The Africa Strategy 2014-2018 - Africa as a Partner in Education and Research

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The Africa Strategy 2014-2018 - Africa as a Partner in Education and Research
The Africa Strategy 2014–2018
Africa as a Partner in Education and Research
The Africa Strategy 2014-2018 - Africa as a Partner in Education and Research
The Africa Strategy 2014-2018 - Africa as a Partner in Education and Research


Cooperation with Africa                                                4

Contributions made by German educational, research and intermediary
organisations                                                         8

Why an Africa Strategy?                                               11

Principles of cooperation                                             13

Objectives                                                            15

Priority topics                                                       17

Tools                                                                 25

Our goals for the next five years                                     26

List of planned measures                                              27

Sources                                                               32

Imprint                                                               33
The Africa Strategy 2014-2018 - Africa as a Partner in Education and Research
The Africa Strategy 2014-2018 - Africa as a Partner in Education and Research
The Africa Strategy 2014-2018 - Africa as a Partner in Education and Research
4                                                                                       THE AFRICA STRATEGY 2014–2018

Cooperation with Africa
The groundwork for the cooperation between the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and its partners
in Africa was laid more than thirty years ago. Intergovernmental agreements on bilateral cooperation in science and
technology have been in place with the priority countries Egypt and South Africa since 1979 and 1996 respectively.
Measures such as the establishment of the German-Egyptian Research Fund were implemented on the basis of these
agreements. The partnership with South Africa focussed on the continuing development of cooperation through
research projects on topics such as integrated water resources management (IWRM). Since 2000, positive political
developments and the increased interest of African partners in science and research have led to collaborations in more
and more African countries.

The Federal Government’s Strategy for the Internatio­         II. Education: the established priority topics and specif­
nalisation of Science and Research, which was launched        ic individual initiatives target the postgraduate tertiary
in 2008, provided further impetus for cooperation with        sector and initial and continuing vocational training in
Africa. It declared the strengthening of cooperation with     order to
developing countries a new priority.                              react promptly and adequately to changes in the
                                                                  transition countries in North Africa;
The funding provided for activities with Africa by the            intensify cooperation with our priority countries
BMBF and other educational, research and intermedi­               Egypt and South Africa;
ary organisations also clearly reflects these trends.             support the move towards modernisation of
                                                                  individual countries to become knowledge-driven
The BMBF has a positive record of cooperation with                economies;
African countries throughout the implementation of                reinforce our cooperation in vocational education
the Internationalisation Strategy. Its successes include          and training with emerging economies.
   the expansion of its activities to include 39 of the
   54 countries in Africa, with 62% of the cooperative        A number of approaches to develop beacons of
   projects originating in the past nine years;               excellence have emerged as a result of the Internatio­
   the establishment of two pillars as a basis for its        nalisation Strategy. These beacon projects serve as role
   cooperation.                                               models because they establish structures, are regionally
                                                              focussed and address global and regional challenges in
                                                              science and research.
Development of expenditure for Africa
                                                                                Education and science are also
                               2005      2009      2013                         crucial to societal transformation
                              in m €    in m €    in m €
                             approx.   approx.   approx.
                                                                                processes such as those taking place
                                                                                in North Africa. Funding scientific
BMBF                          11.9      17.1      50.8                          support for transformation processes
                                                              and capacity building in research and technology help
Educational, Research,        24.8      68.1     102.9        promote the shift in society towards democratisa­
Intermediary Organisations                                    tion and knowledge-based development. The Federal
                                                              Government’s “Transformation Partnership Program­
                                                              mes” include measures to promote education, voca­
I. Research: Expansion of the existing research focus on      tional education and training, and research.
the environment to include other research priorities:
bioeconomy, health, societal development, resource            This is in addition to consultations on Africa policy
management, transformation and the cross-cutting              with the Group of Eight (G8) and the Group of Twenty
topic of innovation.                                          (G20), the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and
                                                              Development (OECD), the United Nations (UN), in par­
The Africa Strategy 2014-2018 - Africa as a Partner in Education and Research

                                                                             Examples of BMBF Africa initiatives since 2008

                                                                             The BMBF’s funding calls for sub-Saharan Africa sup­
                                                                             port bilateral and multilateral research partnerships
                                                                             and study opportunities. 74 projects in 29 countries
                                                                             have received or receive funding.

                                                                             Support for cooperation between the Network of
                                                                             African Science Academies and the German National
                                                                             Academy of Sciences Leopoldina to raise the profile
                                                                             of science and research started in 2012.

                                                                             Participation in multilateral initiatives on the research
                                                                             policy dialogue and the further development of
                                                                             research systems and strategic partnerships in the
                                                                             Mediterranean region (e.g. in the Euro-Mediterranean
ticular with the United Nations Educational, Scientifi­
                                                                             Group of Senior Officials in Research and Innovation
cand Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) and its UNEVOC
                                                                             – EU-Med GSO)
Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and
Training, and the United Nations University (UNU).                           The German-South African Year of Science 2012/2013
                                                                             addressed the following global challenges: climate
The BMBF provides important stimulus within the EU                           change, increasing urbanisation, the scarcity of re­
and uses synergies between national and European                             sources, global food security and global health prob­
level initiatives to shape multilateral initiatives1 in in­                  lems. It made it possible to intensify existing coopera­
ternational organisations in coordination with strategic                     tion and establish long-term collaborations.
partners. The BMBF is involved in a broad range of EU
initiatives, including the High Level Policy Dialogue                                   Support for social and political research
(HPLD), an institution of the EU-Africa policy dia­                                     on regional integration processes between
logue on science, technology and innovation. It is a                                    the West Africa Institute of the Economic
permanent member of the European-African Secre­                              Community of West African States and the German
tariat, which prepares the biennial HPLD.                                    Center for European Integration Studies (since 2013)

                                                                             The BMBF signed a declaration of intent on coopera­
                                                                             tion in vocational education and training (VET) with
                                                                             South Africa’s Department of Higher Education and
                                                                             Training in 2013. The aim is to make VET in South
                                                                             Africa more practice-oriented along the lines of
                                                                             Germany’s dual system.

