UPDATE SPRING 2019 - Varndean College
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FILM STUDIES STUDENTS STUDY ‘LA LA LAND’ AT LEWES DEPOT CINEMA FILM STUDIES Thirty Varndean College A Level Film Studies students attended a ‘La La the meaning of the film in an enjoyable and profitable way. STUDENTS IN Land’ Explore Film workshop course Lisa Wardle, Depot Education DEPOT CINEMA at Lewes Depot Cinema in January. Officer, and Film and Media Studies SCHEME In her lecture, Faye Pirate explored Chazelle’s modern musical ‘La La Programme Coordinator at Varndean College organises the Explore Film CHEMISTRY UPDATE Year 1 Film Studies students are CHEMISTRY CONFERENCE Land’, which was accompanied by study days. being invited to apply to join the a screening of this film that nearly Pictured are Faye Pirate with For the 20th successive year, Varndean College’s ChemSoc ran its annual Young Programmers scheme won the Best Film Oscar! The film Varndean College’s Film Studies Chemistry Conference at the University of Brighton in February. Supported by at Lewes’s Depot Cinema. The centres on a pianist and an actress students, Tom Weaver, Alex Sagar, the RSC Downland Trust, the conference was attended by all of Varndean’s A selected group of students will, who fall in love while attempting Tristan Houseman, Amelia Whiting, Level Chemistry students and comprised of a series of talks. over the course of a year, learn to reconcile their aspirations for Phoebe Ralph, Tillsy Pitt, Daisy Opened by John Luton, Head of Chemistry for Varndean, a welcome address about programming a cinema, the future. The focus of the lecture Corkhill and Joseph Moore was then given by Professor Andrew Lloyd, Associate Pro-Vice Chancellor at running a film festival, film was Spectatorship and Feminist the University of Brighton; followed by talks from Prof David Read (University marketing and events planning. interpretations of the film to meet of Southampton) about bio-energies and the importance of energy auditing, The year will end with a student- the requirements of the A Level Film a very nice example was the huge amount of water needed to produce run film festival at Depot. Studies course. As well as a chance bioethanol; Dr Rachel Bolton-King (University of Staffordshire) who gave an Current students involved in the project, Amy Martin, Jules to re-watch the film, students had impassioned talk about the importance of looking through the obvious to UCL SURGICAL Stockwell and Daisy Corkhill- plenty of interactive activities, which invited participation and questioning the less obvious when dealing with forensic scenes. Prof Peter Atkins (Oxford CONFERENCE Harris, have been involved in organising sell-out screenings of University) then gave a most profound talk on thermodynamics, looking at how you can consider the dispersal of energy form the sun facilitating the EXPERIENCE In January, a group of Chemistry films as diverse as Jackie Brown, process of thought. The conference finished with ‘The Bigger Bang’ show by students attended the International Rebel without a Cause and 20th Prof Hal Sosabowski, University of Brighton. Undergraduate & Foundation Century Women. Surgery Conference at University College London. We started the THE ANTHONY NOLAN COMPETITIONS day with an introduction, then listened to talks from established surgeons about their journeys in the TRUST VISIT On Wed 6 March, Laura Taramova took part in field. We gained insight from guest VARNDEAN a competition “Heroines speakers, with talks ranging from the separation of conjoined twins Students took their first in Science” at Reading and the tales of a war surgeon in steps into potentially University’s Department the Israel-Palestine conflict, then saving lives back in January. of Chemistry. The event attended individual workshops The Anthony Nolan Trust provides students by undergraduates and medical were in Varndean College from different schools professionals, including ‘Surgical for two days looking for and colleges with the Knot Tying’ and ‘Women in Surgery’. volunteers aged between opportunity to talk about women We then all attended a talk from an 16-30 interested in joining Following a record breaking Presidents/ Student Governors: from any period of the history of School who kindly volunteered to Izzy Langhamer & Ethan Hilton undergraduate on how to get into the register of stem cell turnout, 584 student voters science, who have inspired and help her demonstrate the CRiSPR medical school, which equipped (pictured front row) donators. Students had this year against 338 last, impressed them the most. Laura method. The Department have also us with practical tips for the Equality: Ruby Kelleher to simply complete a represented Varndean College entered a team once again into the the College is pleased Wellbeing: Lily Ratcliffe application process. We also listened questionnaire, provide a and her heroine was an American Chemistry Analytical Competition to presentations by international quick cheek swab and one to announced that the Charities: Sophie Jordan biochemist Jennifer Doudna, at the Queen