Māori me te Ao Hangarau 2015 - The Māori ICT Report 2015 - Planet Maori
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2 Ka tangi te tītī — The migratory bird that searches the globe for economic opportunities, it is connected to the home, but with a global view. Ka tangi te kākā — The bird of the forest resources the domestic market. ISBN: 978-0-947497-16-3
Acknowledgements Matilde Tayawa Figuracion, Research and Evaluation, Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, for writing the report. Te Puni Kōkiri, NZ Trade and Enterprise and Callaghan Innovation for providing feedback and information for the report.
Contents Mihimihi.......................................................................... 6 Executive Summary....................................................... 8 Key Findings................................................................... 9 Introduction..................................................................... 10 New Zealand ICT landscape compared globally............ 12 Māori access to ICT....................................................... 14 Māori use of ICT............................................................. 19 Māori in ICT Education................................................... 22 Māori in ICT Employment............................................... 24 Māori business in ICT..................................................... 27 Social impact of ICT....................................................... 30 Māori ICT Companies..................................................... 34
Mihimihi In bygone days, Māori with a special knowledge of agriculture, geography, war, sailing and mysticism spent much time studying their art and discipline. For astronomy, Māori studied the movement of the stars and learned that it followed a seasonal cycle, as did the Earth below, so that their rising and setting marked the progression of the seasons. Our pantheon of gods, Ranginui the sky father and Papatūānuku the earth mother and their children such as Tāne, Rongo, Tāwhirimātea and Tangaroa reflected our acute awareness of there being a greater purpose to our existence. The twelve celestial heavens in Māori lore provided spiritual perspective to help define our understanding of man’s place in the physical world and the universe. These same beliefs and values not only form the basis from which Māori society has flourished today but also help qualify our understanding of the natural world. As an illustration, in 1986 Dr Huirangi Waikerepuru on behalf of Ngā Kaiwhakapūmau i te Reo Māori challenged the Crowns lack of due process before introducing the Bill, the Māori Language Act, to Parliament. The Crowns actions at the time also further denied Māori access to radio frequencies and a television channel for Māori language broadcasting. As such in 1990 a further claim brought by Sir Graham Latimar on behalf of the New Zealand Māori Council sought findings that Māori have rangatiratanga over the allocation of radio frequencies. And in 1999 Mrs Rangiaho Everton also challenged the need for a portion of the management rights of radio spectrum be reserved for Māori. As a consequence, the Crown acknowledged and reserved some frequencies nationwide for the promotion of the Māori language and culture. The actions of these few rangatira laid the platform for new opportunities that resulted in Māori taking an ownership stake in mobile communication operator 2Degrees and greater support for Te Reo through the Mā Te Reo fund administered by Te Taura Whiri. He Kai Kei Aku Ringa is an expression of Māori resilience, determination and innovation based on our whakapapa, tikanga and kawa. It was used often in reference to extreme conditions such as the two world wars, the great depression and more recently during the late 1980s and 1990s where Māori unemployment ballooned. Ka Tangi Te Tītī is call of the sooty shearwater as it annually traverses from Aotearoa to the Arctic and back again, an aspiration for Māori to be internationally connected and recognised. Ka Tangi te Kākā is the squawk of the parrot in the nearby forests epitomising the rising volumes and visibility of economic activities by Māori enterprises while Ka Tangi Hoki Ahau speaks of SME and individual efforts to join the new commercial and technical highways. Māori radio, television and the ICT networks have been able to accelerate all “tangi” mediums to great success. The haka is still the defining icon for New Zealand and reverberates throughout the world frontiers of sport, politics, culture, war and commerce. The reverberations through Māori ICT will exponentialise those Kiwi classics.
Like our ancestors before us we have embraced this new technology and have welcomed the challenges that these new technologies offer our people. Our children are the early adopters of this technology and regularly participate in social networking and play a guiding hand in helping their parents and kaumātua embrace these taonga. We are also reminded of the benefits that these new technologies bring to enhancing our role as kaitiaki for our natural environment and its resources. Consequently we now see the emergence of Māori enterprises leading the world in new technological developments and showcasing their expertise to global audiences. However we should not be complacent and be like the huia forever to be lost in the memory of time. Like the ICT sector, we too need to push the boundaries and continue to explore new horizons. We should not be satisfied to be just the end user or the administrator of a workplace network. We should aspire to be present in all facets of the value chain and seek to continually acquire higher skills, experiences and qualifications. At the same time we should not forget who we are nor from where we have come. Our past does offer unique insight and knowledge that can inform how we shape our future. Finally I would like to acknowledge the great work and the analysis to complete this report. The findings will offer useful information and will hopefully guide government policy. It will also stimulate further discussion and investment into our communities so that they may thrive and provide greater contributions to our economy and country – this is indeed the promise of He kai kei aku ringa – The Crown-Māori economic growth partnership. Ngāhiwi Tomoana Māori Economic Development Advisory Board Panel Chair
Executive Summary Māori households have lower internet access than other New Zealand households. Only 2.5% of the total Māori workforce is employed in the ICT Sector in 2014. 68% 83% Māori household and individual access to mobile National phones is on a Māori Households National Average Māori Average par or above the 68 per cent of Māori households have access to national average. the Internet (roughly 438,000) 15 percentage points lower than the 83 per cent national average. Māori professionals in Māori are more likely to use the ICT occupations earn internet for social media and almost double the Māori median income, but networking, downloading or they earn less than their listening to music and obtaining education non-Māori counterparts. information online. This may reflect the younger Māori demographics. Māori experienced a three 3% percentage points growth rate in internet usage 1% over three years. Compared to the New Zealand average, fewer Māori have internet access at home. There is a significantly low proportion of Māori Māori are people studying for ICT less likely to use internet qualifications. to operate a home office Māori participation in ICT business or to work from home qualifications is concentrated in the lower level qualifications. Less than one per cent of Māori in tertiary education are studying for ICT qualifications – most are in diploma and post graduate courses.
