Know me. Believe in me. Kia mārama mai, kia whakapono mai - Knowledge Auckland

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Know me. Believe in me. Kia mārama mai, kia whakapono mai - Knowledge Auckland
Know me.
Believe in me.
Kia mārama mai,
kia whakapono
Know me. Believe in me. Kia mārama mai, kia whakapono mai - Knowledge Auckland
Know me. Believe in me. Kia mārama mai, kia whakapono mai - Knowledge Auckland
Kua tawhiti kē to haerenga mai, kia
kore e haere tonu. He nui rawa o mahi,
kia kore e mahi tonu.
                                         Know me.
You have come too far not to go
further, you have done too much not
                                         Believe in me.
to do more.
                                         Kia mārama mai,
Ta Himi Henare (Sir James Henare),
Ngati Hine elder and leader              kia whakapono
This report is the outcome               A rangatahi, whānau and school perspective on
of a collaboration between               supporting attendance, engagement and wellbeing.
the Ministry of Education,
The Southern Initiative, The
Auckland Co-design Lab,                  He tirohanga tā te rangatahi, tā te whānau, tā te kura
The Middlemore Foundation                ki te whakapiki i te tae ā-tīnana, i te manaakitanga,
and rangatahi, schools, whānau           i te oranga hoki.
and educators in Manurewa.
It was made possible thanks
to the Department of Internal
Affairs Digital Government
Partnership Innovation Fund.

The team would like to mihi
the staff, rangatahi and whānau
who participated in this process
so far, the contribution of whom
made this project possible.              June 2020
Know me. Believe in me. Kia mārama mai, kia whakapono mai - Knowledge Auckland

Executive summary p8
Background, issues at play & co-design p12
Manurewa Case Study p26
        Rangatahi insights p40
        Systems insights p64
        Early outcomes p86
        Opportunity areas p88
Rotorua Case Study—
Tūhono Tangata ki a Kāhui Ako p90
        Development p97
        Principles p99
        Features, functions & roles p101
        Impact & scaling p104
Conclusions p110
References p112
Know me. Believe in me. Kia mārama mai, kia whakapono mai - Knowledge Auckland
                                                              In late 2018 the Ministry of Education (MOE)                   with the Innovation Unit (IU) who supported the
                                                              approached The Southern Initiative and the Auckland            process in the Bay of Plenty. This report outlines
                                                              Co-Design Lab (TSI-Lab) to collaborate on an                   the approach taken in each location—Manurewa
                                                              innovation initiative that also built MOE capability. The      in South Auckland and Rotorua in the Bay of
                                                              MOE was interested in the use of co-design and the             Plenty—as well as what was learnt in each place.

                                                              upskilling of MOE staff and partners in this approach.
                                                              This report describes the first part of an innovation          In Auckland a multi-disciplinary design team1 built
                                                              process using co-design that began in 2019 which               relationships with schools belonging to two different
                                                              has looked at attendance, engagement and wellbeing             Kāhui Ako in Manurewa. With the help of staff, they
                                                              of rangatahi in mainstream education. It has been              undertook empathy interviews which surfaced insights
                                                              made possible through the commitment of a host of              into the lived experience of rangatahi, educators
                                                              community educators, community partners, whānau                and parent-caregivers about school and learning 2.
                                                              and rangatahi and with funding from the Department
                                                              of Internal Affairs Partnership Innovation Fund.               Some of these insights included:

                                                              To begin the design team scanned available                     •    Relationships and empathy are the key to learning
                                                              evidence and existing initiatives related to the               •    Transition, particularly the move to high
                                                              complex issues of attendance, wellbeing and                         school, is hard for a large group of rangatahi
                                                              engagement, which is tied up with longstanding                 •    Core subjects need to be culturally grounded to
                                                              inequity in Aotearoa particularly for Māori and                     address racism and to achieve equitable learning
                                                              Pasifika ākonga—learner(s). After several decades of                experiences for Māori and Pasifika students
                                                              research and initiatives there has been no easy fix.           •    Māori and Pasifika students are
                                                                                                                                  filtered out of key subjects
                                                              The benefit of using a co-design approach to look at
                                                              this complex issue is to learn from the lived experience       The team also framed insights based on their
                                                              of rangatahi and also to support them, their educators         observations of the system from research, working
                                                              and their whānau to shape local solutions to attendance,       with schools and the MOE. These have created the
ākonga—learner(s)                                             engagement and wellbeing. Designing alongside                  basis for opportunity areas for collective innovation
tamariki—child/children                                       members of the community will create a useful feedback
                                                              loop into those shaping the education system. At the
                                                                                                                             and testing with the local community and with schools
                                                                                                                             e.g. collaboration across the system is still tricky.
rangatahi—youth                                               same time design practitioners are sharing design
                                                              practice with MOE staff, educators and the community           The Rotorua case study highlights the impactful work
kaiako—teacher                                                building their capability in design approaches that            of Tūhono Tangata ki a Kāhui Ako, an achievement
                                                              can be applied in their own lives and work.                    challenge from the Rotorua Central Kāhui Ako and
                                                                                                                             the intentional activities undertaken in partnership
                                                              Two main questions shaped the innovation and co-               with the MOE Regional Office to scale this innovation.
                                                              design process:                                                Underpinning this impactful work lies the influence
                                                                                                                             of mana wāhine, powerful leadership practice by
                                                              How might we collaborate with young people,                    Māori women across the Kāhui Ako and MOE.
                                                              whānau, schools, the community and each
                                                              other to design ways of working that lead to
                                                              better attendance, engagement and wellbeing
                                                              for all our students now and in the future?

                                                              How might we better understand the conditions
                                                              and capability needed to share innovation between
                                                              schools and foster innovation within the MOE?
                                                                                                                             1 The team was made up of design practitioners, educators with
                                                              The MOE regions of Auckland and Bay of Plenty                  experience of whānau support with a variety of cultural backgrounds
                                                              chose to participate. The TSI-Lab worked with the              2 There is a booklet of stories based on these interviews. See
                                                              regional office and schools in Auckland, and partnered         resource “Stories of Rangatahi experience of school and learning”

8                         Kia mārama mai, kia whakapono mai   Know me. Believe in me                     Executive Summary                                                                         9
Know me. Believe in me. Kia mārama mai, kia whakapono mai - Knowledge Auckland
Know me. Believe in me. Kia mārama mai, kia whakapono mai - Knowledge Auckland
                                                 In 2018 the MOE applied for funding       The Auckland based team reviewed
                                                 from the Department of Internal           and synthesised existing reports
                                                 Affairs’ Digital Innovation Fund. A       and quantitative and qualitative data
                                                 group of Deputy Secretaries led by        about schooling, learning, attendance
                                                 the Evaluation Data and Knowledge         and related areas. The team found

issues at play and
                                                 (EDK) Division approached The             that there is a plethora of research
                                                 Southern Initiative—Auckland Co-          and studies over the last few decades
                                                 Design Lab (TSI-Lab) in early 2019        which repeat or build upon many
                                                 to discuss using the funding to build     of the same concepts and ideas
                                                 innovation capability within the MOE.     about learning and attendance.
                                                 There was an appetite for using

                                                 innovation and the methodology of         The following section covers the
                                                 co-design to tackle one of the MOE’s      main themes which surfaced during
                                                 current challenges. The MOE chose         the scan of the available evidence.
                                                 the complex issue of attendance as        We also outline the scope of the
                                                 the initial focus for this project with   project and the nature of the
                                                 a decision to involve two different       place-based co-design approach.
                                                 regions in the country. There was a
                                                 conversation with regional offices
                                                 who had an interest in participating
                                                 in an innovation process and a
                                                 significant challenge with attendance.

