness. We introduced mentors for Year 12 students on vocational first year students. content from guest lecturers from study programmes – primarily Business While feedback from students and schools business, schools and the charity sector and Hospitality. This connected with was positive overall, we realised that including our partner school leaders. The local needs and gave our students the mentoring partnerships needed more time assessment process was enhanced with chance to work with young people closer to be effective and our student mentors clearer guidance and more support for to their age and to give them coaching would have appreciated more contextual students on a new form of essay writing on their progression into university, learning and practice before practicing combining literature review with apprenticeships or work. their skills. personal reflection. At the same time, we met with a newly From the schools perspective, we established school in Tottenham. Ada PROJECT DELIVERY (2016-18) continued to work with our pilot schools – The National College for Digital Skills The next phase of the project saw a switch but changed the mentee cohorts to pupils focuses on teaching young people through to teaching the module across two terms, in Year 10 and 11 closer in age to their academic and vocational programmes in the introduction of two additional school student mentors. We also introduced new the fast-growing digital sector. They have partners and the development of a more school partners to increase capacity and an innovative approach to teaching and sophisticated evaluation framework. add flexible mentoring options to reduce are already working with mentors from the risk of timetable clashes. the business community. This presented There was also a shift in the context of the an opportunity to giving coaching and mentoring in consultation with our school The Central Foundation Boys’ School is located close to the Cass Business School mentoring support to Year 12 and 13 pupils partners and in response to emerging specifically working towards careers in research as well as our own reflections on and has a high percentage of pupils from programme delivery. In 2016/17, students selected the elective for teaching in the autumn term. This is the only module at Cass Business School to “ At Central Foundation Boys’ School, the mentoring take place across two terms of an academic programme has supported our Year 12 vocational year – the 15 academic credits remain the students over the last 3 years, giving valuable same, yet students are not required to guidance on their studies and helping them to make work as intensively during the spring term when the observations take place and the the right decision about whether to go to university, essay is due. take on an apprenticeship or get work experience. I’m The curriculum developed significantly delighted to see that our students also have the chance with more time to work with mentors to spend time on the university campus to give them a and to explore mentoring and coaching feel for life as an undergraduate and better understand concepts. This includes defining mentoring and coaching in relation to people the study environment.” skills for business, contextualising the Jamie Brownhill, Headteacher, Central Foundation Boys’ School link to leadership and the evolution of management theory. The lectures were
FROM THE PERIPHERY TO THE MAINSTREAM: MENTORING IN SCHOOLS ON THE CURRICULUM AT CASS BUSINESS SCHOOL 9 technology and combines support for their KEY FINDINGS: studies with completion of university, apprenticeship and job applications. Strengths Areas for Development Both of these partnerships have helped Increased range of mentoring options on How to manage the student mentors establish the distinction between both student and university pathways. down time between early December and mentoring or coaching and tutoring to February. provide further insight building on our More time available to support mentor Issues with timetabling remain, work with the founding school partners. learning and allow for greater support to particularly for the mentors’ timetable Year 12 and 13 students are also more beneficiaries. finalised in early February. flexible with free periods during school Teaching better reflects emerging Working with a cohort of 40+ students in time for mentoring. This cohort are literature and trends in mentoring and one group is too large and not possible embarking on a significant stage in their coaching. for effective group work even with 2 lives that increasingly involves taking facilitators. on debts and will shape their long-term futures. Most schools have limited Governance and team structure enhanced More resource needed to focus on the resources for careers advice and hearing to provide support for the project. The student engagement and support during from a student with recent experience of project is on budget. their mentoring. their situation can be highly influential. Guest speakers and new content are well The assessment process needs to be In 2016-18, we pitched the module to received and engaging for students who refined to give a more balanced and clear first year students with the involvement now relate the module more clearly to their reflection of mentors’ skills. of alumni mentors from the previous employment prospects. years and through a short film about the Successful pilot of 1:1 option on the New challenge of managing university programme. This has led to a consistent university pathway. team and individual pathways more take up of 45-47 mentors, which equates to closely. 