From the Periphery to the Mainstream: Mentoring in Schools on the Curriculum at Cass Business School - Rob Compton, Professor Paul Palmer, Dr ...

From the Periphery to the Mainstream: Mentoring in Schools on the Curriculum at Cass Business School - Rob Compton, Professor Paul Palmer, Dr ...
From the Periphery to the
Mainstream: Mentoring in
Schools on the Curriculum
at Cass Business School
Rob Compton, Professor Paul Palmer, Dr Marton Racz


                                       Executive summary                                                                        1
                                       Our story                                                                                3
                                       What we teach                                                                           12
                                       Measuring our impact                                                                    14
                                       What have we achieved so far                                                            16
                                       Conclusion and call to action                                                           22
                                       Appendices                                                                              24
                                       References and further reading                                                          29


  Professor Paul Palmer is Director of Cass Centre for Charity Effectiveness Cass CCE) at Cass Business School. He has served as
  an Associate Dean for nine years until the end of December 2018 leading the School’s initiative on ethical, sustainability and
  engagement education. In recognition of his work, he became a Principal Fellow of the Higher Education Academy in 2015. In 2018,
  he was elected to the UN PRME Advisory Committee. Paul is a Chartered Company Secretary and holds a doctorate in Internal
  Auditing and Control. He has held many charity trustee posts including serving as President of the Royal Society for Public Health
  and is currently Chair of the Grant Making Committee of the Hospital Saturday Fund. He has previously served on the Sustainability
  Committee of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales and is currently on the Ethics Committee of the
  Chartered Institute for Securities & Investment.

  Rob Compton is the UN PRME Programme Manager at Cass Business School and leads the School Mentoring Programme. Rob has
  worked in training development in the corporate sector and spent 10 years as a campaigner and practitioner developing corporate
  responsibility and community investment programmes at Business in the Community and as an independent consultant. He has
  worked with over 50 businesses on their partnerships with schools and charities and has extensive experience of brokerage,
  motivation and training of mentors working with vulnerable people. Rob has been teaching at Cass since 2012 as a Visiting
  Lecturer on the MSc and BSc Management programmes as well as mentoring a range of professionals building careers in corporate
  responsibility as well as charity professionals, students and even a Flight Lieutenant in the RAF. He has also been a school
  governor for five years and is currently researching a PhD on innovative pedagogy in business schools.

  Dr Marton Racz is a postdoctoral Research Fellow with the Ethics, Sustainability and Engagement unit at Cass Business School as
  well as Head of the Centre for Academic Services and Senior Lecturer at the International Business School in Budapest, Hungary.
  Marton is a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy, and currently co-manager of the editorial collective of the journal ephemera:
  theory and politics in organization. His doctoral thesis explored the meanings and practices of criticality in select UK business
  schools. Building on this, his research currently focuses on the organization of higher education; on innovative ways of educating
  management students for ethics, responsibility and reflexivity; and on the roles management academics’ organizational practices
  play in achieving this goal.

                                                                                                     Cass Business School
                                                                                                     T: 0020 7040 8600

Executive Summary

In 2009, Cass Business School                  In the course of the programme, we
responded to the Global Financial              have developed a variety of models
                                               for innovation in higher educational
Crisis by evaluating what the role             pedagogy and community investment that
of a Business School in educating              we are committed to sharing with other
future business leaders should                 educational institutions and the business
be. A number of projects have                  community. It is important to note that the
been set up and shared in our bi-              project was largely inspired by business
                                               practitioners’ innovative approaches to
annual report to the UN Principles
                                               community investment and how this is
for Responsible Management                     linked to the development of their people.
Education (UN PRME). One of these              We continually ask the question of what
initiatives started out with a vision          our role should be in producing the next
for engaging students in their local           generation of business leaders with an
communities, encouraging social                understanding of the social as well as
                                               economic challenges we face.
mobility, building aspiration and
driving innovation in our teaching             As such, the UN Sustainable Development
                                               Goals (SDGs) are a critical inspiration and
methods. That was in 2015 and
                                               reference point for this project and all that
this report tells the story of how             we do at Cass Business School. Later in
we have made it happen, what we                this report, we reflect in more detail on
have learned and how we plan to                how we apply the SDGs and the importance
move the project forward. 

                   of sharing our progress with partners in
                                               the UN PRME Champions network. Since
This is the story of a modern philanthropic    our inception in 2015, the SDGs have
partnership, a £1million jointly funded        informed our approach even more directly
five-year investment in a collaborative        and our aims are best summarised in SDG
programme where learning is shared             commitment #4 Quality Education and
openly and delivery methods evolve to          #8 Decent Work and Economic Growth
reflect our findings and fresh insight. This   as well as #11 Sustainable Cities and
is not a “one-off” attempt by a donor to       Communities.
fix a problem but the project illustrates      This report seeks to record and
the continued commitment of both the Sir       disseminate what we have learned since
John Cass’s Foundation and Cass Business       the programme’s inception in 2015. It is
School, initiated in 2002, to strategic        also timely as the Charity Commission
working together and the reporting of          in its report published in December
genuine impact over time rather than           2018 entitled “Public Benefit Reporting
immediate outcomes.

    By Charities” encourages charities to          It is an unusual and inspiring feeling to
    demonstrate their Public Benefit; this         lead a project that is unique in the global
    publication sets out the work undertaken       academic community. We believe from our
    with disadvantaged pupils from diverse         literature reviews and engagement in UN
    backgrounds in four state-maintained           PRME that no higher education institution
    secondary schools located in the London        has formed an integrated connection
    boroughs of Tower Hamlets, Hackney,            between teaching and engagement with
    Islington and Haringey. Sir John Cass’s        local communities in this way. We are proud
    Foundation is the Trustee of Sir John Cass’s   to be both pioneers and, more recently, to
    Foundation & Redcoat CE Secondary              engage with other institutions looking to
    School and was therefore delighted that it     replicate elements of this programme.
    was one of first schools to be involved in     We look forward to growing our project
    the programme.                                 beyond 2020, continuing to embrace sharing
    Our steering group, school partners and        our learning with others and welcome critical
    countless advisors have guided and             feedback on how we can improve what we do
    inspired the development of the project        to deliver a greater impact in communities
    throughout with support on complex             where the need is greatest.
    programme management with school               Professor Paul Palmer
    partners, progressive thinking on teaching     (Principal Investigator, Cass Business
    and assessment methodology and on              School)
    developing an evaluation framework that
    captures the true benefits of our work. This   Richard Foley
    group has increasingly included UN PRME        (Chief Executive, Sir John Cass’s Foundation)
    Champion partners from universities around
    the world that we are exchanging knowledge
    with as the programme develops.