                                                 The regional offices in Auckland
                                                 and the Bay of Plenty took the
                                                 opportunity to participate. The
                                                 TSI-Lab team in Auckland was the
                                                 natural partner for the Auckland
                                                 regional MOE office as it is a place-
                                                 based innovation lab with existing
                                                 local relationships built up over
                                                 5 years of community and social
                                                 innovation work. The TSI-Lab invited
                                                 collaborators, the Innovation Unit
                                                 (IU) to support the process in the
                                                 Bay of Plenty because of the IU’s
                                                 expertise in the fields of innovation
                                                 and design and their expertise in
                                                 working with education systems.

12           Kia mārama mai, kia whakapono mai   Know me. Believe in me                    Background                              13
Know me. Believe in me. Kia mārama mai, kia whakapono mai - Knowledge Auckland
Key facts about education in Aotearoa
                                                                                               TE AO MAORI
High absenteeism                                                                               Māori who attend Māori medium education schools are more likely to stay
                                                                                               in school until they are 17—compared to those in mainstream schools.3
Aotearoa is the 9th highest in the world out of 35 OECD countries for absentees.1

     DIFFERENT                    NCEA pass rates at Level 2 rose steadily
                                                                                                      Recover lost                            Students from a higher socio-
                                                                                                                                              economic background can recover

                                                                                                                                              more easily from a period of not
                                  from 74% to 83% between 2011 and 2016 but
     DECILES,                     students at lower deciles were more likely to
                                                                                                                                              attending school.

     DIFFERENT                    do unit standards (skills-based), while those at
                                  higher deciles do more achievement standards
     PATHWAYS                     academic).2

                                                                                                       i t i o n
                                                                                                 a n s                                            EDUCATIONAL
                                                                                               T rucial
                                                                                                r                                                  INEQUALITY
 Importance                                       UNIVERSITY                                    is c                                              UNICEF’s annual Innocenti Report

  of Years                                         INEQUITY                                    Attendance in Year 8 doesn’t
                                                                                                                                                  Card, a study of rich countries,
                                                                                                                                                  ranked New Zealand 33rd out of 38
                                                                                                                                                  countries in terms of educational

   7,8 & 9
                                                                                               predict how much a student
                                                                                                                                                  equality in 2018.
                                               University entrance is much lower               attends school in Year 9.
                                               for Māori and Pasifika students than            There is a strong relationship
                                               for other ethnic groups.                        between students experiencing
Even between two students                                                                      difficulty following a change from
who turn up to school the same                                                                 intermediate to high school and
amount of days in Year 10, the                                                                 their likelihood of dropping out
amount of time they were at                                                                    from education.
school in 7, 8 and 9 attendance                                                                                                              1 Behavioural Insights Team, 2018, p10
                                                                                                                                             2 Decile ratings reflects the percentage of the school's students
predicts higher NCEA results.                                                                                                                that live in low socio-economic or poorer communities. Lower decile
                                                                                                                                             schools have more students living in poorer communities.
                                                                                                                                             3 MOE data that showed 78 percent of students stayed
                                                                                                                                             on in whānau Māori schools until 17 or above, whereas
                                                                                                                                             the number was 68.8 percent in the general roll.

14                                                         Kia mārama mai, kia whakapono mai   Know me. Believe in me       Issues at play                                                                         15
Know me. Believe in me. Kia mārama mai, kia whakapono mai - Knowledge Auckland
Why is school attendance   Regular student attendance is defined                                       Why are tamariki and rangatahi            the mind to learning. Negative            Behavioural Insights Team study for
                                                                                                       not coming to school? What about          emotions, such as fear of failure,        the MOE, focused on factors linked
an important issue?        as attending school more than 90                                            engagement and wellbeing?                 anxiety, and self-doubt, reduce the       to the home. It concluded unjustified
                           percent of the time (available half days)                                                                             capacity of the brain to process          absences were driven by a mixture
                                                                                                       The Office for the Children’s             information and learn. (Flook, 2020)      of factors including parental distrust
                           by the MOE. (Education Counts, 2020)                                        Commissioner’s report Education                                                     of the school, the challenges posed
                           Regular attendance is considered                                            Matters to Me: Key Insights released      Poverty, Inequity and Racism              by parents’ shift work, addiction; and
                           extremely important because according                                       in 2018 outlined the perspectives of                                                for students there was disinterest in
                                                                                                       children and young people and what        It is also clear that poverty and         the content of classes and mental
                           to the MOE’s body of evidence and data,                                     was important to them about learning      inequity affect the levels of rangatahi   health issues such as anxiety.
                           there is no safe level of skipping school                                   and education. The report’s findings      attendance and engagement                 (Behavioural Insights Team, 2018, p4)
                                                                                                       were based on interviews and surveys      with learning and school. In 2018,
                           and doing so will lower a student’s                                         with as many as 2000 children and         chronic absence continued to be           The concern with focusing entirely on
                           achievement. However, the number of                                         young people (Office of the Children's    more prevalent in lower socio-            disadvantage in this way is that these
                                                                                                       Commissioner, 2018a). The tamariki        economic schools, with the rate           factors are symptoms of a much
                           students missing school in Aotearoa is                                      and rangatahi said they wanted            about four times higher in Decile         more complex issue. In New Zealand
                           on the rise according to the MOE’s own                                      teachers who try to understand their      1 (13.2%) schools than in higher          socio-economic disadvantage has
                           data. The latest OECD's Programme for                                       worldview and their lived experience      socio economic Decile 10 (3.2%)           a large overlap with ethnicity and
                                                                                                       and incorporate this knoweldge into       schools (Behavioural Insights             absenteeism which affects Māori and
                           International Student Assessment (PISA)                                     their learning. They also want to learn   Team, 2018, p11). The report on           Pacific students disproportionately.
                           survey released in 2019 shows 58% of                                        content that relates to their lives,      the 2015 PISA results stated:             The absenteeism figures for Māori
                                                                                                       and to have better relationships with     Socio-economic advantage has a            and Pasifika students are consistently
                           students were regularly going to school,                                    their teachers, a safe and comfortable    stronger impact on achievement            worse than for other ethnic groups
                           a decrease from 64% in 2018.1                                               environment, some decision-making         in New Zealand than many OECD             between 2011 and 2017 (Behavioural
                                                                                                       over their learning, and to be free       countries. There is a larger difference   Insights Team, 2018, p11). The “long
                                                                                                       from racism and discrimination.           in achievement between students           tail of underachievement” is a term
                                                                                                       The relationship between their            from advantaged and disadvantaged         that was coined by former Secretary
                                                                                                       wish for positive, stable and trusted     backgrounds in New Zealand                of Education Karen Sewell in 2007
                                                                                                       relationships, to feeling safe, and       compared to the OECD average.             to describe the gap between Māori
                                                                                                       their capacity to learn is borne                                                    and Pasifika and other ethnic groups
                                                                                                       out by two recent comprehensive           Some academics and educators place        in educational achievement. This
                                                                                                       reviews (Osher et al, 2020; Cantor        more emphasis on the importance           concept of underachievement has
                                                                                                       et al, 2019) of the science on            of the home background in a child’s       become normalised in the New
                                                                                                       children’s development and learning.      success than the school environment.      Zealand mainstream education
                                                                                                       Some of the relevant findings             For example, Twelve Thousand              system and the label does not
                                                                                                       have been summarised below:               Hours: Education and Poverty in           accurately depict the history of
                                                                                                                                                 Aotearoa New Zealand, Massey              racism experienced by Māori and
                                                                                                       Brain development is shaped by            University academics Ivan Snook           Pasifika tamariki and rangatahi.
                                                                                                       consistent, supportive relationships;     and John O'Neill have concluded           For generations, Māori have been
                                                                                                       responsive communications; and            home background is responsible            part of an education system which
                                                                                                       modelling of productive behaviors.        for up to 80% of a child's school         actively denied them the ability to
                                                                                                       The brain’s capacity develops most        success. (O'Neill & Snook, 2014)          learn, express or contribute their
                                                                                                       fully when children and youth feel        Influencing factors are: frequent         worldview, culture or language. They
                                                                                                       emotionally and physically safe;          changes of school; chronic ill health;    were assessed and measured by
                                                                                                       and when they feel connected,             inadequate food and clothes; lack         the dominant Pākehā culture. It was
                                                                                                       engaged, and challenged.                  of good parenting; limited access         only recent history that children
                                                                                                                                                 to books; and family dysfunction.         would receive corporal punishment
                                                                                                       Learning is social, emotional, and        Poverty affects resources, values,        for speaking te reo. The colonial
                           1 Any unintentional, justified, or authorized, absence from compulsory
                           education (i.e. illness) Justified absences can include illness,            academic. Positive relationships,         attitudes and behaviour. The              view that Māori were more suited
                           medical appointments and bereavement. Any intentional, unjustified,         including trust in the teacher,           associated stress, neglect or trauma      to manual pursuits than academic
                           unauthorized, or illegal absence from compulsory education (i.e. truancy)
                           Unjustified absences reasons may include unreported illness, family
                                                                                                       and positive emotions, such as            of deprivation can impact cognitive       ones also persists to this day.
                           holidays during term time, staying home to look after siblings.             interest and excitement, open up          development. Similarly, a recent