1   A few high-profile EU projects are referred to in the following pages.
The Africa Strategy 2014-2018 - Africa as a Partner in Education and Research
6                                                                                                                                                           THE AFRICA STRATEGY 2014–2018





Cape Verde
                        Senegal                                                                       Niger
                                                                                                                            Chad                                                          Eritrea
             Gambia                                                                                                                                         The Sudan
              Guinea­                                       Burkina Faso
              Bissau              Guinea
                                                                             Benin                                                                                                                    Djibouti
                                  Leone                                                   Nigeria
                                                Côte d'Ivoire
                                      Liberia                                                                                                                  South Sudan
                                                                                                                              The Central                                                  Ethiopia
                                                                           Togo                                               African Republic
                                                                                  Equatorial Guinea
                                                                                                       Gabon                                                                               Kenya

                                                                                                                                    D.R. Congo


                                                                                                                                                                      Malawi      Mozambique





             BMBF activities with African                                                                                            South Africa
             countries, April 2014

   Two highlights of our Africa activities were the BMBF’s                                                      The “German-African Cooperation in Education and
   Africa Days and the EU-Africa Summit. Both events                                                            Research – BMBF Africa Days” took place in Berlin
   generated a great deal of dynamic development.                                                               from 16–18 March 2014. The event was attended by a
                                                                                                                total of 650 participants, nearly 180 of whom repre­
                                                                                                                sented 38 countries in Africa. On the first two days,
                                                                                                                about 450 German and African scientists, government
                                                                                                                representatives and other experts came together in
                                                                                                                workshops to discuss some of the BMBF’s research
                                                                                                                programmes. The workshops were devoted to specific
                                                                                                                science and education-related issues and to network­
   Deutsch-Afrikanische Zusammenarbeit                                                                          ing among the experts. In addition to specialist dis­
               in Bildung und Forschung
                                                                                                                cussions, the workshops also addressed cross-cutting
                                     Afrika-Tage des BMBF
                                                                                                                issues. The resulting final document with recommen­
               German-African Cooperation
                 in Education and Research                                                                      dations was presented to Federal Minister Prof. Dr.
                                   Africa Days of the BMBF                                                      Johanna Wanka during the final plenary session on
             Coopération germano-africaine                                                                      18 March 2014. The results of the workshops and the
                  en éducation et recherche                                                                     recommendations of the experts from Germany and
                           Journées africaines du BMBF
                                                                                                                Africa will be taken up in this Africa Strategy.
The Africa Strategy 2014-2018 - Africa as a Partner in Education and Research
COOPERATION WITH AFRICA                                                                                                                             7

   The high level of interest is proof that education                        participation in the High Level Policy Dialogue and its
   and research are a high priority in German-African                        cooperation with the Federal Foreign Office. In addi­
   cooperation.                                                              tion to their political implications, these activities may
   The approach adopted by the BMBF has proven                               also influence the possibility of receiving funds from
   to be on target: previous and current priorities in                       Europe:
   education and research were reaffirmed and defined                           Typically ‘BMBF’ issues are also issues shared by
   in greater detail.                                                           the African Union: the joint summit declarations en­
   Partnership in the truest sense: the strategy was                            dorsed a roadmap that sets out science, technology
   developed with the participation of partners on                              and innovation as a strategic priority and establishes
   both sides and considers both German and African                             it as a cross-cutting issue.
   interests.                                                                   German expertise in the priority area ‘food security’:
                                                                                the BMBF actively supported the selection of the
The EU-Africa Summit of European and African heads                              future first priority topic “Food security and sustain­
of state and government took place on 2/3 April 2014                            able agriculture” in the framework of European-
in Brussels. The BMBF was strongly involved in the                              African research collaboration.
preparation of the summit documents through its

Dr. Paul-Martial Ikounga, Commissioner for Human Resources, Science and Technology of the African Union, Former Federal President Prof. Dr. Horst
Köhler and Federal Minister for Education and Research Prof. Dr. Johanna Wanka at the Africa Days of the BMBF
The Africa Strategy 2014-2018 - Africa as a Partner in Education and Research
8                                                                                      THE AFRICA STRATEGY 2014–2018

Contributions made by German educational,
research and intermediary organisations
German educational, research and intermediary organisations have been active on the African continent for many
years, some for more than five decades.

The Alexander von Humboldt Foundation (AvH)                  The German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD),
promotes scientific cooperation between outstanding          whose first office abroad was established in Cairo
international and German researchers. The AvH has            52 years ago, and another in sub-Saharan Africa (Nai­
provided funding to more than 1,200 researchers from         robi) in 1973, provides broad-based scholarships and
Africa so far. Kenya and Ethiopia were named as priority     cooperation programmes in Africa with funding from
countries for tapping new potential for the expansion of     a number of different Federal Ministries. The DAAD
the AvH network in Africa; however, Egypt, Nigeria and       also operates four information centres, one each in
South Africa continue to be the strongest partners in the    Cameroon, Ethiopia, Ghana and South Africa. The
exchange of scientists with Africa. The AvH considers        DAAD defined three courses of action in its Strategy
scientific quality to be the highest priority for coopera­   2020, which will also provide orientation for future
tion with Africa.                                 Africa activities: Scholarships for the Best, Structures of
                                                             Internationality and Expertise for Academic Collabora­

The Federal Institute for Vocational Education and           The core responsibility of the German Research Asso­
Training (BIBB), which is the centre of excellence for       ciation (DFG) is to award and provide research funding
vocational research and for the progressive develop­         to top-class projects led by researchers at universities
ment of vocational education and training in Germany,        and research institutions in a competitive procedure.
supports international cooperation primarily through         The two most important DFG cooperation programmes
two initiatives. The Central Office for International Vo­    in Africa to date were launched in 2007 in close cooper­
cational Education and Training Cooperation (GOVET)          ation with the Volkswagen Foundation: the funding
coordinates the activities of German stakeholders in VET     initiative to support German-African collaborative
cooperation abroad on behalf of the Federal Govern­          projects in infectology and the “Programme Point Sud”
ment. The GOVET is a key factor in the implementation        (a workshop series to support North-South and South-
of the strategy paper on the establishment of a one-stop     South cooperation). In the area of the humanities and
shop for international vocational training coopera­          social sciences, one of the priority cooperation program­
tion, which the Federal Cabinet adopted in July 2013,        mes is “Adaptation and Creativity in Africa - Technolo­
under the leadership of the BMBF. Furthermore, the           gies and Significations in the Production of Order and
aim of the iMOVE initiative is to promote international      Disorder”. In Africa, the DFG has so far signed coopera­
cooperation and to facilitate collaborations and business    tion agreements with Egypt (1976), Morocco (1986) and
relations in the area of initial and continuing vocational   South Africa (1995/1999).