Our story

WHY WE DEVELOPED THE PROGRAMME?                   essentially employers are looking for young
The School Engagement Project was                 graduates with attributes such as resilience,
established in August 2015 in partnership         adaptability and the ability to communicate
with Sir John Cass’s Foundation. It marked a      effectively on a number of levels. The report
fundamental commitment by Cass Business           highlights areas where employers believe
School to engaging with communities in            business and management students are
London, developing our students’ awareness        deficient, creating an opportunity for us to
of challenges in society and to providing an      differentiate the Cass offer and move closer to
education that is responsible, ethical and will   the employers’ requirements.
enhance their employment prospects.               There is a further link to diversity and social
Knowledge of the long tradition of                mobility as we know that, in emerging
philanthropic support from City of London         London industries such as digital as well as
institutions as donors and volunteers inspired    more traditional City professions like law or
our approach. Using our understanding of          banking too few young people growing up in
the historical context for example from the       poverty get the opportunity to progress into
University Settlements of the 19th century,       skilled roles close to the communities where
we wanted to develop a programme that             they grow up.
takes this learning and moves forward to          The challenge for business schools in this
connect with young Londoners today. To do         context is raised most directly by Martin
this, we are partners rather than donors and      Parker in his book “Shut Down the Business
our students are not volunteers helping the       School: What’s Wrong with Management
project; this is an important element in their    Education” (2018). This is a critical account of
study programme as managers of the future.        how business schools conceal the historical
As a school of the City University, an            development of managerial capitalism and
institution of the University of London, Cass     promote its contemporary formation as
Business School will always have its work         one without alternatives. Parker calls for
grounded in research and the strategy for         exploring alternative forms of organising,
teaching and learning at Cass is “a blend of      taught at a currently utopian School for
cutting-edge theory and practice” (www.           Organising, which would transform what we In addition to       today call business education into a truly
insight from the voluntary sector looking at      public good that serves the aim of social
moving forward from one-way philanthropy          equality. We believe our project also holds
to shared value (Porter & Kramer, 2011), we       the ambition of making a small step in this
also approached this from the perspective of      direction and informing how Cass and other
the business community. What are employers        business schools operate including what
looking for in their workforce in terms of        we teach and how we teach it – our core
skills and attitudes? Best summarised in the      pedagogical purpose.
Chartered Management Institute’s publication      A range of reports looking at secondary
“21st Century Leaders: Building Employability     school education influenced us and we
through Higher Education” (CMI, 2018),            consulted teachers and school leaders to

    ask what worked best in teaching STEM          Following this research, we realised that:-        ■■   Young volunteer mentors have limited
    (Science, Technology, Engineering and          ■■   One to one mentoring in schools was an             time available to train as well as
    Mathematics) in particular. Our thinking            effective way of improving attainment              participate in programmes.
    was further informed by the Sutton Trust            in schools.                                   ■■   There is relatively little reporting of the
    report “What Makes Great Teaching”                                                                     long-term value of such activities.
    (2014) which makes the point that one-to-      ■■   University students are motivated and
    one interventions are most effective, yet           inspired by going into schools and            ■■   Universities and business schools in
    also the most expensive way to improve              working with young people.                         particular are not always providing
    pupils’ attainment.                            ■■   Mentoring programmes typically                     employers with the range of skills and
                                                        follow a fixed structure in terms of their         attributes as well as the knowledge to
    In the course of setting up the project, we                                                            succeed in business.
    also looked at careers education in schools         methodology and application and are
    and considered the work of Professor                not collaborative.                            These are big issues at the intersection
    Tristram Hooley, at the University of Derby    ■■   There is a growing skills shortage            between education and business that
    and the Careers and Enterprise Company,             rooted in learning of STEM related            no single programme can possibly
    particularly in relation to social mobility.        subjects.                                     resolve, yet they do form the basis for
    The question raised was is enough being                                                           the cumulative “business case” which
                                                   ■■   Young people do not have enough               underpins the project concept.
    done to create and support aspiration in
                                                        guidance, at the right time, when
    school and are young people able to make                                                          The next step was to find the gaps and
                                                        choosing career and higher education
    informed choices about their progress into                                                        consider what Cass Business School and
    Higher Education and, ultimately, work?                                                           Sir John Cass’s Foundation could do to
    We naturally took inspiration from existing                                                       deliver for the community.
    mentoring programmes operating in
    schools involving students, volunteers          SUMMARY OF BENEFITS
    and employee volunteers. The Institute for
    Volunteering Research (IVR) and National        Community                         Employability                    Educational Institutions
    Council for Voluntary Organisations             Social mobility – building        Practising people skills for     Enhancing the
    (NCVO) provided evidence showing that           aspiration and access to          business.                        employability of
    a large number of programmes exist              opportunity.                                                       undergraduate students.
    focusing on particular causes or school         Improved attainment in            Recognising the value of         Connecting with local
    subjects and targeting particular age           STEM subjects.                    people skills for managers       communities and
    groups. The majority of these programmes                                          and leaders.                     demonstrating social
    are undoubtedly effective and are often                                                                            purpose.
    funded by the schools themselves;
    evidence of their added value. Projects         More informed choices in          Learning in a new                Building and securing
    also run increasingly as social enterprises     transition to adulthood.          environment and                  partnerships with external
    as well as charities (and universities) and                                       understanding the                stakeholders.
    evidence reporting is improving to reflect                                        challenge of growing up in
    impact rather than levels of activity and                                         London.
    immediate outcomes.