16                                                   Kia mārama mai, kia whakapono mai                 Know me. Believe in me                    Issues at play                                                                17
Know me. Believe in me. Kia mārama mai, kia whakapono mai - Knowledge Auckland
In the late 1980s and 1990s,           esteem and other psychological            million funding over three years.                                                                   Success as Māori
    government policy reflected        responses emanating from an               The new initiative builds on the
    the attitude that socio-           early age awareness of being a            former Te Kotahitanga programme                                                                     In Aotearoa tamariki and rangatahi generally achieve
    economic and not ethnic            member of a stigmatised group.            which had shown some success.                                                                       better outcomes in Māori Medium Education (MME).
    factors were the root cause of     (Eriksen, 2018; Voke, 2002)                                                                                                                   Through a recent comprehensive consultation known
    underachievement (not just                                                   The MOE has developed an                                                                            as Kōrero Mātauranga, the MOE in Auckland found
    for Māori). This resulted in       The MOE has tried to move away            equity index which can give                                                                         that MME settings, in particular, full immersion, were
    educators focusing on social       from a deficit approach for Māori         valuable insights into the impact                                                                   working well for Māori learners in the Auckland
    backgrounds, parenting, and        most significantly by working with        of disadvantage in early childhood                                                                  region. However, participants felt that more resources
    other societal influences.         Te Puni Kokiri to support more            education and schooling.                                                                            were needed for Māori medium settings. It was also
    This has been described            Māori medium education. For               For example, it shows that                                                                          agreed at these consultation hui that English medium
    by the Ministry and other          mainstream education, there has           concentration of disadvantage                                                                       settings could benefit from incorporating kaupapa
    commentators as “deficit           also been a raft of strategies and        matters for educational progress                                                                    Māori pedagogies and MME spaces (Ministry of
    thinking”—thinking about Māori     programmes for both Māori and             and achievement. This is being                                                                      Education, 2019). This is a similar reflection made in
    students in terms of what they     Pasifika students. Ka Hikitia—            studied further. The September                                                                      the Office of the Auditor General’s report in 2012.
    lack. Researchers have noted       Accelerating Success 2013–2017            2019 Cabinet paper, Replacing                      Whānau
    that this can lead to educators    was a strategy based on evidence          Deciles with the Equity Index,                      family name                                     Māori can be identified by whānau name, hāpu and
    thinking that problems lie with    that Māori students do much               makes it clear that the Government                                                                  iwi. Each of these elements of identity have mana and
    the student, not the teacher       better when education reflects and        only intends to shift to the Equity                                                                 support, and whakapapa gives strength and stability
    or the system. (Office of the      values their identity, language and       Index if that shift is accompanied                                                                  to individuals. This can be a key source of strength
    Auditor General, 2017)             culture. Similarly there has been         by an increase in the overall level                                                                 for Māori connected to their whakapapa. However,
                                       a Pasifika Education Plan (PEP),          of equity resourcing to ensure all                                                                  researchers have pointed out that Māori are not a
                                       with four revised versions spanning       schools are adequately equipped
More recently the MOE has
                                       17 years1. The Te Kotahitanga             to mitigate socio-economic
                                                                                                                                      Child                                          homogeneous group. In Tāmaki Makaurau many ākonga
acknowledged the education                                                                                                                                                           are Mataawaka and are less likely to know and be
                                       programme was an evidence-                barriers faced by their learners.
system’s failure for Māori students.
                                       based research and professional           Engagement with the education
                                                                                                                       Iwi                              Hapū                         connected to their whakapapa, which highlights the
"What is clear from data over                                                                                          tribe                            sub-tribe                    importance of understanding the needs of each student
many years is that the education       development programme that                sector will be used to shape the                                                                    and supporting their journey on culture and identity.
system has consistently failed         supported teachers to improve             overall package of investment.
whānau, hapū, and iwi for many         Māori students' learning and                                                                                                                  Collaboration with whānau has the potential to
generations, and this has led to low   achievement. According to the             Evidence strongly suggests                                                                          significantly improve the educational experiences
expectations by all of education       Office of The Auditor General             more investment needs to be
                                                                                                                                                                                     of Māori students. One researcher found that Māori
system performance for Māori and       achievement gains for Māori and           channelled into achieving lasting
                                                                                                                                                                                     students identified their whānau as having the
of Māori achievement.” (Office of      other students were increasingly          equity for Māori and Pasifika
                                                                                                                                                                                     strongest influence on them, followed by community
the Auditor General, 2017, p15)        significant during the five phases        students and achieving equity
                                                                                                                                                                                     and school influences such as teachers, sports coaches
                                       (Officer of the Auditor General,          needs to be measured by Māori
                                                                                                                                                                                     and the whānau of the local marae. (Sheriff, 2010)
There is evidence of teachers          2017, p38; Webber & Macfarlane,           and Pasifika engagement,
having lower achievement               2018). Meyer et al. (2011) identified     achievement and progression in
                                                                                                                                                                                     The Ka Awatea project used a Te Arawa1 view of Māori
expectations (irrespective of actual   that Māori students who were              learning, education and careers.
                                                                                                                                                                                     success and interviewed successful Māori students
achievement) of Māori in particular,   thriving in Te Kotahitanga schools
                                                                                                                                                                                     from across Rotorua. The findings showed that when
but also of Pasifika students.         were proud of their Māori culture
                                                                                                                                                                                     whānau, iwi, and the wider community were invested
Stereotype threat happens when         and identities, could “be Māori”
                                                                                                                                                                                     in education, positive school behaviours and a Māori
“members of a marginalized group       as ākonga, rather than having
                                                                                                                                                                                     student commitment to school completion, success
acknowledge that a negative            to leave their culture outside
                                                                                                                                                                                     improves (Webber, 2018, p22). Whānau play the most
stereotype exists in reference to      school in order to succeed
                                                                                                                                                                                     important role in terms of socialising their children into
their group, and they demonstrate      (Webber & Macfarlane, 2018).
                                                                                                                                                                                     the Māori world and helping them to develop cultural
apprehension about confirming                                                                                                                                                        efficacy. Healthy and supportive whānau connections
the negative stereotype” has           In 2019 the government
                                       announced a new education                                                                                                                     are fundamental to positive Māori identity development
been found to have detrimental                                                                                                                                                       and for promoting educational advancement. (ibid)
impacts on the ability of              pilot called Te Hurihanganui, to
minority students to perform at        address racism and bias across
                                                                                 1 Tapasā—Cultural Competency
school because of lower self-          the system and support whānau to          Framework for Teachers of Pacific                                                                   1 Te Arawa is a confederation of Māori iwi and hapū who
                                       better engage in learning with $42        Learners was launched in 2018.                                                                      are based in the Rotorua and Bay of Plenty area.