The Fraunhofer­Gesellschaft (FhG), the largest re­          The Leibniz Association is a network of 89 indepen­
search organisation for application-oriented research       dent research institutions. The Leibniz institutes cover
in Europe, employs Senior Advisors who support the          the entire range of topics from the natural sciences,
Fraunhofer institutes and their partners in launching       engineering and environmental sciences to economics,
cooperation projects in Africa. The FhG’s involvement       the spatial and social sciences and the humanities.
consists of contract research, scientific collaboration     Some of these institutes collaborate with African
and capacity building and upgrading. The current            research partners under cooperation agreements and/
priority countries of Fraunhofer activities in Africa are   or projects.
Egypt and South Africa. A Senior Advisor has repre­         www.leibniz­
sented the FhG in Egypt since early 2008. Another
Senior Advisor was appointed in 2013 to look after
the interests of the FhG in South Africa. Exploratory
talks and the first cooperation projects have also been
launched in North and sub-Saharan Africa.

                                                            Since 2008, the German National Academy of Sciences
                                                            (Leopoldina) has represented German science on inter­
                                                            national academic committees and presents indepen­
                                                            dent position papers on political and societal issues as
As a national research organisation the Helmholtz           part of its science-based policy support activities. The
Association (HGF) develops solutions to the major           Leopoldina works in close cooperation with the Acade­
challenges facing science, the economy and society. The     my of Science of South Africa, the Network of African
Helmholtz Association and its Centres are engaged in        Science Academies and other African partners.
many strategic partnerships worldwide. The organisa­
tion has been active in African education and research
projects for many years.

The increasingly international outlook adopted by
                                                            The 83 Max Planck Institutes of the Max Planck So­
Germany’s higher education institutions is also leading
                                                            ciety (MPG) carry out basic research in the natural,
to more partnerships with Africa. Subject-specific part­
                                                            biological and social sciences and humanities in the
nerships are the usual form of partnership, where pro­
                                                            interest of the general public. The various Max Planck
jects are jointly developed at institute or departmental
                                                            Institutes are involved in a large number of projects
level. The German Rectors’ Conference (HRK) stepped
                                                            with African partners.
up collaboration with the South African partner HESA
(Higher Education South Africa) and signed a coopera­
tion agreement in 2013.

 Examples of Africa initiatives

 The BMBF’s support for the AvH’s African-German
 Network of Excellence in Science (AGNES) is expect­
 ed to contribute to the debates on educational and
 research policy.

 The overall number of people in receipt of DAAD sup­
 port within the framework of German-African coope­
 ration is rising consistently. In 2014 the number was
 10,590 (of whom 6.725 were in sub-Saharan Africa).
 Among other things, the BMBF-funded Welcome to
 Africa project helps to strengthen the Africa expertise   There are 414 university collaborations with sub-
 of young German researchers as well as to establish       Saharan Africa and 144 with North Africa (source:
 and build research collaborations between German          Hochschulkompass, February 2014).
 and African universities.
                                                           In 2012 the Max Planck Society established its first
 The Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits re­      Max Planck research group based in Africa. The new
 alised a pioneering project for the entire region with    research group of the Max Planck Institute for Infec­
 the Digital Media Campus radio at the German Univer­      tion Biology is located at the National Research Insti­
 sity in Cairo (GUC).                                      tute for Tuberculosis and HIV in Durban, South Africa.

 The Helmholtz Centre Potsdam - GFZ German Re­             The German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina
 search Centre for Geosciences is working together with    has been cooperating with the Network of African
 other Helmholtz Centres and a large number of African     Science Academies (NASAC) in a BMBF-funded project
 research partners on the INKABA yeAfrica project,         since 2011. The main goal of this cooperation is to
 which aims to understand Earth system processes and       strengthen the African academy network. The coop­
 their interactions in various spatial and time scales.    eration involves the development of knowledge-based
                                                           recommendations for policy advice for use by the
 Researchers in a BMBF-sponsored pilot project of          African academies in their dialogue with national and
 the INM - Leibniz Institute for New Materials with        regional decision-makers. A further goal of the project
 Namibia are developing adhesives obtained from nat­       is to create a network of independent, top-class African
 ural resources and using them to produce sustainable      scientists in the fields of water, climate research,
 building materials.                                       health and life sciences.
WHY AN AFRICA STRATEGY?                                                                                                                 11

Why an Africa Strategy?
Interest of educational, science and research                                    the advantage of both sides. Countries like China and
institutions in Germany and in Africa                                            other states in Europe are also systematically expand­
The experience of recent years has shown that Ger­                               ing their activities in Africa. African scientists are
man higher education institutions, non-university                                becoming increasingly successful in terms of global
research institutions, intermediary organisations                                excellence in specialist areas of research and science.
and education providers are very interested in and                               Many years of trusting cooperation have opened up a
prepared to engage in cooperation with African                                   broad range of possibilities to further develop educa­
partners. Their African partners share this sentiment.                           tion and research for the benefit of both sides.
The “Made in Germany” brand is more than just a
quality seal for German technology products; it also                             A framework for future initiatives
applies to research, education and German education                              The BMBF’s cooperation with African countries has
providers working in African countries.                                          developed rapidly, in particular in the last years, and
                                                                                 it now provides a reliable basis for strategic planning.
Taking advantage of opportunities                                                Our aim in introducing the Africa Strategy is to pro­
As diverse as the countries on the African continent                             vide reliable guidance and a framework of reference
are, so too are recent developments. Many countries in                           not only for ourselves and for the many German
Africa have undergone dynamic societal and economic                              research, intermediary and other organisations, but
development over the last decade, which is providing                             also for European and multilateral initiatives and for
ever better conditions for successful cooperation to                             our African partners.