PROGRAMME DESIGN                               This combined with the Cass Business             Paul Palmer meets quarterly to monitor
Through the Centre for Charity                 School’s drive to develop the right skills for   the progress of the project and provide
Effectiveness (CCE) at Cass, there has         business to inform the idea of a dedicated       strategic guidance to the project team.
been a collaborative partnership with Sir      module giving time to the development            The Group includes experts from the
John Cass’s Foundation from before the         of these skills with the practical option of     world of business, education and the
programme’s inception. This enabled a          students going into schools and applying         academic community as well as the partner
dialogue from early drafts of the concept      their learning while giving back to the          organisations. Our representatives from
to the final proposal stage. We were           local community.                                 business and education have experience
all acutely aware of the importance of         The other key element in the concept that        of managing and overseeing project
genuine collaboration and noted early in       we were clear about from our research and        connecting business with education, while
discussions, and as an historical aside,       experience was the approach to schools.          our academics understand the university
that Sir John Cass (1661-1718) was one of      This had to be school-led and with a             perspective as well as informing our
the first proponents of “match funding”.       flexible tool such as mentoring, we could        research and evaluation.
This ensured alignment to the objectives       work with schools on their priorities rather     The Steering Group provides an important
of both institutions and established a         than presenting a fixed offer.                   critical perspective, a forum to discuss
working methodology as the idea was                                                             key strategic challenges related to the
tested. It also allowed the programme to       GOVERNANCE AND OVERSIGHT                         project and maintains a Risk Register that
start quickly as a number of challenges        The partnership approach was baked in            tracks issues such as levels of school
such as sign off for the development of a      to the programme from its inception and          engagement and student sign ups to
new teaching module were provisionally         is reflected in our governance structure.        the module.
agreed.                                        A steering group chaired by Professor
In our research, we were surprised to
discover no other programmes where             STEERING GROUP MEMBERSHIP
university students receive formal
                                               Professor Paul Palmer, Chair Cass Business School, Principal Investigator
accreditation for work in schools as part
of their degree. There were examples of        Richard Foley                   Chief Executive, Sir John Cass’s Foundation
students receiving academic credits for        Rob Compton                     Programme Manager
mentoring internally with young students
and some established literature on the         Dr Peter Grant                  Cass Business School, Research Advisor
benefits of “near peer” mentoring in           Revd. Trevor Critchlow          Governor, Sir John Cass’s Foundation & Red Coat CE
universities.                                  (2015-18)                       Secondary School
We did understand that volunteers working      Alkis Tsikardonis               Santander, Sustainability Specialist
in schools are not purely being altruistic     Gabriella Wickes                Slaughter & May, Community Manager
and motivated by various forms of reward
and recognition including City, University     Dr Justin Davis-Smith           Cass Business School, Social Pathway Leader
of London’s own Employability Award.           Dr Martin Rich                  Cass Business School, Course Leader
Increasingly students realise the benefit of   Ben Butler                      City, University of London, Student Development Manager
these experiences and would be interested
in tangible reward.                            Elizabeth Renshaw               Cass Business School, School Engagement Manager
                                               Claire Molloy                   Cass Business School, Programme Co-ordinator

          “ Programmes like this are important because they
            equip students with the skills needed to prepare them
            for the world of business”
           Gabriella Wickes, Corporate Responsibility Adviser, Slaughter & May

    THE PILOT PHASE – SEPTEMBER 2015 TO              mentors would need to have a strong                specification calls for mentoring and
    MAY 2016                                         technical understanding of the current             coaching concepts and practical models
    Once the Programme Manager started               UK curriculum.                                     to be assessed in the wider context of
    work in September 2015, the first months         We also engaged at the most senior level           management learning with reference
    were spent recruiting school partners            in the schools – Headteacher, Haydn Evans          to capstone literature. There is also a
    and developing curriculum content for            CBE and Principal, Tim Clark respectively          requirement for robust assessment of
    the module.                                      – and held practical discussions about             students, which has typically involved
                                                     resourcing. Each school partner needs              examinations and coursework essays. In
    School partners needed to reflect our                                                               addition to this, we are obliged to train our
    underlying principle of supporting young         a lead contact member of staff with
                                                     dedicated time to support the programme            mentors and to ensure that they and their
    people growing up in disadvantaged                                                                  mentees are safe at all times.
    communities. We also considered the              and although offered free to schools this
    practicalities of travel and approached          resource must be attributed to ensure it is        Furthermore, this is an elective choice for
    schools that were in a good position             properly managed. Each school committed            second year students, so it is necessary
    to receive our student mentors. It was           to the programme for the pilot phase               to consider how to present and market
    also sensible to start where we had              initially and, with no cost commitment,            this option in the broader context of their
    connections, while making sure we did            there was no need for a formal contract            learning on the Management and Business
    not complicate existing relationships held       arrangement at this stage.                         Studies BSc programmes.
    by City, University of London through            From a curriculum and assessment                   In the first year of the programme, Spring
    volunteer programmes.                            perspective, it is important for                   Term 2016, students were taught in a
    Sir John Cass’s Foundation & Red Coat            undergraduates to demonstrate a                    series of lectures which combined learning
    CE Secondary School in Stepney and               critical understanding of the concepts             about mentoring and coaching with
    the Skinners’ Academy in Woodbury                of mentoring and coaching. The module              training about how to mentor in schools.
    Downs have high levels of disadvantaged
    pupils, good transport connections to
    Cass Business School and school leaders
    who supported the idea. Working with
                                                            “ Skinners’ Academy, a large, multi-cultural 11-18
    Sir John Cass’s Foundation & Red Coat                     comprehensive school in a disadvantaged community
    CE Secondary School also provided the                     in Hackney, the second most deprived borough in the
    opportunity to connect further with the                   capital, has worked closely with Cass Business School
    Cass family of education institutions.                    on the mentoring programme for the past four years, with
    The Skinners’ Academy is located on the
    Woodbury Green estate, one of London’s                    extremely positive results. Pupils at the Academy have
    largest social housing concentrations.                    benefited from small group tuition, which has increased
    In each case, we asked the school where                   their confidence both socially and in maths lessons. In
    they needed the most help on STEM-                        return, students from the Business School have been able
    related subjects and mathematics was                      to benefit from working with groups of young people,
    identified as a key area for additional
                                                              many of whom struggle socially and academically. From
    one-to-one support in Year 8 at Skinners’
    Academy and in Year 11 at Sir John Cass’s                 the Academy’s point of view, the programme has been
    Foundation & Red Coat CE Secondary                        mutually very beneficial – long may it continue.”
    School. We discussed supporting GCE                       Tim Clark, Principal, Skinners’ Academy
    A level students in Year 12 and 13, but
    decided against this on the basis that

