Standards for Physical Education - Wisconsin These standards from 2010 were replaced by the revised version in 2020.

 
Wisconsin
     Standards for
   Physical Education
These standards from 2010 were replaced
by the revised version in 2020.
     Access the latest version here.

         Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction
                Tony Evers, State Superintendent
                      Madison, Wisconsin
This publication is available from:

             STUDENT SERVICES/PREVENTION AND WELLNESS TEAM

                         Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction

                                  125 South Webster Street

                                     Madison, WI 53703

                                       (608) 266-8960

                         http://www.dpi.wi.gov/sspw/physicaled.html

                                     Bulletin No. 00077

                 © August 2010 Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction

The Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction does not discriminate on the basis of sex, race,
        color, religion, creed, age, national origin, ancestry, pregnancy, marital status
                       or parental status, sexual orientation, or disability.

                                       Printed on Recycled Paper
Foreword
Physical education (PE) plays a critical role in educating the whole student;
setting high standards is critical to advancing learning in our state. Research
supports the importance of movement in educating both mind and body. Quality
physical education contributes directly to development of physical competence
and fitness. It also helps students to make informed choices and understand the
value of leading a physically active lifestyle. Quality physical education benefits
both academic learning and physical activity patterns of students. The healthy,
physically active student is more likely to be academically motivated, alert, and
successful. In the preschool and primary years, active play contributes to
important motor abilities and cognitive development. As children enter
adolescence, physical activity may enhance the development of a positive self-
concept and the ability to pursue intellectual, social, and emotional challenges.
Throughout the school years, quality physical education can promote social,
cooperative, and problem solving competencies, and be an important component
in helping every child graduate with the knowledge and skills needed to be
successful in the work place or further education.

To support quality physical education, Wisconsin’s Physical Education
Standards, first published in 1997, has been updated and reformatted. A team of
elementary, middle school, high school, and higher education teachers and
administrators created this document through the assistance of the Wisconsin
Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance; the
Wisconsin Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development; the
Association of Wisconsin School Administrators; and the Wisconsin Education
Association Council. It builds upon national standards and includes sections
designed to help physical education departments and teachers design high quality
physical education curriculum, instruction, and assessment. The new standards
include the following new components:
    •   Broad statements of essential student skills and knowledge.
    •   A description of the physical education behaviors for each standard in
        four grade bands: PK-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12.
    •   Learning priorities to help school districts develop effective K-12
        physical education curricula.
    •   Focus areas to guide teachers regarding the types of physical education
        instruction that will best help students meet the standards.
    •   A K-12 learning continuum that provides grade band assessments with
        rubrics for each of the learning priorities.
    •   An adapted PE learning continuum with grade band assessments and
        rubrics that meets the needs of students with disabilities.
Taken together, the components of this standards document can educate parents,
school personnel, and other community members regarding what physical
education students need to know and be able to do to lead healthy, physically
active lifestyles.
Tony Evers, PhD
State Superintendent

                                                                                  iii
iv
Acknowledgements
The update of Wisconsin’s Physical Education Standards would not have been possible without the
efforts of many people. Members of the task force freely gave their time and expertise in developing the
academic standards. In addition, their employing agencies generously granted them time to work on this
initiative. The task force members are:
Eric Blake                                             Crystal Gorwitz
Principal                                              Middle School Physical Education
Waterford Union High School                            and Health Education Teacher
Waterford, Wisconsin                                   Hortonville Middle School
                                                       Hortonville, Wisconsin
Brenda Erdman
Elementary Physical Education Teacher                  Sandy Hagenbach
Westside Elementary School                             Physical Education Teacher
Reedsburg, Wisconsin                                   Heritage Elementary School
                                                       DePere, Wisconsin
Colleen Evans
Professor of Physical Education                        Kristi Roth
University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point                  Professor of Adapted Physical Education
Stevens Point, Wisconsin                               University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point
                                                       Stevens Point, Wisconsin
Scott Frazier
Professor of Physical Education                        Thomas Steward
University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point                  Director of Instructional Services
Stevens Point, Wisconsin                               Sparta Area School District
                                                       Sparta, Wisconsin
Cheryl Gorski
Middle School Physical Education Teacher               Maureen Vorwald
Marshfield Middle School                               Physical Education Teacher
Marshfield, Wisconsin                                  Platteville High School
                                                       Platteville, Wisconsin
The following University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point students made important contributions to the
document:
Lauren Chilcott
Andrew Osegard
Amber Radue
Department of Public Instruction Staff

Jon W. Hisgen
Consultant, Health and Physical Activity
Linda Carey
Office Operations Associate
Douglas White, Director, Student Services/Prevention and Wellness

                                                                                                           v
Development of this document was supported, in part, by Cooperative Agreement #5U87DP001204-3
with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health.l

Copyrighted Materials
Every effort has been made to ascertain proper ownership on copyrighted materials and to obtain
permission for this use. Any omission is unintentional.

vi
Table of Contents
Foreword ................................................................................................................................................... iii

Acknowledgements ...................................................................................................................................          v

Guide to the Revised Wisconsin’s Physical Education Standards ............................................................                                    1

Why Children Need Physical Education ..................................................................................................                       2

Wisconsin Physical Education Standards: Critical Questions ..................................................................                                 5

Uses of Wisconsin’s Physical Education Standards ................................................................................                             8

Section 1
Vertical Alignment of the Standards-Based Continuum...........................................................................                                9

Justification and Vertical Articulation of the Physical Education Standards............................................ 11

Section 2
Grade Band Alignment of the Standards-Based Learning Continuum ..................................................... 31

Formal Physical Education Standards and Strategies for Varied Learners............................................... 33

       Grades PK-2 .................................................................................................................................... 33

       Grades 3-5 ......................................................................................................................................... 41

       Grades 6-8 ......................................................................................................................................... 53

       Grades 9-12 ....................................................................................................................................... 65