18                                                                             Kia mārama mai, kia whakapono mai               Know me. Believe in me               Issues at play                                                             19
Can teaching make a difference?          In taking on issues of attendance                                          Agreeing a scope for     To agree on initial scope TSI-Lab        the scope broadened to include
                                         in Aotearoa, this brief overview                                                                    and IU held a framing workshop           engagement and wellbeing as well as
Some education researchers               of the literature suggests:                                                the co-design process    bringing together staff from a variety   attendance. It also became apparent
believe that whilst whānau and                                                                                                               of disciplines from the National,        that there was no clear picture of
home environments play a key role,       •   Attendance, wellbeing,                                                                          Auckland and Bay of Plenty MOE           what local innovation was currently
education systems can still have an          culture and history are                                                                         offices. The conversation and            happening within schools, or how
impact on the success of children            inextricably linked.                                                                            collective knowledge and experience      well innovation across schools was
from a disadvantaged background.                                                                                                             in the room shaped the scope of          being shared. The opportunity to
                                         •   While poverty and toxic
Research from the OECD stated                                                                                                                what the design team should explore      understand how innovation can be
                                             stress have a negative impact
the highest performing education                                                                                                             in the first phase of the process.       fostered and shared was identified
                                             on a child’s wellbeing and
systems are those that combine                                                                                                               It was also acknowledged that            as a parallel project objective.
                                             relationship with education,
equity with quality (OECD, 2012,                                                                                                             rangatahi and whānau voice were
                                             learning environments with
p3) and that these systems give                                                                                                              not yet in the room and should be        As a result the project was shaped
                                             adults fostering positive stable
all children opportunities for a                                                                                                             brought in as soon as possible.          around two main questions:
                                             relationships with ākonga
good quality education. Education
                                             can make a difference.
expert John Hattie believes that                                                                                                             The design team used some of             How might we collaborate with
teachers can make a critical             •   In Aotearoa a strengths-based                                                                   the themes that surfaced from the        young people, whānau, schools,
difference and that a major factor           approach and meaningful                                                                         scan of recent evidence and data         the community and each other to
affecting student achievement is             cultural intelligence applied at                                                                above to pose questions to the           design ways of working that lead
the variability between the quality          a local level is fundamental to                                                                 workshop participants and generate       to better attendance, engagement
of teachers within schools. A belief         address the inherent racism,                                                                    discussion. It was clear that there      and wellbeing for all our students
that we can make a difference for            bias and low expectations for                                                                   were many interconnecting and            now and in the future?
children from poorly resourced               Māori and Pasifika ākonga                                                                       contributing factors such as inequity,
families is a critical starting point,       in the mainstream system.                                                                       historic racism, low expectations        How might we better understand
and the mantra needs to be “I can                                                                                                            and marginalisation in learning          the conditions and capability
                                         •   The role of whānau is really
make a profound positive difference                                                                                                          environments, family income and          needed to share innovation
                                             crucial but its potential
to every person who crosses the                                                                                                              insecure housing that influence          between schools and foster
                                             is not fully realised.
school gate into my class or school                                                                                                          how tamariki relate to school and        innovation within the MOE?
regardless of their background.”         •   There is a lot of research                                                                      learning. It was established that
Poverty and low family resources             and data on what works                                                                          there was no one silver bullet to
are no excuse for not making a               yet the issues persist.                                                                         address a historic and complex issue
major contribution to students,          Are we forgetting what is important                                                                 like attendance in Aotearoa and it
although they certainly make for            in the myriad of options? Are                                                                    needed a holistic and strengths-
a tough start. (Hattie, 2015, p6)           learnings and innovation being                                                                   based approach rather than a
                                            shared across the system?                                                                        deficit-based approach. And one that
The recent reviews of the science of                                                                                                         actively involved those impacted,
                                            What are the challenges in
development and learning also found                                                                                                          rangatahi, whānau and educators.
                                            converting this understanding
that educators response to adversity
                                            into implementation and
matters. Poverty, housing and food                                                                                                           Participants in the workshop agreed
                                            practice on the ground?
insecurity, abuse, or neglect produce                                                                                                        that a focus just on attendance
toxic stress which affects learning,                                                                                                         would be too narrow. There was
but when adults have the awareness,                                                                                                          also a concern that concentrating
empathy, and cultural competence                                                                                                             on attendance might have limited
to understand and listen to children                                                                                                         the team to looking only at crisis
they can buffer the effects of even                                                                                                          responses such as the attendance
serious adversity. (Flook, 2019)                                                                                                             service for a student who has
                                                                                                                                             already disengaged.1 Therefore

                                                                                                                                                                                      1 The MOE was already preparing advice on
                                                                                                                                                                                      potential reform of the attendance service which
                                                                                                                                                                                      had not been achieving the desired outcomes.

20                                                                              Kia mārama mai, kia whakapono mai   Know me. Believe in me   Co-design                                                                                   21
Why a co-design and     Co-design is now commonplace in           In this attendance, wellbeing and
                        the design of public services and is      engagement project the opportunity
place-based approach?   fledgling in policy making circles.       of a co-design approach was not only
                                                                  to learn from rangatahi/ākonga voice,
                        Co-design focuses on:                     but also to ensure that rangatahi
                                                                  and whānau could participate in
                        •   Involving those impacted              and have influence over the design
                            as active participants in the         process. The collaborative nature
                            definition, design and potentially    of the approach also resulted in
                            the delivery of responses.            stronger connections between
                        •   Understanding people’s lived          those who participated and built
                            experiences as equivalent to          local capability and capacity.
                            other forms of evidence, and
                            using these insights together         Co-design is a complementary
                            to generate new perspectives,         approach to initiatives based on
                            opportunities and solutions.          evidence that are often designed by
                        •   Iterative cycles of experimentation   knowledgeable experts, which may
                            (prototyping) and mutual              not involve students, whānau and
                            learning by doing.                    teachers from the community in their
                                                                  design and implementation. It can
                        This approach can help governments        bridge the gap between evidence
                        design better public policy and           based research and implementation
                        has the potential to influence            on the ground. Using co-design also
                        positive change in systems. This          makes the process more sustainable
                        is because it brings together a           as ākonga, kaiako (teachers) and         of more sustainable relationships          regional office to identify a set of
                        diverse set of people in a system         whānau are more likely to continue       is a key aspect of a place-based           design principles and key elements
                        to get to grips with the complexity       with ideas, initiatives and ways of      approach. The TSI-Lab introduced           that could be shared with and
                        in which public policy and services       working after design team members        another innovation partner with            adapted by other Kāhui Ako.
                        are created and operate.                  with a facilitation role leave.          a similar vision, the Middlemore
                                                                                                           Foundation, into the process.              These two different approaches
                        In TSI-Lab’s experience                   Working in place                         Middlemore Foundation wanted to            are explained in the two
                        co-design can:                                                                     work with Te Kāhui Ako O Manurewa          case studies that follow.
                                                                  As a first step the design teams         as they had previous success
                        •   Bring people of different             needed to understand the                 working with a cluster of schools in
                            backgrounds and ages—their            existing innovation in place. The        Papakura. They have accompanied
                            motivations, perceptions,             understanding of what was already        the MOE co-design work as a patient
                            choices and experiences—to            happening on the ground shaped the       partner so they can eventually play a
                            the foreground which can help         process which unfolded in Auckland       role in supporting ideas of rangatahi
                            develop local solutions that          and Rotorua. In Auckland the regional    and whānau in the community.
                            can feedback into the system.         MOE office wanted to work with           Middlemore Foundation intends to
                        •   Enable those most affected by         schools in Manurewa and hoped to         remain in the area for at least 5 years.
                            policy or service or a system—        invite more than one Kāhui Ako1 to
                            in this case education—to             participate, as the students move        The Bay of Plenty MOE office
                            participate in its development,       between the different Kāhui Ako          had already been working with
                            including citizens, frontline         depending on which intermediate or       Rotorua Central Kāhui Ako on a
                            staff and decision-makers.            high school they are in zone for. This   recent attendance initiative that
                        •   Create a stronger feedback            is also because of the high transience   was innovative. Therefore the IU
                            loop between lived experience,        of the population due to insecure        embarked on a process that aimed
                            research, policy, implementation      housing tenure. The starting point       to understand how to scale local
                            and evaluation, and their effects     for any co-design work was not yet       innovation. This meant working             1 There are 3 different Kāhui Ako in Manurewa.
                                                                                                                                                      They do not all include schools and do not
                            and interactions on the ground.       clear in Auckland’s case. The creation   closely with the Bay of Plenty’s           include kura kaupapa in Manurewa.

