INTER-REGIONAL PUBLIC TRANSPORT INQUIRY

 
INTER-REGIONAL PUBLIC TRANSPORT INQUIRY
18 May 2012

The Hon Andrew Gee
Chairman
State and Regional Development Committee
Parliament House
Macquarie St
Sydney NSW 2000

Dear Chair,

                    INTER-REGIONAL PUBLIC TRANSPORT INQUIRY
Infrastructure Partnerships Australia (IPA) would like to thank the Legislative Assembly State and
Regional development Committee for the opportunity to comment on the important area of inter-
regional public transport in New South Wales.

A reliable and efficient regional transport network is essential for the economic and social viability of
New South Wales’ rural communities. In the context of a geographically dispersed population,
transport is critical for connecting rural communities; regional businesses rely on transport to gain
access to essential goods and services and individuals require transport connections to access
education and critical health services.

In the context of an increasingly constrained budget position and a requirement to enhance both the
quality and reliability of regional and interurban rail services, it is timely to consider how substantial
reforms might achieve these aims at better value for money to taxpayers and commuters.

IPA notes with interest the reforms recently announced by the NSW Government under the ‘Fixing
the Trains’ initiative. The restructuring of RailCorp to form two new entities – NSW Trains and Sydney
Trains – achieves a number of welcome structural reforms to improve the value and quality of
regional and inter-regional rail services. By structurally separating service provision and maintenance
from infrastructure ownership, which remains a separate government entity, NSW Trains and Sydney
Trains will be free to concentrate on service provision and customer services. Equally, by separating
NSW Trains and Sydney Trains into distinct entities, the two organisations will be able to bring a
renewed and dedicated focus to the improvement of urban and regional services.

The State and regional Development Committee’s inquiry into inter-regional public transport is an
important opportunity to understand the challenges facing the New South Wales regional rail
network and to establish what reforms are needed to provide regional communities with a safe,
reliable and efficient public transport network.

                                                                                                        1
INTER-REGIONAL PUBLIC TRANSPORT INQUIRY
1. ABOUT INFRASTRUCTURE PARTNERSHIPS AUSTRALIA

IPA is the nation’s peak infrastructure body. Our mission is to advocate the best solutions to
Australia’s infrastructure challenges, equipping the nation with the assets and services we need to
secure enduring and strong economic growth and importantly, to meet national social objectives.

Our Membership is comprised of the most senior industry leaders across the spectrum of the
infrastructure sector, including financiers, constructors, operators and advisors. Importantly, a
significant portion of our Membership is comprised of public sector agencies.

IPA draws together the public and private sectors in a genuine partnership to debate the policies and
priority projects that will build Australia for the challenges ahead.

2. THE NEED TO IMPROVE COUNTRYLINK SERVICES

CountryLink services have experienced a sustained decline in patronage over the past 15 years;
annual patronage levels have dropped from 2.5 million in 1996-97 to 1.8 million in 20101. Figure 1
indicates that CountryLink has experienced a decade of patronage decline before a recent upward
movement beginning in 2007-2008.

                             Figure 1: CountryLink Annual Patronage (1994-2010)

                                        Source: RailCorp Annual Reports

1
    Infrastructure Partnerships Australia 2012, Franchising Passenger Rail Services in NSW: Options for Reform
                                                                                                                 2
INTER-REGIONAL PUBLIC TRANSPORT INQUIRY
CountryLink’s decline in patronage levels can be linked to the declining reliability and relatively slow
speed of the service provided. CountryLink aims to have 78 per cent of services arrive at their
destinations within 10 minutes of the scheduled time; this on-time running target has not been
reached since the 1st of August 20112. Figure 2 demonstrates that in the first three months of 2012
CountryLink have consistently performed 18 per cent below the on-time running target of 78 per
cent. That means a regional rail customer using CountryLink in the first three months of this year had
only a six out of 10 chance of reaching their destination within 10 minutes of their scheduled arrival.

                                    Figure 2: On-time Running for 2012

                                             Source: CountryLink

CountryLink journey times are also uncompetitive when compared with road based transport and air
services. For example the CountryLink service from Sydney to Brisbane takes approximately 14.5
hours. In comparison the same journey takes approximately 11 hours by car and 90 minutes with a
domestic airline.

There are significant cost subsidies associated with the provision of CountryLink services, however
services currently offered by CountryLink are unable to compete with the speed, reliability and
comfort provided by personal vehicle or plane trips. It is clear reform is needed to ensure New South
Wales taxpayers receive value for their money and regional travellers receive a reliable and efficient
transport service.

3. COMPETITION BASED REFORMS

IPA acknowledges the decision of the Committee not to consider the privatisation of existing
government owned transport assets. However, in the context of the Inquiry’s first term of reference -
how CountryLink services can be improved - IPA believes that the committee must explore how
competition based reforms, not privatisation, could be used to improve the quality and efficiency of
regional transport service delivery in New South Wales. The introduction of competitive tension has
consistently been shown to improve the efficiency and accountability of service delivery. Yet, despite
consistent empirical evidence of the advantages of contestability, relatively few public services in
NSW have been subject to competitive reforms.

Franchising of the CountryLink network would enable the NSW Government to introduce ‘off track’
competition, which would create incentives for the rail operator to reduce costs and improve the

2
  CountryLink 2012, On-time running statistics, available at: http://www.countrylink.info/service_status/on-
time_running/2011 [18 May 2012]
                                                                                                               3
INTER-REGIONAL PUBLIC TRANSPORT INQUIRY
quality of service. Franchising should not be confused with privatisation. Under a franchised model,
operational delivery of train services would be handed over to a private sector franchisee for a time-
limited concession period after a competitive tendering process – meaning government has the
opportunity to bid-up service levels whilst bidding down the cost of subsidy by the taxpayer.

The New South Wales Government would retain ownership of trains, stations and rail infrastructure
– and control of routes, timetables and pricing. These controls would enable the Government to
safeguard against a reduction in the number of services provided to regional New South Wales, as
government, under the franchisee’s operating contract, would be able to mandate the routes and
timetables offered.

Under the existing CountryLink model, (where only 56.3% of train reached their on-time running
target in March of this year), customers have no recourse when the train runs late or even fails to
arrive. Under a correctly structured franchise model, operators can be incentivised to continually
improve services and value for money, but crucially, they would also face sanctions for poor
performance.

Continual improvement conditions can be added at the end of a contracted concession, meaning that
Government over time is able to monitor and regulate the quality of the service that is provided by
the private sector. Should a franchise fail to meet strict performance criteria during a contract,
government would be able to exercise mechanisms to assume control of the franchise and re-tender
the service.

Franchising also offer opportunities to upgrade and refresh the tired rolling stock currently servicing
the CountryLink network. By bundling rolling stock replacement with franchise contracts in
Melbourne and the United Kingdom, governments in those jurisdictions were able to benefit from
private sector procurement innovation – providing rail users with new and upgraded trains and
carriages.

IPA recently released a major report into reform options of rail services in New South Wales.
‘Franchising Passenger Rail Services in New South Wales: Options for Reform’, undertaken in
partnership with Aegis Consulting, identified clear opportunities to significantly improve the service
level and value for money of rail services in New South Wales through the introduction of
competitive reforms. The report looked to international experience of rail reform processes, finding
the CountryLink network “bears a range of similarities to interurban networks in Europe, North
America and Asia which have been subject to successful franchising for many years.”