Mary University, Events: Rose Preston researchers. Overall, the conference day could be a match for students elected for the SU who co-invented CRiSPR-cas9 London. The Chemistry Olympiad was informative about the specifics Democracy: Jake Salmon someone who desperately Executive for 2019-2020 are technology of genome editing. Her results are also just in and we have of being a surgeon and we learned Communications: Zoe Garrard needs help to save their life. presentation was awarded as one an impressive clutch of ten medals as follows: Enrichment & Environment: Gussie a great lot from the specialists who O’Connor & Lucas Yelland of the best, along with the group of with three Gold! More details to spoke to us. Written by Fiyin Oladipo students from Langley Grammar follow soon. & Tom Japes
INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS WIN UK OXBRIDGE AT VARNDEAN MATHS AWARDS Eight Varndean College students Officer at St Hilda’s, have recently been successful in Oxford. After studying the their applications for Cambridge IB Diploma at Varndean. VARNDEAN Three Varndean College international students won prizes in the UKMT Senior Maths Challenge in November. Yanlei Chen achieved a or Oxford Universities. Only Phoebe, who graduated COLLEGE STUDENTS score of 102 (which was the highest score of all Year 1 participants about one in five students who apply to these most prestigious from St Hilda’s with a First in History, shared her PARTICIPATE IN from Varndean), winning her a Gold medal and also a place in the universities receive offers. experiences of studying at DUSTY BLUEBELLS British Mathematical Olympiad Round 1 (BMO1) ; Jingya Wang, who achieved Silver; and Jiawei Bai who achieved a Bronze medal. These eight successful students Oxford and gave students PROJECT The three students, who are all from China and currently studying are a mixture of A Level and International Baccalaureate valuable advice about applying. Students from Students from Varndean College have been A Levels in the UK, are part of the ‘A Star Programme’ at Varndean students. Four are current IB Bexhill College and Roedean participating in the local Dusty Bluebells College. This is a high-end programme for Chinese students which students, one a current A Level School joined us at the event. Project, a project initially set up in 2018 as provides a series of services student, whilst the remaining a 12 week pilot funded by The Big Lottery On 31 January, Varndean such as extra-curricular three are students who left in Fund, but which has proved so successful it College was invited to join guidance, study tours, group 2018 but have either taken is now run again, with plans to offer it to all Roedean School in a day’s lessons, one-to-one tuition and a gap year or further study care homes and nurseries across Brighton visit to a snowy Cambridge career planning. It is designed before applying. and Hove. University where our Year to empower students to raise The project was a new initiative by Belltree their potential, helping them to Pictured are: back row left One students visited Corpus Music Therapy CIC where traditional stories, achieve access to the world’s to right:- Caitlin O’Neil (ex- Christi College. They had music making and songs provide a common top universities. Lewes Priory School) who will read of Varndean College said, “students talks from staff, met current ground for the old and young to be together. Classics at Oxford; Joanne Goad really appreciate the support that undergraduate students and The interactive sessions enable children and (ex-Downlands School) Geography our teachers and careers staff visited the stunning Parker Library older people to get to know each another at Newnham, Cambridge; front row provide for them with their university which houses important Anglo- as they share ideas, memories and play left to right:- Summer Hemingray applications; this is particularly Saxon, medieval and Renaissance together. Belltree Music Therapy was set up (ex-Hove Park School) studying important when applying for manuscripts. Japanese Studies at Downing, top universities such as Oxford, in 2009 by music therapist, Tina Warnock, who invited Fleur Shorthouse, professional MATHS FEST 2019 Cambridge; Hannah Easley (ex- Oathall Community College) studying Cambridge or any of the Russell Group universities.” As well as its high-quality A level provision, Varndean College is the storyteller and Philosophy tutor at Varndean The Varndean Maths Department had a great trip to Maths only educational provider in Brighton College, to collaborate with her in 2017. Linguistics at Sidney Sussex, Fest at the Royal Institution on 2nd February. Maths Fest days As well as individual support and Hove to offer the demanding Cambridge; and Kate Granlund (ex- Leading up to Christmas, Fleur brought are for sixth-form students to celebrate and be inspired by provided to students, the College and prestigious International Dorothy Stringer) studying English at the project into the classroom by working mathematics. Students heard from wonderful mathematicians also hosts an