Appendices................................................................................................................................................ 79

       Glossary of Terms............................................................................................................................. 81

       Resources .......................................................................................................................................... 84

       Physical Education and Literacy: Making Connections ................................................................... 85

       Wisconsin’s Physical Education Standards and Appropriate
       Teaching Practices ............................................................................................................................ 87

                                                                                                                                                             vii
viii
Guide to the Revised Wisconsin’s Physical Education
Standards
Wisconsin’s Physical Education Standards reflect and expand upon the National
Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) standards. These six standards
have been extensively used across the nation and serve as a model for schools and
institutions of higher education in Wisconsin. Wisconsin’s Physical Education Standards
include the following components:
   1. Broad statements of essential skills, knowledge, behavior, and values for
      students PK-12. These are identified as standards 1 through 6.
   2. A narrative description of the standard as it applies to students in four grade
      bands: PK-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12.
   3. Learning priorities for each standard by grade band describing the specific
      aspects of the standard to be developed. These can be used to guide curriculum
      development.
   4. Focus areas for each standard by grade band. These can be used to guide
      instruction.
   5. Examples of specific skills, knowledge, behavior, or values for each focus area.
      Referred to as a learning continuum, these can be used to guide assessment.
   6. A physical education learning continuum for assessing students using strategies
      for varied level learners. These strategies offer general suggestions and will not
      meet the needs of all students. Some of these examples start below grade level
      and can be adjusted to assess students at grade level and above grade level in
      terms of physical ability.

Taken together, these components provide consistent, developmental guidance for
curriculum, instruction, and assessment in PK-12 physical education.
This standards document is organized as follows: Section 1, beginning on page 9,
provides each standard, grade band narrative, learning priorities, focus areas, and
learning continuum. Section 2, beginning on page 29, provides each standard, and for
each grade band, the learning priority, focus areas, learning continuum, and strategies
for varied level learners.
A glossary of terms follows on page 77. Appendices include a description of
connections between English/language arts and physical education, and a description
of the appropriate teaching practices that can support achievement of the standards.

                                                                                          1
Why Children Need Physical Education
Physical education is an integral part of the total education of every child in
Kindergarten through Grade 12.

Quality physical education programs are needed to increase the physical competence,
health-related fitness, self-responsibility, and enjoyment of physical activity for all
students so that they can be physically active for a lifetime. Physical education
programs can only provide these benefits if they are well-planned and well-
implemented.

Improved Physical Fitness
Improves children’s muscular strength, flexibility, muscular endurance, body
composition, and cardiovascular endurance.

Skill Development
Develops motor skills, which allow for safe, successful, and satisfying participation in
physical activities.

Regular, Healthful Physical Activity
Provides a wide-range of developmentally-appropriate activities for all children.

Support of Other Subject Areas
Reinforces knowledge learned across the curriculum. Serves as a lab for application of
content in science, math, and social studies.

Self-Discipline
Facilitates development of student responsibility for health and fitness.

Improved Judgment
Influences moral development. Students have the opportunity to assume leadership,
cooperate with others, question actions and regulations, and accept responsibility for
their own behavior.

Stress Reduction
Provides an outlet for releasing tension and anxiety, and facilitates emotional stability
and resilience.

Strengthened Peer Relationships
Provides opportunities for helping children socialize with others successfully and learn
positive people skills. Especially during late childhood and adolescence, being able to
participate in dances, games, and sports is an important part of peer culture.

Improved Self-confidence and Self-esteem
Instills a stronger sense of self-worth in children based on their mastery of skills and

2
concepts in physical activity. They can become more confident, assertive, independent,
and self-controlled.

Experience Setting Goals
Provides children the opportunity to set and strive for personal, achievable goals.

Source
National Association for Sport and Physical Education
www.aahperd.org/naspe/publications/teachingTools/whyPE.cfm

                                                                                         3
4
Wisconsin Physical Education Standards:
Critical Questions

Defining the Standards
What are physical education standards? Standards specify what students should
know and be able to do as it relates to a physically active lifestyle. Students can be
asked to give evidence of meeting each standard. In the case of physical education,
students may be asked to demonstrate skill attainment as well.

Why are physical education standards necessary? Standards serve as goals for
physical education instruction and learning. Setting quality standards enable students,
parents, educators, and citizens to know what students should have learned at a given
point in a student’s education career. The absence of standards has consequences
similar to lack of goals in any pursuit. With clear goals and outcomes, students and
teachers will know exactly what students should be achieving.

Our 21st century society is placing increased importance on standards-based
curriculum, instruction, and assessment in all content areas. Clear statements about
what students must know and be able to do are essential to ensure that Wisconsin
schools offer students the opportunities to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary
to develop, maintain, and enhance a physically healthy lifestyle.

Why are state-level academic standards for physical education important? Public
education is a state responsibility. The state superintendent and legislature must ensure
that all children have equal access to high quality physical education. At a minimum,
this requires clear statements of what all children in the state should know and be able
to do, as well as evidence that all students are meeting these physical education
expectations.

Why does Wisconsin need its own standards for physical education? Historically,
the citizens of Wisconsin are very serious and thoughtful about education. They expect
and receive very high performance from their schools. While physical education needs
may be similar among states, values differ. Physical education standards should reflect
the collective values of the citizens and be tailored to developing, maintaining, and
enhancing a physically healthy lifestyle.

Developing the Academic Standards
How were Wisconsin’s Physical Education Standards developed? The National
Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) developed national physical
education standards by a process of consensus building, solicited input, and formal
review from the selected leaders of physical education throughout the country. The
second edition of these standards was published in 2004 and was adopted by many
states. The ten-person standards writing team, chosen by the Department of Public

                                                                                          5
Instruction, began its deliberations in October 2009 with adoption of the six NASPE
standards.
Over the next five months, various components of the standards document were
designed to help schools address standards-based curriculum, instruction, and
assessment. The next step required electronic public review comment over a two-month
period. Based on public comment, the final document was developed.