The paper ultimately recommended that the NSW Government swiftly “commence steps toward an
immediate franchising project for operation and maintenance of the CountryLink network.”

The paper also found that where franchised rail services reached the end of their contracted
concession, far from taking services back into public sector delivery, government’s sought to broaden
and deepen franchising – recognising the effectiveness of the models deployed in increasing service
quality for customers and value for money for taxpayers.

A copy of IPA’s ‘Franchising Passenger Rail Services in New South Wales: Options for Reform’ report is
attached as a annexure to this submission for the Committee’s convenience – the report is also
available from www.infrastructure.org.au

                                                                                                     4
INTER-REGIONAL PUBLIC TRANSPORT INQUIRY
Should you require further information, I invite you to contact our office on (02) 9240 2050 anytime.

Yours sincerely,

BRENDAN LYON
CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER

                                                                                                    5
INTER-REGIONAL PUBLIC TRANSPORT INQUIRY
FRANCHISING PASSENGER
RAIL SERVICES IN NSW:
Options for Reform

                     	
  
INTER-REGIONAL PUBLIC TRANSPORT INQUIRY
Copyright © Aegis Consulting Australia and Infrastructure Partnerships Australia

Disclaimer

Infrastructure Partnerships Australia and Aegis Consulting Australia provide no warranties and make no representations
in relation to the information provided in this paper. They accept no liability for reliance on the information in this paper
by any person or organisation.

Any person or organisation using the information in this paper does so at its own risk and agrees to indemnify
Infrastructure Partnerships Australia and Aegis Consulting Australia for any loss or damage arising from such use.

Infrastructure Partnerships Australia
8th Floor
8-10 Loftus Street
Sydney NSW 2000
T 02 9240 2050
F 02 9240 2055
W www.infrastructure.org.au

Aegis Consulting Australia Pty Ltd
74/104 Miller Street
Pyrmont NSW 2009
T 02 9660 1706
F 02 9660 1759
W www.aegisconsulting.com.au

For more
information about
this report contact:
Brendan Lyon
Chief Executive Officer
Infrastructure Partnerships Australia
T 02 9240 2050
E brendan.lyon@infrastructure.org.au

Adrian Dwyer
National Manager, Policy
Infrastructure Partnerships Australia
T 02 9240 2056
E adrian.dwyer@infrastructure.org.au

Vishal Beri
Managing Director
Aegis Consulting Australia
T 02 9660 1706
E vberi@aegisconsulting.com.au

Cover: © Courtesy of RailCorp
INTER-REGIONAL PUBLIC TRANSPORT INQUIRY
© Courtesy of RailCorp. Photographer: Kaine Treleaven
INTER-REGIONAL PUBLIC TRANSPORT INQUIRY
Contents

        INTRODUCTION                                                                          6

        EXECUTIVE SUMMARY                                                                     7

        RECOMMENDATIONS                                                                      11

1       PREVIOUS NSW RAIL REFORM                                                             14

1.1     1995 National Competition Policy Reform                                              15

1.1.1   Background                                                                           15

1.1.2   Application of NCP to NSW Rail Sector                                                15

1.2     2000-2001 Response to Glenbrook Rail Accident and the 2003 Waterfall Rail Accident   16

1.2.1   Appointment of Coordinator General of Rail                                           16

1.2.2   Policy Responses by Government                                                       17

1.2.3   Strategic Plan for Rail                                                              17

1.3     2004 Creation of Railcorp and Clearways Programme                                    18

1.4     2008 Review of Capital and Clearways Programmes                                      18

1.5     2009 Re-Constitution of RailCorp                                                     19

2       OPERATION OF PASSENGER RAIL IN NSW                                                   20

2.1     Sydney’s Suburban Rail System                                                        21

2.1.1   CityRail Services by Sector and Line                                                 24

2.1.2   CityRail Rolling Stock                                                               24

2.2     Patronage Demand for CityRail and CountryLink Services                               26

2.2.1   Current Operating Capacity on CityRail Network                                       28

2.2.2   Patronage Growth Forecasts in Suburban Sectors                                       32

2.3     Operational Performance                                                              33

2.4     Financial Performance                                                                36

2.4.1   RailCorp Staff Resources                                                             38

2.5     Constraints on Service Delivery                                                      38

                                                         4
INTER-REGIONAL PUBLIC TRANSPORT INQUIRY
3       MODELS TO PROMOTE RAIL SERVICE COMPETITION                           40

3.1     On Track Competition                                                 41

3.1.1   Open Market or Open Access Model (On Track Competition)              41

3.2     Off Track Competition                                                41

3.2.1   Network Franchise Model                                              42

3.2.2   Sector Franchise Model                                               42

3.3     Application of Models Internationally                                44

4       CASE STUDIES IN RAIL SERVICE COMPETITION                             48

4.1     United Kingdom Experience with Open Access and Tendered Franchises   49

4.1.1   History                                                              49

4.1.2   Overview of Open Access and Franchising Take Up                      51

4.1.3   Regulatory Structure                                                 52

4.1.4   Franchising Benefits, Costs and Lessons                              54

4.2     Swedish Experience with Tendered and Network Concessions             57

4.2.1   History                                                              57

4.2.2   Franchising Benefits, Costs and Lessons                              60

4.3     Victorian Experience with Rail and Tram Franchising                  61

4.3.1   History                                                              61

4.3.2   Patronage Growth                                                     65

4.3.3   Franchising Benefits, Costs and Lessons                              66

5       COULD FRANCHISING WORK IN NSW?                                       68

5.1     Is Franchising an Answer to Policy Problems?                         69

5.1.1   The Public Versus Private Debate                                     69

5.2     How (and why) would Franchising be Applied in NSW?                   70

5.3     What are the Best Ways for Government to Consider Franchising?       72

                                                       5
INTRODUCTION

About the authors                                              Aegis Consulting Australia

Infrastructure Partnerships Australia                          Aegis Consulting is an independent advisor to
                                                               government, corporate and non-government
Infrastructure Partnerships Australia (IPA) is                 organisations on:
the nation’s peak infrastructure organisation.
                                                               •   Public Policy Evaluation & Design
Our membership comprises Australia’s most senior
business leaders and public sector executives from             •   Cost Benefit, Economic & Social
across the infrastructure sector. IPA is the only body             Impact Assessments
that brings together the public and private sectors in
a spirit of partnership, to build Australia together.          •   Strategy

Infrastructure is the lifeblood of the national economy.       •   Government Relations
It is the key to how Australia does business, how we
compete in the global economy and how we sustain               •   Stakeholder & Indigenous Relations
the quality of life of a growing population.
                                                               Aegis specialises in preparing business cases and
IPA’s mission is to develop and articulate the best            options to shape government policy, regulation and
public policy solutions needed to deliver the assets           funding. Our consultants are subject matter experts on
and services that will secure Australia’s productivity         a range of policy areas including rail and road transport,
and prosperity. IPA is committed to ensure that                ports and freight, network and social infrastructure,
governments retain all procurement options for the             competition and regulation, energy and utilities, health,
delivery of infrastructure. We believe that procurement        environment and conservation, sustainability, tourism,
models must be selected case by case, with a guiding           welfare management, community services and
principle of sustainably delivering better value,              indigenous affairs.
better quality infrastructure.
                                                               Aegis was established in 2002 and has a team
                                                               of consultants in Brisbane, Cairns, Canberra,
                                                               London, Perth and Sydney.