State Secretary Georg Schütte (front row, centre) visiting the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences (AIMS) in Senegal in 2016.
12                                                                                       THE AFRICA STRATEGY 2014–2018

Visibility, impact and transparency                         new cooperation areas with emerging countries in
The Federal Government’s 2011 Africa Strategy set           Africa by applying and involving new tools and players.
out to raise the visibility of Germany in Africa as a key   At the same time, it increases the acceptance and
partner in education and research. The BMBF’s Africa        impact of German activities in education and research.
Strategy makes practical recommendations on how to          The Africa Strategy lends transparency to our values,
achieve this aim. In addition to development coopera­       goals and plans in the spirit of open communication
tion in the conventional sense, the Strategy establishes    between German and African players in research.

 Facts and figures

 The average annual GDP growth for Africa as a whole        Workshop held by the German-Egyptian Research Fund (GERF) in
                                                            Goslar, Germany.
 is 4.4%. (African Economic Outlook 2016)
 Africa accounts for just 2% of scientific publica­
 tions published worldwide (2015 figures) despite a           The enrolment ratio in higher education was at 8.5
 significant increase of 70% in the thirteen years from       percent in sub-Saharan Africa and at 32 percent in
 2002 to 2015 (source: Scimago Journal&Country Rank           North Africa (figures as of 2014, UNESCO Institute of
 2016).                                                       Statistics).
 According to the UNESCO’s Science Report (UNESCO             Africa plays a very insignificant role as a place to
 Science Report: Towards 2030, 2015), Germany is one          study for German students (source: DAAD/DZHW,
 of the strongest partner countries for science and           2016).
 research cooperation with Africa.
                                                              Although the proportion of funded stays in Africa un­
 The African Union has set an average target of 1% of         dertaken by German researchers and academics rose
 GDP for expenditure on research and development.             steadily from 2.5% in 2005 to 6.7% in 2014 (DAAD/
 Most African countries are still a very long way from        DZHW, 2016), it is still very low overall.
 achieving this.
                                                              African students accounted for 9.7% of all foreign
 The Association of African Universities lists 362            students attending German universities in 2015.
 members in 46 countries (source: AAU, December               Among these, the largest groups are from Cameroon
 2016).                                                       and Morocco (DAAD/DZHW, 2016).
PRINCIPLES OF COOPERATION                                                                                                          13

Principles of cooperation
National and international agreements and priorities                    the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture, and the
provide the basis for the German-African partnership                    Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy) are
in education and research. On the German side, this                     created through interdepartmental coordination on
includes the Federal Government’s Strategy for the                      African issues, for example the preparation of bilateral
Internationalisation of Science and Research (2008),                    consultations. Furthermore, all BMBF research and
the BMBF’s High-Tech Strategy 2020 (2010) and its                       development projects with a total volume in excess of
further development in 2014, the Strategy of the Fe­                    €300,000 are coordinated with other Federal Ministries
deral and Länder Ministers of Science for the Interna­                  from an early stage.
tionalisation of the Higher Education Institutions in
Germany (2013), the Federal Government’s Strategy                       In the area of research, the BMBF’s main focus is
for Africa (2011), and the guidelines of the Federal                    on the jointly defined research objectives. However,
Government’s policy on Africa (2014). The Strategy                      support for capacity building and development in
takes account of specifically African interests in its                  our partner countries is also a key accompanying
orientation towards developments that occur in the                      factor, especially because structural weaknesses are
course of the strategic partnership between Europe                      endemic in African research and innovation systems.
and Africa and under the Consolidated Plan of Action                    These weaknesses include: low levels of funding for
(CPA, 2005) and its follow-up plan “Science, Technol­                   research, a lack of qualified manpower, widespread
ogy and Innovation Strategy for Africa” (STISA-2024).                   bureaucracy, poorly developed demand-oriented re­
All the African states2 reached agreement on com­                       search, challenges faced in the transfer of knowledge
mon priorities in science policy under the CPA and                      and technology, and little regional and transnational
STISA-2024. Other pan-African strategies such as the                    cooperation.
Africa Health Strategy or the Comprehensive Africa
Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) were
also taken into consideration. The BMBF gears re­                        Example of cooperation between German Federal
gional and bilateral cooperation towards the research                    Ministries: research linked to development
policies and interests of the respective regions and                     cooperation
countries. In addition, a ‘bottom-up’ flow of sugges­
tions, ideas and recommendations from the German                         Securing the global food supply is a central aim of the
and African researchers – the latest example being the                   National Research Strategy BioEconomy 2030. The
above-mentioned BMBF Africa Days in March 2014 –                         BMBF launched the funding initiative “Securing the
helps to fine-tune the cooperation.                                      Global Food Supply” (GlobE) to support the global
                                                                         development of sustainable, high-output agriculture.
In its Strategy for Africa of 2011, the Federal Govern­                  30 German research institutions and 70 African
ment attaches special importance to education and                        partner organisations in 10 countries are involved
research with regard to development-related, technical                   in GlobE. The instruments of the Federal Ministry
and financial cooperation. A joint agreement signed in                   for Economic Cooperation and Development are
2008 provided a solid foundation for collaboration with                  additionally available to support the infrastructure at
the development activities of the Federal Ministry for                   the international agricultural research centres. This
Economic Cooperation and Development. Links with                         provides optimal linkages between new and existing
other policy areas and Federal Ministries (in particu­                   German Federal Government activities in the area of
lar the Federal Foreign Office, the Federal Ministry                     global food supply.
for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building
and Nuclear Safety, the Federal Ministry of Health,

2   With the exception of Morocco, which is not a member of the Afri­
    can Union.
14                                                                                                               THE AFRICA STRATEGY 2014–2018

In the area of education, the BMBF is focussing on                              to the administrative and financial costs of project
networking with the world’s (future) best. This is why                          execution and a willingness to take on some coordi­
our initiatives attach special importance to promoting                          nation tasks. Initiatives that aim to make structural
promising researchers and supporting the creation                               changes in particular must already include a sustain­
of excellence hubs. The focus of vocational education                           able finance plan in the planning phase.
and training is on the provision of well-founded policy
advice which is adapted to local structures.                                    To sum up, the Africa Strategy of the BMBF is based on
                                                                                the following four principles:
Autonomy and mutual respect are core values of a                                   Creation of added value on both sides through high­
reliable partnership. Partnership3 means acceptance                                quality cooperation and a focus on jointly defined
of different interests when coordinating common                                    topics
objectives. The BMBF grants preference to initiatives                              Consideration of country-specific African and Ger­
that are developed in joint efforts and planned for the                            man interests
long term. We expect of our partners a commitment                                  Partnership and autonomy in cooperation
to shared responsibility, an appropriate contribution                              Continuity and reliability in cooperation

The first graduating class of the Pan African University Institute of Water and Energy Sciences (PAUWES) celebrating their degrees in 2016.