20-25% of students on eligible courses. These relationships have further informed programme, we were closer to identifying ■■ A significant increase in the number our partnerships across all four of the how our talented resource (high level of student mentors driven by the schools we work with where we now have second year business undergraduates introduction of a new, larger BSc a blended approach that supports learning from around the world) is most effectively degree programme at Cass launched in on STEM subjects from Year 10 and 11, deployed in schools. September 2018. alongside help with study and career ■■ Our role in the UN PRME Champion pathways. Indicative findings suggest PROGRESS (2018-19) Programme as a flagship project and pupils in schools are more committed to In June 2018, we carried out a strategic the ongoing commitment to sharing working through their maths challenges review of the team structure to reflect on knowledge and engaging with other when they understand the context of this progress, plan for significant growth and universities. learning in later life. move towards sustaining our partnership beyond 2020. ■■ Securing the future funding of the This evolutionary process has developed programme by capturing and reporting through consultation with school partners, In addition to our learning from ongoing our long-term impact. employers and careers specialists in City, evaluation and review of results, the team University of London and our wider group considered:- A revised plan was agreed by Cass of stakeholders. At this interim stage in the Business School and Sir John Cass’s
10 CASS BUSINESS SCHOOL Foundation in July 2018 to inform the for small teams of 4-5 mentees taking the Dropping out is a serious issue for all current 2018/19 cohort and prepare the “Management Lab and Business Skills” UK universities and connects with wider way for significant growth in activity in the module in their first year. In each case, issues including mental health challenges next academic year and beyond. we have refined the matching process for students as well as being a key metric We have adapted our teaching to a and reviewed the timetabling to ensure in the Teaching Excellence and Student workshop format taught as “Mentoring university mentors can spend more time Outcomes Framework (TEF) which governs and Coaching for Leadership” in two with their mentees. As with the schools UK universities. While exact figures are streams with a cap of 30 students in each element, mentees should spend 8-10 hard to define, the impact of this on a group. This change has already yielded sessions mentoring during the spring term. student from a disadvantaged background impressive results in feedback from students giving a score of 4.9 out of 5 for KEY FINDINGS: the teaching experience up from 3.8 in Strengths Areas for Development the pilot year. We have retained the core The workshop teaching format has proved Better engagement of first year students approach to the mentoring and coaching popular with students and tutors. moving into the second year through more models, but give more time to practical effective marketing of the module. exercises that are better suited to small group learning. The aim is to increase the School partnerships are more pro-actively Further amendments to how timetabling skill levels of our mentors while retaining managed using our knowledge of what has is managed across two terms to allow the emphasis on theory and critical worked in previous years. students to work more comfortably across reflection. In 2019, we will move to three two-terms. streams to accommodate an increasing Matching of mentors to mentees is more More focus on capturing the long-term number of mentors. Framing the module sophisticated with insight from both sides. impact of the programme. in a leadership context aims to improve The university individual pathway has Challenge of finding the individual students’ recognition of value to grown to involve more students and has mentees most in need of support. business and increase the appeal of the supported 1st years embarking on the new elective option. degree programme. We have simplified the assessment Tracking of student and mentee progress Ongoing difficulty of managing the gap method to 50% reflective essay and 50% is more sophisticated with the use of focus over Christmas for mentors and mentees. observation. This helps give clarity to groups involving mentors and mentees. students and reduces the risk of overly subjective and inconsistent feedback from Some school partnership mentoring now Day-to-day communications with students our school partners. Additional formative hosted on the university campus giving are difficult as email is less frequently used or practice assessment of each element mentees first-hand experience of life as an and there is limited access to mobile phone has further enhanced students’ awareness undergraduate student. and app data. of what is required from them. Observation assessment by video piloted Resource planning – growing the Building on a small, yet successful pilot to record university pathway mentoring programme to scale while managing costs. in 2017/18, the university pathway now and allow scaleable remote assessment. has an increasing social purpose through Greater simplicity in the assessment Securing investment in the project beyond individual mentoring support for first methodology supported by clearer the current term. year students at risk of dropping out of explanations and formative assessment. university. This is in addition to support
