Studies in the Political Economy of Public Policy

 
Studies in the Political Economy of Public Policy

                   Series Editors
                   Toby Carroll
    Department of Asian and International Studies
           City University of Hong Kong

                  Paul Cammack
    Department of Asian and International Studies
           City University of Hong Kong

                   Kelly Gerard
             School of Social Sciences
         The University of Western Australia

                  Darryl S.L. Jarvis
      Faculty of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences
      The Education University of Hong Kong
Studies in the Political Economy of Public Policy presents cutting edge,
innovative research on the origins and impacts of public policy. Going
beyond mainstream public policy debates, the series encourages het-
erodox and heterogeneous studies of sites of contestation, confl ict and
cooperation that explore policy processes and their consequences at
the local, national, regional or global levels. Fundamentally pluralist in
nature, the series is designed to provide high quality original research of
both a theoretical and empirical nature that supports a global network
of scholars exploring the implications of policy on society. The series is
supported by a diverse international advisory board drawn from Asia,
Europe, Australia, and North America, and welcomes manuscript sub-
missions from scholars in the global South and North that pioneer new
understandings of public policy.
  International Advisory Board: Michael Howlett, Simon Fraser
University, Canada; John Hobson, University of Sheffi eld, UK;
Stuart Shields, University of Manchester, UK; Lee Jones, Queen Mary,
University of London, UK; Kanishka Jayasuriya, Murdoch University,
Australia; Shaun Breslin, University of Warwick, UK; Kevin Hewison,
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Richard Stubbs, McMaster
University, Canada; Dick Bryan, University of Sydney, Australia; Kun-chin
Lin, University of Cambridge, UK; Apiwat Ratanawaraha, Chulalongkorn
University, Thailand; Wil Hout, Institute of Social Studies, Erasmus
University, The Netherlands; Penny Griffi n, University of New South
Wales, Australia; Philippe Zittoun, Science Po, Grenoble, France;
Heng Yee Kuang, University of Tokyo; Heloise Weber, University of
Queensland, Australia; Max Lane, Victoria University, Australia.

More information about this series at
http://www.springer.com/series/14465
Xun Wu · Michael Howlett · M. Ramesh
                 Editors

   Policy Capacity
   and Governance
  Assessing Governmental Competences
  and Capabilities in Theory and Practice
Editors
Xun Wu                                              M. Ramesh
Division of Public Policy                           Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy
Hong Kong University of Science                     National University of Singapore
  and Technology                                    Singapore, Singapore
Hong Kong, China

Michael Howlett
Department of Political Science
Simon Fraser University
Burnaby, BC, Canada

Studies in the Political Economy of Public Policy
ISBN 978-3-319-54674-2              ISBN 978-3-319-54675-9 (eBook)
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-54675-9

Library of Congress Control Number: 2017939335

© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2018
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Contents

1   Policy Capacity: Conceptual Framework and Essential
    Components                                           1
    Xun Wu, M. Ramesh and Michael Howlett

Part I Conceptual and Measurement Issues

2   Policy Capacity in Public Administration		29
    B. Guy Peters

3   Policy Analytical Capacity: The Supply and Demand
    for Policy Analysis in Government		49
    Michael Howlett

4   Measuring Policy Capacity Through Governance
    Indices		67
    Kris Hartley and Jingru Zhang

5   Measuring Policy Analytical Capacity
    for the Environment: A Case for Engaging
    New Actors		99
    Angel Hsu

                                                          v
vi   Contents

Part II Theoretical and Empirical Issues

6    Innovation and the State: Towards an Evolutionary
     Theory of Policy Capacity		123
     Erkki Karo and Rainer Kattel

7    The Role of Analysts in Public Agencies: Toward
     an Empirically Grounded Typology		151
     Karol Olejniczak, Paweł Śliwowski and Rafał Trzciński

8    Policy Analytical Practice Investigated: Exploring
     Sectoral Patterns in Use of Policy Analytical Techniques		 179
     Ellen Fobé, Valérie Pattyn, Marleen Brans and David Aubin

9    Government’s Credible Accountability and Strategic
     Policy Capacity: Evidence from the Asian NICs
     of Taiwan, South Korea, Malaysia, and Singapore		203
     O. Fiona Yap

10 Does Political Legitimacy Matter for Policy Capacity?		229
   Honorata Mazepus

11 Interest Groups and Policy Capacity: Modes
   of Engagement, Policy Goods and Networks		243
   Carsten Daugbjerg, Bert Fraussen and Darren Halpin