                                                               Vishal Beri, Managing Director of Aegis
                                                               Consulting Australia, who has authored this report
                                                               with Infrastructure Partnerships Australia, has been
                                                               involved in competition reforms since 1996 as an
                                                               adviser within government and as a consultant.

                                                           6
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Passenger rail is the heavy lifter of the New South                                                            The low (and declining) productivity of New South
Wales transport network.                                                                                       Wales railways mean that every man, woman and child
                                                                                                               in New South Wales contributed $345 in taxation to
Under current arrangements, passenger rail services                                                            the operation of passenger rail services in 2009/10
in New South Wales are delivered by RailCorp, a                                                                and services are delivered at about twice the cost
vertically integrated public sector monopoly provider of                                                       per passenger as in Victoria (see Figure 1).
urban, interurban and regional passenger rail services.
Every day, passenger rail in NSW carries over 830,000                                                          The falling productivity of the New South Wales
passenger journeys across 2,110 kilometres of track;                                                           passenger rail system can be explained largely by low
on 1,685 individual train carriages.                                                                           efficiency and changes in staffing levels and types.
                                                                                                               Between 2005/06 and 2009/10 overall headcount
In the past several years, large taxpayer investments                                                          at RailCorp, including headquarters and ‘corporate’
and good network management have seen substantial                                                              staff, grew by over 47 per cent. Over the same period,
improvements in the operational performance of the                                                             patronage grew by just 11 per cent; and the number of
passenger rail network. However, the quality of rail                                                           front-line station staff actually declined by 22 per cent.
services – and the cost at which those services are
delivered – continues to point to a significant case for reform.                                               In the context of an increasingly challenging budget
                                                                                                               and the requirement to substantially increase capital
In 2005/06, RailCorp received a subsidy                                                                        investment in new transport infrastructure, this paper
of $6.77 per passenger journey. By 2009/10,                                                                    explores opportunities to deliver enhanced service
                                                                                                               levels, new innovations and greater cost efficiency
this subsidy had surged to $8.33 for every                                                                     through competition based reforms.
passenger journey on the network; requiring
an annual taxpayer subsidy of more than
$2.3 billion per annum.

FIGURE 1 Comparison cost per passenger

                                                         100
                Cost per passenger indexed to CityRail

                                                         90

                                                         80

                                                         70

                                                         60

                                                         50

                                                         40

                                                         30

                                                         20

                                                          10

                                                          0
                                                                      CityRail               Melbourne                Brisbane               International
                                                                                              Trains                   Trains                   Median

                                                               Source: L.E.K Consulting, Cost Review of CityRail’s Regular Passenger Services, 2008

                                                                                                         7
Reform would provide for a significant increase in              There is now a long track record of competition
accountability for efficient, high quality mass transit.        reforms in passenger transport, both in other Australian
The use of franchise delivery models removes the                and global jurisdictions. New South Wales has the
current inconsistency where the public sector acts              opportunity to learn from these jurisdictions, capturing
as both the regulator and sole service provider.                best practice and avoiding pitfalls, to drive superior
                                                                efficiency and quality on passenger rail services.
The current system means that when a train runs
late or services fail, the best the public can expect           In making its recommendations, this paper explores
is an apology.                                                  three case studies of rail reform:

Under a franchise, Government has an                            1. United Kingdom rail franchising;
enforceable contract with clear expectations
                                                                2. Swedish rail reform; and
and outcomes, with financial sanctions for
poor or part performance.                                       3. Victorian rail franchising.

It is this introduction of accountability, incentives and       These case studies have seen different approaches
sanctions that could lead to dramatic improvements in           to the structure and design of the transport services
performance and efficiency in the State’s rail network.         in each jurisdiction. But these structures are united by
                                                                their fundamental outcome of driving contestability,
                                                                accountability and efficiency into the delivery of
                                                                passenger rail services.

                                                                                                                      © Courtesy of RailCorp

                                                            8
There are two core models for introducing contestability           This paper argues that the structure adopted in
into passenger rail services:                                      any reform of passenger rail services will be a key
                                                                   determinant of success.
1. On track competition
                                                                   Therefore this paper, argues that the
   This sees open access arrangements adopted,                     New South Wales Government should
   with different operators competing on the same
   network. On-market competition is used in                       form a Special Commission of Inquiry,
   Australia’s freight rail network, with government               to investigate the application and ideal
   regulating access and operating rail track through              structure for the reform of passenger
   the Australia Rail Track Corporation.
                                                                   rail services in New South Wales.
   However, it is unlikely that open access
   arrangements would prove suitable in the context                However, experience in New South Wales and
   of New South Wales passenger rail services, due                 elsewhere has shown that inquiries alone often do
   to the requirement for government to ensure regular             not create sufficient public awareness or momentum
   services throughout the day, including many that are            toward meaningful reform.
   sub economic. Therefore this paper will not consider
   on-market competition models further.                           This paper therefore argues that ‘Sector One’ of the
                                                                   network, the Eastern Suburbs Railway and Illawarra
2. Off track competition                                           lines, should be immediately put to market on a short
                                                                   term franchise agreement. Tendering Sector One
   This model sees a private operator granted an                   services would provide a valuable ‘demonstration’
   exclusive franchise to operate all services on a                franchise of services in metropolitan Sydney, to
   network – or a section of a network - for a defined             inform the Commission of Inquiry.
   period of time on behalf of government. Bidders
   compete based on their ability to deliver the highest           The CountryLink network could also provide a discrete
   quality of public transport service, at the least cost          franchising opportunity. The network bears similarities
   to taxpayers.                                                   to European, North American and Asian interurban
                                                                   networks that have benefited from franchising for many
Each of the models explored in this paper sees the                 years. Again, experiences on the CountryLink network
public sector retain full ownership of the rail network,           would inform the Commission of Inquiry and build
stations and rolling stock. Indeed, fare prices, safety,           knowledge should a wider franchising option
timetabling and scheduling, performance monitoring                 be pursued.
and other regulatory functions would continue to be
controlled by the public sector. Rather, it is the operation       The experience of reform on Sydney’s ferry network
and maintenance of the passenger rail network that                 has also shown a much higher degree of public support
would be the subject of a new, contestable and                     when there is an operating example of better, more cost
competitive model of service delivery, which would                 efficient private services supporting the case for reform.
see the private sector compete down the cost and
bid up the quality of service under the reform models              Decisions about the future shape and operational
explored in this paper. Those models can also bring a              strategy on the New South Wales rail network should
renewed customer services focus to the operation                   not be delayed. Major capital investments, such as the
of the State's rail system.                                        North West Rail Link, need to be considered within the
                                                                   context of a long term operational strategy. That is not
In considering franchise models in Sydney, the                     to say, however, that these decisions should be rushed.
metropolitan passenger rail network could be structured            Rather, a Special Commission of Inquiry and short term
to support either a single whole of network operator               franchising of Sector One and the CountryLink network,
franchise, or alternatively, the network could be                  should be pursued in the short term to inform long-run
separated into several different concessions,                      decisions about the future strategy to drive down costs
supporting several alternative operators.                          and increase service quality.