22                                                                Kia mārama mai, kia whakapono mai        Know me. Believe in me                     Co-design                                        23
Case Study—
                                                                        This case study describes part one         The first part of the case study
                                                                        of a co-design process with schools        describes the various processes
                                                                        and students from Manurewa.                and activities that were undertaken
                                                                                                                   to achieve these goals including:
                                                                        The goals of the co-design

                                                                        process were to:                           •   Where we started, why
                                                                                                                       and who was involved
                                                                        •   Build relationships and                •   An existing innovation
                                                                            understand the existing                    partnership with Manurewa
                                                                            innovation and areas of                    High School (MH)
                                                                            common interest;                       •   Building relationships and finding

in Manurewa
                                                                        •   Involve more schools, students             areas of shared interest with
                                                                            and MOE in that process as a               Manurewa Intermediate and
                                                                            capability building activity leaving       Te Kāhui Ako O Manurewa
                                                                            them with the skills to lead their     •   Building capability and skills
                                                                            own design and innovation;                 in the co-design approach

                                                                        •   Explore and understand the             •   Building a deeper understanding
                                                                            experiences of a broad selection           of rangatahi lived experience
                                                                            of rangatahi with varied
                                                                            experiences of learning and            The later parts of the case study
                                                                            school and have rangatahi voice        highlight the findings and outcomes

                                                                            at the centre of understanding         of this collaborative work including:
                                                                            the issues and responses;
                                                                        •   Build connections across the           •   Key insights about enabling
                                                                            region that could be built upon            attendance and innovation
                                                                            in the future and that would               from a rangatahi and
                                                                            strengthen the collective capital          systems perspective
                                                                            and resources of the schools.          •   Strategic learnings and
                                                                                                                       early outcomes
                                                                                                                   •   Opportunity areas for future
                                                                                                                       co-design work together

26         Kia mārama mai, kia whakapono mai   Know me. Believe in me   Manurewa case study                                                              27
Snapshot of Manurewa, Tamaki Makaurau

Manurewa’s full name was                 Manurewa has a population                    34 schools & kura with 17,000                    In 2018, 54.6% students aged
Te Manu rewa o Tamapahore                of 82,242 people according                   students                                         6–16 in Manurewa attended
(the drifted-away kite of                to the last census which                                                                      school regularly3. This is lower
Tamapahore). Story has it                is approximately the same                    3 Kāhui Ako                                      than the national average
that two brothers were kite              population as New Zealand’s                                                                   (63.9%) and lower than the
flying—Tamapahore’s flew                 8th largest city.                            Average regular attendance                       Auckland average (65.3%)
the highest so Tamapahure                                                             for the 3 Kāhui Ako is 45%
broke the cord so that the               The community is diverse—                                                                     In 2018, 72.6% of students in
kite drifted toward Hauraki 1.           37% European, 33% Pacific,                   2 alternative education                          Manurewa stayed at school
It is also known as “Rewa”               25% Māori, 20% Asian 2                       providers                                        until at least their 17th
to locals and has several                                                                                                              birthday. This is lower than
distinctive neighbourhoods.              Manurewa borders the                         Manurewa has one of                              the national average (82.8%)
                                         Manukau Harbour. Its two                     the higher rates in South                        and lower than the Auckland
Mana whenua in this area are:            maunga Matukutūruru and                      Auckland of rangatahi                            average (86.6%)
Waiohua-Tāmaki         Marutūahu         Matukutūreia are collectively                becoming ‘second chance
Kawerau ā Maki         Ngāti Paoa
                                         known as Ngā Matukurua.                      learners’. However, many of
Ngāti Tamaoho          Ngāti Whanaunga   The Puhinui stream that                      them are studying to get the
Ngāti Te Ata-Waiohua   Ngāti Maru
Te Akitai-Waiohua      Ngāti Tamaterā    begins in Totara Park passing                sort of qualifications they
Ngāi Tai ki Tāmaki
Te Ahiwaru-Waiohua     Waikato-Tainui    the Botanic Gardens, and                     could have completed while at
                                         winds its way across to the                  school for free.
Most Māori living in                     Manukau Harbour.
Manurewa are mataawaaka
and some may not know their
                                                                                                                                       1 Manurewa marae
                                                                                                                                       2 Manurewa Local Board's demographic card
                                                                                                                                       3 At least 90% of the time

28                                                Kia mārama mai, kia whakapono mai   Believe
                                                                                      Know me
                                                                                                 Believe in me   Manurewa case study                                               29
Left Matukutūruru
                                         Above: Matukureia

30   Kia mārama mai, kia whakapono mai   Know me. Believe in me   Manurewa case study   31
Where & who?                           Manurewa was selected as the              Who was involved?                                      Existing Manurewa High   Since 2015 MH had teamed up        The team of MH teachers engaged
                                       location of the Tāmaki case study by                                                                                      with the TSI-Lab on various        with students and whānau on their
                                       the regional Auckland MOE office.         Manurewa High School—member                            TSI-Lab relationship     projects with a future focus.      findings and students participated
                                                                                 Te Kāhui Ako O Manurewa                                and innovation                                              in collective brainstorming and
                                       It was initially thought that all three                                                                                   In 2016, MH’s leadership asked     creation sessions that helped inform
                                       Manurewa Kāhui Ako1 might be              Manurewa Intermediate—lead                                                      the TSI-Lab to facilitate a co-    prototypes that could be tested.
                                       involved in the co-design process         for Te Kāhui Ako O Manurewa                                                     design process with some of        The design principles upon which
                                       as the Kāhui Ako is a useful local                                                                                        their teachers to help shape a     prototypes were developed were:
                                       organisational structure to work with.    Greenmeadows Intermediate—                                                      local future-focused curriculum.
                                       However, the three Kāhui Ako were all     lead for the Alfriston Kāhui Ako                                                Through this process a group       •   Meaningful choice and
                                       at different stages on their respective                                                                                   of teachers conducted empathy          personalised learning
                                       journeys. It was important to align       Alfriston College—member                                                        interviews which included themes       opportunities
                                       the co-design process with the            Alfriston Kāhui Ako                                                             of wellbeing and engagement.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    •   Student-driven learning
                                       interests of the schools and to work
                                                                                 James Cook High School—                                                                                                with mentoring
                                       at their pace so that it reinforced and
                                       supported what they were already          member of Te Korowai Kākahu ō                                                                                      •   Value positive relationships and
                                       doing rather than creating extra          Manurewa and Managing School                                                                                           allow the active involvement
                                       work. The offer of participation and      for the Alternative Education                                                                                          of whānau and community
                                       collaboration was made on that basis.     Consortium for Counties-Manukau
                                                                                                                                                                                                    •   The learning honours the Treaty
                                                                                 Te Ara Poutama—alternative                                                                                             of Waitangi and all cultural
                     Panmure                   Half Moon Bay                                                                                                                                            identities (Manurewa High
                                                                                 education provider
                                                                                                                                                                                                        School Community 2020, p3)
                                                                                 Community Education and
                                     Pakuranga                                                                                                                                                      The MH school community tested
                                                                                 Training (CEAT)—alternative
     Onehunga                                                                    education provider                                                                                                 these prototypes during 2019 with
                                                                                                                                                                                                    the guidance of the school leadership
                                                                                 The Middlemore Foundation, an                                                                                      and the MH teacher-led design team.
                                                                                 community innovation partner,                                                                                      The TSI-Lab team then worked with
                                           East Tamaki                           was also interested in supporting                                                                                  the MH team to capture key learning
                                                                                 co-design to improve outcomes                                                                                      resulting from the MH prototypes to
                                                                                 for rangatahi and whānau                                                                                           both assist MH and to understand
                                       Ōtara                                                                                                                                                        innovation already taking place to
                                                                                                                                                                                                    inform the MOE co-design process.
                    Papatoetoe                                                                                                                                                                      Information about the prototypes and
                                                                                                                                                                                                    lessons learnt from them relevant
                                                                                                                                                                                                    to wellbeing and engagement
                                                                                                                                                                                                    are summarised overleaf.