9 Key Findings Māori ICT access ICT Statistics Māori households have lower internet access than other New Statistics on ICT access, usage, Zealand households. Sixty eight per cent of Māori households employment and education show have access to the Internet (438,000), 15 percentage points that Māori lag behind other New lower than the 83 per cent national average. Māori household Zealanders. Less is known about and individuals’ access to mobile phone is on a par or above Māori business in ICT, which remains the national average. a data gap. Rapid advances in ICT have led to a significant increase Māori ICT use in the adoption of technology and related services by households, Māori are more likely to use the internet for social media and individuals, businesses, educational networking, downloading or listening to music and obtaining establishments, and the government. education information online. This likely reflects the younger But this has adverse implication to Māori demographics. those without internet access or even to those with access but don’t Māori are less likely to use internet to operate a home office use the internet. This puts to the or to work from home. fore the issue of digital divide. Māori in ICT education Relatively fewer Māori people are obtaining ICT qualifications. Less than one per cent of Māori in tertiary education are studying for ICT qualifications, and they are concentrated in diploma and post graduate courses. Māori in ICT employment Māori make up 12.5 per cent (309,600) of the overall New Zealand workforce in 2014. They work predominantly in manufacturing, wholesale and retail services, utilities and construction. Māori employment is less concentrated in the ICT sector. In 2013, there were 7,800 employed in the sector. Māori are more likely to be employed in the lower skilled ICT occupations. Of the 7,800 Māori in ICT occupations, 2,000 were ICT professionals, 2,800 were Engineering, ICT and Science Technicians and 3,000 were Design, Engineering, Science and Transport Professionals. Fewer Māori are also in highly paid ICT occupations (managers and professionals) than non-Māori. Māori ICT income On average, Māori ICT professionals ($60,000) earn almost double to the median income of a Māori worker ($36,500) in 2013. Māori business in the ICT sector Data on Māori business in ICT remains a data gap. However, there are anecdotal evidence that Māori businesses are early adopters of technology and are engaged in the ICT sector.
10 Introduction Information and Communications Technology (ICT) has been a catalyst of change and growth in a number of countries. ICT has also opened opportunities for individuals, shaping what they do and how they work with others. In modern society, ICT is becoming more powerful, more accessible, more widespread and more socially relevant. It is therefore important to examine its effects upon certain segments of society, Māori in particular. Purpose This Māori ICT report aims to pull together existing information and data to provide a picture of Māori in the ICT sector. The picture can be an important resource to whānau, hapū and iwi Māori for understanding issues, challenges and opportunities. It can also be important for work-related imperatives, such as in informing priority programmes and projects for Māori. Report Structure The report begins with a general picture of the New Zealand ICT landscape, which is then followed by a discussion of Māori internet access and affordability, Māori participation in ICT education and employment, and other impacts ICT may have on Māori individuals, households and businesses. The structure of the report is based on the ten measures used in the Networked Readiness Ranking Report1, the executive summary of which is presented in infographics format. Sections covered in detail include the following: »» Māori access to ICT; »» Māori use of ICT; »» Māori in ICT education; »» Māori in ICT employment; »» Māori business in ICT; and »» The social impact of ICT. Why this report? The recent ICT Sector Report of 2015 highlighted how ICT in New Zealand is growing fast. Growth is seen in the number of IT businesses established, in exports of IT services, and in increased investments in Research and Development (R&D) and faster internet connection. A number of studies compare New Zealand against other developed countries. Benchmarking studies show that New Zealand has solid rankings in a number of ICT readiness indicators relative to others. According to the World Economic Forum, New Zealand has the best political and regulatory environment in 2015. Other international ICT surveys found New Zealand to be competitive against Scandinavian countries, Singapore, US and Canada. This report describes where Māori is at in terms of access, use and participation in the ICT sector. This report identifies gaps in information, particularly on uptake of ICT by Māori business sectors. 1 See Appendix one for the comprehensive discussion of the 10 pillars and the component indicators of each pillar.
11 Data sources for this report IT Businesses Data used for this report are from the Census 2013, Household Use The number of all IT busin- of ICT 20122, Household Labour Force Survey (HLFS), Education esses topped 10,000 for the Counts, Business Operations Survey (BOS), Annual Employment first time in 2014. Employment Survey, Tatauranga Umanga (Māori Authorities, Statistics New in the ICT sector grew by more Zealand) and sources available locally and internationally. than 2,800 in the year to June 2014. Exports of IT services have grown at a compound Caveat/Data Limitation annual growth rate of 14 per Usable data on Māori in ICT business are limited, a gap that is yet cent in the six years to 2014. to be addressed. Because of this limitation, anecdotal stories on Computer services are leading Māori businesses participation in ICT or on Māori ICT businesses are growth in business investment in provided in this report to give a fuller picture. R&D in New Zealand. Only five years ago the value of listed IT The 2012 Household Use of ICT Survey is one of the key data stocks on the NZX was virtually sources for this report. It should be noted that some questions in nothing. Currently IT stocks 2009 were not comparable in the 2012 survey. This study has minimal total 10 per cent of the value comparative analysis of the two year periods. of all listings. Key themes in the ICT sector summarised The 2015 ICT Sector Report released by the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment identified a number of key themes emerging in the ICT sector. These themes relate to increased investment, demand for skills, research and development (R&D) and innovation, uncapped data plans and UFB, mobile connectivity and developing capabilities. While these themes are more reflective of the IT segment of the ICT sector, they highlight the importance for individuals and firms to be in the ICT space – to access ICT, use it and understand how it could assist in growing their business. »» The ICT sector attracts increasing interest from angel, venture and private equity investors on the NZX; »» Increased use of ICT across the economy generates employment growth across a range of skill-sets, including software engineering and development, project management, marketing, sales, administration and business analysis; »» Information and communication technologies provide a platform for innovation across all sectors; »» Internet service providers offer uncapped broadband plans, connections to ultra-fast broadband plans and connections to the ultra-fast broadband fibre (UFB) networks taking off; »» Rapid uptake of smartphones, tablet computers and other mobile devices; »» Builds local and international business networks in support of export growth 2 The 2012 Household Use of ICT Survey targeted a 75 percent response rate. The survey achieved an actual response rate of 76 per cent, which represented 13,046 households.