3    We comply with the Guide for Transboundary Research Partnerships
     of the Swiss Commission for Research Partnerships with Developing
     Countries, KFPE.
OBJECTIVES                                                                                                                      15

Objective 1: overcoming global
challenges through joint effort

As the conditions of life in Africa pose great challenges
to the world as a whole, the BMBF is helping to find
sustainable, global solutions that are of mutual benefit.

Global population is on the rise, and so is the demand
for food, energy, water and other resources. Political
systems are in a state of transition. Climate change
calls for adaptation worldwide. The BMBF’s research
and development projects, scientific dialogues, capacity
building measures (e.g. to create human resources or
structures in education and research management),
and networking with regional, continental and global
partners and other initiatives in education, science
                                                                     from the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD)
and research are helping to develop solutions to global
                                                                     and the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation (AvH),
                                                                     through its specialist funding programmes or as part of
                                                                     scientific and technological cooperation.
Objective 2: creating high-quality and
sustainable, scientific cooperative                                  Objective 3: strengthening regional
structures                                                           and continental cooperation

By funding promising young researchers and develop­                  Regional alliances foster the cohesion of societies.
ing structures, Germany is establishing its position as              BMBF measures support the continued development
a partner of future new science and industry centres in              of regional alliances in Africa and thereby increase the
developing countries and emerging economies in Africa.4              impact of joint initiatives.

High-quality support networks in science and indus­                  The countries of Africa founded the African Union (AU)
try automatically form around centres of excellence.                 in 2002 to strengthen unity and development on the
Investment in these hubs entails not only strengthe­                 continent. The Regional Economic Communities (REC)
ning their potential and self-help capacities but                    act as important links between the AU and the African
also building bridges for sustainable cooperation in                 member states. The AU implements its programmes
research and teaching. The promotion of excellence                   through the REC. The BMBF supports the development
also advances quality assurance in Africa. The BMBF                  of regional alliances in Africa by funding regional
supports outstanding scientists at all stages of their               initiatives in education and research that demonstrate
careers, the collaboration of excellent research teams,              above-average effectiveness and greater visibility. In
institutional networking between German and African                  addition to support for regional alliances, African part­
universities and research institutions as well as the                ners are also interested in networking with partners in
joint establishment and expansion of research struc­                 other African countries (South-South cooperation and
tures. This may occur in the form of individual support              South-South-North cooperation).

4   In keeping with the Strategy of the Federal Government for the
    Internationalisation of Science and Research, 2008, p. 24.
16                                                                                   THE AFRICA STRATEGY 2014–2018

Objective 4: strengthening innovative                     Objective 5: raising Germany’s
potential and developing markets                          visibility in Africa as a key partner
                                                          in education and research
We want to contribute to prosperity and economic
growth in Germany and in our partner countries in         Education and research are significant driving forces of
Africa.                                                   economic and societal development in Germany and Af­
                                                          rica. Germany will position itself as a reliable and visible
Pre-competitive developments are an important basis
                                                          partner in the emerging African research and innovation
for innovative products, services and processes in Af­
rica; they must be promoted and supported. The con­
tinued political stability and steady economic growth     This objective is also contained in the Federal
in many African countries will also open new oppor­       Government’s Strategy for Africa of 2011. The BMBF
tunities for Germany’s industry to further develop its    provides funding to measures that showcase German
trade and investment relations. Economic prosperity       education and research institutions under the um­
will also lead to security and stability on the African   brella of the “Germany - Land of Ideas” brand. Many
continent. The BMBF applies various formats of scien­     research institutions, higher education institutions and
tific and technical cooperation, including cooperation    businesses are already representing Germany under
in the sustainable use of raw materials and natural       this brand in Africa. Joint marketing campaigns by the
resources, to support the technological development       BMBF and stakeholders in education, research and
and establishment of emerging markets.                    innovation in Germany will be expanded in the future.
                                                          These initiatives will cover the areas of research and
                                                          innovation, higher education and vocational education
                                                          and training.
PRIORITY TOPICS                                                                                                       17

Priority topics
The topic ‘environment’ in its many facets in the area    The topic of transition has emerged in the course of the
of research is the longest standing subject of coop­      transformations occurring in North Africa since 2011.
eration between the BMBF and Africa, dating back to       Research results supply important services to policy­
the mid-1970s. The tradition of strengthening and         makers and can strengthen scientific policy advice capa­
building human capacities in African partner countries    cities in Africa. Scientific policy advice will help in efforts
is just as old.                                           to find solutions to social and economic problems that
                                                          are developed and implemented at local level.
Three further joint priority focus areas were developed
based on the Federal Government’s Strategy for the        High-quality capacity building is an important part of
Internationalisation of Science and Research (2008)       the majority of BMBF initiatives with Africa. In addi­
and in keeping with the African Union’s Consolidated      tion to individual measures, the BMBF and its African
Plan of Action for Science and Technology (CPA, 2005).    partners place special emphasis on structural capacity
They are: health, food security and social development.   building and development in order to enable long-term
The topic ‘resource management’ and the cross-cut­        cooperation. The measures also include cooperation
ting issues of ‘innovation’ and ‘transition’ have been    in the use of research infrastructure and the use of
added. The first two topics are based on the Federal      non-university research institutions for teaching and
Government’s Strategy for Africa (2011), the German       research.
Government’s Raw Materials Strategy (2010) and the
African Union’s follow-up strategy to the CPA known as    The thematic priorities are founded on the twin pillars
“Science, Technology and Innovation for Africa” (2013).   of research and education.
18                                                                                          THE AFRICA STRATEGY 2014–2018

Pillar 1: research

Priority 1: environment
The environment is the focus of many bilateral and
multilateral research projects. The scope of these pro­
jects covers many research areas, which include climate
change, ecosystems, water, environmental technologies,
biodiversity, the protection of natural resources, earth
system science, sustainability in megacities, and many       Prof. Dr. Johanna Wanka, Federal Minister of Research and Education,
                                                             meets participants of the West African Climate Service Centre (WASCAL)
others. As with all environmental issues, they are of        ministerial conference.