Who wrote the standards for physical education and what resources were used?
The physical education subject area standards were drafted by a team of leading
teachers and professors, curriculum and instruction directors, principals, and parents.
This work was done after reviewing national standards in the subject area developed by
the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) and standards
developed by other states.

How was the public involved in the standards development process? The
Department of Public Instruction provided an opportunity for public review of the
physical education standards document by putting the draft copy online for public review
and comment. Ninety-four responses were received from the field over a two-month
period and the comments were used to finalize the document.

Using the Academic Standards
How will local districts use the standards for physical education? Adopting these
standards is voluntary, not mandatory. Using the standards can lead to developmentally
appropriate quality physical education programs. Districts may use this document as a
guide for developing grade band level curriculum. Implementation of the standards may
require some school districts to change their school and district physical education
curriculum. In some cases, this may result in significant changes in instructional
methods and materials, local assessments that meet the needs of all learners, and
professional development opportunities for the teaching staff and appropriate
administrators.

What is the difference between academic standards and curriculum? Standards
are statements about what students should know and be able to do, what they may be
asked to do to give evidence of learning, and how well they should be expected to know
or do it. Curriculum is the program devised by local school districts used to prepare
students to meet the physical education standards. It consists of activities and lessons
at each grade level, instructional materials, and various instructional techniques. In
short, standards define what is to be learned at certain points in time and, from a broad
perspective, what performances will be accepted as evidence that the learning has
occurred. Curriculum specifies the details of the day-to-day schooling at the local level.

Relating the Academic Standards to All Students
A unique component of this document is the strategies for the varied learner section.
This section provides examples of how to adjust instruction to meet the needs of all

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students from students with disabilities to the physically advanced. The organization of
these strategies provides age-appropriate progressions for the various skills taught.

Applying the Academic Standards Across the Curriculum
Cross-curricular connections make learning relevant and meaningful to students.
Physical education is a critical element in the development of these connections. One of
the appendix items provides information and examples for connecting physical
education to literacy development.

Literacy is a part of every aspect of life. Research is linking movement to improved brain
function. The National Literacy Strategy seeks to raise awareness of the contribution
physical education can make to literacy through the teaching of physical skills and
activities. This strategy does not suggest using class minutes for “talking” as a
substitute for activity, but as a way to integrate and enhance key literacy concepts such
as listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Physical educators can integrate and build
connections with literacy without compromising the goal of physical education. All
educators can support the goal of a fit mind and a fit body for their students and
themselves.

                                                                                           7
Uses of Wisconsin’s Physical Education Standards
Wisconsin’s Physical Education Standards serves a variety of purposes. Adopting these
standards is voluntary, not mandatory. School districts may use these standards as
guides for revising grade-by-grade level curricula. Implementing these standards may
require some districts to upgrade curricula. This may lead, in turn, to changes in
instructional and assessment practices, materials, and professional development
opportunities. Districts may use these in educating parents, community members, and
agencies about the goals and expected outcomes of physical education programs,
which may help build community support for these programs.
The standards provide a road map to lifetime skills. Programs based on these standards
provide numerous opportunities for real, performance-based assessments for grading
and program evaluation. The revised standards include considerations for students at
all levels of ability. The strategies for varied level learners provide educators with ideas
for individualized instruction, modifications, and assessments for all ranges of students.
Teacher preparation programs may use these in educating prospective teachers
regarding common educational goals and focus areas of high quality physical education
programs. The revised standards will assist prospective teachers in learning about
curriculum, measurement, evaluation, and adaptive physical education methods.
Community agencies and organizations may use this document in designing physical
activity and educational programs for their school-age populations.

                                                                                           8
Section 1
      Vertical Alignment of the
Standards-Based Learning Continuum

                                     9
10
Wisconsin Standards for Physical Education
                                        Grades PK-12
   PK-12 Standard 1: Demonstrates competency in motor skills and movement
           patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities.
PK–2 Young children are very active and enjoy learning and develop new ways to move and be
active. Students achieve mature forms in the basic locomotor skills and vary the manner in
which these skills are performed in relationship to changing conditions and expectations. They
demonstrate smooth transitions between sequential locomotor skills. Students show progress
toward achieving mature form in the more complex manipulative skills (e.g., foot dribble) and
achieve mature form in the less complex manipulative skills (e.g., underhand throw). They
demonstrate control in traveling, weight-bearing, and balance activities on a variety of body
parts.
3–5 Older children develop maturity and versatility in the use of fundamental motor skills for
more pleasurable movement experiences. Students achieve mature forms in the basic non-
locomotor and manipulative skills for performance outcomes (e.g., hitting targets). They use
these skills in dynamic and complex environments (e.g., formal dance to music) and in
combination with each other. Students also acquire some specialized skills basic to a movement
form (i.e., basketball chest pass, softball fielding with a glove).
6–8 Adolescents are able to participate with skill in a variety of modified sport, dance,
gymnastics, and outdoor activities. Students achieve mature forms in the basic skills of the more
specialized sports, dance, and gymnastics activities. They use the skills successfully in modified
games or activities of increasing complexity and in combination with other skills. Students
demonstrate use of tactics with sport activities.
9–12 High school students possess motor skills and movement patterns allowing them to
perform a variety of physical activities and to achieve a degree of success that makes the
activities enjoyable. Students demonstrate the ability to perform basic and advanced skills and
tactics to participate in at least one activity from each of the following categories: aquatics, team
sports, dual sports, individual sports, outdoor pursuits, self-defense, dance, and gymnastics.
They also demonstrate the ability to perform basic skills and tactics to participate in at least five
additional activities from at least three of the categories listed above.