                                                                                 1 The purpose of a Kāhui Ako (also known as
                                                                                 a Community of Learning) is to raise student
                                                                                 achievement by sharing teaching practices
                                                                                 and expertise between schools and teachers
                                                                                 in each community group in a place. Education
                                                                                 providers choose to join a KA. They can include:
                                                                                 early childhood education services me ngā, kōhanga
                                                                                 reo (early learning services), primary, intermediate
                                                                                 and secondary, kura kaupapa, wharekura
                                                                                 post-secondary (MOE website)

32                                                                               Kia mārama mai, kia whakapono mai                      Know me. Believe in me   Manurewa case study                                                   33
Prototype 1. Hau ora time                   Prototype 2. Kaitiaki time with                a week to get a driving certificate        Building relationships and   Through the existing relationship       Under MI’s leadership Te Kāhui Ako
                                            “vertical” whānau groups                  •    Some “academic” students were                                           with MH the TSI-Lab team and            O Manurewa had already designed
                                                                                           challenged by the change and               finding areas of shared      community innovation partner            an achievement challenge1 using
The purpose of hau ora time was             MH teachers heard in their empathy             concerned about credits.                   interest with Manurewa       Middlemore Foundation were              teacher collaborative inquiry2 and
to allow ākonga and kaiako time             interviews that ākonga wanted more                                                                                     able to connect with Te Kāhui           consultation with students and
dedicated to wellbeing. It happened         positive relationships with their         These ideas are still being tested by
                                                                                                                                      Intermediate and Te          Ako O Manurewa and Manurewa             whānau. Three goals had been
at the beginning of the day to set          kaiako, more choice and learning          MH and are evolving. It is important            Kāhui Ako O Manurewa         Intermediate (MI). The team             established—one of which was to
students up for a learning mindset for      that is relevant to “real life”. The MH   to highlight the space which has                                             found there was alignment with          “improve achievement by increasing
the day and make school a place they        design team developed the idea of         been created for innovation within                                           the work of the Te Kāhui Ako O          student and whānau engagement
wanted to be. Hau ora time replaced         “Kaitiaki Time” which is scheduled for    the school by the leadership.                                                Manurewa and the MOE project,           through effective transition across
tutor time to which students showed         four hours a week between a teacher                                                                                    in wanting to understand:               Te Kāhui Ako O Manurewa”3.4
poor punctuality and attendance.            and a group of around twenty              This early work with MH helped to
For hau ora time a wide range of            students creating an opportunity          make visible the challenges and                                              How we might collaborate with
activities were offered at school.          for teachers to form stronger bonds       opportunities of implementing                                                young people, whānau, schools,
They included choir, fellowship, band       with a smaller ratio of students.         attendance and wellbeing                                                     the community and each other to         1 Achievement challenges are shared goals
                                                                                                                                                                                                           identified and developed by a Kāhui Ako based
practice, yoga, cooking, watching a         These groups include students of          related initiatives as well as the                                           design ways of working that lead        on the needs of its learners. Achievement
popular television show in the hall         all year levels (vertical) so that more   existing potential for codesign                                              to better attendance, engagement        challenges are usually accompanied
and various sporting activities.            relationships are created between         work across the school.                                                      and wellbeing for all students.         by an action plan for improvement.
                                                                                                                                                                                                           2 Collaborative inquiry­—teachers work
                                            older and younger students fostering                                                                                                                           together to identify common challenges,
Early observations and outcomes             Tuakana-Teina relationships1. This                                                                                                                             analyse relevant data and test out approaches.
                                                                                                                                                                                                           3 See Whaia Te Ara Rangatira, Te
from testing hau ora time:                  time was also an opportunity to                                                                                                                                Kāhui Ako O Manurewa, Achievement
                                            learn soft skills needed by employers                                                                                                                          Challenge Document.
•    Connections were made                                                                                                                                                                                 4 Transition describes any move between
                                            encapsulated in MH’s learner profile.                                                                                                                          education providers—ECE, primary,
     with the community as past                                                                                                                                                                            intermediate and secondary school.
     students came to help with             Early observations and outcomes
     some of the activities.                from testing kaitiaki time.               1 The concept of a tuakana–teina
                                                                                      relationship, an integral part of traditional
•    Punctuality improved. Students                                                   Māori society is that an older or more expert
     would take advantage of                •   There has been some positive          tuakana (brother, sister or cousin) helps and
                                                                                      guides a younger or less expert teina.
     the flexibility of the time for            feedback from students who
     sports before school and                   have enjoyed being mixed with
                                                                                                                                      Building capability          As an initial activity together the     Subsequently members of the Te
                                                                                                                                                                   TSI-Lab design team facilitated         Kāhui Ako O Manurewa helped
     would not go home again to                 students of different ages.                                                           and skills in the co-        an introductory workshop in May         the design team to organise an
     shower which used to occur             •   Some teachers have been able                                                          design approach              2019 on the value of design and         ideation and prototyping workshop
•    Initially participation in a hau ora       to take advantage of this time to                                                                                  of listening to the voice of lived      on transition and attendance,
     activity was compulsory. However           explore learning about soft skills                                                                                 experience with some of the teachers    and in particular the move from
     staff observed some students           •   Some teachers have found                                                                                           from the Te Kāhui Ako O Manurewa.       intermediate to high school.
     were turning up to school on               the kaitiaki role and facilitating                                                                                 Some whānau who had participated        Manurewa Intermediate had
     time but socialising in the                those hours harder to adapt to                                                                                     in a whānau-led design process in       conducted some anonymous
     grounds rather than participating          than others even with resources                                                                                    Papakura shared their experience        interviews with whānau and
     in an activity. They found out             and toolkits made available.                                                                                       with the group. The aim of the          insights generated through that
     students liked socialising in              This has raised questions                                                                                          workshop was also to role model a       process were incorporated into
     a safe space even if they did              about the diversity of skill sets,                                                                                 collaborative learning experience       the workshops, for example:
     not participate in a hau ora               capabilities and what support is                                                                                   which could be used in the future for
     activity. Staff found there were           needed by teachers especially                                                                                      ākonga and whānau and scaffolded        •    the impact of past generations
     no behavioural management                  when relationship building and                                                                                     the learning for teachers who                negative and positive
     issues so they chose to make               pedagogy are more important                                                                                        were not experienced in human-               experience on ākonga today
     participation voluntary giving             than specialist or content                                                                                         centred design. Only one teacher        •    whānau benefiting from better
     the students agency and choice             knowledge. Following this                                                                                          of the 18 participants had had any           information and advice about
     increased overall wellbeing.               learning MH’s leadership team                                                                                      previous exposure to design-led              the transition process. When
                                                freed up the time of some leaders                                                                                  thinking or human-centred design.            it is done well it supports
                                                to support other teachers.                                                                                                                                      positive engagement in
                                            •   Some whānau were using an hour                                                                                                                                  learning and attendance.