                                                             global relevance. The BMBF’s framework programme
     1     Examples of ‘environment’ projects                “Research for Sustainable Development” of 2009 gets to
                                                             the heart of the matter. We are assuming responsibility
                                                             by leading the way in sustainability research in order,
     Regional Science Service Centres
                                                             among other things, to work together with the rapid­
                 The BMBF has started to establish           ly developing region of Africa to develop and realize
                 Regional Science Service Centres for        opportunities that are of a high technical standard and
                 Climate Change and Adapted Land             ecologically responsible. Over the last decade in parti­
     Management in Africa together with 15 African           cular, Africa has developed increasing expertise in basic
     partner countries (Angola, Benin, Botswana,             research and applied research on many environmental
     Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana,             subjects, which serves an excellent starting point.
     Mali, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, South
     Africa, Togo and Zambia). The BMBF will invest
                                                               the DAAD with BMBF funding and enables young
     €120 million in the establishment and operation
                                                               scientists in Namibia and South Africa to obtain
     of such centres in West Africa (WASCAL) and
                                                               relevant specialist training. Furthermore, the
     Southern Africa (SASSCAL). One of the most
                                                               programme also offers African students training
     important tasks is to train young scientists from
                                                               trips on German research ships with experienced
     African countries. In all, twenty German scientif­
     ic institutions are involved in the projects under
     the coordination of the Universities of Bonn and          Sustainable water management (NaWaM)
                                                               With its IWRM funding measure, the BMBF aims
     SPACES                                                    to test, adapt and develop the concept of Inte­
                                                               grated Water Resource Management (IWRM) and
     The aim of the SPACES programme (Science
                                                               the necessary transfer of technology and expertise
     Partnerships for the Assessment of Complex Earth
                                                               in suitable model regions of a manageable size. The
     System Processes) is to carry out scientific coopera­
                                                               aim is to improve living conditions for people in the
     tion projects in southern Africa that will contribute
                                                               model regions. At the same time, we are promoting
     to the formulation of science-based recommenda­
                                                               international cooperation in resource management
     tions for the management of the Earth’s system and
                                                               and strengthening cooperation between science,
     the sustainable use and protection of the region’s
                                                               government authorities and the private sector.
     various ecosystem services. 63 German research
                                                               The IWRM measure supports research projects in
     institutions and 57 African partner organisations are
                                                               Namibia (CuveWaters) and South Africa (MOSA) for
     involved in SPACES. This research is supplemented
     by the “SPACES Scholarships for Post Graduate
     Studies in Germany” programme, which is run by
PRIORITY TOPICS                                                                                                 19

Priority 2: health                                         necessary framework. The Africa Health Strategy
Germany has undertaken to increase its international       (2007–2015) highlights the importance of health
commitments in the area of health on many occasions.       research in Africa.
Cooperation with African countries in health research
will make it possible to use synergies for the sake of     The BMBF is investing in science partnerships with
medical progress and, through joint responsibility, to     African countries and is helping the partner countries
develop specific solutions in health care in the partner   solve major challenges. At the same time, German
countries. The BMBF funding concept for “Neglected         research institutions are to be given an opportunity to
and Poverty-Related Diseases” of 2011 provides the         engage in joint research with African partner institu­
                                                           tions on important topical research issues and com­
                                                           pete with these against the world’s best.
  2    Examples of ‘health’ projects
                                                           Research networks for innovations in the health
                                                           systems of sub-Saharan Africa will be developed or
  EDCTP – European and Developing Countries                expanded as of 2016.
  Clinical Trials Partnership
              The BMBF participates in this European-
              African initiative, which focuses on the
              clinical development of drugs, vaccines
  and diagnostics to fight HIV/AIDS, malaria and
  tuberculosis. 45 sub-Saharan countries are part­
  ners on the African side. Up to the end of 2013, the
  EDCTP’s total budget was approx. €600 million, of
  which Germany contributed €60-€70 million (ap­
  prox. €40 million via the German ‘contributions’ to
  the EU budget and €20-€30 million via co-funding
  from the BMBF). The programme is to be continued
  until 2014 with an expanded focus on diseases and
  significantly increased commitment.

  PDPs – Product Development Partnerships
  Low spending power in many African countries
  and massive underfunding of the health systems
  mean that there are few incentives for the private
  sector to market products specifically for people
  in these countries. As a result, there is a lack of
  suitable drugs and vaccines. The BMBF is providing
  €20 million in support of Product Development
  Partnerships between 2011 and 2014 in order to
  specifically promote the development of low-cost
  prevention methods, diagnostic procedures and
  drugs. PDPs are non-profit organisations. They are
  usually organised as a network of public and private
  funding providers, research institutions, small and
  medium-sized enterprises, pharmaceutical compa­
  nies and NGOs.