12 New Zealand ICT landscape compared globally New Zealand scores quite well in ICT readiness compared to the rest of the high income countries. However, we need a faster, better and more affordable internet with a higher-skilled ICT workforce if we want to be more competitive globally. New Zealand is well placed against the high-income countries New Zealand scores quite well on nine out of ten ICT readiness indicators. The only pillar that it was ranked lower than average on was affordability. Overall, New Zealand ranked 17 among 143 countries. Countries in the top ten were Singapore, Finland, Sweden, Netherlands, Norway, Switzerland, US, UK, Luxembourg and Japan. New Zealand’s political and regulatory environment has been ranked as the best compared to the high-income countries. Specifically, New Zealand has been ranked as the best in terms of effectiveness of law making bodies, laws relating to ICT, judicial independence, efficiency of legal system in settling disputes, efficiency of legal system in challenging regulations, intellectual property protections, software piracy rate, number of procedures and days to enforce a contract. New Zealand also ranked highly and with an upwards trajectory for other international ICT barometers, ICT ranking bodies and surveys. The World Wide Web Foundation 2012 ranked New Zealand 7th in the world in terms of connectivity, 10th in the world in terms of institutional infrastructure (e.g. institutions, government support to promote web access) and 17th in terms of the ability to extract economic value. NZ also ranked 4th in the Global Open Data Barometer, released in London by the World Wide Web Foundation and Open Data Institute. These comparative rankings show that New Zealand is competitive against other OECD countries in terms of the key pillars, measures and indicators that enable ICT to flourish. Faster, better internet for New Zealand The internet has fundamentally changed the way we live, work, learn and connect to the world, our families and communities. Being connected and online has become an essential part of our everyday lives. There is an increasing expectation of not only 100% connectivity but also of fast broadband connection and mobile coverage. While there is good broadband access, New Zealand is ranked poor on price and speed. To address faster internet connectivity, the Government invested in ultrafast broadband and in the regional broadband initiative. In 2014, the Government invested $2 billion into two major initiatives: the Ultra-Fast Broadband (UFB) Initiative and the Rural Broadband Initiative (RBI). Together, these two programmes aim to bring the benefits of improved internet connectivity to 97.8 per cent of New Zealanders (but no specific target for Māori), opening up a huge range of business, educational, community and other opportunities (MBIE, 2015).
13 Affordability of broadband and mobile phone The Networked Readiness Index ranked New Zealand low on affordability indicators (i.e. for pre-paid mobile cellular tariffs, fixed broadband Internet tariffs, and Internet and telephony competition) compared to developed countries. Advertised pre-paid mobile cellular tariff ranged from 20 cents per minute call (Skinny Mobile) to 49 cents per minute (Spark) with 2 Degrees and Vodafone in between. Compared to Singapore which is ranked first, New Zealand had a higher tariff rate. Skill shortage in the NZ ICT sector New Zealand has identified a skill shortage in ICT, with many organisations choosing to adopt overseas recruitment strategies due to a lack of available domestic sources. Computer design firms reported more vacancies than any other sector in the economy (MBIE, 2015). Eighty nine per cent of the vacancies were managerial, professional or technician levels. Job prospects in the ICT sector remain strong. The Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment Occupation Outlook Report 2015 identified ICT job prospects as some of the best in New Zealand, with a likely strong growth in the sector. For software developers, for instance, the projected employment growth was forecast to be around 4.8 per cent per year from 2013-18 and 4.3 per cent per year to 2023.
14 Māori access to ICT Māori have lower internet access at home relative to the Europeans, with a three per cent growth rate in internet use in three years 86% 84% 89% 77% 73% 68% Individuals with internet Recent internet users Recent internet users access at home using broadband Māori European Source: Household use of ICT 2012, Statistics New Zealand In 2012, 86 per cent (or 1.66 million) of all households seven per cent lower than the national average of were connected to the internet. This is equivalent 84 per cent. Of the 2.38 million recent internet users, to 3.45 million individuals. Māori households have 337,000 are Māori. In 2013, the Māori population was lower access to the Internet than other New Zealand 598,600. Europeans have higher percentage of new households, only 68 per cent, equivalent to 438,000 internet users at 84 per cent compared to Māori. individuals. This is about 18 per cent lower than the national average (86 per cent). Compared to the 2009 survey, there was a slight growth in internet use, increasing from 74 per cent Similarly, Māori have a lower proportion of new internet in 2009 to 77 per cent in 2012, a three percentage users compared to the general population. Māori are points growth rate in three years.