Part III Case Studies

12 Building Organizational Political Capacity Through
   Policy Learning: Communicating with Citizens
   on Health and Safety in the UK		265
   Claire A. Dunlop

13 Exploring Capacity for Strategic Policy Work: Water
   Policy in Australia		289
   Yvette Bettini and Brian W. Head
Contents   vii

14 Philanthropic Foundations in the City
   Policy Process: A Perspective on Policy Capacity
   from the United States		313
   Madeleine Pill

15 Policy Capacity Within a Federation: The Case
   of Australia		337
   Scott Brenton

16 Dynamic Mechanisms for Resolving Collective
   Incidents in China: A Policy Capacity Analysis		359
   Jieren Hu, Guoqin Wang and Jingyan Fei

17 Policy-Related Expertise and Policy Work in Czech
   Political Parties: Theory and Methods		385
   Martin Polášek, Vilém Novotný and Michel Perottino

18 The Dynamic Nature of Policy Capacity: Internet
   Policy in Italy, Belarus and Russia		411
   Nina Belyaeva

Index		441
Editors and Contributors

About the Editors

Xun Wu is a professor in the Division of Public Policy, Division of Social
Science and Division of Environment and Sustainability, Hong Kong
University of Science and Technology, where he is also Director of the
Institute for Public Policy and Leadership & Public Policy Executive
Education. Professor Wu is a policy scientist with a strong interest in the
linkage between policy analysis and public management. Trained in engi-
neering, economics, public administration, and policy analysis, his research
seeks to contribute to the design of effective public policies in dealing
with emerging policy challenges across Asian countries. His research inter-
ests include policy innovations, water resource management, health policy
reform, and anti-corruption, and his work has been published in top journals
in his fields of study, such as Policy Sciences, Public Administration Review,
Governance, Social Sciences & Medicine, and Water Resources Research.
Michael Howlett is Burnaby Mountain Chair in the Department of
Political Science at Simon Fraser University and Yong Pung How Chair
Professor in the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy at the National
University of Singapore. He specializes in public policy analysis, politi-
cal economy, and resource and environmental policy. His recent books
include Canadian Public Policy (University of Toronto Press, 2013),
Designing Public Policies (Routledge, 2011), Routledge Handbook of
Comparative Policy Analysis (Routledge, 2017), Varieties of Governance

                                                                            ix
x   Editors and Contributors

(Palgrave, 2015) and Policy Paradigms in Theory and Practice (Palgrave,
2015).

M. Ramesh is Professor and UNESCO Chair of Social Policy Design
in Asia at the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, the National
University of Singapore. Previously, he held senior academic positions at
the Hong Kong Institute of Education, the University of Hong Kong,
and the University of Sydney. Specializing in public policy and govern-
ance in Asia with a particular focus on social policy, Ramesh has authored
or co-authored and edited many books, including Studying Public
Policy, Social Policy in East and Southeast Asia, and Welfare Capitalism
in Southeast Asia. He is the Editor of Policy and Society, and Associate
Editor of Journal of Economic Policy Reform.

Contributors
David Aubin holds a Ph.D. in political science from Université
catholique de Louvain (UCL, 2005). He is professor at UCL, where he
teaches policy analysis, evaluation and sustainability. As part of Belgian
and European comparative research projects, he studies policy work,
environmental policies, and the regulation of network industries. He has
been an invited scholar at Université de Montréal, Katholieke Universiteit
Leuven and the University of Colorado Denver, and has published in
journals such as Policy Sciences and Journal of Public Policy. He has also
co-edited books on multi-level telecoms regulation (Palgrave, 2014) as
well as Policy Analysis in Belgium (Policy Press, 2017).

Nina Belyaeva is a professor and head of public policy of National
Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow. She received
her Ph.D. in Law and Public Policy from the Institute of State and Law
of Academy of Science. Her current research focuses on civil society
and protest publics as global phenomena. She teaches on civil society’s
influence on policy making at Bologna University, University of Turin,
Sciences Po Lyon and at the European Regional Master’s Programme
in Democracy and Human Rights at the University of Sarajevo. She has
recently published on global citizenship, global identity and protest pub-
lics in Moscow.
Editors and Contributors      xi

Dr. Yvette Bettini is an Adjunct Research Fellow in the Institute for
Social Science Research, University of Queensland. She has a back-
ground in human geography and professional experience in community
engagement and in water and catchment management policy and prac-
tice. Her research focuses on the institutional and capacity dimensions of
environmental management, policy and governance.