Priority 3: bioeconomy
Africa has a strong but very traditional basis for bioecon­
omy in Africa. That basis is agriculture, forestry and
                                                               3     Examples of ‘bioeconomy’ projects

fisheries. The agricultural sector in Africa generates about
40% of GDP and is thus key to its development.5 Becom­         GlobE – Global Food Security
ing a broad-ranging, science-based bioeconomy that                         The GlobE funding initiative includes
includes the use of biomass as a material and a source                     research projects that are tailored to
of energy can help to bring sustainable growth to the                      local circumstances and which the
continent. Securing the food supply in the long term will      regional partners in Africa consider necessary and
remain a major field of action in the realisation of sus­      sustainable. The initiative is open to all technolo­
tainable bioeconomy in Africa. Many African countries          gies and supports both existing networks and the
are showing signs of increasing competition between            establishment of new partnerships. 30 German
the production of biomass for various types of use. Any        research institutions and 70 African partner orga­
conflict in this context must be mitigated. In addition, the   nisations in 10 countries are involved in GlobE.
effects of climate change are also shrinking arable land       The BMBF is making approx. €42 million available
areas. Countries in which the food situation is already        for this initiative and is being supported with an
unstable are particularly affected. The African Union          additional €2.4 million from the German Federal
declared 2014 as the year of agriculture and food security     Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Develop­
in order to implement further measures. The “High Level        ment (BMZ) to enable the participation of the in­
Policy Dialogues”, an institution of dialogue on science,      ternational agricultural research centres in Africa.
technology and innovation between European and                 Thus, GlobE is also an example of how different
African states, identified the topic of food security as the   German Federal Government funding instruments
first priority topic of cooperation. The BMBF played a sig­    work together.
nificant role in establishing this priority. The long-term
objective is to develop an African-European partnership
within the global bioeconomy.

5    cf German Development Institute: Briefing Paper 1/2011

Priority 4: societal development
The humanities and social sciences in particular            4    Examples of ‘societal development’ projects
reflect the development of a society. These disciplines
provide a wealth of knowledge on cultural, econom­          WAI – West Africa Institute
ic and historical development as well as on social                      The BMBF supports this initiative of the
structures. They thus make a meaningful contribution                    Economic Community of West African
to decisions on current problems and challenges. At                     States (ECOWAS) for research excellence
the same time, the need for well-founded knowledge          on regional issues in West Africa. The knowledge­
about other regions around the world is rising steadily.    based contributions serve as a basis for government
The demand for expertise in the humanities and so­          policy decisions in West Africa. Germany’s project
cial sciences goes beyond the provision of short-term       partner is the Center for European Integration
advice. Germany must systematically build up its ex­        Studies (ZEI) in Bonn.
pertise in area studies of the world’s different regions
if it is to keep up with the process of globalisation and   Strengthening area studies
remain competitive. The BMBF is also supporting this        The BMBF supports the methodological and spe­
task under its funding initiative “Strengthening and        cialist excellence of, for example, the African area
Advancing Area Studies”.                                    studies being drawn up by two specialist centres at
                                                            the Universities of Frankfurt and Bayreuth. German
The humanities and social sciences could play a key         and African researchers are working together on
role by providing socio-economic supporting research        these, addressing humanities and social science
in topics with a focus on the natural sciences (envi­       issues in comparative, inter- and trans-disciplinary
ronment, health, bioeconomy, resource management/           perspectives.
raw materials). The translation of research results into
practice can only be successful if social, cultural and
economic background environments have been re­
searched adequately and are taken into consideration
in the implementation process.
22                                                                                      THE AFRICA STRATEGY 2014–2018

Priority 5: resource management/raw materials                 and labour conditions as well as in the area of initial and
Africa is a continent rich in raw materials that have         continuing vocational training and applied research to
great potential to help achieve economic prosperity           help produce solutions, perhaps in the context of raw
in the source countries. Raw materials are one of the         materials partnerships.
priority areas of the Federal Government’s Strategy for
Africa: “Broad-ranging cooperation and raw materials          Priority 6: cross-cutting issue ‘innovation’
partnerships, as agreed in the German Government’s            More and more states in Africa have established
Raw Materials Strategy, can secure Germany’s supply           political stability and enjoy high rates of economic
of energy and raw materials while increasing the state        growth. Cooperation will grow along with develop­
revenues of the countries supplying materials and             ment in these states and thus support the positioning
modernising Africa’s infrastructure and economy.”6 We         of our programmes. Our African partner countries have
are receiving an increasing number of enquiries from          demonstrated a great interest in the commercialisa­
our African partner countries about resource efficien­        tion of research results. Above all else, it is important
cy or innovative ways to use the raw materials locally.       to consider society’s interests and how research can
However, there are still many unanswered questions in         help to improve living conditions. There are some
this context, especially in the area of applied research.     weaknesses in the links between research and indus­
A number of pilot projects in this area have been             try and in the communication with governments and
carried out with success. The BMBF therefore plans to         society. These weaknesses must be overcome through
foster the development of this still new priority area        joint initiatives that are adapted to the specific needs
of research in resource management/ raw materials.            of the partner country. One means of achieving this is
Germany can draw on its experience in mining as               by providing targeted systemic advice on innovation
concerns environmental protection, safety                     policy or engaging in innovation dialogues. Germany’s
                                                              interest in the innovative potential of products and
                                                              services that result from joint research projects is based
           Example of a ‘resource management/raw
     5     materials’ project
                                                              on the following central questions: where is there inno­
                                                              vative potential? In which areas does it make sense to
                                                              join forces with German industry and how can coope­
     EffSAFound: improvement of energy efficiency
                                                              ration take shape? Can any links be made to the Federal
     and recycling in South African foundries
                                                              Government’s High-Tech Strategy 2020?
     The aim of this project, which started in 2013, is
     to increase the energy and material efficiency of
     South African foundries. This will bring consider­
     able benefits in the areas of climate protection
                                                                6     Examples of ‘innovation’ projects

     and resource conservation as well as economic
     benefits for South African foundries and German            Analysis of innovation systems
     foundry equipment suppliers. The participating             The BMBF in cooperation with its counterpart min­
     German companies are small or medium-sized                 istries in Botswana, Namibia and Zambia commissi­
     and aim to expand their range of products and              oned studies of the innovation structures together
     services and to add new international markets.             with recommendations for action. These were car­
     The project is being carried out by four compa­            ried out by VDI/VDE Innovation und Technik GmbH
     nies in Germany, led by IfG Institut für Gießerei­         with partners in Namibia, Botswana and Zambia.
     technik gGmbH in cooperation with three South              In 2013, an analysis of the Tunisian innovation
     African companies and three foundry organisa­              system was undertaken as part of Germany’s
     tions.                                                     Transformation Partnership with Tunisia. The DLR
                                                                Project Management Agency carried out an analysis
                                                                of cluster and network structures in North African
                                                                countries as part of the European MED-SPRING
                                                                project in 2013.
6     Federal Government’s Strategy for Africa, p. 15, 2011

                                                             high-ranking group of representatives from the min­
                                                             istries responsible for education and research in Europe
                                                             and Mediterranean states. The BMBF plays an active role
                                                             in this initiative.