annual event every Baccalaureate Diploma as part of Clare, Cambridge. with the College’s Early Years students, and online stars about how to melt cars using buildings, how not February led by admissions staff its curriculum. This internationally- demonstrating and teaching the art of to estimate the age of the sun, and how to stack pizza boxes and The three students who left in 2018 from Oxford and Cambridge, where recognised diploma gives students traditional storytelling. Students enjoyed shapes of constant width. They also explored odd numbers in and have now received Oxbridge students can learn more about the the opportunity to continue six drawing story maps and working with Pascal’s triangle and the joy of puzzles. The Royal Institution is offers are: applications process. In addition to subjects at advanced level, alongside stories. As part of their CAS (Creativity, an inspiring place and everyone all left feeling full of interest and being joined by Dr Matt Bullimore an additional core programme Activity and Service), the International questions. Zoe Alexander (ex-Dorothy Stringer) from Churchill College, Cambridge, consisting of Theory of Knowledge, Baccalaureate Diploma students also studying History of Art at Oxford; we were delighted to welcome back Extended Essay and Creativity, made their contribution by researching Freddie Guthrie (ex-Oathall Phoebe Menezes-Jones, Varndean Activity, Service (CAS). and matching care homes with nurseries in Community College) studying College alumna and Admissions Brighton, Hove and Lewes. Year 2 student, Linguistics at Oxford; and Leo Luca Oppes, matched a staggering 50 care Rogers (home educated) studying homes and nurseries. The College also has Philosophy, Politics and Economics STUDENTS AT an Erasmus student from Greece who is (PPE) at Oxford. CAMBRIDGE helping Dusty Bluebells put together a new UNIVERSITY Applying for Oxford or Cambridge lottery bid. involves extra examinations, the Dusty Bluebells has recently been awarded submission of written work, as well £1500 from Chalk Cliff Trust, which will be as individual interviews. Varndean used to run workshops and hopes to involve College offers support to students Varndean students with many more projects throughout the entire application in the future. process and Phil Harland, Principal PHOEBE MENEZES-JONES
VARNDEAN COLLEGE ONCE AGAIN RECEIVES IMPRESSIVE OFSTED INSPECTION Following their visit in October, Ofsted inspectors have once again confirmed Varndean College as being a ‘good’ college, VARNDEAN LEGAL APPRENTICE COMPETITION where students thrive and achieve. Many aspects of the LAW GO Dedicated Varndean Law students have entered a national legal teamwork and listening skills, strategic thinking and problem report received outstanding recognition and praise, with the College’s major strengths being identified as follows: NATIONAL! apprentice competition run by international law firm, Kingsley solving, ability to be creative and how to provide sound advice. All • Governors, leaders and managers develop a highly inclusive culture that allows staff and students to Varndean Law students have been Napley, and The Times. The teams that submitted their work (24 thrive. exceptionally busy since September. competition gives students a unique students) are through to the next College Principal, Phil Harland, said: “I am once again Over 40 students are involved in opportunity to find out exactly heat; which involves an online witness • Teachers know their students well and have high delighted with the Ofsted report which its inspectors a national lawyerportal scheme. what it is like to be a solicitor. It also interview and writing a witness expectations. They use their own experiences and have returned. Again, it has identified that Varndean Varndean is the first sixth form college offers a chance to understand the statement for court. If teams get expertise to motivate students to achieve. College is a highly inclusive college with a culture that to team up with The Lawyerportal, nuances between legal practices through this round, then one more • Students have positive attitudes to their learning allows its students to develop and thrive as individuals, currently only running in universities, such as Criminal, Dispute Resolution, task and it’s the live final in London! If and are proud of their work. They are confident, self- encouraging them to progress and achieve in whichever to help students make contacts in Corporate and Employment law. successful, there are cash prizes and assured, courteous and respectful. They feel that staff direction they choose. Progression is not just about the legal world. At the launch party, Teams are able to develop their a potential for a legal apprenticeship. treat their health and wellbeing as a priority, which developing academically, but also emotionally students signed up and now receive supports them to learn and achieve. and socially, and at Varndean College students are conference tickets, links to law firm recruiters, apprenticeship schemes • A Level and vocational students make good progress