                                                                                                   11
Coding System
When using this document in curriculum development, one can use a coding system that
specifies the standard, the learning priority, the focus area, and the learning continuum
strategies. The coding system is as follows:
    • The first number represents the standard that is being addressed (Standards 1-6).
    • The second number refers to the grade band being addressed (1 for grades Pk-2, 2 for
        3-5, 3 for 6-8, and 4 for 9-12).
    • The letter refers to the focus area that is being addressed (A-C are used in the
        document.
    • The final number refers to the learning continuum example listed in the document. For
        additional strategies use another number or code to designate.

Example: 1:2:A1 refers to standard one, 2 to the 3-5 grade level, and A to first focus area under
that grade level. This is the first example on “Jumps vertically and lands using mature form.”

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PK-12 Standard 1: Demonstrates competency in motor skills and movement
           patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities.
1. GRADES PK–2
Learning Priority: Develops, refines, and applies fundamental motor patterns.

      A. Uses locomotor skills.
      1:1:A1 Skips, hops, gallops, slides, etc., using mature form.
      1:1:A2 Travels fast and slow, using different pathways, changing directions in response to a
             signal or obstacle using a variety of locomotor skills.
      1:1:A3 Repeats a dance pattern without cues.
      1:1:A4 Performs tumbling activities, including rolls, jumps, and weight transfer skills.

      B. Uses manipulative skills.
      1:1:B1 Throws a ball underhand using mature form.
      1:1:B2 Throws a ball overhand.
      1:1:B3 Controls an object using feet, hands, or implement to a target (dribble, throw, catch, kick,
             strike).
      1:1:B4 Performs a variety of jump rope skills, including individual, partner, and long rope skills.

      C. Uses non-locomotor skills.
      1:1:C1 Balances with a variety of body parts or objects in creative shapesround, twisted,
             narrow, symmetrical, and asymmetrical shapes.

2. GRADES 3–5
Learning Priority: Refines, combines, and varies motor skills.

      A. Refines skill development.
      1:2:A1 Jumps vertically and lands using mature form.
      1:2:A2 Throws overhand with mature form.
      1:2:A3 Catches a fly ball using mature form.
      1:2:A4 Strikes an object using feet, hands, or implement to a target. Examples include:
             volleyball, soccer, baseball, hockey, golf, rackets.
      1:2:A5 Balances while moving in control through locomotor and non-locomotor skills.
      1:2:A6 Balances with control on a variety of objects.

      B. Refines skill application.
      1:2:B1 Performs a combination of movement, sport, or leisure skills. Examples include:
             • dribble, pass, receive, shoot
             • juggling
             • rhythm patterns
             • jump rope front cross
      1:2:B2 Creates, refines, and performs a gymnastic, tumbling, dance, or jump rope sequence.
      1:2:B3 Throws a ball overhand and hits a moving target.

                                                                                                       13
3. GRADES 6–8
Learning Priority: Demonstrates basic and specialized skills, as well as applies
those skills tactically, in increasingly complex environments and in combination
with other skills.

      A. Achieves skill development in modified sport, dance, gymnastics, and
         outdoor activities.
      1:3:A1    Serves a ball underhand in net/wall sports (e.g., volleyball, pickle ball) using mature
                form (e.g., stands with feet apart, eyes on ball, pulls arm and shifts weight backward,
                swings arm and shifts weight forward, contacts ball, and follows through).
      1:3:A2    Dribbles a ball while preventing an opponent from stealing the ball in invasion sports
                (e.g., basketball, soccer).
      1:3:A3    Demonstrates correct alignment in form in a target sport (e.g., archery, golf, curling,
                etc.) to control direction.
      1:3:A4    Designs and performs dance (or gymnastic) sequences that combine traveling, rolling,
                balancing, and weight transfer into a smooth, flowing sequence with intentional
                changes in direction, speed, and flow.
      1:3:A5    Demonstrates the ability to do a one-foot glide and controlled stop while rollerblading.
      1:3:A6    Demonstrates correct balance techniques (e.g., static and dynamic) in a variety of
                activities (yoga, Pilates, gymnastics, cooperative activities, etc.).
      1:3:A7    Demonstrates use of technology (e.g., compass and GPS) in outdoor pursuits such as
                hiking, backpacking, and snowshoeing.

      B. Applies skill application to successful use of skills and sports tactics.
      1:3:B1    Demonstrates a return to base position in net/wall sports (e.g., tennis, badminton, etc.).
      1:3:B2    Demonstrates correct application of force to control distance of object in a target sport
                (e.g., golf putt, curling, etc.).
      1:3:B3    Demonstrates technique to place the ball away from an opponent in net/wall sports
                (e.g., volleyball, tennis, etc.).
      1:3:B4    Demonstrates correct position in both net/wall and invasion sports for effective defense
                and offensive coverage.

4. GRADES 9–12
Learning Priority: Demonstrates increasingly mature forms as they relate to
complex motor skills.
      A. Demonstrates skill development.
       1:4:A1   Demonstrates proper mechanics needed for success in target sports such as archery,
                                                    ®
                casting/fishing, golf, and Frisbee golf.
       1:4:A2   Demonstrates balance and body control while moving at different speeds while
                manipulating a ball of different sizes.
       1:4:A3   Demonstrates mature form while striking objects in a variety of racquet sports.
       1:4:A4   Operates a bike, kayak, or canoe safely and skillfully in a natural environment.
       1:4:A5   Demonstrates proficiency in two movement forms in individual and lifetime activities.
       1:4:A6   Demonstrates skills for starting, stopping, falling, and turning while participating in
                lifetime activities such as inline skating, cross-country skiing, biking, etc.
       1:4:A7   Plays modified team sports using all the basic skills and strategies of the sport and
                some advanced skills.
       1:4:A8   Acquires skills to participate in a lifetime activity outside of school.
       1:4:A9   Demonstrates proficient skills to participate in advanced play of some activities.

14
Learning Priority: Demonstrates increasingly complex physical skills to impact
success in various physical activities.