                                                               9
The success of franchising in other jurisdictions is clear,        franchising unprofitable lines has reduced operating
though it is also evident that franchising has come                costs on those routes by between 20 and 30 per cent.
with costs and hard lessons have been learned. The                 The broader network has benefitted from related
United Kingdom has experienced improvements in                     innovations in rolling stock provision, management,
service quality, customer satisfaction, on time running            services and ticketing.
and the volume of services offered. It has also seen
considerable investment in new rolling stock and better            The case studies in this paper point to both the
infrastructure. Franchising in the United Kingdom has              successes and the lessons learned from franchising in
also driven innovation – customers can now routinely               Australia and Europe. New South Wales is therefore in
access enhanced services including WiFi, power points,             a strong position to learn from these experiences and
priority and reserved seating, boosted mobile phone                provide an improved reform process with appropriate
signals, quiet zones, e-ticketing and customer lounges.            risk sharing and enhanced accountability.

The Victorian experience, too, should be widely                    Competitive franchising of public transport is not
viewed as a success. Broadly modelled on the United                a silver bullet. It still requires substantial taxpayer
Kingdom franchising template, Victoria’s reforms have              investment and many of the challenges that present
delivered improvements in performance and significant              under a traditional public monopoly model of delivery
investments in new and refurbished rolling stock.                  still remain. However, franchising has much to offer in
Like the United Kingdom, lessons have been learned                 terms of increased accountability, efficiency and quality.
through the three evolutions of franchising in Victoria,
with each evolution providing improved links between               In the context of increasing network
infrastructure investment and demand.                              costs, declining productivity and service
Rail reform in Sweden differs in pace and style from               quality shortfalls, franchising of passenger
the other case studies in this paper, but provides a               rail services in New South Wales has much
strong example of how the introduction of competitive              to offer in taking that State’s rail network
tension can drive improved service delivery. Placing
the public monopoly on a commercial footing and
                                                                   into the 21st century.

                                                              10
Recommendations

It is recommended that the                                       3. Commence steps toward an immediate
                                                                    franchising project for operation and
NSW Government:                                                     maintenance of the CountryLink network.
1. Undertake a Special Commission of Inquiry
   on improving quality and efficiency on the                        The CountryLink network also provides a discrete
   passenger rail network, including a detailed                      system that is an early candidate for franchising.
   investigation of the potential to franchise part                  It bears a range of similarities to interurban networks
   or all of the NSW passenger rail system to                        in Europe, North America and Asia which have been
   the private sector.                                               subject to successful franchising for many years.
                                                                     The performance of the CountryLink demonstration
   The guiding objective of the Inquiry should be to                 project would inform the findings of the Inquiry
   identify options to achieve increased rail customer               and allow the public to consider the benefits of
   satisfaction, at better value to government. The                  wider reform.
   Commission of Inquiry should be led by a suitably
   qualified individual or team of experts, and be able              The Government should immediately commence
   to draw on sufficient resources to fully examine the              preparation and market soundings for the operation
   necessary issues. The Commission of Inquiry should                and maintenance of the CountryLink network, in
   also investigate the governance and regulatory                    advance of any wider application that might be
   framework that would need to be applied to                        recommended by the Special Commission
   improve the quality and efficiency of the passenger               of Inquiry.
   rail network - including safety and contract
   management. Consultation with, and submissions                4. Articulate the principles that will underpin
   from, government agencies, industry, business,                   effective franchising and better quality and
   unions, the community and regulators should be                   value rail services. These principles should
   sought to ensure consideration of the full spectrum              form the basis of the terms of reference of the
   of issues and opportunities.                                     Commission of Inquiry. Based on this report’s
                                                                    examination of other franchising models,
2. Commence steps toward an immediate                               these principles should include:
   demonstration project for rail franchising
   on Sydney’s Sector One.                                       •   All existing rail assets, including below rail and above
                                                                     rail infrastructure and rolling stock should remain
   The Government should immediately commence                        in full public ownership and be provided to and
   preparation and market soundings for a limited                    managed by the franchisee;
   demonstration franchise of services on Sector One
   (the Eastern Suburbs Illawarra line) timed to coincide        •   Passenger fares should continue to be regulated by
   with the Special Commission of Inquiry findings,                  Government on a whole of network basis;
   (see Figure 2). A short-term demonstration will leave
   options open for either a whole of network franchise          •   Government should specify the standard operating
   or sector franchise in the future.                                timetable, clearly specifying the minimum services
                                                                     that are to be provided;
   In our analysis, we have identified Sector One as the
   most suitable for a demonstration project, because            •   Government should retain responsibility for network
   this sector is already operationally separate from                planning. Network planning should be informed
   the wider CityRail network. The performance of the                by an operating plan, demand analysis, customer
   metropolitan demonstration project would inform                   requirements, economic analysis, engineering
   the findings of the Inquiry and allow the public to               analysis and risk assessment;
   consider the benefits of wider reform.
                                                                 •   Rail maintenance should be bundled with passenger
                                                                     service contracts, with franchisees to bid for public
                                                                     funding for these projects. This would create
                                                                     incentives for the operator to plan for and undertake
                                                                     maintenance across the network;

                                                                 •   The franchise contract should run for a period of
                                                                     between eight and ten years, with an option for a
                                                                     further term at the end of the initial term; and

                                                            11
•   Franchise contracts should be clear and simple, with                   5. Consider whether the NSW Government, as the
    measurable objectives that provide for continuous                         infrastructure owner, should assume risk in the
    improvement in the delivery of services. To ensure                        rail network and simplify the network to improve
    this, contracts should:                                                   operating efficiency.

    >   Explicitly identify any government funded                                While franchising offers opportunities to attract
        Community Service Obligations that the                                   private sector innovation, investment and efficiency
        franchisee is expected to deliver.                                       into the rail network, government should at an
                                                                                 early stage determine its own investment levels.
    >   Include relevant, measurable and achievable                              Government or private investment would need to
        performance indicators that:                                             be linked to network planning to have the optimal
                                                                                 impact on operating efficiency.
           –   are linked to customer requirements;

           –   can be benchmarked;

           –   can be independently verified;

           –   support trend analysis; and

           –   form the basis of payments or penalties
               to the franchisee.

FIGURE 2 Recommended pathway to franchising NSW passenger rail

                                 Inform                      Investigate                        Action
                              (3 months)                         (1-2 years)                  (2-4 years)

                                                                     Passenger Rail Franchising
                                                                       Demonstration Project

                            Explain rationale
                                                           Hold Public Inquiry               Act on Inquiry
                            for consideration
                                                            into franchising               Recommendations
                              of franchising

                                                     Source: AEGIS Consulting and IPA

                                                                     12
13
© Courtesy of RailCorp
RAIL REFORM

        14
                                                   PREVIOUS NSW

© Courtesy of RailCorp. Photographer: Bob Peters
1 Previous NSW Rail Reform

Before 1996, the New South Wales rail system was                1.1.2    Application of NCP to
operated by a single, vertically integrated government
monopoly, the State Rail Authority (SRA). The SRA
                                                                         NSW Rail Sector
owned all above and below rail infrastructure and               The New South Wales Government moved in 1996
was the monopoly provider of freight and passenger              to reform the structure of the New South Wales rail
services, all maintenance and all infrastructure                system, in response to the National Competition Policy.
functions.                                                      This saw the vertically integrated State Rail Authority
                                                                structurally separated into four primary functions:
During the late 1990s, the State Rail Authority was
disaggregated, in line with the National Competition            •   State Rail Authority (SRA) to provide passenger
Policy, but has since come full circle.                             rail services and procure and operate rolling stock.
                                                                    The SRA reported to the Minister for Transport, but
In 2004, RailCorp was re-aggregated as the monopoly                 uniquely for a state authority, the Authority’s Board
public sector rail corporation; and in 2009 it was                  could review Ministerial directions that were not in
reconstituted as a statutory authority, mirroring its               its commercial interests. This review capacity was a
predecessor, the SRA.                                               type of ‘shadow corporatisation’ and was intended
                                                                    to enable the SRA to operate as commercially as
                                                                    possible, within the constraints of public ownership.
                                                                    The SRA also had responsibility for procuring and
1.1      1995 National Competition                                  operating rolling stock.