supported in every way possible. Students and tutors and industry news. Xander Gowler, the and achieve well. pride themselves in working well together and I praise Department’s Student Ambassador, • Students on the IB course make outstanding progress. my staff for their dedication. I know that the students is working directly with the charity to Their achievement is exceptionally high and well above who come to Varndean are happy students and happy students make successful students.” LAW STUDENTS make the content relevant for sixth the international average. They develop extremely high formers. levels of skill, knowledge and understanding and the very Janice Robinson, the Chair of Governors added, “Staff UPWARDS THROUGH DEBATE IN large majority move on to their first-choice university. and students have yet again shown what a good college BUSINESS AND LAW THE SUPREME • Students benefit from a broad and balanced Varndean is. My congratulations and thanks go to everyone for their hard work.” Many of our Business Studies and Law students were presented with one of COURT curriculum that meets individual needs. Varndean College’s ‘Upwards Through In February, our BTEC Computer Games Development students had the Business & Law’ awards in December. For the third year in a row (an unprecedented event), Varndean Law fantastic opportunity of hearing first- hand about careers in the games These awards are decided by the students were chosen to take part in one of only 10 debate days a year. industry from Ben Board of American video game and software company Business and Law tutors, as well as The topic this year was ‘Do stop and search powers strike a fair balance Epic. Since its formation in 1991, Epic have produced over 50 video games, the Principal, and given out each term between the rights of the individual and the interests of society?’ A very including the ‘Gears of War’ series, and has multiple games currently to those students on the Business topical issue with the Terrorism Act allowing stop and search in London under development. and Law courses to recognise their without reasonable suspicion. In their teams, students spent weeks outstanding work, achievement and preparing their cases and researching key cases to support their arguments. effort. This could be engagement in lessons, outstanding progress, On the day, they impressed the court and the three barristers working with the teams with their extensive knowledge and the manner in which they ECONOMICS attendance or quality of course work conducted their case. Whilst the debate was hotly contested, the argument STUDENTS . These latest awards were presented by the Principal, Phil Harland, on 17 against stop and search reaching a fair balance won the argument based on the issue of proportionality. Well done to all! DISCUSS BREXIT December. On 7 December, A Level Economics students spent a day in London. In other news, 50 law students descended on the High Court, the Old Their first stop was a visit to the London offices of the European Bailey and the Supreme Court to witness criminal and civil cases. They Parliament where two students delivered presentations on the were enthralled with talks from a Court reporter of 30 years who regaled possible impact of Brexit on the UK, followed by a discussion and them with tales of murder, treason and barrister’s antics. Many are now debate. They then made their way to The Bank of England where convinced that law is the right career for them! they visited the museum and listened to talks on monetary policy and the importance of the Bank of England.
FAMOUS ILLUSTRATOR CHRIS RIDDELL FOUNDATIONS VISITS VARNDEAN ART ENRICHMENT FOR NEW STEM As part of the College’s Art Enrichment programme, we were delighted to welcome illustrator, Chris Riddell, to CENTRE During February Half Term, Varndean back in December. Chris is one of the UK’s contractors took up residence in our most successful illustrators, creating political cartoons north car park ready to start work and illustrating numerous children’s books, including on our exciting new £2.9m proposed the recent JK Rowling novel ‘The Tales of Beedle the STEM Centre, aimed for completion Bard’. Chris talked about his career and approach in Spring 2020. to illustration, as well as giving some most amazing demonstrations. As students and teaching staff took a well-deserved week’s break, our Site Team were busy overseeing the digging of trenches, the erection of fencing and the arrival of diggers and bulldozers. Throughout the past ART STUDENTS GET couple of weeks, we have seen the installation of new underground INSPIRED BY MADRID power cables being laid to the college site and the excavation In February, twenty-three Visual Arts students of land to the east of our existing spent five days in Madrid. They went on a Street Hutchins Wing. Art tour, visiting world class museums – Museo Over the next 12 months, contractors Nacional del Prado, Museo Nacional Centro will be working to construct the de Arte Reina Sofía and Thyssen-Bornemisza impressive two-storey centre Museum, as well as visiting an artist’s