All students working in schools on a one-         Having established a choice for mentors
to-one basis with children (anybody under         between mentoring in one of two schools               Feedback             Observation
18) or vulnerable adults need DBS clearance       and supporting first year BSc Management              (from the            (including a
through the Vetting and Barring Service and       students, the next challenge was to find            mentee and           viva reflective
it is also important to recognise that not all    the right form of academic assessment.           school partner)            discussion)
students will be suitable or willing to mentor    Colleagues at City, University of London
in schools. We therefore developed the            shared guidance on assessment by
University Pathway, which allows students         structured observation instead of an                               10%
to opt to support a group of first year           examination and we already call on Cass
students instead. A first year module running     students to introduce reflective writing to
concurrently provided opportunity for this,       their essays. We also wanted to bring in
as it was an experiential option that             feedback from mentees and school partners                     Assessment                   50%
students often struggled to understand.           to the assessment process.
Student mentors were therefore able to                                                                  40%
                                                  In the pilot year, there was relatively little
support first year counterparts through
                                                  time for communication to students to
a wide range of activities while gaining
                                                  promote the module and we actively sought
experience as mentors.

Strengths                                  Areas for Development
School partners recognised the value       Not enough time spent on either the teaching or                    (combining a literature review
of the programme and committed to a        practical mentoring to make a difference.                          and reflective writing about their
further year.                                                                                                 experience as a mentor)
Enough students were interested in the Most students not really understanding what the
module and gave positive feedback on module involves and how it relates to their studies.
the value of their mentoring.
Reflective essays gave interesting     Hard to engage and train student mentors in a
insights from student mentors showing relatively large group in a conventional teaching
deep understanding of the programme room.
and supporting the evaluation process.
Observation assessments worked well        Some students struggled with the complexity of
and understood by business students.       the assessment process.
School mentees gave very positive          Manual DBS checking through the City system was
feedback and showed signs of               time-consuming and slow. Some students did not
improving attainment in maths.             get clearance in time to mentor in schools.
Safeguarding procedures worked well.       Project management – needed to clarify
                                           challenges and resources required to deliver the
Positive feedback on the quality of the    Timetabling challenges emerged between
teaching.                                  mentors’ and mentees’ availabilities limiting
                                           choice and the matching process.

    pioneers willing to take a risk with an        now able to introduce alternative practical      disadvantaged backgrounds. The school
    untried concept so were delighted that 30      models for mentoring and coaching                has a strong reputation for connecting
    students signed up, with 20 choosing the       together with emerging concepts such as          with local businesses and wanted Cass
    school option while 10 supported groups of     wellbeing and mindfulness. We introduced         mentors for Year 12 students on vocational
    first year students.                           content from guest lecturers from                study programmes – primarily Business
    While feedback from students and schools       business, schools and the charity sector         and Hospitality. This connected with
    was positive overall, we realised that         including our partner school leaders. The        local needs and gave our students the
    mentoring partnerships needed more time        assessment process was enhanced with             chance to work with young people closer
    to be effective and our student mentors        clearer guidance and more support for            to their age and to give them coaching
    would have appreciated more contextual         students on a new form of essay writing          on their progression into university,
    learning and practice before practicing        combining literature review with                 apprenticeships or work.
    their skills.                                  personal reflection.                             At the same time, we met with a newly
                                                   From the schools perspective, we                 established school in Tottenham. Ada
    PROJECT DELIVERY (2016-18)                     continued to work with our pilot schools         – The National College for Digital Skills
    The next phase of the project saw a switch     but changed the mentee cohorts to pupils         focuses on teaching young people through
    to teaching the module across two terms,       in Year 10 and 11 closer in age to their         academic and vocational programmes in
    the introduction of two additional school      student mentors. We also introduced new          the fast-growing digital sector. They have
    partners and the development of a more         school partners to increase capacity and         an innovative approach to teaching and
    sophisticated evaluation framework.            add flexible mentoring options to reduce         are already working with mentors from
                                                   the risk of timetable clashes.                   the business community. This presented
    There was also a shift in the context of the                                                    an opportunity to giving coaching and
    mentoring in consultation with our school      The Central Foundation Boys’ School is
                                                   located close to the Cass Business School        mentoring support to Year 12 and 13 pupils
    partners and in response to emerging                                                            specifically working towards careers in
    research as well as our own reflections on     and has a high percentage of pupils from
    programme delivery.
    In 2016/17, students selected the elective
    for teaching in the autumn term. This is the
    only module at Cass Business School to
                                                         “ At Central Foundation Boys’ School, the mentoring
    take place across two terms of an academic             programme has supported our Year 12 vocational
    year – the 15 academic credits remain the              students over the last 3 years, giving valuable
    same, yet students are not required to                 guidance on their studies and helping them to make
    work as intensively during the spring term
    when the observations take place and the               the right decision about whether to go to university,
    essay is due.                                          take on an apprenticeship or get work experience. I’m
    The curriculum developed significantly                 delighted to see that our students also have the chance
    with more time to work with mentors                    to spend time on the university campus to give them a
    and to explore mentoring and coaching                  feel for life as an undergraduate and better understand
    concepts. This includes defining mentoring
    and coaching in relation to people                     the study environment.”
    skills for business, contextualising the              Jamie Brownhill, Headteacher, Central Foundation Boys’ School
    link to leadership and the evolution of
    management theory. The lectures were

technology and combines support for their        KEY FINDINGS:
studies with completion of university,
apprenticeship and job applications.             Strengths                                     Areas for Development