FROM THE PERIPHERY TO THE MAINSTREAM: MENTORING IN SCHOOLS ON THE CURRICULUM AT CASS BUSINESS SCHOOL 11 is often greater and potentially life changing. PROJECTIONS FOR 2019-2021 We are working with the student counselling Moving beyond 2019, the programme is set teams at City, University of London to improve to expand significantly with a much larger support for this option on the programme. It is cohort on the new management degree. We difficult to identify these students and clearly, are preparing for this during the current year there is a greater emphasis on safeguarding, with our schools and teaching plans. yet helping young adults to assimilate and get All four of our school partners have the the best out of their time at university is an capacity to host more students and there are additional unintended outcome that we are additional university mentees on the group committed to growing. pathway in particular. We are also confident This example highlights how additional that the higher profile of the module will help benefits have accrued from the programme to encourage more students to sign up. In that we did not foresee. Secured funding 2019/20, the module will be taught in three over time and support from our internal and streams to accommodate the additional external stakeholders has allowed us to capacity with at least one new tutor with develop these elements in the programme extensive mentoring experience involved. while remaining consistent with our core Beyond next year, there will be additional principles. numbers of student mentors as the module In March 2019, the programme is firmly becomes compulsory for some students and established and delivered through six extends to other undergraduate programmes pathways in four schools as well as both at Cass Business School. At this stage, it group and individual university options is likely that we will introduce new school (Appendix 2, Pathway Graphic). Our teaching partners and will need to increase the methodology has been refined, is rated capacity of our team. extremely highly by students and we are in We are also focusing on sharing our a position to significantly grow the volume knowledge and giving practical advice of activity to meet a much larger cohort of to other institutions looking to replicate students. Our challenge is now to report on the programme. This toolkit development this and share our knowledge with others. is crucial to our overall purpose and the principles underpinning the project. We have made most progress in collaboration with Nottingham Business School at Nottingham Trent University by sharing teaching resources for mentoring and coaching as well as evaluation methods and sharing insights in the academic community through conference presentations and journal articles.
12 CASS BUSINESS SCHOOL What we teach This is what we teach. The guiding LIST OF WORKSHOP TITLES: principle is that there is no one Week Title way to mentor or coach and we 1 Introduction are fundamentally learning and 2 Building Rapport and Business practicing people skills for business. Context These skills are the basis for effective 3 Asking Open Questions and Active mentoring and coaching and applied Listening through numerous frameworks and 4 Mentoring and Coaching in methodologies. We explore this in the Education context of how management theory 5 Mentoring and Coaching for Leaders has evolved and include emerging theories relating to mindfulness, 6 Mentoring and Coaching in Universities wellbeing and the rapid growth of the coaching industry. 7 The Theoretical Context 8 Inductions and Planning We also talk in detail about definitions of 9 Mentoring and Coaching for what a mentor or coach is and how that will Wellbeing differ from the role of a friend, a tutor or a line manager. Our skills framework is listed 10 Practice Sessions below and explored in the next section on 11 Reflection, Recap and Planning pedagogy: THE SKILLS WE TEACH ■■ Active listening ■■ Asking open questions ■■ Giving praise and recognition ■■ Building rapport and trust ■■ Planning effectively ■■ Challenging constructively ■■ Giving good feedback ■■ Empowering others ■■ Finding opportunities to develop
FROM THE PERIPHERY TO THE MAINSTREAM: MENTORING IN SCHOOLS ON THE CURRICULUM AT CASS BUSINESS SCHOOL 13 OUR PEDAGOGY: and can give students a “live sample” of what The workshop format and innovative struc- they offer. ture of the module across two terms with a Finally, we have to make sure students fully practical element influences how as well as understand a different form of assessment, what we teach. Each workshop includes some seemingly subjective. We do this through form of group activity to develop and practise instruction and examples in the workshops, skills with critical elements such as Building guest input from alumni students as well Rapport and Active Listening repeated over as formative or practice assessment with several lectures. Students will have encoun- feedback on both the essay and observation tered these skills in their first year, but now elements. have an opportunity to apply and embed them in a small group setting. There is also discus- Most importantly, we have an absolute sion