34                                                                                    Kia mārama mai, kia whakapono mai               Know me. Believe in me       Manurewa case study                                                                      35
The workshop created an                                                                                            A deeper understanding   Building on what was already             Through this process MOE
opportunity for a variety of students,   Bridging relationships between       Manurewa Maara                                                established and being tested, the        sponsored the ‘callup’ How do we
teachers and whānau from different       Te Kāhui Ako O Manurewa
                                                                                                                   of student and           team concluded there was still a         build mana around student learning?
schools to connect, discuss ideas        and new community partners           MH shared the idea of a multi-       whānau experience        need to better understand the lived      What would make school learning
and work together creatively with        (Kootuitui Trust, 2019)              purpose community garden                                      experiences of a broader cross           more inspiring, engaging and exciting
the participation of the MOE and                                              with its Kāhui Ako during the                                 section of rangatahi from different      for years 7–10? As a result, the design
the Middlemore Foundation. Once          As part of a place-based             introductory design workshop                                  schools and to listen to the often-      team received an additional 67 ideas
again ways of working were role          approach, the TSI-Lab                in May. The Counties Manukau                                  forgotten voices of rangatahi who        about mana and learning including
modelled including enough time to        intentionally weaves together        District Health Board owns land                               had left mainstream schooling to         some raps, images, text and videos
establish whakawhanaungatanga            opportunities that can benefit       adjacent to MH. MH has entered                                understand wellbeing, engagement         from the young members of the
between the participants and lay         community partners. From             into an agreement for its use                                 and attendance from their                UpSouth digital community platform.
a solid foundation for continuing        2016 TSI-Lab and Middlemore          and has been collaborating                                    perspective1. The regional MOE and
more work. This part of the process      Foundation has collaborated          with a local permaculture                                     TSI reached out to the Alfriston Kāhui   The TSI-Lab and MOE team2 then
also informed the key insights           on whānau-led design in              practitioner. Ideas for the                                   Ako to gauge their interest in the       analysed the 86 interview transcripts
found in the next section.               neighbouring Papakura among          garden have included rongo                                    co-design approach and innovation.       and 67 ideas from UpSouth.
                                         a cluster of schools with the        (Māori medicinal plants) and                                  Greenmeadows Intermediate and            Key themes and insights were
                                         Kootuitui Trust. From that process   fruit trees and the DHB has                                   Alfriston College agreed to be part      developed from these interviews.
                                         some local whānau developed          contributed a worm farm.                                      of the empathy interviews. James
                                         their own healthy homes                                                                            Cook High as a member of the             A combination of the interviews,
                                         prototype “Ko Huiamano”—a peer       The Middlemore Foundation and                                 third Kāhui Ako in Manurewa was          the collaboration with schools
                                         to peer model of whānau support      TSI have supported this process                               not able to participate. However, as     around wellbeing and attendance,
                                         with home performance advice         as a prototype in its own right                               lead of the Alternative Education        and an understanding of their
                                         to help homes become warmer          within the MOE work. Local iwi                                Consortium, James Cook High              existing interests and efforts
                                         and drier. In 2018 the Middlemore    blessed the whenua in August of                               connected us to the consortium           around innovation provided
                                         Foundation approached the            2019. Although new relationships                              and the team was able to work with       two kinds of insights:
                                         TSI-Lab to work with them            have been forged, this work is                                the two AE providers in Manurewa.
                                         as an innovation partner in          challenging. The land will require                                                                     1. Insight into the lived
                                         Manurewa and to support              preparation and some ideas                                    The team held empathy interviews            experiences of rangatahi,
                                         whānau-led transformation in         are not viable at this time. Over                             with a total of 70 rangatahi and            whānau and educators and
                                         the community. TSI-Lab and           time the project wants to bring                               16 educators, youth workers and             what helps and hinders school
                                         Middlemore Foundation agreed         rangatahi and the community into                              whānau. The students ranged from            engagement and attendance.
                                         that Middlemore Foundation           the space to test the concepts                                years 7–13 and had varying levels
                                         could potentially assist the         of sharing Matauranga Māori                                   of attendance. Interviewees were         2. Insight into how the system
                                         MOE process by supporting            in horticulture, wellbeing as                                 from diverse cultural backgrounds,          currently supports or creates
                                         longer-term solutions designed       well as real world learning.                                  from four mainstream schools                barriers for collaboration, and
                                         by rangatahi and whānau.                                                                           and two alternative education               innovation around issues like
                                                                              The space is now being activated                              providers in Manurewa. A selection          attendance and wellbeing.
                                                                              to host activity with the aim of                              of rangatahi who were not employed,
                                                                              building relationships with the                               in training or education living in       The following section details both
                                                                              community for future planting                                 Manurewa were also interviewed           rangatahi and systems insights.
                                                                              and sharing Matauranga Māori.                                 through an Employment Broker
                                                                              Prior to the COVID-19 lockdown,                               & Coach who works for TSI.
                                                                              seedlings were distributed to
                                                                              community members who were                                    In parallel MOE posted a ‘callup’ on
                                                                              keen to garden at home.                                       TSI’s UpSouth platform. UpSouth
                                                                                                                                            is a digital community platform
                                                                              Middlemore Foundation will                                    with over 2000 members that              1 One limitation of the interviews was
                                                                                                                                            rewards rangatahi for their ideas        not being able to interview rangatahi
                                                                              continue working with Te                                                                               attending Māori medium schools.
                                                                              Kāhui Ako O Manurewa.                                         and creativity with micropayments.       2 For the empathy interviews and analysis—
                                                                                                                                                                                     the design team included a diverse groups of
                                                                                                                                                                                     interviewers and analysts that included people from
                                                                                                                                                                                     diverse background—Māori, Pasifika and Pākehā

36                                                                            Kia mārama mai, kia whakapono mai    Know me. Believe in me   Manurewa case study                                                                      37
Consideration of ethics                 •   The team also tested and
     and preparation for safe                    refined resources for the
     participation in empathy                    empathy interviews with a
     research with young people                  group of rangatahi to check
                                                 the interview guide with
     •   Members of the design                   pastoral support on hand.
         team and some school staff
         participated in a practical
         workshop during which they
         learnt the theory behind empathy
         interviews and practised how
         to do them in a fun way.

     •   The team collaboratively
         designed and developed a
         research plan and prepared
         bespoke interview questions
         and toolkits for whānau,
         young people and staff.

     •   There was careful consideration
         of the ethics of working with
         rangatahi in this way. Interviews
         were done in small groups and
         there had to be clear access
         to trusted pastoral care and
         support within their school
         or educational provider.

38                                           Kia mārama mai, kia whakapono mai
Insights into the lived experiences of
                                                                              rangatahi, whānau and educators and what
                                                                              helps and hinders school engagement and

                                                                              attendance are provided in this section.

        H  AT  W                                                              Each high level insight is unpacked and

      W ED I N
                                                                              supporting evidence provided.

     LE A R N       A :
           U R E W
     M A N         H I
          NG  AT A
      R A       HT S
       IN S IG
40              Kia mārama mai, kia whakapono mai   Know me. Believe in me   Manurewa case study                         41
Theme 1                                          When teachers can build                                                            Some rangatahi feel like
                                                 relationships with students,                                                       some of their teachers do
                                                 it inspires them and makes                                                         not care about them and
                                                 it easier for them to learn.                                                       only see teaching as a job.