         Policy Reform                                          •   Rail Access Corporation (RAC) to own and
                                                                    manage rail infrastructure, such as rail track,
1.1.1    Background                                                 stations, signals, communications and related
                                                                    network functions. The RAC was created as a
In the early 1990s, Australia’s governments embarked                corporation under the State Owned Corporations
on an exciting period of competition policy reform.                 (SOC) Act 1989 (NSW) meaning the RAC was not
These reforms were spurred by the increasing                        directly responsible to the Minister for Transport.
exposure of Australia’s economy to global competition,              The Minister could direct RAC, but only with the
with a resulting need to increase the efficiency of                 consent of the Shareholder Ministers. As a result
infrastructure services.                                            the RAC was guided first and foremost by the
                                                                    priorities of NSW Treasury to extract reliable
Following a series of Special Premiers’ Conferences,                dividends from government corporations.
a committee led by academic and businessman Fred
Hilmer was commissioned to undertake a major report             •   Rail Services Australia (RSA) to provide
to the Council of Australian Governments (COAG)                     maintenance and related goods and services to
on a reform pathway for public monopolies. In 1993,                 the rail industry, including SRA and RAC. RSA
Hilmer’s committee produced its report, the National                was created as a State Owned Corporation similar
Competition Policy. It recommended a raft of reforms                to RAC. Although RSA was created with the
to public monopolies, including rail.                               responsibility of maintaining the NSW rail system
                                                                    to safe and reliable standards, it was intended that
The underpinning principal of the National Competition              over time, bundles of maintenance work would be
Policy was the need to reform the structure and                     contestable to encourage competitive tendering by
function of public monopolies to promote competitive                both the RSA and the private sector. The RSA was
markets for infrastructure services. A key principal was            also able to compete for maintenance contracts
the separation of natural monopoly infrastructure from              in other Australian and international jurisdictions.
contestable service delivery and maintenance functions.             The RSA’s participation in other markets was
                                                                    encouraged by the need for it to deliver dividends
                                                                    to the NSW Treasury.

                                                                •   FreightCorp to provide safe, reliable and efficient
                                                                    rail freight services. FreightCorp was created as
                                                                    a State Owned Corporation. In 2002, the NSW
                                                                    Government privatised FreightCorp in concert
                                                                    with the Federal Government’s privatisation of the
                                                                    National Rail Corporation, which formed the private
                                                                    freight operator, Pacific National.

                                                           15
In conjunction with these structural changes, the NSW              1.2.1 Appointment of Coordinator
Government developed an access regime to govern
third party passenger and freight rail providers access
                                                                         General of Rail
to the State’s rail network. The NSW Rail Access                   In addition to the Special Commission of Inquiry, the
Regime covered above and below rail activities and                 NSW Government moved to immediately address
set benchmarks for access pricing. Third party access              structural and management problems that contributed
arrangements were negotiated and managed by RAC                    to poor rail safety and service reliability. Accordingly,
and overseen by the NSW Independent Pricing and                    whilst the Commission of Inquiry was carrying out
Regulatory Tribunal (IPART).                                       its investigation, in June 2000 the NSW Minister for
                                                                   Transport appointed a Co-ordinator General of Rail to:

                                                                   •   Manage and co-ordinate the functions of the
1.2      2000-2001 Response to 		                                      RAC, RSA and SRA; and

         Glenbrook Rail Accident                                   •   Review the effectiveness of the existing
                                                                       arrangements within the RAC, SRA and RSA.
         and the 2003 Waterfall
                                                                   In September 2000 the Coordinator General of Rail
         Rail Accident                                             reported a range of findings that were echoed in
                                                                   subsequent reports by the Commission of Inquiry.
The December 1999 Glenbrook rail accident saw                      The Coordinator General’s report found overall rail
a fatal collision between an interurban and an                     system performance was poor because:
interstate passenger train. The accident resulted in
the appointment of a Special Commission of Inquiry                 •   Significant growth in passenger demand had
to investigate the causes of the accident and six other                placed the rail system under increased pressure;
incidents on the rail system. The Commission of Inquiry
released a series of interim reports, with the final report        •   Ongoing rail infrastructure maintenance spending
released in April 2001.                                                and management by RAC and RSA had not
                                                                       been adequate;
The report found that the rail accident was
caused by failures in a number of areas including                  •   There were inferior performance standards for the
training, operational procedures, infrastructure                       rail industry in relation to safety and reliability and
management and maintenance. The Commission                             performance management systems within and
made recommendations about the restructuring of                        between RAC, RSA and SRA;
the rail system and new regulations to improve safety,
reliability and performance. Key recommendations                   •   The contractual arrangements between RAC,
of the Inquiry included:                                               RSA and SRA did not adequately identify and
                                                                       create proper obligations and accountabilities;
•   The RAC and RSA should be merged into a single
    organisation that owns and controls infrastructure             •   There was poor co-ordination between RAC,
    access and maintenance;                                            RSA and SRA in relation to asset management,
                                                                       network control and service delivery;
•   An Office of Co-ordinator General of Rail should be
    formally established to oversee the merger of RAC              •   Regulatory arrangements did not impose enough
    and RSA and related issues;                                        discipline on RAC, RSA and SRA, particularly
                                                                       because RAC and RSA were not subject to the
•   An Office of Rail Regulator should be established                  control of the Minister for Transport; and
    to manage and enforce rail safety and related
    legislation; and                                               •   There was an absence of long term strategic
                                                                       planning by RAC, RSA and SRA in relation to capital
•   The control and management of timetabling,                         and maintenance projects required to enhance rail
    train movements and network control should be                      network performance to meet passenger growth.
    transferred from RAC to the CityRail network area
    within the SRA.                                                In addition to maintenance and capital projects, the
                                                                   Coordinator General of Rail recommended a range of
                                                                   short, medium and long term structural and regulatory
                                                                   changes to address these problems.