      B. Demonstrates advanced skill application.
      1:4:B1   Passes and catches a variety of objects with a partner while stationary and moving.
      1:4:B2   Executes a variety of shots while participating in racquet sports.
      1:4:B3   Manipulates a ball at moderate to fast speeds, while maintaining control of the ball in
               drills and game play.
      1:4:B4   Demonstrates and describes offensive, defensive, and transitional skills and strategies
               in team and individual sports.
      1:4:B5   Identifies, explains, and applies the skill-related components of balance, reaction time,
               agility, coordination, explosive power, and speed that enhance performance levels in a
               variety of physical activities.
      1:4:B6   Supports teammates by movement and spacing in invasion, net, and field games.
      1:4:B7   Combines and applies movement patterns simple to complex, in aquatic,
               rhythms/dance, and individual and dual activities.

                                                                                                      15
PK-12 Standard 2: Demonstrates understanding of movement concepts,
          principles, strategies, and tactics as they apply to the learning
                      and performance of physical activities.
PK–2 Young children are rapidly maturing in their basic cognitive abilities. They learn and apply
concepts such as actions, planes, and personal/general space. They identify and perform
concepts of effort and relationships that vary the quality of movement. Students identify
elements of correct form for fundamental skills and use them in performance. They use
feedback to improve motor performance.

3–5 Older children are able to comprehend more complex concepts and principles and apply
them in structured settings. They use performance feedback to increase their cognitive
understanding of a skill as well as to improve performance. They also use their knowledge of
critical elements of form or simple biomechanical or motor development principles to provide
feedback to others. As they learn more complex motor skills, they transfer concepts learned in
other skills/games for performance of the new skill/game (e.g., bending the knees lowers the
center of gravity and increases stability).

6–8 Adolescents exhibit an increasingly complex discipline-specific knowledge. They can
identify principles of practice and conditioning that enhance movement performance. They have
higher levels of understanding and application of movement concepts/principles and game
strategies, critical elements of activity-specific movement skills, and characteristics representing
highly skilled performance. Students know when, why, and how to use strategies and tactics
within game play. They use information from a variety of sources, both internal and external, to
guide and improve performance.

9–12 High school students demonstrate knowledge and understanding necessary to develop
scientifically-based personal activity plans that include selected sports and activities. They use
complex movement concepts and principles to independently refine their skills and apply them
to the learning of new skills. Advanced activity related to discipline-specific knowledge is
integrated so that students develop the ability to learn, self-assess, and improve movement
skills independently. They also can recognize elite-level performance.

16
PK-12 Standard 2: Demonstrates understanding of movement concepts,
         principles, strategies, and tactics as they apply to the learning
                     and performance of physical activities.
1. GRADES PK–2
Learning Priority: Develops a cognitive understanding of a skill so as to improve
performance.
      A. Demonstrates cognitive understanding.
      2:1:A1   Identifies correctly body planes and various body parts.
      2:1:A2   Recognizes appropriate safety practices with and without physical education
               equipment.
      2:1:A3   States that best effort is shown by trying new or hard tasks.
      2:1:A4   Repeats cue words for skills being taught and demonstrates/explains what is meant by
               each.
      2:1:A5   Corrects movement errors in response to corrective feedback.
      2:1:A6   States the short-term effects of physical activity on the heart, lungs, and muscles.
      2:1:A7   Explains that appropriate practice improves performance.
      2:1:A8   Participates in games and activities that use academic and health skills to enhance
               learning; for example, math, reading, nutrition, etc.

2. GRADES 3–5
Learning Priority: Develops a cognitive understanding of a skill so as to improve
performance.

      A. Demonstrates cognitive understanding.
      2:2:A1   Explains that warm-up prepares the body for physical activity.
      2:2:A2   Locates heart rate and describes how it is used to monitor exercise intensity.
      2:2:A3   Identifies and demonstrates key elements of skill being taught.
      2:2:A4   Explains the necessity of transferring weight in skills.
      2:2:A5   Participates in games and activities that use academic and health skills to enhance
               learning; for example, math, reading, nutrition, etc.

Learning Priority: Develops the ability to transfer complex motor skills they have
learned into new skills/games.

      B. Utilizes skill application.
      2:2:B1   Recognizes accurately the critical elements of a skill demonstrated by a fellow student
               and provides feedback to that student.
      2:2:B2   Corrects movement errors in response to corrective feedback given by teacher or peer.
      2:2:B3   Designs a new game incorporating at least two motor skills and rules.
      2:2:B4   Explains how appropriate practice improves performance.

3. GRADES 6–8
Learning Priority: Applies cognitive understanding to improve motor skill
development and performance.

      A. Applies cognitive understanding and application to skill development:
         Principles of practice, critical elements of skills, and error correction.
      2:3:A1   Selects appropriate practice procedures to learn and master skills and movement
               patterns.

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2:3:A2    Describes basic principles of conditioning (e.g., overload, progression, specificity,
                regularity, etc.) and how they improve fitness and performance.
      2:3:A3    Identifies proper warm-up and cool down procedures as they affect performance and
                injury prevention.
      2:3:A4    Describes the critical elements of a sport-specific skill (e.g., basketball free throw,
                forearm pass, etc.).
      2:3:A5    Detects and corrects errors in alignment in target sports (e.g., archery, golf) based on
                knowledge of results.
      2:3:A6    Explains force application and how it affects flight path of object.
      2:3:A7    Devises and performs a skill after explaining the significance of a biomechanical
                principle that enhances performance.