Marleen Brans is professor at the KU Leuven Public Governance
Institute. Her research interests focus on the production and use of pol-
icy advice by academics, civil servants, personal advisors and strategic
advisory bodies. She serves as Vice President of the International Public
Policy Association and as President of the Accreditation Committee of the
European Association for Public Administration Accreditation. Her pub-
lications include the Routledge Handbook of Comparative Policy Analysis
(edited with Iris Geva-May and Michael Howlett, 2017) and Policy Analysis
in Belgium (edited with David Aubin, Policy Press, 2017). At KU Leuven
she directs the Master of European Politics and Policies programme.

Scott Brenton is a Senior Lecturer in Political Science and Public
Policy in the School of Social and Political Sciences at the University of
Melbourne, Australia.

Carsten Daugbjerg is a Professor in the Crawford School of Public
Policy, The Australian National University, Australia and a Professor
in the Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of
Copenhagen, Denmark. He also serves as co-editor of the Journal of
Environmental Policy and Planning. His research has focussed on the
role of interest groups in public policy, agricultural policy reform, farm
trade negotiations in the WTO, private food standards, green taxation,
agri-environmental regulation, organic food policy and biofuels policy.
His recent research addresses global food security policy and governance.
He has published widely on these issues.

Claire A. Dunlop is Professor of Politics at the Department of Politics
at the University of Exeter, United Kingdom. A public policy and admin-
istration scholar, Claire’s main fields of interest include the politics of
expertise and knowledge utilization; epistemic communities and advisory
politics; risk governance; policy learning and analysis; impact assessment;
and policy narratives. She explores these conceptual interests principally
xii   Editors and Contributors

at the UK and EU levels, and most frequently in relation to agricul-
tural, environmental and LGBT issues. She has published more than 40
peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, most recently in Policy
and Politics, Policy Sciences, International Public Management Journal,
Regulation & Governance and Journal of European Public Policy. She is
editor of Public Policy and Administration.

Jingyan Fei is a Ph.D. student in the School of International Relations
& Public Affairs at Fudan University. Her research focuses on political
sociology, grassroots governance and dispute resolution.

Ellen Fobé is a researcher at the KU Leuven Public Governance
Institute. In her Ph.D. research, she investigates the policy analytical
capacity of Belgian civil servants and the factors driving the use of pol-
icy analytical techniques. Her other main research interests are the sup-
ply and demand of policy advice, the institutionalization and functioning
of policy advisory bodies, academic and societal knowledge utilization
by governments, the choice of policy instruments, and the role of nudg-
ing in public policies. She has published in journals such as Evidence &
Policy, Policy and Society, and Halduskultuur.

Bert Fraussen is Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Governance and
Global Affairs, Leiden University, the Netherlands. His research agenda
integrates the organizational design and development of political organi-
zations, notably interest groups, and their involvement in public policy.
Particular topics of interest include relations between interest groups
and policymakers and the role of stakeholders in policy advisory systems.
Bert's work has been published in journals such as European Journal of
Political Science, Governance, Political Studies and Public Administration.

B. Guy Peters is Maurice Falk Professor of Government at the
University of Pittsburgh, and President of the International Public
Policy Association. He is also co-editor of the Journal of Comparative
Policy Analysis. His most recent books are Comparative Governance:
Rediscovering the Functional Dimension of Governing (with Jon
Pierre, Cambridge University Press, 2016) and Pursuing Horizontal
Management (University Press of Kansas, 2015).
Editors and Contributors     xiii

Darren R. Halpin is Professor of Political Science at the Research
School of Social Sciences, Australian National University. His research
agenda examines interest groups in the policy process, with specific
emphasis on the political representation provided by groups, internal
democracy within groups, and the assessment of group organizational
development/capacity. These themes are explored in his most recent
book, The Organization of Political Interest Groups (Routledge, 2014).

Kris Hartley is a Lecturer in the Department of City and Regional
Planning at Cornell University, where he teaches quantitative methods
and public sector economics. He is also a Faculty Fellow at Cornell’s
Atkinson Center and a Nonresident Fellow for Global Cities at the
Chicago Council on Global Affairs. Kris received a Ph.D. in Public
Policy from the National University of Singapore, and holds a Master
of City Planning in Economic Development from the University
of California, Berkeley, and an MBA with a focus in International
Management from Baylor University in Texas.