Both of these partnerships have helped           Increased range of mentoring options on       How to manage the student mentors
establish the distinction between                both student and university pathways.         down time between early December and
mentoring or coaching and tutoring to                                                          February.
provide further insight building on our          More time available to support mentor         Issues with timetabling remain,
work with the founding school partners.          learning and allow for greater support to     particularly for the mentors’ timetable
Year 12 and 13 students are also more            beneficiaries.                                finalised in early February.
flexible with free periods during school         Teaching better reflects emerging             Working with a cohort of 40+ students in
time for mentoring. This cohort are              literature and trends in mentoring and        one group is too large and not possible
embarking on a significant stage in their        coaching.                                     for effective group work even with 2
lives that increasingly involves taking                                                        facilitators.
on debts and will shape their long-term
futures. Most schools have limited               Governance and team structure enhanced        More resource needed to focus on the
resources for careers advice and hearing         to provide support for the project. The       student engagement and support during
from a student with recent experience of         project is on budget.                         their mentoring.
their situation can be highly influential.       Guest speakers and new content are well       The assessment process needs to be
In 2016-18, we pitched the module to             received and engaging for students who        refined to give a more balanced and clear
first year students with the involvement         now relate the module more clearly to their   reflection of mentors’ skills.
of alumni mentors from the previous              employment prospects.
years and through a short film about the         Successful pilot of 1:1 option on the         New challenge of managing university
programme. This has led to a consistent          university pathway.                           team and individual pathways more
take up of 45-47 mentors, which equates to                                                     closely.
20-25% of students on eligible courses.
These relationships have further informed       programme, we were closer to identifying       ■■   A significant increase in the number
our partnerships across all four of the         how our talented resource (high level               of student mentors driven by the
schools we work with where we now have          second year business undergraduates                 introduction of a new, larger BSc
a blended approach that supports learning       from around the world) is most effectively          degree programme at Cass launched in
on STEM subjects from Year 10 and 11,           deployed in schools.                                September 2018.
alongside help with study and career                                                           ■■   Our role in the UN PRME Champion
pathways. Indicative findings suggest           PROGRESS (2018-19)
                                                                                                    Programme as a flagship project and
pupils in schools are more committed to         In June 2018, we carried out a strategic            the ongoing commitment to sharing
working through their maths challenges          review of the team structure to reflect on          knowledge and engaging with other
when they understand the context of this        progress, plan for significant growth and           universities.
learning in later life.                         move towards sustaining our partnership
                                                beyond 2020.                                   ■■   Securing the future funding of the
This evolutionary process has developed                                                             programme by capturing and reporting
through consultation with school partners,      In addition to our learning from ongoing            our long-term impact.
employers and careers specialists in City,      evaluation and review of results, the team
University of London and our wider group        considered:-                                   A revised plan was agreed by Cass
of stakeholders. At this interim stage in the                                                  Business School and Sir John Cass’s

     Foundation in July 2018 to inform the           for small teams of 4-5 mentees taking the      Dropping out is a serious issue for all
     current 2018/19 cohort and prepare the          “Management Lab and Business Skills”           UK universities and connects with wider
     way for significant growth in activity in the   module in their first year. In each case,      issues including mental health challenges
     next academic year and beyond.                  we have refined the matching process           for students as well as being a key metric
     We have adapted our teaching to a               and reviewed the timetabling to ensure         in the Teaching Excellence and Student
     workshop format taught as “Mentoring            university mentors can spend more time         Outcomes Framework (TEF) which governs
     and Coaching for Leadership” in two             with their mentees. As with the schools        UK universities. While exact figures are
     streams with a cap of 30 students in each       element, mentees should spend 8-10             hard to define, the impact of this on a
     group. This change has already yielded          sessions mentoring during the spring term.     student from a disadvantaged background
     impressive results in feedback from
     students giving a score of 4.9 out of 5 for     KEY FINDINGS:
     the teaching experience up from 3.8 in          Strengths                                     Areas for Development
     the pilot year. We have retained the core
                                                     The workshop teaching format has proved       Better engagement of first year students
     approach to the mentoring and coaching
                                                     popular with students and tutors.             moving into the second year through more
     models, but give more time to practical
                                                                                                   effective marketing of the module.
     exercises that are better suited to small
     group learning. The aim is to increase the      School partnerships are more pro-actively Further amendments to how timetabling
     skill levels of our mentors while retaining     managed using our knowledge of what has is managed across two terms to allow
     the emphasis on theory and critical             worked in previous years.                 students to work more comfortably across
     reflection. In 2019, we will move to three                                                two-terms.
     streams to accommodate an increasing            Matching of mentors to mentees is more      More focus on capturing the long-term
     number of mentors. Framing the module           sophisticated with insight from both sides. impact of the programme.
     in a leadership context aims to improve
                                                     The university individual pathway has         Challenge of finding the individual
     students’ recognition of value to
                                                     grown to involve more students and has        mentees most in need of support.
     business and increase the appeal of the
                                                     supported 1st years embarking on the new
     elective option.
                                                     degree programme.
     We have simplified the assessment
                                                     Tracking of student and mentee progress     Ongoing difficulty of managing the gap
     method to 50% reflective essay and 50%
                                                     is more sophisticated with the use of focus over Christmas for mentors and mentees.
     observation. This helps give clarity to
                                                     groups involving mentors and mentees.
     students and reduces the risk of overly
     subjective and inconsistent feedback from       Some school partnership mentoring now         Day-to-day communications with students
     our school partners. Additional formative       hosted on the university campus giving        are difficult as email is less frequently used
     or practice assessment of each element          mentees first-hand experience of life as an   and there is limited access to mobile phone
     has further enhanced students’ awareness        undergraduate student.                        and app data.
     of what is required from them.                  Observation assessment by video piloted       Resource planning – growing the
     Building on a small, yet successful pilot       to record university pathway mentoring        programme to scale while managing costs.
     in 2017/18, the university pathway now          and allow scaleable remote assessment.
     has an increasing social purpose through        Greater simplicity in the assessment          Securing investment in the project beyond
     individual mentoring support for first          methodology supported by clearer              the current term.
     year students at risk of dropping out of        explanations and formative assessment.
     university. This is in addition to support