and debate of important themes and use requirement to make sure that all mentors of video footage as well as real time observa- and mentees are safe. Research into other tion. Working with relatively small groups, our mentoring programmes, consultations with lecturers are also facilitators giving feedback safeguarding and mental health experts and throughout and encouraging individuals to our experience demonstrates that reading work on specific areas for development. The out a list of rules from a handout or scaring key is to contextualise skills rather than just students with worst-case scenarios is not present lists (Pegg et al, 2012). effective. We brainstorm as a group and talk through realistic scenarios with a focus on It is important to teach students, often from the most likely challenges and what prac- outside the UK, about the education system tical steps a mentor can take to resolve the – schools and universities - in the context of situation. For example, we discuss what to do mentoring and to set them up for the practi- when a mentee looks to befriend the mentor, cal element of the programme in the spring shows signs of anxiety or is critical of their term. Guests from the sector including school teachers. This content is introduced during and university leaders bring this to life and the workshops, in school inductions and in add authenticity. Professional mentors and instructions when mentoring gets underway. coaches have also added their perspectives PEDAGOGY TIMELINE Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr Practicing Skills Theoretical Insight Educational Context Safeguarding Assessment
14 CASS BUSINESS SCHOOL Measuring Our Impact This is a long-term programme explicit through, and visually reflected in, also important in this context, provided with ambitious aims to deliver the (re)construction of a theory of change they are representative and we also need (see opposite, Anderson, 2005). A theory to show learning from when activities do lasting benefits to disadvantaged of change outlines the overall aim and the not go well. schoolchildren, university students intermediate targets in generating long, There is also an important practical and universities themselves. This medium and short-term social change. consideration as the evaluation has to is a complex challenge when it To do so, it highlights the actions taken be realistic and manageable within our comes to reporting, yet we are able that we presume to be eventually leading resources. The key to achieving this is to the long-term goal (interventions). In to call on decades of experience in building the measurement process into the order to ensure the success of these steps design of the programme from including this field from esteemed academic of intervention, we have examined the researchers and the expert tracking questions in the teaching to underlying assumptions and tweaked the assessment method. Our students’ practitioners in our Steering Group. the interventions accordingly. Finally, we reflective essays are a hugely important have created measures for evaluating the resource – as illustrated in the quotes Social value, whether that is a type of achievement at each step of the way. We value (not public, not economic) or value and word cloud graphic (page 18). We made use of a range of “hard” and “soft” have introduced focus groups which are produced by an organization in a particular measures divided into three categories social location (not government, not integrated into the mentoring programme according to where the source data as a final session to improve the feedback business), is often remarkably hard to come from: school pupils and teachers measure as it can be very complex and from mentees. (mentees), university students (mentors), ambiguous (Barman, 2016). Our evaluation and project team and university. framework reflects the difficulty business schools currently face in having to This top-level model is illustrated in the negotiate between having to act in a more attached diagram and starts with the socially responsible manner (Ghoshal, headline goals of increasing social mobility 2005) and driving the financialization and producing better managers. While it of the university (Beverungen, Dunne is important to aspire to these ambitions, & Hoedemaekers, 2009). Since the we are aware that our programme cannot introduction of New Public Management deliver this on its own and that many (Thomas & Davies, 2005), the associated other factors will influence the long term development of the audit society (Power, outcomes for young people and students 1997), and the rise of “caring capitalism” who take part in the programme. (Barman, 2016), in which the care work As we designed this process and looked required to deal with social inequities in detail at how we can capture true is pushed onto non-governmental impact over time, it became clear that organizations and private businesses, a blend of quantitative and qualitative evaluation (and especially measurement) information would be required to evaluate has become more important as a means of our concept. It is relatively simple to demonstrating impact. count how many mentors and mentees The evaluation framework we have created are involved over how many hours, yet we incorporates the project team’s social, also want to recognise the quality of this political and moral values, which in the intervention and try to understand what evaluation literature are most often made difference this makes. Case studies are