15 Māori, along with Pacific peoples, lag behind in the number of broadband users 92% 89% National average = 87 per cent 73% 73% Other ethnicity European Māori Pacific peoples Source: Household use of ICT 2012, Statistics New Zealand Seventy three (73) per cent of recent Māori internet The national average is 87 per cent. Dial up use users access the internet via broadband. This is similar with the national average at around four compares with 89 per cent for Europeans. per cent. Māori have lower access to telecommunication services compared to non-Māori but higher than average in mobile phone access Satellite Dish (%) Telephone line(%) Cable(%) Mobile device (%) Other (%) European 3 78 3 4 8 Māori 1 78 2 6 8 Pacific peoples 1 82 2 3 9 Other ethnicity 1 80 2 5 8 Source: Household use of ICT 2012, Statistics New Zealand Across all ethnicities, a fixed copper connection is of accessing the internet via a smart phone but are the most common form of internet access. Ninety two above average in accessing internet via games (92) per cent of recent Māori internet users also have a machine/other device. This could be due to the mobile phone, which is in line with the national average. younger Māori demographics. Across devices, Māori are more likely to access The 2013 Census data also shows 32 per cent of the internet via a laptop or tablet (53 per cent) and Māori households did not have internet access at desktop (38 per cent) but their rate of access is below home compared with 14 per cent nationally in 2012. national average (61 and 44 per cents, respectively). Strong broadband growth over the past two years Māori are comparable to national average in terms means this will have changed.
16 Internet access decreases as age increases, peaking at mid to late thirties and dipping at early family years Source: Household use of ICT 2012, Statistics New Zealand, in percentage The general trend on the relationship between internet note that internet use for 20-29 year-old Māori and use and age for both Māori and non-Māori is similar. non-Māori go down. This could possibly be explained It peaks in teenage years and at ages 35-39, and then by the circumstances of people at this age – i.e. decreases as the person matures. It is interesting to having a life outside of home or busy earning a living.
17 Northland Māori have low internet access and high material deprivation Sources: Household Use of ICT 2012, Statistics New Zealand and NZ Deprivation Index 2013, Otago University; map by MBIE Māori internet coverage is quite variable by region, Manawatu-Whanganui (61 per cent) and Waikato with Northland showing the lowest level of internet (63 per cent). Northland Māori have low internet access at home (around 56 percent), followed by access and high material deprivation3. Māori with Internet Access by Regional Council Total number Percent of Māori with Internet Percent of Māori who are Regional council of Māori access at home recent Internet users(1) (000) (000) % (000) % All individuals 438 299 68 337 77 Northland 39 22 56 26 68 Auckland 106 80 75 87 82 Waikato 56 35 63 42 75 Bay of Plenty 52 34 67 39 75 Gisborne/Hawke’s Bay 34 23 68 25 74 Taranaki 12 8 70 9 79 Manawatu-Wanganui 35 21 61 23 68 Wellington 55 41 74 45 82 Nelson / Tasman / 10 8 77 8 81 Marlborough / West Coast Canterbury 24 16 66 19 78 Otago 11 8 71 9 83 Southland 5 4 73 4 77 Source: Household use of ICT 2012, Statistics New Zealand 1. Recent users are those who have used the Internet in the past 12 months. Note: All numbers in this table have been rounded to the nearest thousand. Due to rounding, figures may not add to the stated totals. 3 The following are the dimensions used to derive the material deprivation index of New Zealanders: communication (internet use), income, employment, qualifications, home ownership, support, living space and transport.
18 The biggest barrier to taking up broadband is its availability in the local area The biggest barrier for Māori individuals to shift from projects aim to have 75 per cent of New Zealanders dial-up to broadband is availability of broadband in have access to ultrafast broadband by 2019. As of the local area. July 2015, more than 106,000 users have connected to the ultrafast broadband fibre and more than 269,000 The internet coverage, including access to faster users are able to access improved rural broadband. internet, has likely changed because of the Ultrafast Thirty five towns and cities can now access ultrafast Broadband (UFB) and Rural Broadband Initiative broadband. Efforts to provide faster internet access is (RBI) project of the government. The UFB and RBI now 100 per cent complete for Whangarei. Source: MBIE UFB and RBI Project Update, July 2015 Māori are least likely to cite ‘cost’ as a barrier to access Māori were the least likely to cite ‘cost’ at 34 per cent and other sites such as family member’s home (‘other’ relative to 48 per cent nationally. Other ethnicities – 32 per cent). regard cost as a barrier in accessing the internet (at mid-sixties). Dial-up access was considered sufficient Access at places of education and community internet by 28 per cent of Māori. facilities by Māori has increased from 31 per cent to 42 per cent for education and 25 per cent to 33 per cent A number of Māori access free internet at community for community internet facilities, respectively. These spaces facilities like marae education facilities and results likely suggest that cost may be an issue. outside their homes. Sixty per cent of Māori who access the internet also access it outside of the Affordability issue particularly matters if they access home. Relative to other ethnicities, a significantly internet through a faster yet expensive connection lower percentage (52 per cent) access the internet like broadband. Also, internet access at a marae is at work. Māori also have above average likelihood to therefore important as it provides another community access it at a community internet facility (33 per cent) space for Māori access to the internet.