                                                              16
In late January 2003 a train travelling from Sydney                                          were essential to improve the safety and reliability
to Port Kembla derailed at high speed on a curved                                            of the rail system.
section of track shortly after leaving the Waterfall
Station with the loss of seven lives and injuries to over                               •    Vesting control and management of timetabling,
40 passengers1. The ‘Special Commission of Inquiry                                           train movements and network control in the SRA.
into the Waterfall Rail Accident’ found the driver, while
incapacitated following a heart attack, engaged a
‘deadman’ emergency brake foot pedal, allowing the                                      1.2.3 Strategic Plan for Rail
four car Tangara train to accelerate to approximately
                                                                                        In June 2001 the Co-ordinator General of Rail, Ron
117 kilometres per hour on a curved section of track
                                                                                        Christie, delivered the Long-term Strategic Plan for Rail:
limited to 60 kilometres per hour.
                                                                                        Greater Sydney Metropolitan Region 3. The plan, known
                                                                                        as the Christie Report, considered the SRA to be sole
The ‘Special Commission of Inquiry into the
                                                                                        operator of suburban and intercity passenger services
Waterfall Rail Accident’ identified a series of failings
                                                                                        in the metropolitan region; and recognised that the SRA
in the SRA safety management systems and rolling
                                                                                        now had legal responsibility for timetabling and control
stock design and procurement. The report also
                                                                                        of passenger and freight movements in the greater
identified a number of cultural impediments to safe
                                                                                        Sydney metropolitan area.
operation of the rail network.
                                                                                        Accordingly, the plan recommended that the SRA take a
After the release of the ‘Special Commission of Inquiry                                 proactive role in rail planning to ensure that RIC’s capital
into the Waterfall Rail Accident’ report two senior                                     and maintenance project activities were based on
staff from the SRA (which had subsequently become                                       SRA’s service needs. The plan also recommended that
RailCorp – see Section 1.3) had their employment                                        the Government share long term planning objectives
terminated without benefits2. The subsequent absolute                                   with the private sector, so that the private sector could
risk aversion and highly prescriptive approach to                                       dedicate resources to developing proposals and ideas
procurement within RailCorp has been attributed                                         that were best suited to deliver those objectives.
to the reaction to the Waterfall rail accident.
                                                                                        Key infrastructure concepts in the plan included
                                                                                        the need to:
1.2.2 Policy Responses by Government
                                                                                        •    Consider metro style and other non-traditional
The NSW Government responded to the
                                                                                             approaches to rail service delivery;
recommendations of the Commission and the
Co-ordinator General of Rail by introducing a range
                                                                                        •    Identify and secure transport corridors for future
of structural and regulatory changes including:
                                                                                             transport network augmentation, whether for
•   Merging RAC and RSA into the Rail Infrastructure                                         suburban rail or for other modes including roads,
    Corporation (RIC). The RIC was created as a State                                        buses and light rail – with ease of intermodal and
    Owned Corporation with primary responsibility to                                         inter-rail interchange a key consideration; and
    the Shareholder Ministers. However, the Minister
    of Transport had new powers to direct RIC.                                          •    Separate the rail system into sectors that could
                                                                                             operate individually from each other. This was
•   Formally creating the Office of Co-ordinator General                                     seen as necessary to reduce the system wide
    of Rail and Office of Rail Regulator to oversee the                                      impacts of service interruptions. In conjunction with
    creation of RIC and manage structural and regulatory                                     sectorisation, the plan recommended a range of
    changes for a transitional period after which its                                        infrastructure enhancements to improve reliability
    powers would be transferred to the Rail Regulator.                                       and safety within sectors, including line duplications,
                                                                                             passing loops, turn-backs and improved signalling
•   Introducing new rail safety legislation and creating                                     and communications.
    a Rail Safety Inspectorate.
                                                                                        Some of these concepts, and projects to achieve
•   Committing $1.2 billion over 4 years to above                                       them, were included in the NSW Government’s 2003
    and below rail capital and maintenance projects that                                Long Term Strategic Plan for Rail.

1        Special Commission of Inquiry into the Waterfall Rail Accident,Final Report, Volume 1, January 2005.
2        "Sacked Waterfall disaster boss Arthur Smith rehired” Joe Hildebrand, The Daily Telegraph May 20, 2008.
3        Office of the Co-ordinator General for Rail, Long-term Strategic Plan for Rail: Greater Sydney Metropolitan Region, June 2001.

                                                                               17
1.3      2004 Creation of RailCorp                                                   1.4         2008 Review of Capital and
         and Clearways Programme                                                                 Clearways Programmes
The NSW Government regarded the separation of RIC                                    In 2008, the now defunct Office of the Co-ordinator
from the SRA as a continuing risk to the provision of                                General in the NSW Department of Premier and Cabinet
reliable, safe services and infrastructure management.                               was asked to lead a whole of government review of
In response the Government merged RIC and the SRA                                    the causes and impacts of delays in the delivery of rail
to create RailCorp in January 2004. This structure has                               capital programmes, including Clearways.
been maintained since then.
                                                                                     The review found that delays were caused by a range
The Government also developed the Clearways                                          of factors including:
programme. Clearways involves separating the rail
system into distinct, standalone sectors that could                                  •   Skill shortages in critical resource areas in RailCorp;
operate independently, reducing the network wide
impacts of failures within individual sectors.                                       •   Changes and increases to the scope of
                                                                                         Clearways projects;
The Clearways programme involved 15
projects which were designed to achieve three
                                                                                     •   Management and collaboration issues between
                                                                                         rail agencies;
separate sectors on the rail network.
                                                                                     •   Competition for scarce resources with external
The Independent Transport Safety Regulator (ITSR)                                        programs (such as Automatic Train Protection
was established in July 2004 as safety regulator for                                     and RTA level crossings);
the State’s rail industry reporting directly to the Minister
for Transport4. The ITSR was established in response                                 •   The unprecedented levels of capital works
to findings from both the Glenbrook and Waterfall                                        demand on the system and workforce; and
Special Commission of Inquiry that there were
insufficient regulatory resources in NSW to                                          •   Limited track possession time within an
properly regulate rail safety5.                                                          existing live rail operating environment.

                                                                                     The review recommended a series of solutions
                                                                                     to address these issues; these solutions have since
                                                                                     been implemented.

4        ITSR was renamed from the Independent Transport Safety and Reliability Regulator (ITSRR) under the Transport Administration Amendment Bill 2010.
5        Transport for NSW: National Transport Reforms(http://www.transport.nsw.gov.au/national-transport-reforms - accessed 7/10/2011).

                                                                            18
1.5        2009 Re-Constitution                                                      CRIA was established to assume the role and
                                                                                     functions previously undertaken by the RIC – with a
           of RailCorp                                                               regional network covering 2,391 route kilometres of
                                                                                     operational passenger and freight rail lines and 3,134
In 2009 RailCorp was changed from a state owned                                      route kilometres of non-operational lines6.
corporation to a statutory authority, similar to the
status of the State Rail Authority prior to 1996. As a                               Following the March 2011 State Election, the structure
result RailCorp now reports directly to the Minister                                 was altered as the new NSW Government sought to
for Transport and Government, rather than to                                         fully integrate transport planning. Individual transport
shareholding Ministers.                                                              agencies, including RailCorp, transferred planning and
                                                                                     strategic functions to the integrated transport agency,
In 2010, this structure was changed in line with a                                   Transport for NSW. Transport line agencies, such as
whole of government reform, which saw RailCorp                                       RailCorp, were freed up to focus purely on service
relocated to report through Transport NSW – one                                      provision under the new structure. Under the changes
of several NSW Government ‘super agencies’. On 1                                     the Transport Construction Authority (TCA) – which has
July 2010 the Country Rail Infrastructure Authority                                  responsibility for the Clearways programme and other
(CRIA) was constituted as a statutory corporation and                                major rail projects – was integrated into Transport for
as a NSW Government agency under the Transport                                       NSW under the Transport Projects Division.
Administration Act 1988.