      B. Applies cognitive understanding and application to game play as it
         relates to strategies and tactics.
      2:3:B1    Explains at least two game tactics involved in playing net/wall sports (e.g., tennis,
                badminton, volleyball, etc.).
      2:3:B2    Explains at least two game tactics involved in invasion sports (e.g., soccer, basketball,
                handball, etc.).
      2:3:B3    Identifies similarities in body position when receiving a serve (e.g., volleyball,
                badminton, tennis, etc.) and when defending a player (e.g., basketball, soccer, ultimate,
                etc.) and reasons why they are similar.
      2:3:B4    Demonstrates an understanding of team play in invasion sports (e.g., basketball,
                soccer, handball, etc.) by proper positioning, team communication, and team support.

4. GRADES 9–12
Learning Priority: Demonstrates cognitive understanding to develop personal
activity plans.

      A. Demonstrates cognitive understanding.
      2:4:A1   Develops an appropriate conditioning program for a sport or lifetime fitness activity.
      2:4:A2   Plans a summer or afterschool personal conditioning program.
      2:4:A3   Examines the physical, emotional, cognitive, and scientific factors that affect
               performance and explains the relationship between those factors.
      2:4:A4   Identifies the differences and benefits of both functional fitness training and traditional
               weight training.

Learning Priority: Demonstrates the scientific principles as they relate to various
physical activities.

      B. Applies and analyzes scientific principles of physical activity.
      2:4:B1   Identifies biomechanical principles related to striking, throwing, catching, and kicking
               skills.
      2:4:B2   Identifies a new skill to be learned and lists a scientific principle that can be applied to
               improved performance.
      2:4:B3   Recognizes advanced skill performance in others.
      2:4:B4   Describes the impact of new skills and tactics.
      2:4:B5   Explains appropriate tactical decisions in a competitive activity.
      2:4:B6   Self-assesses performance and makes appropriate corrections.
      2:4:B7   Applies preexisting skills and knowledge to the acquisition of new skills.
      2:4:B8   Explains the use of the principles of biomechanics (leverage, force, inertia, rotary
               motion, opposition, and buoyancy)
      2:4:B8   Applies and evaluates biomechanical principles to achieve advanced performance in
               aquatic, rhythms/dance, and individual and dual activities.

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PK-12 Standard 3: Participates regularly in physical activity.

PK–2 Young children participate in physical activities largely because of the pleasure they
experience. They engage primarily in non-structured physical activities on an intermittent basis
outside of physical education class and have fun while doing so. They participate in a wide
variety of gross motor activities that involve locomotion, non-locomotion, and manipulation of
objects. Students knowingly select and participate in activities during their leisure time that are
moderate to vigorous in nature and that they find enjoyable. They recognize that participation in
moderate to vigorous physical activity has both temporary and lasting effects on the body and
voluntarily choose to engage in activities that contribute to improved health. Students begin to
use skills and knowledge acquired in physical education class during their leisure-time physical
activity.

3–5 Older children develop an awareness of participation in physical activity as a conscious
personal decision, choosing activities for both the enjoyment and the health benefits they derive.
They voluntarily participate in moderate to vigorous physical activity for longer periods of time
outside of physical education class. Students are able to identify and make use of opportunities
at school and within the community for regular participation in physical activity. They begin to
recognize and use critical elements and movement concepts to sustain their own participation in
activities they enjoy. They are capable of using information from a variety of sources (internal
and external) to regulate their activity participation.

6–8 Adolescents are able to independently set physical activity goals and participate in
individualized programs of physical activity and exercise based on personal goals and interests
as well as on the results of fitness assessments. They select and use practice procedures and
training principles appropriate for the activity goals they set. Students have an increasing
awareness of the opportunities for participation in a broad range of activities that may meet their
needs and interests. They participate regularly in moderate to vigorous physical activities in both
school and nonschool settings.

9–12 High school students fully recognize and understand the significance of physical activity in
the maintenance of a healthy lifestyle and possess the skills, knowledge, interest, and desire to
maintain an active lifestyle. They willingly participate in physical activities on a regular basis that
contribute to the attainment of and maintenance of personal physical activity goals. Students at
this age make conscious decisions regarding their physical activity participation and assume a
mature role in managing their participation based on capabilities and behavioral skills that
provide a basis for continued learning and regular physical activity participation. They can
independently apply appropriate training principles to their own physical activity and can use
pertinent scientific principles to enhance their participation in a specific activity or sport. In
addition, students demonstrate an understanding of how and why adult patterns of physical
activity participation change throughout life and are capable of implementing meaningful
strategies to deal with those changes.

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PK-12 Standard 3: Participates regularly in physical activity.

1. GRADES PK–2
Learning Priority: Engages in many types of physical activities.

      A. Chooses to be physically active.
      3:1:A1   Engages in moderate to vigorous physical activity on an intermittent basis.
      3:1:A2   Participates in a variety of physical activities outside of school, with and without objects.
      3:1:A3   Participates in a variety of non-structured and minimally-organized physical activities
               outside of physical education.

2. GRADES 3–5
Learning Priority: Regularly participates in activities that provide enjoyment and
health benefits.

      A. Chooses to be physically active.
      3:2:A1   Identifies physical and psychological benefits that result from long-term participation in
               physical education.
      3:2:A2   Chooses to participate in moderate to vigorous physical activity outside of physical
               education class on a regular basis.
      3:2:A3   Chooses to participate in structured and purposeful activity.
      3:2:A4   Monitors his or her physical activity by using a pedometer to count the number of steps
               taken or the distance traveled.
      3:2:A5   Maintains a physical activity log (e.g., ActivityGram) or calendar by participating in a
               school/community-based fitness program.

      B. Sets goals for a physically active lifestyle.
      3:2:B1   Identifies one personal movement goal for use outside of physical education class.
      3:2:B2   Identifies two personal fitness goals to improve personal fitness.

3. GRADES 6–8
Learning Priority: Develops and implements an individual physical activity plan.

      A. Plans for physical activity based on personal goals and interests.
      3:3:A1   Completes a survey to determine personal interests and increase awareness of a broad
               range of opportunities existing within the community.
      3:3:A2   Sets realistic activity goals of his or her choosing based on interests as well as fitness
               assessment results.
      3:3:A3   Develops a physical activity plan using practice procedures and training principles
               appropriate to their personal goals, as well as the physical activity pyramid guidelines.