19 Māori use of ICT The top three reasons why Māori use the internet are more likely to be using computers with internet were social networking, entertainment and access to access every day for personal reasons, and to use education information. The primary use for the internet is them for social networking, downloading/streaming for social media. More than 70 per cent use it for social music and videos and playing video games. The study networking – well above the national average, which also found that the level of engagement decreased may reflect the demographic age of Māori internet users. with age for social networking, entertainment, This is consistent with Te Puni Kōkiri’s Media User downloading/streaming music and videos, and Survey4 where the findings show that young Māori content creation. Māori are more likely to use the internet for social media Source: Household use of ICT 2012, Statistics New Zealand Relative to other users, Māori are less likely to make a In terms of leisure and entertainment activities, Māori purchase online, do internet banking, use Government have a higher adoption of online music and playing websites, sell goods, or operate a home business/ video games. Māori internet users are seven per work from home. This suggests that Māori are less cent higher relative to the national average. Watching likely to use the internet for transaction purposes. movies and peer to peer file sharing is aligned to Face to face transaction could be the preferred option the national average. Reading books/newspapers is for Māori, and may also imply preference for multi- seven per cent below the national average at 35 per modal delivery of service for Māori. cent. Again, this is consistent with the characteristics of younger Māori demographics. 4 See http://www.tpk.govt.nz/en/a-matou-mohiotanga/broadcasting/use-of-broadcasting-and-e-media-maori-language-and/online/2
20 Māori are also less likely to access government websites to download forms and make online payments Forty five per cent of Māori individual users have been These results have implication on access to online recent users of government websites, lower than information and services, especially for Māori who still the national average (of 52 per cent). Māori are also have low uptake of these digital services. slightly below the national average in using government websites to download forms (51 per cent vs 57 per cent, ….but they have slightly higher rate of increase as respectively) and make payments online to government users of government websites in three years websites (26 per cent vs 36 per cent, respectively). From 2009 to 2012, Māori rate of increase in There are also more Māori individuals not using accessing government websites is three percentage government websites (32 per cent compared to 29 points higher than the national average (12 per cent per cent nationally). compared to nine per cent nationally). Education is another important driver for internet use by Māori 38% 34% 22% 15% 16% 8% Formal education or Operating a home business Working from home training activities All NZ Māori Source: Household use of ICT 2012, Statistics New Zealand Education is another important driver for internet sixteen per cent to work from home, well below the usage for Māori. Māori were four percentage national average. Since 2009, formal education points above average (38 per cent) in using the has increased from 20 per cent to 88 per cent as internet for education or training. Only eight per the purpose of recent internet use, a growth rate cent cited using it to operate a home business and matched only by Pasifika.
21 Internet use increases with income for both Māori and non-Māori Māori population with internet use Non-Māori population with internet use Source: Household use of ICT 2012, Statistics New Zealand As income increases, so does internet use. But as both Māori and non-Māori. Compared to non-Māori, Māori income peaks, internet use decreases. This is true for have lower level of internet use across all income groups.
22 Māori in ICT Education One of the barriers to greater Māori participation in ICT careers is educational achievement in high school. Across the country, Māori are leaving secondary education with lower level qualifications than non-Māori. In 2014, 59 per cent of Māori school leavers achieved NCEA Level 2 compared to European at 81 per cent or Asian at 90 per cent. Māori participation in ICT qualifications is concentrated in the lower level qualifications Less than one per cent of Māori are studying towards an ICT qualification 26.9% 21.1% 35.9% 40.3% 39.7% 64.1% 56.6% 55.6% 33.4% 14.9% 7.5% 4.1% Certificates 1-4 Diploma Bachelor’s degree Graduate Diploma & Higher n=6100 n=5510 n=18850 n=2930 Māori European Other ethnicities Source: 2013 Education Counts, Ministry of Education Compared to the national average, Māori are 14.9 per cent of the total enrolments or 820 students disproportionately represented in the lower out of 5,510 enrolments. The number of Māori level qualifications (certificate levels 1-4) and enrolments in Levels 7 and higher is small, only 7.5 disproportionately under-represented in the higher per cent of the total Bachelor’s degree in Information level qualifications, particularly in Bachelor’s degree Technology enrolments. This is equivalent to a low (level 7) qualifications or higher. 1,420 Māori students out of 18,850 total enrolments. The proportion in graduate diploma or higher is In terms of Māori participation in tertiary education, significantly low at 4.1 per cent or a total of 120 out of less than one per cent are studying towards an ICT 2,930 enrolments at this level. Māori accounts for 12. qualification (i.e. Computer Science, Information 8 per cent total enrolment in Information Technology Systems and other Information Technology). Māori for all levels. are concentrated in the certificate levels, representing 33.4 per cent of the total enrolment in Levels 1-4, Overall, enrolment in higher qualifications is lower for or a total of 2,040 out of 6,100 enrolments. Māori compared to Europeans. The second highest concentration of Māori in ICT Labour market outcomes, employment and earnings, tertiary education is in the Diploma level (5-6) with is generally strong in the ICT sector. This provides a
23 strong incentive to encourage rangatahi Māori (Māori qualifications (72.8 per cent) and school qualifications youth between 15 and 24 years of age) to qualify in (58.4 per cent). Māori with no school qualifications one of the highest paid professions in New Zealand, have the lowest employment rate of 46.3 per cent and where job prospects are very high. Studies have (Māori Labour Market, 2014). also shown that employment rates of Māori increases as their level of education increases (Māori Labour Building Māori participation in the industry is vital, Market, 2014). given the projected demographics of falling secondary school numbers, an ageing population and an Education is also positively correlated with insatiable demand by the ICT industry for suitably employment rate. In September 2014, Māori with qualified and skilled employees. Also, the youthful degrees or higher qualifications had the highest Māori population means that Māori are the future tax employment rate at 85.4 per cent, followed by payers so there is a need to ensure they earn good those with certificates, diploma and polytechnic income to help pay for our ageing population. Tertiary Education Commission’s ICT Graduate Programme Information and Communications Technology (ICT) is growing and developing rapidly and becoming an integral factor in successful economic growth around the world. The Government wants to ensure New Zealand has people equipped with the ICT skills required to keep pace with developments. Budget 2014 allocated $28.6m over four years for an ICT Graduate School programme. The programme will deliver industry-focused education and research that builds connections between tertiary education providers and high-tech firms. The objectives are to produce graduates with work-relevant and business-focused skills, provide more direct pathways from education into employment, and help grow New Zealand’s ICT talent to support firm growth, innovation and productivity. The initiative will provide funding for education, research and collaborative activities to attract top student, academic and industry talent with schools proposed for Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch. In Christchurch, the initiative will be located in the soon to be established Christchurch Innovation Precinct. In the other cities, the initiatives will need to be integrated with the local innovation system, such as through local innovation precincts or technology hubs. In addition to providing education and research in specific locations, the programme will also involve the development of more broadly applicable ICT education initiatives that can be delivered through affiliated education providers throughout New Zealand.