is often greater and potentially life changing.     PROJECTIONS FOR 2019-2021
We are working with the student counselling         Moving beyond 2019, the programme is set
teams at City, University of London to improve      to expand significantly with a much larger
support for this option on the programme. It is     cohort on the new management degree. We
difficult to identify these students and clearly,   are preparing for this during the current year
there is a greater emphasis on safeguarding,        with our schools and teaching plans.
yet helping young adults to assimilate and get
                                                    All four of our school partners have the
the best out of their time at university is an
                                                    capacity to host more students and there are
additional unintended outcome that we are
                                                    additional university mentees on the group
committed to growing.
                                                    pathway in particular. We are also confident
This example highlights how additional              that the higher profile of the module will help
benefits have accrued from the programme            to encourage more students to sign up. In
that we did not foresee. Secured funding            2019/20, the module will be taught in three
over time and support from our internal and         streams to accommodate the additional
external stakeholders has allowed us to             capacity with at least one new tutor with
develop these elements in the programme             extensive mentoring experience involved.
while remaining consistent with our core
                                                    Beyond next year, there will be additional
                                                    numbers of student mentors as the module
In March 2019, the programme is firmly              becomes compulsory for some students and
established and delivered through six               extends to other undergraduate programmes
pathways in four schools as well as both            at Cass Business School. At this stage, it
group and individual university options             is likely that we will introduce new school
(Appendix 2, Pathway Graphic). Our teaching         partners and will need to increase the
methodology has been refined, is rated              capacity of our team.
extremely highly by students and we are in
                                                    We are also focusing on sharing our
a position to significantly grow the volume
                                                    knowledge and giving practical advice
of activity to meet a much larger cohort of
                                                    to other institutions looking to replicate
students. Our challenge is now to report on
                                                    the programme. This toolkit development
this and share our knowledge with others.
                                                    is crucial to our overall purpose and the
                                                    principles underpinning the project.
                                                    We have made most progress in collaboration
                                                    with Nottingham Business School at
                                                    Nottingham Trent University by sharing
                                                    teaching resources for mentoring and
                                                    coaching as well as evaluation methods and
                                                    sharing insights in the academic community
                                                    through conference presentations and
                                                    journal articles.

                            What we teach

                            This is what we teach. The guiding               LIST OF WORKSHOP TITLES:
                            principle is that there is no one                Week   Title
                            way to mentor or coach and we
                                                                               1    Introduction
                            are fundamentally learning and
                                                                               2    Building Rapport and Business
                            practicing people skills for business.
                            These skills are the basis for effective
                                                                               3    Asking Open Questions and Active
                            mentoring and coaching and applied
                            through numerous frameworks and
                                                                               4    Mentoring and Coaching in
                            methodologies. We explore this in the
                            context of how management theory
                                                                               5    Mentoring and Coaching for Leaders
                            has evolved and include emerging
                            theories relating to mindfulness,                  6    Mentoring and Coaching in
                            wellbeing and the rapid growth of the
                            coaching industry.                                 7    The Theoretical Context
                                                                               8    Inductions and Planning
                            We also talk in detail about definitions of
                                                                               9    Mentoring and Coaching for
                            what a mentor or coach is and how that will
                            differ from the role of a friend, a tutor or a
                            line manager. Our skills framework is listed      10    Practice Sessions
                            below and explored in the next section on         11    Reflection, Recap and Planning

                                 THE SKILLS WE TEACH
                                 ■■   Active listening
                                 ■■   Asking open questions
                                 ■■   Giving praise and recognition
                                 ■■   Building rapport and trust
                                 ■■   Planning effectively
                                 ■■   Challenging constructively
                                 ■■   Giving good feedback
                                 ■■   Empowering others
                                 ■■   Finding opportunities to develop

OUR PEDAGOGY:                                     and can give students a “live sample” of what
The workshop format and innovative struc-         they offer.
ture of the module across two terms with a        Finally, we have to make sure students fully
practical element influences how as well as       understand a different form of assessment,
what we teach. Each workshop includes some        seemingly subjective. We do this through
form of group activity to develop and practise    instruction and examples in the workshops,
skills with critical elements such as Building    guest input from alumni students as well
Rapport and Active Listening repeated over        as formative or practice assessment with
several lectures. Students will have encoun-      feedback on both the essay and observation
tered these skills in their first year, but now   elements.
have an opportunity to apply and embed them
in a small group setting. There is also discus-   Most importantly, we have an absolute
sion and debate of important themes and use       requirement to make sure that all mentors
of video footage as well as real time observa-    and mentees are safe. Research into other
tion. Working with relatively small groups, our   mentoring programmes, consultations with
lecturers are also facilitators giving feedback   safeguarding and mental health experts and
throughout and encouraging individuals to         our experience demonstrates that reading
work on specific areas for development. The       out a list of rules from a handout or scaring
key is to contextualise skills rather than just   students with worst-case scenarios is not
present lists (Pegg et al, 2012).                 effective. We brainstorm as a group and talk
                                                  through realistic scenarios with a focus on
It is important to teach students, often from     the most likely challenges and what prac-
outside the UK, about the education system        tical steps a mentor can take to resolve the
– schools and universities - in the context of    situation. For example, we discuss what to do
mentoring and to set them up for the practi-      when a mentee looks to befriend the mentor,
cal element of the programme in the spring        shows signs of anxiety or is critical of their
term. Guests from the sector including school     teachers. This content is introduced during
and university leaders bring this to life and     the workshops, in school inductions and in
add authenticity. Professional mentors and        instructions when mentoring gets underway.
coaches have also added their perspectives

                         Sept      Oct     Nov      Dec      Jan      Feb      Mar      Apr
 Practicing Skills
 Theoretical Insight
 Educational Context