                                                             As a result of the objectives and topics identified above,
                                                             the priority topic ‘transformation’ is featured in both
                                                             Pillar 1 ‘research’ and in Pillar 2 ‘education’ below.

                                                               7     Examples of ‘transformation’ projects

                                                               Transformation workshop
                                                               One of the first exchanges of project ideas and
                                                               thematic fields took place at the transformation
                                                               workshop held in Cairo on May 2011. One outcome
                                                               was an announcement of a call for proposals under
Priority 7: transformation                                     the German-Egyptian Research Fund (GERF).
In particular against the background of the changes
                                                               EU projects
that have been taking place since 2011 in the societies
of countries across North Africa, the BMBF will be             The main aim of the BMBF’s involvement in the
expanding and intensifying its activities in educa­            European Union’s BILAT projects with Egypt and
tion, science and research with partners in the region.        Tunisia is to support the transformation processes
The aim is to provide sustainable support for the              in those countries.
transformation process and to strengthen civil society.
                                                               Transformation Partnerships of the Federal
Education, research and innovation are vital factors for
socio-economic transfomation, for creating sustainable
prospects and for constructive, mutually beneficial part­      Under the ‘Transformation Partnerships’ that were
nership. Besides topics related to applied research, there     launched in 2011, Germany supports socio-political
will be a greater focus and involvement in the huma­           and cultural transition processes. The BMBF has
nities and social sciences. Joint research on innovation       contributed numerous ideas for projects in the field
processes, on the role of information and communica­           of education and research. It is currently cooper­
tion technologies in educational matters as well as on         ating with the German Federal Foreign Office via
aspects of regional cooperation can thus contribute to         the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) on
the development towards knowledge societies.                   a general survey of the education market in Tunisia
                                                               and a project-based exploratory visit and feasibility
To varying degrees, all the countries in transition in         study for a German-Tunisian university.
North Africa have fundamental structural weaknesses in
their respective innovation systems as concerns demand
orientation, governance and infrastructure.

Existing bilateral cooperation instruments will be com­
plemented by systemic counselling measures to address
this particular problem. Regional and transnational
activities will be added to those that adopt a bilateral
approach. These activities also occur under EU initia­
tives such as the Euro-Mediterranean Group of Senior
Officials in Research and Innovation (EU-Med GSO), a
24                                                                                     THE AFRICA STRATEGY 2014–2018

Pillar 2: education                                         Education and Training. Local centres of expertise
                                                            oriented towards the topics “Youth and Skills” and
                                                            “Greening TVET” will be developed to link up with
Promoting and supporting talented young people and          the potential and needs of local populations. The
excellent young research talent are priorities in educa­    UNESCO’s global structures also serve to advertise
tion at the tertiary postgraduate level. The aim of the     the importance and potential of vocational education
BMBF and the German intermediary organisations              and training.
DAAD and AvH is to turn ‘brain drain’ into ‘brain gain’.
One way of achieving this aim is to apply international
standards when German research chairs are established        Examples of ‘education’ projects
in Africa. This ensures that renowned African researchers
have an incentive to bring their qualifications – often
                                                              AIMS –African Institute for Mathematical
acquired abroad – to bear in their own countries and
thus promote development in the region. Particular
attention is devoted to supporting equal opportunities                     Mathematical skills are one of the key
for African women in science.                                              areas of importance for the BMBF’s colla­
                                                                           boration with Africa. The BMBF supports
The BMBF is part of a political dialogue with countries       a research chair at AIMS-Senegal. The AIMS – Next
from all over the world in the Bologna Process with           Einstein Initiative plans to set up 15 such institutes
the aim of promoting the modernisation of higher              in Africa. They will provide high-level training for
education. It encourages the African states to seek this      top African postgraduates in mathematics as well as
dialogue and be an active participant.                        in statistics and IT. The project is being implemen­
                                                              ted by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation
The BMBF supports the efforts of African states to de­        (AvH) in cooperation with the German Academic
velop a higher education and research area in Africa.         Exchange Service (DAAD). The BMBF is planning
                                                              to establish further research chairs under a pilot
                                                              scheme entitled German Research Chairs.
Structural capacity building is reflected in regional
and pan-African initiatives, such as the Service Centres      Training occupations in Egypt
for Climate Change and Adapted Land Management
                                                              One part of Germany’s cooperation with Egypt in the
and their attached graduate schools, the German
                                                              area of vocational education and training is a pilot
research chair initiative and “Research Networks for
                                                              project at the German-Egyptian University in Cairo.
Health Innovations” . German university study courses
                                                              A vocational training course in mechatronics has been
abroad promote local capacity building as well as new
                                                              offered there since October 2012. This is linked to the
collaborations in teaching and research, while raising
                                                              possibility of gaining a bachelor’s degree in automo­
the profile of Germany as a place to study. The most          tive mechatronics. The project is being implemented
outstanding example of this is the German University in       for the BMBF by the German Office for International
Cairo (GUC).                                                  Cooperation in Vocational Education and Training
                                                              (GOVET) at the Federal Institute for Vocational Educa­
The BMBF is focussing its activities on the integration       tion and Training (BIBB).
of practice-oriented training modules in the educa­
tion systems of African countries that have the basic         Vocational training processes
necessary economic structure. However, there are no           The vocational training processes supported by
prospects for a market for German education exports           the BMBF in its cooperation with UNEVOC are
in many African countries, even in the longer term. In        concerned with sustainability at all the levels of
the meantime, a system of providing systemic advice           economic development (“Greening TVET”) and
on vocational education and training at political level       serve to promote greener practice.
will be developed. This long-term development goal
is part of the collaboration with UNEVOC, UNESCO’s
International Centre for Technical and Vocational
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