FROM THE PERIPHERY TO THE MAINSTREAM: MENTORING IN SCHOOLS ON THE CURRICULUM AT CASS BUSINESS SCHOOL 15 THE EVALUATION FRAMEWORK Long-range Better rounded, more results Increased social mobility socially responsible of pupils in the UK managers E5, E6 G F Policy change – STEM Increased employability Intermediate results recognized as a vehicle for social mobility of pupils in the UK 7 Positive effects on Adoption by other students’ employability business schools and TEF E13, E14 E4, E6, E14 5 6 A Early results Pupils get better Pupils admitted to Change in learning, STEM Students acquire grades better universities skills and confidence soft skills E7 E7 E2, E3, E6 E2, E3, E6 E D First-year students’ easier assimilation, higher retention B C C Students coach and mentor pupils during Students coach and school time mentor first-year students E14 E14 4 4 3 2 Schools commit to the Students attend course, programme acquire knowledge E8 E1, E2 1 Students opt in to Schools hear about the Mentoring and Coaching programme module E12 Interventions C Mentoring by near peers leads to better E6 Tracker interviews 1 Discuss expectations and finalize outcomes. E7 Academic progress details D Pupils can learn STEM skills. E8 Number of schools, number of pupils 2 Students are evaluated E Structural constraints related to social supported and hours of support given 3 Schools select pupils background can be overcome. E9 Feedback from teachers and/or 4 Students and pupils are matched F STEM skills have increased value in a supervisors 5 Evaluate results knowledge economy. E10 Assessment reports from mentees 6 Write reports and academic G Soft skills are required for social E11 Initial and leaving psychometric publications, present at conferences responsibility. tests and interviews measuring 7 Write policy proposals Evaluation communication skills, confidence and Assumptions E1 Student’s module grade aspirations A Volunteering is recognized by potential E2 Informal feedback during course E12 Participant numbers employers as a differentiator. E3 Reflective essays E13 Links to and feedback from other HE B Mentoring built into the curricular E4 Employment statistics of cohort institutions and knowledge sharing activities of pupils leads to better E5 Number of students who are actively (e.g. PRME), academic papers outcomes. involved in volunteering E14 Project manager reflections (Based on Anderson, 2005)
16 CASS BUSINESS SCHOOL What have we achieved so far? Figure 1 shows in basic numbers the level ■■ 66 student mentors have supported 272 of activity on the programme to date and fellow students on the university pathway. projections for the next three academic years. ■■ The breakdown between the school and To date: university pathway is consistent with 56% of students opting to volunteer in schools ■■ 88 student mentors have worked with 143 and 42% in universities. The remaining pupils from disadvantaged backgrounds in students follow a research pathway 4 schools. (see below). Figure 1: PAST AND PROJECTED NUMBERS 140 6 7 9 Number of mentors and mentees 120 5 100 Number of schools 4 80 9 3 60 9 40 2 20 1 0 4 0 2016 pilot 2016-2017 2017-2018 2018-2019 2019-2020 2020-2021 2021-2022 Mentors Mentees Schools
FROM THE PERIPHERY TO THE MAINSTREAM: MENTORING IN SCHOOLS ON THE CURRICULUM AT CASS BUSINESS SCHOOL 17 OUR CURRENT GROUP of Business Management degrees; first 5.2 PROJECTED GROWTH 2018/19 marks a significant advance in the as mentees, then as mentors. Our current The key reason for much higher numbers story of the programme as we have moved group of mentors is shown in the graphic in future years is a larger number of from testing and developing ideas, towards below (Figure 2). We also capture the undergraduates taking this elective growth. Partnerships have been developed gender and socio-economic backgrounds option. We know from previous cohorts and secured with schools, our teaching of participants in the programme but are that 20-25% of students chose this content and delivery has transformed, and not able to share the information in this elective option. The introduction of new we are now working with a new group of report at this stage: Business Management degrees at Cass in university students studying a new cluster September 2018 with a significantly higher number of students on roll – 390 from 66 Figure 2: 2018/19 BREAKDOWN BY PATHWAY FOR SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY countries currently with the possibility of further increases. We also anticipate a Sir John Cass’s Foundation & slight increase in the take up rate as the Uni – individual Red Coat CE Secondary School module becomes better known and more 7 first year students take part as mentees. 9 Furthermore, the module is likely to be a compulsory element for students who take the Social Business degree currently being planned with a view to launch from 2020 onwards. 9 Skinners’ Academy We do not see the ratio of school 9 versus university mentoring changing Uni – group significantly, as the programme develops. The school pathway option is sold strongly to the students during the workshops, 4 8 yet students who are unwilling to go into schools are always able to mentor Ada – National College Central Foundation Boys' School in the university. Furthermore, we for Digital Skills have developed a third option – the research pathway – for students where © 2016 Roffey Park Institute an appropriate mentoring match is not possible or breaks down due to unforeseen circumstances. This involves students taking on an activity relating to the programme research such as organising a focus group reviewing the progress of mentoring partnerships. In both schools and universities, we are increasing the number of one to one matches so the number of mentees has actually reduced on the university pathway in particular. However, the indications