     Measuring Our Impact

     This is a long-term programme                 explicit through, and visually reflected in,   also important in this context, provided
     with ambitious aims to deliver                the (re)construction of a theory of change     they are representative and we also need
                                                   (see opposite, Anderson, 2005). A theory       to show learning from when activities do
     lasting benefits to disadvantaged             of change outlines the overall aim and the     not go well.
     schoolchildren, university students           intermediate targets in generating long,       There is also an important practical
     and universities themselves. This             medium and short-term social change.           consideration as the evaluation has to
     is a complex challenge when it                To do so, it highlights the actions taken      be realistic and manageable within our
     comes to reporting, yet we are able           that we presume to be eventually leading       resources. The key to achieving this is
                                                   to the long-term goal (interventions). In
     to call on decades of experience in                                                          building the measurement process into the
                                                   order to ensure the success of these steps     design of the programme from including
     this field from esteemed academic             of intervention, we have examined the
     researchers and the expert                                                                   tracking questions in the teaching to
                                                   underlying assumptions and tweaked             the assessment method. Our students’
     practitioners in our Steering Group.          the interventions accordingly. Finally, we     reflective essays are a hugely important
                                                   have created measures for evaluating the       resource – as illustrated in the quotes
     Social value, whether that is a type of       achievement at each step of the way. We
     value (not public, not economic) or value                                                    and word cloud graphic (page 18). We
                                                   made use of a range of “hard” and “soft”       have introduced focus groups which are
     produced by an organization in a particular   measures divided into three categories
     social location (not government, not                                                         integrated into the mentoring programme
                                                   according to where the source data             as a final session to improve the feedback
     business), is often remarkably hard to        come from: school pupils and teachers
     measure as it can be very complex and                                                        from mentees.
                                                   (mentees), university students (mentors),
     ambiguous (Barman, 2016). Our evaluation      and project team and university.
     framework reflects the difficulty business
     schools currently face in having to           This top-level model is illustrated in the
     negotiate between having to act in a more     attached diagram and starts with the
     socially responsible manner (Ghoshal,         headline goals of increasing social mobility
     2005) and driving the financialization        and producing better managers. While it
     of the university (Beverungen, Dunne          is important to aspire to these ambitions,
     & Hoedemaekers, 2009). Since the              we are aware that our programme cannot
     introduction of New Public Management         deliver this on its own and that many
     (Thomas & Davies, 2005), the associated       other factors will influence the long term
     development of the audit society (Power,      outcomes for young people and students
     1997), and the rise of “caring capitalism”    who take part in the programme.
     (Barman, 2016), in which the care work        As we designed this process and looked
     required to deal with social inequities       in detail at how we can capture true
     is pushed onto non-governmental               impact over time, it became clear that
     organizations and private businesses,         a blend of quantitative and qualitative
     evaluation (and especially measurement)       information would be required to evaluate
     has become more important as a means of       our concept. It is relatively simple to
     demonstrating impact.                         count how many mentors and mentees
     The evaluation framework we have created      are involved over how many hours, yet we
     incorporates the project team’s social,       also want to recognise the quality of this
     political and moral values, which in the      intervention and try to understand what
     evaluation literature are most often made     difference this makes. Case studies are


                                                                                                                                     Better rounded, more

                                                                    Increased social mobility                                         socially responsible
                                                                        of pupils in the UK                                                managers
                                                                                                                                                      E5, E6
                                    Policy change – STEM
                                                                                                                     Increased employability
Intermediate results

                                   recognized as a vehicle
                                      for social mobility                                                               of pupils in the UK

                                                                                                                                       Positive effects on
                                                                       Adoption by other                                            students’ employability
                                                                       business schools                                                     and TEF
                                                                                    E13, E14                                                      E4, E6, E14
                                                                             5 6                                                                        A
Early results

                       Pupils get better              Pupils admitted to               Change in learning, STEM         Students acquire
                           grades                     better universities                skills and confidence             soft skills
                                           E7                               E7                        E2, E3, E6                   E2, E3, E6

                                                                E                                   D
                                                                                                                                      First-year students’
                                                                                                                                      easier assimilation,
                                                                                                                                        higher retention
                                                                                 B C                                                                   C
                                                                      Students coach and
                                                                      mentor pupils during                            Students coach and
                                                                          school time                               mentor first-year students
                                                                                         E14                                              E14
                                                                             4                                                          4
                                                  3                                                                           2

                                   Schools commit to the                                                             Students attend course,
                                       programme                                                                       acquire knowledge
                                                       E8                                                                              E1, E2
                                                                                                                       Students opt in to
                                   Schools hear about the                                                            Mentoring and Coaching
                                        programme                                                                           module

   Interventions                                               C Mentoring by near peers leads to better           E6 Tracker interviews
   1 Discuss expectations and finalize                           outcomes.                                         E7 Academic progress
       details                                                 D Pupils can learn STEM skills.                     E8 Number of schools, number of pupils
   2 Students are evaluated                                    E Structural constraints related to social              supported and hours of support given
   3 Schools select pupils                                       background can be overcome.                       E9 Feedback from teachers and/or
   4 Students and pupils are matched                           F STEM skills have increased value in a                 supervisors
   5 Evaluate results                                            knowledge economy.                                E10 Assessment reports from mentees
   6 Write reports and academic                                G Soft skills are required for social               E11 Initial and leaving psychometric
       publications, present at conferences                      responsibility.                                       tests and interviews measuring
   7 Write policy proposals                                    Evaluation                                              communication skills, confidence and
   Assumptions                                                 E1 Student’s module grade                               aspirations
   A Volunteering is recognized by potential                   E2 Informal feedback during course                  E12 Participant numbers
      employers as a differentiator.                           E3 Reflective essays                                E13 Links to and feedback from other HE
   B Mentoring built into the curricular                       E4 Employment statistics of cohort                      institutions and knowledge sharing
      activities of pupils leads to better                     E5 Number of students who are actively                  (e.g. PRME), academic papers
      outcomes.                                                   involved in volunteering                         E14 Project manager reflections
                                                                                                                   (Based on Anderson, 2005)

                            What have we
                            achieved so far?
                            Figure 1 shows in basic numbers the level                                         ■■    66 student mentors have supported 272
                            of activity on the programme to date and                                                fellow students on the university pathway.
                            projections for the next three academic years.                                    ■■    The breakdown between the school and
                            To date:                                                                                university pathway is consistent with 56%
                                                                                                                    of students opting to volunteer in schools
                            ■■                  88 student mentors have worked with 143
                                                                                                                    and 42% in universities. The remaining
                                                pupils from disadvantaged backgrounds in
                                                                                                                    students follow a research pathway
                                                4 schools.
                                                                                                                    (see below).

                            Figure 1: PAST AND PROJECTED NUMBERS

                                                             140                                                                                       6
                             Number of mentors and mentees

                                                             120                                                                                       5

                                                                                                                                                           Number of schools
                                                                                                                                  9                    3
                                                             40                                                                                        2

                                                             20                                                                                        1

                                                                                                   4                                                   0
                                                                   2016 pilot   2016-2017   2017-2018   2018-2019    2019-2020 2020-2021 2021-2022
                                                                                         Mentors          Mentees            Schools