24 Māori in ICT Employment Overall, labour market outcomes for Māori improved technicians and trades (10.7 per cent or 3,200 over the year to June 2015. Māori in skilled occup- workers, clerks (9.2 per cent or 2,700 workers) and ations total 107,500 in June 2015, an increase of services (8.7 per cent or 2,500 workers). In contrast, 1,900 workers (up 1.8 per cent) from a year ago. the biggest falls in employment were in managers Employment in most occupation groups increased. (7.5 per cent or 2,300 workers) and plant workers The biggest increases in employment were (7.4 per cent or 1,800 workers). Source: Household Labour Force Survey, Statistics New Zealand Māori are more likely employed in lower skilled ICT occupations and less likely employed in the highly skilled ICT occupations than non-Māori ICT Engineering, ICT Engineering, Professionals ICT and Science Professionals ICT and Science (2,000, 26%) Technicians (37,900, 30%) Technicians (32,100, 26%) (3,000, 39%) Design, Engineering, Design, Engineering, Science and Science and Transport Transport Proessionals Proessionals (55,900, 44%) (3,000, 39%) Māori in ICT occupations Non-Māori in ICT occupations Source: 2013 Census of Populations and Dwellings, Statistics New Zealand
25 Māori make up 12.5 per cent of the overall New The total number of people employed in ICT Zealand workforce or 309,600 people. They tend to be occupations5 as ICT professionals, engineering, concentrated in manufacturing, wholesale and retail ICT and science technicians and design, engineering, services, utilities and construction. Only about 7,800 science and transport professionals is 13 3,700. people are employed in the ICT sector, representing Proportionately fewer Māori were employed in the about 2.5 per cent of the total Māori workforce. Non- professionals occupation group compared with Māori has higher proportion of the workforce employed non-Māori (see figure above) in the ICT sector, about 7.5 per cent (125,900). Māori median personal income in ICT occupations is almost double the median personal income for employed Māori generally $80,000 $70,000 $70,800 $60,000 $63,400 $60,600 $50,000 $52,100 $49,800 $47,200 $40,000 $30,000 $20,000 $10,000 $ Design, Engineering, Science ICT Professionals Engineering, ICT and and Transport Professional Science Technicians Median personal income Māori Median personal income Non-Māori Source: 2013 Census of Populations and Dwellings, Statistics New Zealand Of the three ICT occupations, the highest paid ICT support) and less likely in the highly paid, highly occupation is being an ICT professional, followed skilled ICT occupations (as ICT Professionals, ICT by Design, Engineering, Science and Transport Managers and ICT Engineers/Designers). Professionals. The lowest paid ICT occupation is being an ICT technician. Compared to non-Māori, Māori earn very well in the sector. As discussed earlier, Māori are more likely to be employed in the lower they earn almost double in ICT occupations than the skilled ICT occupations (as ICT technicians or median income for employed Māori generally. 5 The ICT related occupations underneath these broad categories include ICT managers, ICT trainers, ICT sales professionals, web designers, electronics engineers, ICT businesses and systems analysts, multimedia specialists and web developers, software and applications programmers, database and systems administrators and ICT security, computer network professionals, ICT support and test engineers, telecommunications engineering professionals, electronic engineering draftspersons and technicians, ICT support technicians, telecommunications technical specialists, electronics trade workers and ICT sales assistants.
26 Māori Non-Māori Average Median income all occupations $36,500 $42,700 Average Median income ICT occupations $51,100 $63,400 The highest paid income in the ICT sector for Māori It pays to be employed in the ICT profession. But, is being an ICT professional. ICT profession is also the Māori still earn less than their non-Māori counterparts. second highest paid income for Māori, the highest being In part, this is due to the lesser proportion of Māori as a Chief Executive, General Manager or as a Legislator. in the highly skilled ICT professions compared to non-Māori. There are more Māori employed as ICT Even when compared to the median income of all technicians and support staff than non-Māori and New Zealanders, ICT median income for Māori is less as ICT professionals and Design, Engineering, much higher, about $9,500 more. Median income for Science and Transport Professional, two ICT non-Māori is $42,700. occupations that are highly skilled and highly paid. Te Uru Rangi Māori Technology Scholarships (Left) Hon Minister Te Ururoa Flavell (Right) Enspiral Māori Alumni Melissa and Kendall, who both spoke at the launch, NZTE Board member Wayne Norrie (also one of the speakers), Hemi Rolleston (behind – General Manager Māori Economy at Callaghan Innovation who MC-ed), Rohan Wakefield (front – one of the founders of Enspiral Dev Academy), Liz Te Amo NZTE Māori Customer Director and Jim Wilson Acting Manager, Māori Business Facilitation Service, Te Puni Kōkiri. Te Uru Rangi is a scholarship to assist Māori students The aim is to have 100 students funded through entering the technology industry created to help more the 19-week programme over the next three years, Māori to benefit from the rapidly growing digital economy. so they learn what it takes to succeed in the IT industry and then connecting them with prospective It is a collaborative partnership between New employers. The programme involves nine weeks Zealand Trade and Enterprise, Callaghan Innovation, Te Puni Kōkiri and Wellingon-based technology part-time remote study, nine weeks full immersion in training organisation Enspiral Dev Academy. Wellington, followed by one week career preparation. Each of the government agencies involved has The scholarships are for Māori who have a passion contributed $20,000 to kick-start the project, and Ngai for web development, want a career in the Information Tahu are to provide $25,000. It is expected that other and Technology sector, and are keen to shape the iwi groups will also become financial contributors. digital economy in Aotearoa New Zealand.