Brian W. Head is Professor of Public Policy and Governance at the
University of Queensland, Australia. He has held senior roles in gov-
ernment, academia and the non-government sector. His major interests
are policy innovation, evidence-based policy, collaboration, program
evaluation, complex policy challenges, accountability and leadership.
His academic profile is available at https://scholar.google.com.au/
citations?user=6W3-66EAAAAJ&hl=en&oi=sra

Angel Hsu Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor of Environmental Policy
at Yale-NUS College in Singapore and the Yale School of Forestry and
Environmental Studies in the United States. She is the founder and
director of the Yale Data-Driven Environmental Solutions Group, a
research initiative bringing quantitative and evidence-based approaches
to policy analysis. She holds a Ph.D. from Yale University.

Jieren Hu is Associate Professor in the Law School at Tongji
University, and research fellow at the Center for Social Governance
Research at Fudan University and the Henan Collaborative Innovation
Center for Social Governance at Zhengzhou University. Her research
focuses on urban conflict resolution, sociology of law and social govern-
ance.
xiv   Editors and Contributors

Erkki Karo is Director and Senior Research Fellow at the Ragnar
Nurkse Department of Innovation and Governance, Tallinn University
of Technology (Estonia). His research focuses on comparative analysis of
research, development and innovation policies with a specific focus on
governance and organizational design.

Rainer Kattel is Professor of Innovation Policy and Technology
Governance at the Ragnar Nurkse Department of Innovation and
Governance, Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia). He has pub-
lished extensively on innovation policy and development economics.
His most recent books are Financial Regulation in the European Union,
co-edited with J. Kregel and M. Tonveronachi (Routledge, 2016), and
the Elgar Handbook of Alternative Theories of Economic Development, co-
edited with J. Gosh and E.S. Reinert (Edward Elgar, 2016).

Dr. Honorata Mazepus is a post-doctoral researcher at the Institute of
Public Administration, Faculty of Governance and Global Affairs, Leiden
University, the Netherlands. She currently works on the EU-STRAT pro-
ject funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and inno-
vation programme, investigating how citizens in the Eastern Partnership
countries evaluate the European Union and Russia. She specializes in
political legitimacy and her research focuses on the role of fairness (dis-
tributive and procedural) in evaluations of political authorities by citizens
in democratic and non-democratic political regimes, including post-com-
munist countries.

Vilém Novotný is Senior Lecturer and Senior Researcher at the
Department of Public and Social Policy ISS FSV Charles University,
Czech Republic. His research interests focus on political parties, includ-
ing policy relations, policy process research, and history of policy stud-
ies. He has published in various peer-reviewed journals including the
Politologická revue [Czech Political Science Review], Acta Politologica,
Central European Journal of Public Policy and Policy Sciences. He is
the author of Vývoj českého studia veřejných politik v evropském kontextu
[Development of Czech Public Policy Studies in the European context]
(2012).

Karol Olejniczak is Assistant Professor at EUROREG, University
of Warsaw, and a co-founder of the evaluation company EGO s.c. His
EDITORS AND CONTRIBUTORS     xv

research interests focus on the evaluation of public programs, knowledge
management, and behavioral public interventions. He is the author of
a number of publications on regional policy, evaluation methodology
and organizational learning. Since 2008, he has served as head of the
Academy of Evaluation, an elite study program for Polish civil servants.
Apart from academic research, he also conducts evaluations and policy
analyses, and has been awarded the title of Evaluator of the Year from
the Polish government for his extensive applied research.

Valérie Pattyn is Assistant Professor in Public Administration and
Public Policy at the Institute of Public Administration at Leiden
University, the Netherlands. Her main areas of expertise are policy evalu-
ation, evidence-based policy and policy advice. She has published vari-
ous articles on these topics in journals such as Evaluation, Journal of
Comparative Policy Analysis, International Review of Administrative
Sciences, Public Management Review, and Policy and Society. She is co-
chair of the Permanent Study Group on Policy Design and Evaluation of
the European Group for Public Administration.

Michel Perottino is Associate Professor (Docent), Senior Researcher
and Head of the Department of Political Science of the Faculty of Social
Sciences at Charles University in Prague. His major research inter-
ests are political parties (theory and sociology of parties) and political
systems (especially the Czech Republic and France). He has published
articles in various peer-reviewed journals including the Revue d’Etudes
Comparatives Est-Ouest, the Czech Political Science Review, and Acta
Politologica. He was responsible for the research project “Policy-Related
Expertise in Czech Political Parties” (Czech national agency GAČR, pro-
ject No. 13-20962S).