      B. Participates regularly in moderate to vigorous physical activity in and
         out of school.
      3:3:B1   Maintains a pedometer log for a minimum of two weekdays and one weekend day.
      3:3:B2   Maintains a physical activity log documenting progress toward attaining their personal
               goals.
      3:3:B3   Documents practice time as specified by their physical education teacher.
      3:3:B4   Regulates physical activity behavior by using appropriate practice procedures and
               training principles.

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4. GRADES 9–12
Learning Priority: Demonstrates the skills, knowledge, and interest to lead a
healthy lifestyle.

      A. Chooses to be physically active.
      3:4:A1 Participates willingly in a variety of physical activities appropriate for maintaining or
             enhancing a healthy, active lifestyle.
      3:4:A2 Accumulates a recommended number of minutes of moderate to vigorous physical
             activity outside of physical education on five or more days per week.
      3:4:A3 Participates in health-enhancing lifetime activities that can be pursued in the community
             as well as the school.
      3:4:A4 Monitors physical activity through the use of available technology: pedometers, heart rate
             monitors, activity logs.
      3:4:A5 Recognizes and adjusts their personal effort level to achieve health-enhancing benefits
             during a variety of activities.

      B. Sets goals for a physically active lifestyle.
      3:4:B1 Establishes goals by identifying strengths and weaknesses using personal fitness
             assessments.
      3:4:B2 Compares health and fitness benefits derived from various physical activities.
      3:4:B3 Identifies the effects of age, gender, socioeconomic status, genetics, and culture in
             relation to individual health and current trends and issues.
      3:4:B4 Describes the ways in which personal characteristics, performance styles, and activity
             preferences will change over the life span.

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PK-12 Standard 4: Achieves and maintains a health-enhancing
                             level of physical fitness.
PK–2 Young children engage in a variety of activities that serve to promote health-related
physical fitness. They enjoy physical activities for the pleasure experienced from simply moving
and may not associate the activity with the development of physical fitness. They participate in
physical activity intermittently for short periods of time and will accumulate a relatively high
volume of total activity and have fun while doing so. They recognize physiological signs
associated with participation in moderate to vigorous physical activity (e.g., sweating, fast heart
rate, heavy breathing).

3–5 Older children regularly participate in physical activity for the purpose of improving physical
fitness. Students participate in moderate to vigorous physical activity for longer periods of time
without tiring. They begin to engage in physical activities specifically related to each component
of physical fitness and are capable of monitoring the physiological indicators that accompany
moderate to vigorous physical activity and adjust their own activity accordingly. Students
complete standardized fitness testing and achieve desired levels consistent with contemporary
health-related recommendations. With teacher assistance, students interpret the results and
understand the significance of information provided by formal measures of physical fitness.
Students at this level will be introduced to the components of health-related fitness (aerobic
capacity, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and body composition).

6–8 Adolescents participate in moderate to vigorous physical activities on a regular basis
without undue fatigue. They participate in physical activities that address each component of
health-related fitness, including aerobic capacity, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility,
and how these relate to their overall fitness status. Students monitor their own heart rate,
breathing rate, perceived exertion, and recovery rate during and following strenuous physical
activity. They assess their personal fitness status for each component and use this information
to assist in the development of individualized physical fitness goals with little help from the
teacher. Students show progress towards knowing the various principles of training (e.g.,
threshold, overload, specificity) and how these principles can be utilized in improving one’s level
of physical fitness.

9–12 Young adults assume greater self-responsibility in their lives and display greater
autonomy in their personal behaviors. They demonstrate responsibility for their own health-
related fitness status by participating in appropriate physical activities on a regular basis. They
engage in activities in a variety of settings (e.g., school, home, workplace, community) for the
purpose of achieving and maintaining health-related fitness. They are largely independent in
assessing their personal fitness status, and they can interpret information from fitness tests and
use this information to plan and design their own programs to achieve and maintain personal
fitness goals that encompass all components of fitness.

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PK-12 Standard 4: Achieves and maintains a health-enhancing
                            level of physical fitness.
1. GRADES PK–2
Learning Priority: Develops knowledge, skills, and attitudes toward achieving
physical fitness.

      A. Chooses to be physically active.
      4:1:A1   Participates in muscular strength activities to improve upper body strength to
               participate in activities such as climbing, hanging, momentary body support on the
               hands, horizontal ladder, monkey bars, or traverse wall.
      4:1:A2   Engages in a series of physical activities without tiring easily.
      4:1:A3   Sustains activity for increasingly longer periods of time while participating in various
               activities in physical education.

      B. Manages healthy physical activity.
      4:1:B1   Begins to identify muscle groups used in activities.
      4:1:B2   Participates in a variety of activities and games that increase breathing and heart rate.
      4:1:B3   Recognizes that health-related physical fitness consists of several different
               components.

2. GRADES 3–5
Learning Priority: Develops healthy habits that address the various components
of physical fitness.
      A. Understands health benefits of being physically active.
      4:2:A1   Participates in selected activities that develop and maintain each component of
               physical fitness.
      4:2:A2   Recognizes that physiological responses to exercise are associated with their own
               levels of fitness.
      4:2:A3   Identifies at least one muscle for each physical fitness test (such as FitnessGram)
               used.
      4:2:A4   Describes the five health-related fitness components (cardiovascular fitness, muscle
               strength, muscle endurance, flexibility, body composition), what they measure, and at
               least one benefit of each.

      B. Manages healthy physical activity.
      4:2:B1   Maintains heart rate within the target heart rate zone for a specified length of time
               during an aerobic activity.
      4:2:B2   Meets the age- and gender-specific health-related fitness standards.
      4:2:B3   Identifies his or her strengths and weaknesses based upon the results of physical
               fitness testing and sets goals to show improvement in at least two fitness tests.