studio. comprising of four science labs; six Sketchbooks and cameras filled up with drawings teaching rooms; prep room; toilet, and images of life in the Spanish capital, which kitchen and staffroom facilities, the students can develop into final pieces back office/IT space, as well as an in lessons. attractive lobby and atrium. There Head of Visual Arts Rob Macdonald said ‘’Madrid is will also be an accessible lab, toilet not perhaps as well-known as Barcelona so it was and lift for students with disabilities. great to introduce our students to how exciting At Varndean College, through a city it is and let them get up close to fabulous paintings, photography, architecture, fashion and VARNDEAN COLLEGE TEXTILE our challenging and engaging illustration.” STUDENTS’ SUCCESS AT teaching, we hope to inspire and motivate the next generation of DESIGN A CHRISTMAS CARD Amber Mullins-Summerby said ‘’I found the trip so KNITTING AND STITCHING scientists, technologists, engineers Back in December, Year 1 student, Evie Dunn, was presented inspiring! I discovered so many artists and saw some of the best art I’ve ever seen. I have fallen in SHOW, LONDON and mathematicians. Through this teaching we encourage students to with a prize of a £20 Amazon voucher by College Principal, love with Madrid! move on to higher level STEM courses Phil Harland. Evie was the winner of our Christmas Card Our A Level Textiles students at the show, as well as being and into a STEM career competition, in which students were asked to design the I am grateful for how much free time we were recently attended the Knitting modelled on their catwalk. The 2018 College Christmas card. Evie, who studies A Levels given and how this gave us space to make our and Stitching Show at London’s visiting public voted for their in Fine Art, Maths, Classical Civilisation and Early Modern own way round and discover places we will never Olympia and a number of favourite garment and Spencer History, can be seen here collecting her prize, along with her forget. I was initially quite nervous as I didn’t know them entered the show’s Thornton won! Well done to both winning design. anyone on the trip very well, but I soon made some Dressmaking Competition Mia and Spencer, with huge great friends and it was such an amazing and which had three categories: congratulations to Spencer valuable experience. I will most definitely return.’’ ‘A Dress from your Stash’, who deserved the win due to all Matilda Smith said ‘’The trip was really ‘Go Green’ and ‘Upcycle old his hard work and innovative inspirational artistically, I felt really lucky to see into New’. garments constructed from such beautiful art so freely. The whole trip left us We are pleased to congratulate scraps of used clothing. all feeling pretty blissed out and excited for our Spencer Thornton (Year 2) and futures and that of our art. The people both in Mia Brimilcombe-Cowie (Year Pictured with their dresses are Madrid and on the trip were both so kind, patient 1) who were chosen as finalists both winner Spencer Thornton and and funny, I can’t wait to return to the city.’’ with their dresses being exhibited finalist Mia Brimilcombe-Cowie.
SPORTING NEWS Congratulations to three of our first team footballers, Alfie Haggar, Dexter Sherin & Tom Cooklin, who were selected for the Sussex Schools FA U18’s rep squad and are now through to the English Schools FA inter county final against Northumberland. Tom Cooklin was also selected for the England Colleges Football Association (ECFA12) mens team and headed out for a tour of Italy during February half term. Tom also plays for Newhaven FC outside of Varndean. Our first year Sport students recently attended Brighton University for the ‘Value of Sport’ conference, involving workshops, lab experiences and talks from POLITICS TRIP existing students. Back in November, they also attended a tour of the Amex Stadium, home to the Brighton & Hove Albion FC, as well as attending the Varsity Games at Twickenham. On 6 February, 26 A Level Politics after a quick lunch moved on to MP’s staff to find out more about students spent the day in London the Houses of Parliament to begin what it’s like to work for an MP, putting their classroom learning the second part of the day, a tour a possible career path for our to the practical test by visiting of Parliament. During the tour and students, giving an insight into the Parliament and the UK Supreme thanks to the power of Twitter, daily work of both an MP and those Court. Walking past protesters we were thrilled that both Lloyd who work for them. for both ‘Remain’ and ‘Leave’, Russell-Moyle, MP for Kemptown A quick dash back to the station they were able to see how these and Peacehaven and Peter Kyle, and a crowded train journey institutions are grappling with the MP for Hove and Portslade, were back to Brighton ended our day biggest issue of today – BREXIT. able to join us on the tour and take with students having a better time out of their busy schedules to STUDENT SUCCESSES During the tour of the UK’s Highest Court, they sat in Number 1 Court answer our students’ questions. understanding of just how it all works. From now on, what IN UK MATHS CHALLENGE where the Article 50 judgement Later in the afternoon they met they learn in the classroom will Students at Varndean College achieved 4 golds, was argued and delivered. Then up with two of Caroline Lucas hopefully make more sense! 