Madeleine Pill is a Lecturer in Public Policy at the Department
of Government and International Relations, University of Sydney.
Madeleine’s research takes a critical and comparative approach to gov-
ernance and public policy at the urban and neighbourhood scales,
including considering the effects of austerity on the collaborative gov-
ernance of cities. Her research is informed by her experiences working
in local and central government in the UK and the state government in
Australia.
xvi   Editors and Contributors

Martin Polášek is an analyst in public administration in the Czech
Government/Prime Minister’s Office. He previously served as Senior
Lecturer and Senior Researcher at the Institute of Political Science at
Charles University, Prague. He has published in various peer-reviewed
journals including the Politologická revue [Czech Political Science
Review], Central European Journal of Public Policy and Policy Sciences.
He is the author of Revizionisté, tradicionalisté a progresivisté: pro-
gramové debaty v československé sociální demokracii v letech 1924-1938
[Revisionists, traditionalists and progressives: programmatic debates
in the Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party in the years 1924-1938]

teorie při výkladu vývoje ČSSD a KSČM v letech 2000-2010 [Between Mass
(2013) and co-author of Mezi masovou a kartelovou stranou : možnosti

and Cartel Party: Interpreting the Development of ČSSD and KSČM in
2000–2010] (2012).

Paweł Śliwowski is research fellow at the Centre for European Regional
and Local Studies (EUROREG) at the University of Warsaw. His main
research area is knowledge management in public institutions. He is co-
editor (with Karol Olejniczak) of a handbook for civil servants, How to
Measure Organizational Learning Framework within Government (in
Polish). He also has experience in the evaluation of the EU’s Cohesion
Policy and the implementation of Cohesion Policy programs in Poland.
He holds a BA in Literary Studies and Linguistics from the Faculty of
Polish Studies at the University of Warsaw, and an MA in spatial eco-
nomics from the University of Warsaw’s Centre for European Regional
and Local Studies.

Rafał Trzciński is Director of the Centre for Research and Statistical
Education at the Central Statistical Office of Poland. From 2016-2017,
he was Director for Research and Quantitative Analyses at the IDEA of
Development Foundation. He has many years of experience in research
and evaluation of public programs gained during his work in the public
sector (Polish Agency for Enterprise Development: 2005-2014; Institute
for Educational Research: 2014-2015), non-governmental organisations
(IDEA of Development Foundation: 2014-2017; ISEE Foundation:
2013-2016) and cooperation with private operators (EGO S.C., KPMG
and others). He is a member of the Polish Evaluation Society and a grad-
uate of the Institute of Sociology at the University of Warsaw.
EDITORS AND CONTRIBUTORS     xvii

Prof. Guoqin Wang is Professor in the Department of Political Science
at Zhejiang Institute of Administration. His research focuses on collec-
tive action, social stability and social governance.

O. Fiona Yap is Associate Professor at the Crawford School of Public
Policy, The Australian National University, Australia. Her main research
interest focuses on strategic interactions between government and
citizens in East and Southeast Asia, which lead to outcomes such as
democratization, peace, economic development and policy success.
Her research is available through journals such as the British Journal
of Political Science, Comparative Political Studies, Journal of East Asian
Studies, Journal of Theoretical Politics, Social Science Quarterly, Korea
Observer, Japanese Journal of Political Science, Asian Survey, Government
and Opposition, and Policy Sciences as well as chapter contributions in
edited volumes.

Jingru Zhang is a Ph.D. candidate at the Lee Kuan Yew School of
Public Policy, National University of Singapore. After earning her under-
graduate degree from Shanghai Jiao Tong University, she joined the
Energy and Environmental Sustainable Solutions for Megacities (E2S2)
Project, where her research focuses on urban municipal solid waste man-
agement. She has co-authored opinion pieces in the Shanghai Daily
and China Daily addressing environmental regulation, and contrib-
uted to case studies for UNDP on poverty reduction opportunities in
waste management. In 2015, she was selected as the youth delegate for
the National University of Singapore at the Chicago Forum on Global
Cities.
List of Figures