3. GRADES 6–8
Learning Priority: Acquires and applies knowledge of the fitness components for
overall fitness.

      A. Acquires and applies fitness knowledge.
      4:3:A1   Knows the various principles of training (threshold, overload, progression, etc.) and
               how these principles are applied.
      4:3:A2   Explains the FITT guidelines as they apply to a training program (e.g., frequency,
               intensity, time, and type of exercise).

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4:3:A3    Defines health-related fitness terminology (e.g., physical fitness, aerobic fitness, body
                composition, muscle strength, muscle endurance, flexibility).
      4:3:A4    Performs physical fitness test with correct form and/or technique.
      4:3:A5    Formulates meaningful personal fitness goals based on fitness test results.
      4:3:A6    Develops, with teacher assistance, an individual plan for improving fitness levels.
      4:3:A7    States the differences between moderate and vigorous physical activity as it relates to
                perceived exertion.
      4:3:A8    Demonstrates knowledge of current guidelines for physical activity (60 minutes daily).
      4:3:A9    Demonstrates knowledge of all major muscle groups.

      B. Develops fitness as it relates to aerobic fitness/body composition,
         muscular fitness, and flexibility.
      4:3:B1    Participates in activities designed to improve or maintain all health-related fitness
                components both during and outside of school.
      4:3:B2    Documents individual physical activity in relation to all the health-related components of
                fitness.
      4:3:B3    Assesses (manually or mechanically with heart rate monitors) and maintains their heart
                rate in a target heart rate zone for the recommended time while participating in aerobic
                physical activity.
      4:3:B4    Demonstrates appropriate training principles and exercise techniques during
                participation in activities designed to improve physical fitness.
      4:3:B5    Completes a total body resistance training workout with safe lifting procedures (e.g.,
                large muscles first, proper form and balance, correct amount of resistance, rest day,
                etc.).
      4:3:B6    Completes a total body stretching routine with safe stretching techniques.

4. GRADES 9–12
Learning Priority: Practices healthy behaviors that maintain or improve physical
fitness.

      A. Assesses and manages personal health behaviors.
      4:4:A1    Develops an appropriate health-related physical fitness exercise program based on
                fitness assessment results and classroom activities.
      4:4:A2    Applies the principles of exercise (FITT, overload, specificity, and progression) in
                implementing a personal fitness program.
      4:4:A3    Achieves personal fitness goals after a period of training.
      4:4:A4    Demonstrates the ability to monitor and adjust a personal fitness program to meet
                needs and goals.
      4:4:A5    Self-assesses the five health-related fitness components (aerobic capacity, muscular
                endurance, muscular strength, flexibility, and body composition).
      4:4:A6    Meets the age- and gender-specific health-related fitness standards defined by
                evidence-based assessments (e.g., FitnessGram).
      4:4:A7    Identifies a variety of activities and how often they should be done to improve all health-
                related fitness components.
      4:4:A8    Identifies major muscle groups of the body and correctly identifies and performs at least
                two weight training exercises for each muscle group.
      4:4:A9    Participates in fitness activities based on resources available in the local community.
      4:4:A10   Self-assesses heart rate before, during, and after various physical activities.
      4:4:A11   Maintains appropriate levels of aerobic capacity, muscular strength and endurance,
                flexibility, and body composition necessary for a healthy and productive life.

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PK-12 Standard 5: Exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that
              respects self and others in physical activity settings.
PK–2 Young children discover the joy of playing with friends and experience how social
interaction can make activities more fun. They know safe practices and physical education class
rules and procedures, and they are able to apply them with little or no reinforcement. Children
know how to utilize acceptable behaviors for physical activity settings and are building a
foundation for successful interpersonal communication during group activity. By improving motor
skills, children have gained a basis and appreciation for working with others in cooperative
movement, sharing, working together to solve a problem, and/or tackling a challenge.

3–5 Older children are active participants and learn to work independently and with small
groups, enjoying the diversity of those around them. Students identify purposes for and follow
activity-specific safe practices, rules, procedures, and etiquette. They continue to develop
cooperation and communication skills to facilitate completion of a common goal while working
with a partner and/or small diverse groups. Older children work independently and productively
for short as well as progressively longer periods of time. Building on the foundation laid in the
early grades, students continue to develop cultural/ethnic self-awareness, appreciate their own
heritage, and appreciate the differences in others.

6–8 Adolescents begin to understand the concept of physical activity as a microcosm of modern
culture and society. They recognize the role of physical activity in understanding diversity and
continue to include and support each other, respecting the limitations and strengths of group
members. Students move from merely identifying and following rules, procedures, safe
practices, ethical behavior, and positive forms of social interaction to reflecting upon their role in
physical activity settings and the benefits of physical activity. They have well-developed
cooperation skills and are able to accomplish group/team goals in both cooperative and
competitive activities. Adolescents seek greater independence from adults and effectively work
independently and in groups to complete assigned tasks. They make appropriate decisions to
resolve conflicts arising from the powerful influence of peers, and they practice appropriate
problem-solving techniques to resolve conflicts when necessary in competitive activities.

9–12 Young adults demonstrate the ability to initiate responsible personal and social behavior,
function independently, and positively influence the behavior of others in a physical activity
setting. They demonstrate leadership by holding themselves and others responsible for
following safe practices, rules, procedures, and etiquette in all physical activity settings. They
are able to respond to potentially explosive interactions with others by mediating and settling
conflicts. Students synthesize and evaluate knowledge regarding the role of physical activity in a
culturally-diverse society. They make enlightened personal choices for engaging in physical
activity over their life span, recognizing the influence of age, disability, gender, race, ethnicity,
socioeconomic status, and culture. They develop a personal philosophy of participation
reflecting inclusive practices in physical activity settings.

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