                OUR CURRENT GROUP                                     of Business Management degrees; first       5.2 PROJECTED GROWTH
                2018/19 marks a significant advance in the            as mentees, then as mentors. Our current    The key reason for much higher numbers
                story of the programme as we have moved               group of mentors is shown in the graphic    in future years is a larger number of
                from testing and developing ideas, towards            below (Figure 2). We also capture the       undergraduates taking this elective
                growth. Partnerships have been developed              gender and socio-economic backgrounds       option. We know from previous cohorts
                and secured with schools, our teaching                of participants in the programme but are    that 20-25% of students chose this
                content and delivery has transformed, and             not able to share the information in this   elective option. The introduction of new
                we are now working with a new group of                report at this stage:                       Business Management degrees at Cass in
                university students studying a new cluster                                                        September 2018 with a significantly higher
                                                                                                                  number of students on roll – 390 from 66
                Figure 2: 2018/19 BREAKDOWN BY PATHWAY FOR SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY                                  countries currently with the possibility
                                                                                                                  of further increases. We also anticipate a
                                                                               Sir John Cass’s Foundation &       slight increase in the take up rate as the
                                   Uni – individual                            Red Coat CE Secondary School
                                                                                                                  module becomes better known and more
                                                                        7                                         first year students take part as mentees.
                                                       9                                                          Furthermore, the module is likely to be a
                                                                                                                  compulsory element for students who
                                                                                                                  take the Social Business degree currently
                                                                                                                  being planned with a view to launch from
                                                                                                                  2020 onwards.
                                                                                   9      Skinners’ Academy
                                                                                                                  We do not see the ratio of school
                                               9                                                                  versus university mentoring changing
                               Uni – group                                                                        significantly, as the programme develops.
                                                                                                                  The school pathway option is sold strongly
                                                                                                                  to the students during the workshops,
                                                            4          8                                          yet students who are unwilling to go
                                                                                                                  into schools are always able to mentor
                                 Ada – National College                    Central Foundation Boys' School        in the university. Furthermore, we
                                       for Digital Skills                                                         have developed a third option – the
                                                                                                                  research pathway – for students where
© 2016 Roffey Park Institute                                                                                      an appropriate mentoring match is not
                                                                                                                  possible or breaks down due to unforeseen
                                                                                                                  circumstances. This involves students
                                                                                                                  taking on an activity relating to the
                                                                                                                  programme research such as organising
                                                                                                                  a focus group reviewing the progress of
                                                                                                                  mentoring partnerships.
                                                                                                                  In both schools and universities, we
                                                                                                                  are increasing the number of one to one
                                                                                                                  matches so the number of mentees has
                                                                                                                  actually reduced on the university pathway
                                                                                                                  in particular. However, the indications

     are that this form of mentoring is more
     beneficial to both mentees and mentors so
     we believe this will be a better approach in
     the long term.
     Both our schools and the University
     currently have the capacity to
     accommodate the additional volume of
     mentors, although we do plan to engage
     at least one additional school as both
     contingency and in anticipation of
     further growth.

     Our students’ reflective essays
     have provided a wealth of evidence
     demonstrating the value of the
     programme. They are very different to
     conventional evaluation forms adopted
     by most mentoring programmes as they
     require students to think deeply about
     the value of the experience. We also             their learning and provide a greater level   Many more quotes follow a similar pattern
     encourage a critical approach to enhance         of insight.                                  as mentors are learning about themselves
                                                                                                   in the process of supporting someone
                                                                                                   else. It is often the first time that students
                                                                                                   have engaged in formal self-reflection
                                                                                                   and related to both their own study and
          “ I built a multi-dimensional sense of self-awareness. I discovered my
                                                                                                   their future prospects. This indicates a
            underlying values and what really works for me when it comes to enabling
                                                                                                   significant development in their learning
            creativity. I think I learnt a lot about seeing the best in people and that gave
                                                                                                   which may go on to influence their own
            me a fresh perspective...”
                                                                                                   pathway choices. We even have one
          “ Having reflected on how I developed my methods, I started discovering the              alumni from the programme who has set
            concept of reflexivity. I realised that the real methodology came from my              up his own start-up company to facilitate
            own sense of empathy and how I see myself in her.”                                     mentoring online “Mentorite” after
          “ This personal development is one of the highlights of my experience, as I              studying the module.
            feel that in the workplace working with different personalities, it will really        To illustrate this further, the word cloud
            help me stay professional and become less emotionally reactive and make                illustration above is made up from 10 of
            rash decisions.”                                                                       the essays written by our 2017/18 cohort
          “ Despite developing skills such as listening and communication skills, the              of students. This summarises the direction
            greatest development I have felt was the emotional maturity and to go into             of their thinking and an interesting use of
            anything as a learner as opposed to a teacher.”                                        emotive language such as “help, feel, give
                                                                                                   and understand” that you do not often see
                                                                                                   in a business student’s essay.

As an elective module, we have to “pitch” to     We are clearer about asking students why
our students and understand their motivation     they chose the module, yet it is important
for choosing this option. In an ideal world,     to be inclusive and recognise that most will
they would all be really passionate about        not start out with a clear understanding of
mentoring and coaching and highly aware of       why they are there. The curriculum has been
the value of developing their communication      designed to reflect this and to explore how
skills.                                          it is defined as well as placing Mentoring
The reality is that 19 year old students         and Coaching in the context of management
moving from the first to second year of their    literature.
degree think:                                    The title of the module has evolved from
                                                 “Mentoring and Coaching” to “Mentoring
                                                 and Coaching for Leadership” to better frame
                                                 the module in the context of the management
      “ this seems like                          study programme. We have also delivered the
        something a bit different                project in the wider context of the transition
        from finance”                            at Cass from two parallel degree programmes
                                                 – Business Studies and Management – to an
      “ this will be more fun and                integrated cluster of Business Management
        doesn’t have an exam”                    degrees. It sets out to provide students with
                                                 skills they will need in a rapidly changing
      “ I’d like to become more                  and uncertain world and to build on research
        confident and think this                 and scholarship that exists within Cass
        will help me”                            Business School.

      “ I want to work in HR and
        thought this would help”
                                                       KEY LEARNING:
                                                       The underlying point here relates to the students’ relative lack of under-
                                                       standing of the value of the module. It needs to be “sold” in the first year
                                                       and during the early part of the lecture programme.

                                                       NEXT STEPS:
                                                       Communication about the module will be sold in more effectively to first
                                                       year students in their professional skills module. Greater awareness of the
                                                       programme and more time spent with mentors during their first year will
                                                       raise awareness of the option in their second year of study.
                                                       Beyond this, Mentoring and Coaching for Leadership will be a mandatory
                                                       specialist module for students taking the proposed new Social Business
                                                       pathway, while remaining an elective option for other undergraduate
                                                       students on Business Management programmes.
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