27 Māori business in ICT ICT has a positive impact on business growth and productivity The ICT is a vertical sector (the production and that firms that use Internet services more extensively supply of ICT and internet services) and a horizontal are four years ahead of the average in their industry enabler (impacts of ICT on other sectors). In 2013, in terms of business competitiveness. This is a the sector already represents five per cent of GDP significant positive impact on businesses. and has high growth potential (ICT Sector report 2013). Exports in the technology sector have doubled In the horizontal digital economy, the same study in the last five years. On average, workers in the estimates that if firms currently making low use of sector earn twice the national average. According internet services became more like high-using firms, to Statistics New Zealand, labour productivity growth it could be worth an additional $34 billion in productivity in New Zealand averaged 1.5 per cent a year from (initial) impacts for those firms. Few other sectors 1996 to 2012. have the potential to contribute as significantly across the economy. A Sapere study (2014) found that across the economy, firms that make more extensive use of The graph below also shows ICT’s contribution to the Internet services are six per cent more productive GDP in the last five years to 2013. This was driven than average firms in their industry. The study noted mainly by computer system design. ICT’s contribution to GDP grew by $1.2 billion in the five years to 2013 NZ$ million Source: Annual Enterprise Survey 2013, in NZ $million
28 Businesses’ ICT use and their participation in growth-related activities are strongly linked In a survey of more than 30,000 economically significant enterprises in New Zealand in 2012, two out of three enterprises report positive outcomes from ICT, including improved customer responsiveness, better coordination of staff and business activity and improved efficiency in work processes. ICT was also reported as an effective marketing tool (Statistics New Zealand, 2012). The survey also found that businesses that use the Internet to collect sales orders have higher rates of exporting, innovation and entering new export markets. There also was a strong relationship between using ICT and carrying out activities that contribute to business growth (Statistics New Zealand, 2012). Most businesses surveyed use the Internet (96 per cent). Firms seem very comfortable using the internet to buy goods and services (77 per cent). This is good for geographically isolated New Zealand businesses. They could benefit from using ICT (e.g. online ordering systems) to break down barriers entering new markets. ICT use is positively associated with growth activities, and may play an important role in connecting New Zealand businesses with the rest of the world. The business sector is a priority rollout for Ultra-Fast Broadband with most businesses expected to have access to the network by 2015. A key issue therefore is how businesses adapt ICT to develop and grow. But less is known about Māori in ICT business or Māori businesses in the ICT sector Usable data on Māori businesses in ICT is limited. There is not enough information that could be used to discuss the uptake of ICT by Māori businesses and the impact it has on business growth and productivity. This is a data gap that has yet to be addressed. This makes it difficult to look at the performance of Māori in the ICT business or to develop an understanding of Māori ICT businesses. One area that has been looked into is the data on Māori authorities. However, the number of Māori ICT businesses is negligible. In 2014, there were only three Māori authorities identified as ICT businesses. These three businesses only employ 15 staff. In the whole of New Zealand, there were 5,406 ICT businesses employing 34,400 staff. While representativeness could be questioned, the findings from a survey of self-identified Māori businesses on their use of ICT is consistent with the findings of the Business Operations Survey. Māori businesses are early adapters of technology The Māori Business Key Insights 20156 found that Māori businesses are early adopters of technology. Forty six per cent of respondents said that mobile technology had ‘significantly changed’ their business, and 63 per cent were using social media for business purposes compared to 42 per cent non-Māori. 6 This report is part of the ANZ Privately-Owned Business Barometer of 3,500 business owners. The data for the Te Tirohanga Whānui was provided by 336 respondents to the survey who self-identified themselves as Māori in business, or people owning, managing or governing Māori businesses. They represent organisations with a combined annual turnover of greater than $1 billion and a range of business types.
About Experience Experience is a leading New Zealand creative digital agency – founded on kaupapa Māori principles, focused on simplifying and maximising digital experiences to transform how people work, live and learn in a digital age. Owners Miriame Barbarich (Hauraki, Te Arawa) and John Moore started the company in 2006 – with a vision to create digital experiences that put people first, not technology. They wanted to create a commercial savvy creative engine to help grow Māori ICT talent. This is coming to fruition – a third of their staff are Māori and hold half of the senior positions. Their clients include large government agencies and corporates, SMEs, not-for-profits and start-ups. We’ve recently delivered major projects for Chorus, Energy Efficiency Conservation Authority, Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, Ministry of Education, Ministry for Primary Industries, Ministry of Social Development and Radio New Zealand. Their services cover all aspects of digital, strategy, brand, design, communications and delivery. We have a senior team of 15 experts with decades of experience. We also have extensive experience working in kaupapa Māori environments requiring specific consideration of mātauranga Māori me ona tikanga. Callaghan Innovation Established in 2013, Callaghan Innovation is the Government’s Hi-tech HQ for businesses, with a mandate to help grow the level of research and development by businesses across New Zealand. Callaghan Innovation connects businesses with the expertise and facilities they need to research organisations across the innovation system; operates its own research and technology laboratories and specialist equipment in support of high-tech businesses; and manages more than $160 million a year in government funding and grants to support business innovation. Callaghan offers specialist research and technical services for the ICT sector and operates an ICT R&D National Technology Network, supported by dedicated Network Manager. Twenty-three per cent of the value of Callaghan Innovation R&D grants awarded in 2013/14 went to ICT businesses, many of which will be investing in integrating ICT into processes and products. Other Callaghan Innovation services include the Accelerator Programme, designed to support the rapid formation of early stage ICT and digital technology start-ups, and the Incubators Support Programme, which encourages the development of early stage ICT and digital technology start-ups, and the Incubators Support Programme, which encourages the development of early stage, high growth businesses to generate employment growth, commercialise intellectual property and grow emerging sectors. This includes support through the Repayable Grants for Start-ups Programme. Callaghan is made up of a team of 400 researchers, scientists, engineers, technologists, investment managers and account managers, working across the country. Visit www.callaghaninnovation.govt.nz.