18 CASS BUSINESS SCHOOL are that this form of mentoring is more beneficial to both mentees and mentors so we believe this will be a better approach in the long term. Both our schools and the University currently have the capacity to accommodate the additional volume of mentors, although we do plan to engage at least one additional school as both contingency and in anticipation of further growth. QUALITATIVE FEEDBACK FROM STUDENTS Our students’ reflective essays have provided a wealth of evidence demonstrating the value of the programme. They are very different to conventional evaluation forms adopted by most mentoring programmes as they require students to think deeply about the value of the experience. We also their learning and provide a greater level Many more quotes follow a similar pattern encourage a critical approach to enhance of insight. as mentors are learning about themselves in the process of supporting someone else. It is often the first time that students have engaged in formal self-reflection EXCERPTS FROM MENTORS’ ESSAYS and related to both their own study and “ I built a multi-dimensional sense of self-awareness. I discovered my their future prospects. This indicates a underlying values and what really works for me when it comes to enabling significant development in their learning creativity. I think I learnt a lot about seeing the best in people and that gave which may go on to influence their own me a fresh perspective...” pathway choices. We even have one “ Having reflected on how I developed my methods, I started discovering the alumni from the programme who has set concept of reflexivity. I realised that the real methodology came from my up his own start-up company to facilitate own sense of empathy and how I see myself in her.” mentoring online “Mentorite” after “ This personal development is one of the highlights of my experience, as I studying the module. feel that in the workplace working with different personalities, it will really To illustrate this further, the word cloud help me stay professional and become less emotionally reactive and make illustration above is made up from 10 of rash decisions.” the essays written by our 2017/18 cohort “ Despite developing skills such as listening and communication skills, the of students. This summarises the direction greatest development I have felt was the emotional maturity and to go into of their thinking and an interesting use of anything as a learner as opposed to a teacher.” emotive language such as “help, feel, give and understand” that you do not often see in a business student’s essay.
FROM THE PERIPHERY TO THE MAINSTREAM: MENTORING IN SCHOOLS ON THE CURRICULUM AT CASS BUSINESS SCHOOL 19 As an elective module, we have to “pitch” to We are clearer about asking students why our students and understand their motivation they chose the module, yet it is important for choosing this option. In an ideal world, to be inclusive and recognise that most will they would all be really passionate about not start out with a clear understanding of mentoring and coaching and highly aware of why they are there. The curriculum has been the value of developing their communication designed to reflect this and to explore how skills. it is defined as well as placing Mentoring The reality is that 19 year old students and Coaching in the context of management moving from the first to second year of their literature. degree think: The title of the module has evolved from “Mentoring and Coaching” to “Mentoring and Coaching for Leadership” to better frame the module in the context of the management “ this seems like study programme. We have also delivered the something a bit different project in the wider context of the transition from finance” at Cass from two parallel degree programmes – Business Studies and Management – to an “ this will be more fun and integrated cluster of Business Management doesn’t have an exam” degrees. It sets out to provide students with skills they will need in a rapidly changing “ I’d like to become more and uncertain world and to build on research confident and think this and scholarship that exists within Cass will help me” Business School. “ I want to work in HR and thought this would help” KEY LEARNING: The underlying point here relates to the students’ relative lack of under- standing of the value of the module. It needs to be “sold” in the first year and during the early part of the lecture programme. NEXT STEPS: Communication about the module will be sold in more effectively to first year students in their professional skills module. Greater awareness of the programme and more time spent with mentors during their first year will raise awareness of the option in their second year of study. Beyond this, Mentoring and Coaching for Leadership will be a mandatory specialist module for students taking the proposed new Social Business pathway, while remaining an elective option for other undergraduate students on Business Management programmes.
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