10 silvers and 11 bronzes in this year’s UKMT Senior Maths Challenge. Over 80,000 pupils from across the UK returned scripts with the top 10% receiving a gold certificate, the VARNDEAN COLLEGE STUDENT GETS TO WORK next 20% silver and the next 30% bronze. WITH GREEN MP, CAROLINE LUCAS Approximately 7,000 of the top Varndean College student Monica Richards has recently such as replying to diary invites, research, drafting letters students are invited to sit one of the attained a parliamentary work experience placement this to Ministers, drafting replies to constituents, working follow-on competitions, the British forthcoming summer, where she will have the opportunity on parliamentary questions, database development Mathematical Olympiad (BMO1) to shadow ex-Green party co-leader and Brighton MP, and administrative tasks such as opening the post and or the Senior Kangaroo (SKANG). Caroline Lucas. photocopying. Dylan Ponsford and Eddy Stevens from Varndean College were Monica, who previously studied at Blatchington Mill selected to take part in the School is currently studying the IB, taking Global Politics, SKANG and congratulations World Literature and Spanish at Higher Level, with to Emilia Frederiksen and Biology, Chemistry and Mathematics at Standard Level. Yanlei Chen who qualified She hopes to read Politics, Philosophy and Economics at to enter the BMO1. King’s College, London, where she is currently interested in exploring professional avenues such as diplomacy or working within supranational institutions such as the UN. Her placement was secured after having partaken in a half-day trial in London, and her role will involve her being part of the parliamentary team and undertaking tasks
ROME 2019 To help with their studies in Classical Civilisation, students recently enjoyed a fantastic walking trip around the city of Rome. We walked for miles, and around every corner, there was a relevant and interesting site to explore and investigate. On the first day we found our way to the Coliseum where over 2,000 animals were killed a day at the height of its fame. It was PSYCHOLOGY mesmerising. The Roman forum where the Vestal virgins kept the hearth ZOO TRIP burning via the Via Sacre took us to the Palatine Hill, where the top officials A group of 40 Year 1 Psychology lived and could breathe away from the bread and circus living in the centre. students attended a trip to Marwell The Trevi Fountain and the Spanish Steps were all appreciated, especially Zoo in the autumn. They attended a as it was really warm and sunny, and on the last evening we found an half-day conference designed for A ice cream parlour which was to die for. On the last day we visited Ostia Level students focusing on types of Antica, a large behaviour (both innate and acquired), archaeological examples of how and why they are site, close to the displayed by animals, and how this modern suburb of is applicable to human behaviour. Ostia, that was Students learned about classical and the location of operant conditioning and how these the harbour city are used by the zoo. The students then of ancient Rome. conducted their own observational Students arrived comparative behaviour study in the home exhausted park. It was a very educational and and happy. A enjoyable trip. very good trip indeed. SPANISH TRIP TO SOCIOLOGY CONFERENCE SEVILLE Early in March, around 80 Year 2 students appreciated his insight In November 2018 a group of Spanish Sociology students (and a small and, if possible, now feel even more A level and IB students spent a group from Collyers) attended a prepared for their summer exams. We week in the beautiful city of Seville sociology conference organised by are hoping to make this an annual in Andalucia. They stayed with host Varndean College. Keith Trobe, an event for future students. families and got a true experience experienced principal examiner, of living in this incredible part of was invited to talk about skills the world. Each day they went to needed for the exam and how a local language school and had to achieve the best result by lessons with very experienced looking at marginal gains. Keith teachers and one morning got was both informative and the opportunity to go to the world entertaining and the students famous university. The group had were able to approach Keith a flamenco lesson followed by an at the end of the conference incredible performance by local for some individual advice. The artists. They also visited the beautiful Seville monuments: the Giralda Tower, the Alcazar (featured in Game of Thrones), Plaza de Espana and the Cathedral. The trip was a great success and an opportunity to expand their language skills and knowledge of the Spanish culture. Spring 2019
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