Fig. 1.1   Policy capacity at individual level	  7
Fig. 1.2   Policy capacity at the organizational level	  9
Fig. 1.3   Policy capacity at the system level	  12
Fig. 3.1   Dimensions and levels of policy capacity	  52
Fig. 3.2   Components of policy analytical capacity	  58
Fig. 4.1   Tabulation of WGI and matrix capacity measures	  70
Fig. 4.2   Tabulation of SGI and matrix capacity measures	  74
Fig. 4.3   Tabulation of GIPI and matrix capacity measures	  76
Fig. 4.4   Tabulation of CRI and matrix capacity measures	  78
Fig. 4.5   Tabulation of BTI and matrix capacity measures	  80
Fig. 4.6   Composite tabulation	  81
Fig. 5.1   A map assessing the recentness of the world’s wastewater
           reporting. This does not measure treatment performance
           but rather reporting status	  107
Fig. 5.2   Countries that report more recent data (i.e., after 2005)
           tend to perform higher overall on the 2014 EPI
           wastewater treatment indicator than countries that lack
           recent data	  108
Fig. 5.3   Number of city-level data points for fine particulate matter
           (PM2.5) available in the WHO’s (2014) Ambient
           (outdoor) air pollution database (WHO 2014)	  109
Fig. 7.1   Distribution of analyst’s index values in personnel
           of the Polish central government	  165
Fig. 7.2   Definition of analyst used as a selection criterion	  166
Fig. 7.3   Types of analysts	  168
Fig. 8.1   Distribution of respondents	  187

                                                                    xix
xx   List of Figures

Fig. 8.2    Overall use and non-use of different types of policy
            analytical tools	                                           188
Fig. 8.3    Comparison of tool use across sectors with different
            spending levels	                                            191
Fig. 8.4    Type of tools affected by spending levels	                  192
Fig. 8.5    Comparison of tool use across sectors that receive
            or do not receive EU funds	                                 193
Fig. 8.6    EU funding and policy analytical tool use	                  194
Fig. 8.7    Comparison of tool use across sectors with different
            numbers of social scientists	                               195
Fig. 8.8    Comparison of tool use across sectors with different
            levels of social scientists	                                196
Fig. 10.1   Policy capacity and the role of legitimacy	                 237
Fig. 12.1   Varieties of policy learning	                               272
Fig. 12.2   Expanding reflexive learning	                               275
Fig. 15.1   Elements of policy capacity, interdependent
            relationships and outside pressures	                        347
Fig. 15.2   Tensions and optimal points between ideal
            government roles and principles of reform	                  353
Fig. 16.1   Correlation of the dynamic mechanisms	                      377
Fig. 16.2   Interaction in collective incidents at the micro,
            meso, and macro levels	                                     379
Fig. 18.1   Liberalization, inclusiveness and democratization
            (Dahl 1971‚ p. 7)	                                          414
Fig. 18.2   Trajectories of political regime transformation in Italy,
            Belarus and Russia (1940–2015)	                             416
List of Tables

Table 1.1    Policy capacity: Skills and resources	  4
Table 2.1    The relative policy capacity of actors	  42
Table 6.1    The punctuated selection and feedback environments
             of innovation policy	  139
Table 7.1    Spectrum of analytical behaviours	  161
Table 11.1   Analytical, operational and political policy goods	  251
Table 11.2   Extremes on the policy network continuum	  255
Table 12.1   Differentiating policy learning types	  273
Table 12.2   Organizational political capacities and reflexive learning	  277
Table 13.1   Individual policy capacities across jurisdictions	  295
Table 13.2   Organizational policy capacities across jurisdictions	  296
Table 13.3   Systemic policy competencies and capabilities identified
             across jurisdictions	  297
Table 15.1   Attempts at reforming the federation and government
             administration, 2008–2015	  340
Table 15.2   Considering how to strengthen capacities	  355
Table 16.1   The classification of pressure and interest
             in the political system	 363
Table 16.2   Pressure-relieving and interest-maximizing methods
             in the political system	  364
Table 16.3   Collective incidents in L Town from 1990–2006	  367
Table 16.4   Mechanisms and strategies manipulated in three cases	  378
Table 18.1   The economist “Index of democracy”: Country ranking	 415
Table 18.2   “Freedom on the net” ranking, 2015. Italy	 418

                                                                          xxi
xxii   List of Tables

Table 18.3    “Freedom on the net” ranking, 2015. Belarus	 423
Table 18.4    “Freedom on the Net” ranking, 2015. Russia	 428
Table 18.5    Systemic political capabilities of state and public	  435
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