30 Social impact of ICT Literature (SuPERU7, 2013) links ICT to a range of social and economic outcomes of interest. These outcomes may be seen at the individual or family level, at the community level, at the hapū or iwi level, or at the national level. »» Health. ICT can provide earlier and better access to health information and services, taking advantage of different delivery approaches. »» Education. ICT offer a range of learning opportunities in both formal and informal settings, with access to wider learning communities. »» Economic opportunities. ICT offer access to information about business development or employment opportunities. Rapid advances in ICT have led to a significant increase in the adoption of technology and related services by households, individuals, businesses, educational establishments, and the government. This has changed the way we live. There is now a reliance on the use of the internet to access services and programmes. The government and business services are now being offered and accessed online. But this has adverse implication to those without internet access or even to those with access but don’t use the internet. This puts to the fore the issue of digital divide. The Digital Divide This digital divide issue was also highlighted in the 2014 World Internet Project. Their research observed several key findings that have policy implications. They found that: »» the digital divide between elderly internet users and non‐internet users was more significant than that between younger Internet users and non‐users; »» Internet use frequency and the substitution effect on traditional media was lower for the elderly internet users than for younger internet users; »» the influence of internet use on the interpersonal interactions of the elderly was lower than that for the younger population; »» Internet users were happier than non‐internet users; and »» Internet use increased the level of happiness in the elderly internet users significantly more than in the younger population. Last, elderly internet users and younger internet users shared a similar habit using the PC as the main device for accessing the internet. In light of these findings we suggest allocating available resources to the elderly caught in the digital divide. 7 Formerly Families Commission
31 Rangatahi Māori in ICT SuPERU found that rangatahi Māori (Māori youth access to information and new opportunities. Through between 15 and 24 years of age) are generally improved access to contacts and information, people active users of ICT, using social media and other find job opportunities, learn about services available applications. The study also identified a link between to them, and share what they learn or create with ICT use and improved health, educational, and/or wider audiences. economic outcomes for rangatahi Māori though it did not generally quantify those impacts. The study has identified three areas where there may be opportunities for ICT investment to benefit The literature shows that ICT can reinforce the rangatahi Māori. These three focus areas are: social networks that connect people and give them providing greater connectivity and access to ICT. Both infrastructure and cost issues are involved in providing greater access; developing greater digital literacy and other skills among rangatahi Māori. Access to relevant material and the opportunity to engage with the wider world are insufficient in themselves. Rangatahi Māori must have the digital literacy and other skills to work online effectively; and promoting wider availability of online content relevant to Māori. Having culturally relevant content makes it more likely that Māori engage online as Māori, and have more incentive to take part in the online world. E-democracy Māori internet users show a willingness to vote online that is close to the national average and has increased by the highest margin between 2009 and 2012. Māori show willingness to vote online in a General Election 62% 60% 60% 58% 56% 55% 53% 48% 42% 40% European Māori Pacific peoples Other ethinicity NZ average 2009 2002 Source: Household use of ICT 2012, Statistics New Zealand
32 The new communication channels are used to revitalise use of te reo Māori Increased use of mobile technology has made working from anywhere a major benefit for 64 per cent of Māori business respondents, as well as improving access to information for decision making and increasing productivity. Some Māori enterprises are using these new communication channels as another means of helping to revitalise the use of te reo Māori. Many smaller Māori-owned businesses have also seized the opportunity technology provides to live in their iwi rohe/tribal areas while serving a client base that may be elsewhere, nationwide or overseas (Māori Business Key Insights 2015).
34 Māori ICT Companies Kiwa Digital An award winning company producing creative high quality Whanau Tahi digital content on mobile devices. Whanau Tahi (WT) offers solutions (software and The market niche services) enabling collaboration between social is the production of service and health care providers to support an immersive and experiential digital books, for youth integrated seamless support delivery for patient markets particularly where indigenous or multi- and family-centred self-management in care. language requirements exist. Recently acquired F700 HSAGlobal to round out their solution delivery bringing assets, staff and a Their primary target customers are publishers and solid pipeline to WT. Target markets are Australia other content owners operating in the edu-tainment and the United States. space, where learning is delivered alongside Owner is NZ’s largest social service provider entertainment. They have another software product Waipareira Trust. in the voice dubbing and audio digital replacement industries. Their partners and customers include the world’s largest film and TV production companies, primarily in the United States. Sentient Software Sentient is the leading Owners include: Rhonda Kite (Te Aupōuri) and Private Cloud enterprise Steve Renata (Ngāpuhi ki Whaingaroa, Ngāti Kurī). Portfolio Program Manage- ment service in Australasia across a number of diverse Straker Translations industry segments. Sentient An award winning global PPM comprises a suite translation company of features designed to with more than 10,000 manage all of the key customers. Its cloud-based activities across programs translation platform enables of work, from consistently assessing and prioritizing translations to be delivered the most important initiatives, successful delivery with speed and simplicity. of project and programs of work, through to Straker built and owns its reporting on completed projects and evaluating the technology, which enables effectiveness of project investment. higher gross margins than Sentient was founded in 2004 in response to a the industry average. With global production centres growing gap in the Portfolio Program Management in Barcelona and Auckland, Straker supports clients industry in both the local and global market place. in nine countries, 24/7, ensuring even the most Existing enterprise-wide PPM solutions were urgent translations are delivered without issue. highly expensive, took years to implement and Owner includes Grant Straker (Ngati Raukawa). offered little flexibility. As a private cloud solution Sentient PPM is available anywhere, anytime to anyone with access to the internet.
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