Relationships and                                “Inspired to learn is when the teacher
                                                     is like communicating with me
                                                     and I am communicating back
                                                                                             Supporting evidence

                                                                                             Relationships between and among
                                                                                                                                    For rangatahi with more complexity
                                                                                                                                    in their lives, it may only take one
                                                                                                                                    negative experience with a teacher to

empathy are the
                                                     and then we just go back and            children and adults are a primary      derail their formal education journey.
                                                     forth like a conversation about         process through which biological
                                                     my work and what we’re learning         and contextual factors influence       “My social studies teacher used to
                                                     about.” (High school student)           and mutually reinforce each other.        come to class, and she used
                                                                                             Relationships that are reciprocal,        to say to us “I hate kids. I hate
                                                 “I like it when the teacher interacts       attuned, culturally responsive,           children.”” (School leaver living in

key to learning
                                                       with you, it makes you like, gets     and trustful are a positive               Manurewa who attended another
                                                       to know you and stuff, so like they   developmental force between               school outside of Manurewa
                                                       don’t just give you work and tell     children and their physical and           also in South Auckland)
                                                       you to do it, they’ll talk to you     social contexts. (Osher et al, 2020)
                                                       in class, interact with everyone                                             Supporting evidence
                                                       ...yeah I like it when teachers do    The neuroscience is clear. When
                                                       that, it actually inspires kids to    students are in an environment         A recent study of rangatahi who
                                                       learn.” (High school student)         where they feel safe and have          regularly skipped school completed
                                                                                             a sense of belonging, they find        in 2019 found that students would
                                                                                             it easier to learn. (Kaufman)          start “wagging” with one class by
                                                 “I think he has helped us learn... or he
                                                      has helped me go to my classes                                                detaching from peers, teachers or
                                                      and he has gone out of his way to                                             learning. The students shared that
                                                      make me feel comfortable in the                                               they didn’t think their teachers or
                                                      classes that I have. There were                                               school cared about them or took
                                                      some classes where I didn’t have                                              their problems seriously. They
                                                      good relationships with either                                                found a community outside of
                                                      teachers or some students, so                                                 the classroom with whom they
                                                      he pretty much put me in a class                                              could relate and could avoid
                                                      that made me feel comfortable                                                 the anxiety they felt inside the
                                                      and once I went in there, the                                                 classroom. (Baskerville, 2019)
                                                      teachers were welcoming and
                                                      they helped me learn new
                                                      stuff.” (High school student)

                                                 “We have just focused on listening—
                                                    not teaching.” (Staff working
                                                    with rangatahi struggling to
                                                    engage with school and a
                                                    pattern of low attendance)

42           Kia mārama mai, kia whakapono mai   Know me. Believe in me                      Manurewa case study                                                         43
Some alternative education              Role of a significant adult                                                          Building resilience of
spaces have created                     as a protective factor                                                               rangatahi coping with
a sense of belonging                                                                                                         trauma and toxic stress.
for students who have
previously struggled in
mainstream education.
“Ever since I have been coming here,    A significant adult whether a               “They (relatives) made sure that I was   Some educators and adults are              “He’s now stopping fights                growing up as part of a marginalized
   it has made me want to learn.        parent, coach or mentor has a                  going to school every day, but        supporting rangatahi and tamariki             instead of creating them              group). This can cause them to feel
   Like how they do that one-on-        positive impact on outcomes                    then I moved back to my mum           with extra challenges and are                 and he’s concentrating on             threatened in situations that other
   one learning and it gives you        for family and for students with               and everything just dropped           building resilience at the same time.         school…” (Caregiver)                  students find harmless. The brain
   more understanding of the work.”     parents without headspace                      again, do you know what I mean?       MH has created a new programme,                                                     learns that the environment is not
   (Student in alternative education)   this is even more important.                   I just didn’t like sports anymore.”   Te Ara Hou, for students struggling        “We have just focused on                 safe and remains on alert to potential
                                                                                       (Student in alternative education)    with attendance as early as year              listening— not teaching.”             danger... Over time, when students
“Just like at school, I felt I was      Rangatahi who have champions in                                                      9 with a supportive teacher that              (Staff member working on              are surrounded by people they
    different to everyone else and      their life are more able to overcome        Supporting evidence                      achieves a sense of belonging,                new initiative for students           trust, their threat detection system
    my mentality was older than         negative experiences with teachers                                                   brotherhood and whānau for                    struggling with attendance)           is less likely to activate, and they’re
    everyone. And when I came           and with learning. The absence of           Toxic stress refers to intense,          those students. The focus was                                                       better able to learn. (Kaufman)
    here, everyone was just like me     a significant adult can contribute          frequent, and/or prolonged               on relationships, creating strong          “Something I’m proud of is getting       1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Manurewa High Innovation
    and it felt like home.” (Student    toward the experiencing of ‘toxic           activation of the body’s stress          bonds with and between the                    my attendance up since I’ve
    in alternative education)           stress’. Children and young people          response and autonomic systems           students through team activities              been term 2 and I’m meeting this
                                        we spoke to notice and respond to           in the absence of the buffering          like basketball and dance. There              fellow and the other boys, both
                                        adults’ hopes or aspirations for them.      protection of adult support. (Savaii).   was early evidence that these                 have a stronger bond together
                                                                                                                             rangatahi were re-engaging with               and yeah” (High school student,
                                        “Yeah my dad motivates me and               Sustained accumulated and severe         learning despite past difficulties.           Te Ara Hou programme1) .
                                           will say don’t let this beat you.”       stress can significantly affect
                                           (Secondary school student)               executive functioning including          “Yeah sometimes I feel our kids, some
                                                                                                                                of my kids when something goes          Supporting evidence
                                                                                    how we understand problems;
                                        “...we had a meeting and I fought for       the ability to reason clearly,              wrong and then they just deflate,
                                                                                                                                let miss do this. Let miss lead         “There are many schools across the
                                             him saying look he’s not with me       set goals, navigate challenges;
                                                                                                                                the way here, no this happened,         [US] that are trying to be trauma-
                                             at the moment, these are the           how we delay gratification; and
                                                                                                                                you’ve still got heart, you’ve still    sensitive, understanding how to
                                             issues that I’ve seen, I’ll be happy   regulate emotions. (Center on the
                                                                                                                                got this amount of energy, use          recognize the symptoms of toxic
                                             to take him under my wing and          Developing Child; TSI, 2017)
                                                                                                                                it and I’ll just boost you a little.”   stress, how to differentiate a child
                                             give him strict restrictions. And
                                                                                                                                (Teacher with pastoral care role)       having a fear response from one
                                             we follow those restrictions, so       Conditions of extreme stress
                                                                                                                                                                        who is just being wilful or difficult.
                                             I’ve had him for the last term of      reduce family’s and young people’s
                                                                                                                                                                        There are a lot of kids right now
                                             school and he goes to school           bandwidth and capacity to cope or        “And he’s actually had two teachers        who are being told that they are
                                             well dressed and he’s confident,       to move out of poverty. (Growing            that he didn’t get along with and       bad, who are being suspended or
                                             he’s now stopping fights               Up In New Zealand, 2015)                    now he gets along with them             expelled, when really the underlying
                                             instead of creating them and                                                       like a house on fire. So the first      problem is a biological one, with
                                             he’s concentrating on school.”                                                     week was like just go to class, sit     the over-reactivity of their stress
                                             (Parent and significant adult)                                                     there quietly, second week go to        response.” (Burke-Harris, 2018)
                                                                                                                                class—say “hello I’m here”, then
                                                                                                                                third start trying to communicate       Building psychological safety is
                                                                                                                                saying “Look miss, I’m sorry I          harder with some students than
                                                                                                                                was really bad back then but            others. This behavior may result
                                                                                                                                I really need a hand or I don’t         from trauma or chronic stress in
                                                                                                                                understand something” that’s            the student’s life (such as having
                                                                                                                                where it opens.” (Caregiver)            a learning or thinking difference or

44                                                                                  Kia mārama mai, kia whakapono mai        Know me. Believe in me                     Manurewa case study                                                           45
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