FIGURE 3 Rail in NSW has been disaggregated and re-aggregated over the last 15 years

                                                                    2011         1996

                                                         2010
                                                    RailCorp is                          Pre 1996
                                                 monopoly provider                   SRA is monopoly
                                                 Clearways due for                      provider
                                                 completion in 2011

                                                          Vertically integrated rail providers

                                2004                                                                             1996-2000
                        RIC and StateRail                                                                SRA separated into RAC,
                       merged into Railcorp                                                                RSA and StateRail in
                     Clearways introduced to                                                               response to national
                        segregate rail lines                          2001-2004                             completition policy
                                                                     RAC and RSA
                                                                    merged into RIC
                                                                Seminal reports on long
                                                                  term infrastructure
                                                                   need and rail line
                                                                     segregation

                                                                   Source: AEGIS/IPA

6         CRIA is the NSW Government agency which owns the non-metropolitan rail networks in New South Wales, comprising: the Country Regional Network
          (CRN), owned by CRIA and managed by the Australian Rail Track Corporation (ARTC); and the Leased Network (NSW Interstate and Hunter Valley
          Networks), owned by CRIA and leased to and managed by ARTC. At the time of writing CRIA maintenance was being taken over from ARTC by a private
          sector provider under a 10 year deal.

                                                                            19
OPERATION
OF PASSENGER
RAIL IN NSW

               © Simon Freeman 2011

          20
2 Operation of Passenger Rail in NSW

Under current arrangements, RailCorp is the                                           and Strathfield. There is also overlap in the use of train
monopoly passenger rail provider in New South                                         sets, which may travel between sectors. The majority
Wales. It operates 2,110 kilometres of track, with 830                                of system intersections exist between Sectors Two and
kilometres in metropolitan areas and 1280 kilometres                                  Three which have significant overlaps at key junction
in non-metropolitan areas, serving over 300 stations                                  points and overlapping operations.
with 1,685 rail cars and nearly 15,000 staff, carrying in
excess of 300 million passengers a year7. Metropolitan                                Only Sector One, comprising of the Eastern
and interurban services are provided by CityRail, with                                Suburbs and Illawarra line, could be regarded as
non-metropolitan services provided by CountryLink.                                    operating separately from the rest of the network.
                                                                                      Sector One enjoys minimal intersection, separate
                                                                                      infrastructure in terms of signalling, rolling stock and
                                                                                      other requirements – and a dedicated path through
2.1      Sydney’s Suburban                                                            the CBD, with dedicated platforms.

         Rail System                                                                  The three rail service sectors are illustrated in
                                                                                      Figure 4, together with planned and proposed
The suburban rail system is divided and operated in                                   short and medium term expansions in the North West,
three sectors. In spite of the Clearways programme,                                   South West and the Western Express/City Relief Line.
there remains significant overlap between these sectors                               Figure 5 shows the broader Sydney region rail and tram
at key system intersections where trains approach                                     network including the South West Rail Link (under
the central business district and city circle. These key                              construction), North West Rail Link (planned) and
junctions include Sydenham, Redfern, North Sydney                                     CDB Relief Line (proposed).

                                                                                                                                                 © Courtesy of RailCorp. All rights reserved. Photographer: Phil Carrick

7        RailCorp Annual Report 2009-10 and CityRail – A Compendium of CityRail Travel Statistics, Seventh Edition, June 2010.

                                                                              21
FIGURE 4 Sydney Rail System Showing Operating Sectors

                                                                                                                                                                                               To Central Coast
                                                                                                                                                                                                 & Newcastle
                                                             CityRail Operating Sectors
                                                                  Sector 1

                                                                  Sector 2
                                                                                                                                                               Berowra
                                                                  Sector 3
                                                                                                                                                     Hornsby

                                   Richmond

                                                                                               North West rail link
                                                                       Rouse Hill              under construction

                                                                                                                              Epping                                                      Chatswood

          To Blue Moutains
                                     ith
                                   nr
                                 Pe

                                                                   Blacktown

                                                                                                                                                                                               Wynyard

                                                                                                                                                                                                     Town
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hall
                                                                                                                   Olympic                                                                 Central                               Bondi
                                                                                                                    Park                                                                                                        Junction
                                                                                                                                                                                         Redfern
                                                                       Merrylands
                                                                                        ille
                                                                                    nv
                                                                                    ra
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                                 Leppington                                                                                                                              Wolli Creek
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                                                          To South Coast                                                                                       To South Coast

                                                                                                                   Source: AEGIS

TABLE 1 Suburban Rail System

 Sector      Rail Lines/Services                                                                                                                 Key Intersection Points with Other Sectors and Lines
 1           •   Illawarra suburban
                                                                                                                                                 •     Redfern
             •   Eastern suburbs railway (Bondi Junction – Waterfall/Cronulla)
 2           •   South line (Circular Quay – Macarthur/Bankstown/Liverpool
                                                                                                                                                 •     Strathfield and Sydenham
                 including Cumberland, Carlingford and Olympic Park)

 3           •   West/North and North Shore lines (Central – Emu Plains/
                                                                                                                                                 •     Strathfield and North Sydney
                 Richmond/Berowra)

                                                                                                                 Source: AEGIS

                                                                                                                             22
FIGURE 5 Standardised 2011 Map                                                                                                        Source: Prepared for Infrastructure Partnerships Australia by The Tipping Point Institute, 2011

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         North Warnervale
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Warnervale                                  Toronto
 Advance booking
                            Bathurst                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Wyong
required for travel         Kelso
on this bus service                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Tuggerah
                            Raglan                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Ourimbah
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Peak       Peak
                            Yetholme                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Lisarow            hours      hours
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        only       only
   Central                  Meadow Flat                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Niagara Park
 Tablelands                 Mount Lambie                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Narara                   Central
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                                                                                                                NWRL                                                                                                                                            Ryde
                           Falconbridge                                                                       Extension
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Chatswood
                           Springwood                                                                           Quakers Hill                                                                                                                                                                      Artarmon
                                                                                                                                                                                   Carlingford                                                                                                       St Leonards
   Valley Heights
          Warrimoo                                                                                              Marayong                                                         Telopea
              Blaxland                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Wollstonecraft                      Victoria Cross                              Sydney Harbour
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Eastwood                                                                                                        2nd Harbour Crossing
               Glenbrook                                                                                                                                                 Dundas                                                         Sydney Metropolitan Area
                   Lapstone                                                                                            Blacktown                                                                                                                                                        Waverton
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Denistone
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       North Sydney                                               Circular Quay
                                                                                                                                                             Rydalmere
                                                                                                                                                                                                     West Ryde                                                                             Milsons Point
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Star City
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Rhodes                                                 Wentworth Park                        Wynyard

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          B
                                                                                                                                                       Camellia                                                                                                       Glebe       Pyrmont Bay
                                                                                                           Pendle Hill                                                                                                                                                                Convention
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Jubilee Park
                                                                                                        Wentworthville                                                                       Concord West                                                  Rozelle Bay            Exhibition Centre       Town                                    Martin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Hall
   Key to Lines & Symbols                                                                                            Westmead                                                            North Strathfield
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Lilyfield                 Paddy’s Markets
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Capitol Square
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Place
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          St James
                                                                                                                                                       Rosehill                                                                                 Leichhardt North
                                                                                                                       Parramatta                                                                                                                  Hawthorne                                                                                     Park
 Sydney Suburban Train Lines                                                                                                                                                Olympic Park
                                                                                                                             Harris Park                                                                                                                                                                                                        Street
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Marion
          Eastern Suburbs & Illawarra Line                                                                                                                               Direct services operate                                                                                           Redfern
                                                                                                                                                                        during special events only                                            Taverners Hill
          Waterfall or Cronulla to Bondi Junction
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           City
          Liverpool via Bankstown Line                                                                                       Merrylands                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Circle
          Liverpool to Museum via Sydenham
                                                                                                                                                      e
                                                                                                                                                   ill

                       Liverpool Express Peak Hours Only                                                               Guildford                                                                                                                                                                                                    Central          Museum
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                       Liverpool to Museum via Sydenham
                                                                                                                                             ra

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          Lidcombe via Bankstown Line                                                                           Yennora
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          Lidcombe to Town Hall via Sydenham
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Green Square
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          Inner West Line
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Erskineville
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          Homebush to Museum via Strathfield
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Pa iley l H

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          Cumberland Line
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                                                                                                         Fairfield                                                                                                                          Arlington
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          Campbelltown to Blacktown via Liverpool
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                                                                                                                                                                        Regents Park
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Dulwich Grove                                                                           Mascot
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Station access
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       La
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          Airport Line
          Revesby to Town Hall via Airport                                                          Canley Vale                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          fee applies at
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         these stations
          Macarthur & SWRL to CBD Relief Line                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Sydenham
          Macarthur & SWRL to CBD via Sydenham                                                   Cabramatta
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                                                                                                Warwick Farm
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                       Future Extensions
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Domestic Airport
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ps

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                                                                                                                                                                    go

                       South West Rail Link Extension to Bringelly
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                                                                                                       Liverpool
                                                                                                                                                         Bi

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                                                                                                                                             th

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            on
                                                                                                                                                                 nk
                                                                                                                                                                 Ya

                       North West Rail Link Extension to Richmond                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Tempe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    nt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Ca
                                                                                                                                                        s

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ar
                                                                                                                                           or

                                                                                                                                                       ill

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ca

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           lst

                       CBD Rail Link 2nd Harbour Crossing Extension
                                                                                                                                                              Ba
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                                                                                       k

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          South Line
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                                                                                                                                                 Ea

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             International Airport
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          Leppington to Museum via Granville
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                                                                             ss
                                                                            in

                                                                          Ro

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Wolli Creek
                                                                          Br

          North Shore, Western & Richmond Line
          Emu Plains or Richmond to Berowra
          via Granville,CBD & Chatswood                                                                                       Glenfield                                                                                                                                  Arncliffe
                                                                           SWRL Stage 2
                                                                                                                                                                 by

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                                                                            Extension
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          Western Express Line
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Rockdale
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          Emu Plains to Central via Strathfield
                                                                                                                                                                      Pa

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Kogarah
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                                                                                                                                                                                               Be

                                                                                                                                                                                                           Be

          Northern Line & NWRL
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Ba
                                                                                                 ds
                                                                                    Le

          Northern Line & NWRL to Epping                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Carlton
                                                                                              el

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Botany Bay
                                                                                           Fi

          via Chatswood, Town Hall & Strathfield
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Allawah
                                                                                                      ie
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                       Peak Hours Only                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Hurstville
                                                                                                qu

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                       NWRL to Sydney Terminal via Strathfield
                                                                                              ac

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Penshurst
                                                                                            M

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Georges River
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                       North West Express Peak Hours Only                                                                                                                                                                                                                Mortdale
                                                                                                    In

                       NWRL to CBD via Chatswood & North Sydney
                                                                                                            to

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Oatley
                                                                                                         in

                       Peak Hours Only
                                                                                                       M

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ar

                       NWRL & Central Coast to North Shore
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        h

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Como
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                                                                                                 Leumeah
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          nd
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          Carlingford Line                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Jannali
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              oo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ira

                                                                                                                                Some off-peak Southern Highlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ym

          Carlingford to Clyde via Rydalmere
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     rr

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Ca

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Cr

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Sutherland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             W
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      M

                                                                                                                               services terminate at Campbelltown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   G
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Ki

          Olympic Park Sprint & Special Events Services                                  Campbelltown
          Direct services during special events only
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Loftus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Engadine
 Intercity Train Lines                                                                           Macarthur                                                                                                                                                               Heathcote                                            Port
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Waterfall                                           Hacking
          Southern Highlands Line
                                                                                                                             Menangle Park
          Goulburn to Central via East Hills                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Helensburgh
                                                                                                           Diesel            Menangle
          South Coast Line                                                                                 service                                                                                                                                                         Otford
          Bomaderry or Port Kembla to Central via Hurstville                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Stanwell Park
                                                                                                                             Douglas Park
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Coalcliff                                                                       South Pacific Ocean
          Blue Mountains Line
          Lithgow to Central via Strathfield                                                                                 Picton                                                                                                                                               Scarborough
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Wombarra
          Newcastle & Central Coast Line                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Coledale
          Newcastle to Central via Strathfield
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Austinmer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Thirroul
 Regional Train Lines                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Bulli
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Woonona
          Hunter Line
          Scone or Dungog to Newcastle via Maitland

                                                                                       Thirlmere                     Tahmoor                                                                                                                                                                                 Bellambi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Corrimal
 Rail Bus Services
                                                                                       Couridjah                                                                                                                                                                               Towradgi
                                                                                                                     Bargo                                                                                                                                              Fairy Meadow
          South Coast to Southern Highlands Bus                                          Buxton                                                                                                                                                                   North Wollongong                        Illawarra
          Bowral to Picton (Loop Line) Bus
                                                                                       Balmoral                                                                                                                                                                     Wollongong
          Bathurst to Lithgow Bus                                                                                    Yerrinbool                                                                                                                                       Coniston
          Toronto to Fassifern Bus                                                       Hill Top
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Unanderra                          Lysaghts
                                                                                       Colo Vale                   Southern
 Tram Line                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Kembla Grange Racecourse                               Cringila
                                                                                                                   Highlands                                                                                                                           Dapto
           Dulwich Hill Line                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Port Kembla North
           Central to Dulwich Hill via Lilyfield                                                                                                                                                                                               Albion Park
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Port Kembla
                                                                                                     Mittagong
 Symbols
                                                                                                                                             Burrawang                                               Robertson                              Oak Flats                                 Lake
          Train Interchange                                                              Bowral                                                                        Advance booking                                         Dunmore (Shellharbour)                              Illawarra
                                                                                       Burradoo                                                                       required for travel
                                                                                      Moss Vale                                                                       on this bus service                                                Minnamurra
                                                                                   Exeter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     North
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Bombo
                                                                                 Bundanoon
                                                                              Penrose                                                                                                                                                         Kiama
                                                                           Wingello                                                                                                                                                        Gerringong
                                                                         Tallong                                                                                                                                                                 Berry                   Diesel
                                                                       Marulan
                                                                      Goulburn                                                                                                                  23                                Bomaderry (Nowra)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         service

                                                        Southern
                                                       Tablelands                                                                                                                                                                                        South
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Coast

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Copyright Netzplan October 2011
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