Research for Civil Security 2018-2023 - A Federal Government Framework Programme - BMBF
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1 Content Preface 2 Summary 3 1 Security as a precondition for freedom, quality of life and prosperity 6 1.1 Perspectives and stakeholders in civil security........................................................................................................6 1.2 The central missions .....................................................................................................................................................7 1.3 Objectives of the framework programme.................................................................................................................8 2 Research and innovation for civil security: Developing solutions for a changing world 9 2.1 Protection and rescue of people ................................................................................................................................9 2.2 Protection of critical infrastructures....................................................................................................................... 11 2.3 Protection against crime and terrorism.................................................................................................................. 14 3 Cross-cutting issues of civil security research: Shaping the future, developing cooperation and strengthening expertise 16 3.1 Technological developments.................................................................................................................................... 16 3.2 Societal developments............................................................................................................................................... 18 3.3 International cooperation......................................................................................................................................... 19 3.4 Development of structures, transfer to practice and competence-building.................................................. 20 4 Funding instruments and measures 23 5 Civil security as a national challenge: Links with specialized programmes, institutional funding and departmental research 26
2 Preface Security may not be everything, but everything is It is important for researchers and practitioners to work nothing without security, particularly in a free and net- hand in hand, especially in times of radical societal and worked country like ours. Our way of life makes us vul- technological change. In this digital era, we must make nerable – not only to natural disasters but also to crime use of the great potential of digital technologies and the and terrorism. The forest fires and flooded basements of prospects they offer for civil security. last summer come to mind, as do the tragic events at the Duisburg Love Parade and the horrific terrorist attack at This is the aim of our programme “Research for Civil Breitscheidplatz in Berlin. What I would like is for peo- Security 2018–2023”. It will help to protect our country’s ple in Germany to continue to be able to rely on secure population and vulnerable infrastructures. We are well power, gas and water supplies and on state-of-the art fire aware that we must conduct joint research to ensure and police services. I want to see our society equipped to greater security, and we need a strong Europe to do so. defend itself against cybercrime and industrial espio- After all, crime and terrorism know no borders and nage, for potential school shooters to hopefully be iden- neither do flood disasters. tified as early as violence-prone extremists are, and for volunteer helpers to know what best to do in emergency situations. One aspect is very important to me: Security is not only a valuable asset for each and everyone of us, it is also Anja Karliczek vital for our economy. Germany’s economic strength Member of the German Bundestag would not be what it is without it. To ensure future Federal Minister of Education and Research success, we must constantly work to improve our perfor- mance, taking advantage of the latest technological and digital developments in particular. Security research makes an important contribution to this process. For example, body scanners are now being used at almost all German airports to screen passengers. The body picto- grams they produce indicate the presence of suspicious objects. This increases the safety and security of travel while protecting our privacy as travellers. We do not forfeit our freedom for the sake of security. Good ideas from security research will quickly find their way into practical application if all the stakeholders – universities, public authorities, commercial companies and civil society organizations – work together closely.
3 Summary Security is fundamental to freedom, quality of life and Civil Security 2018–2023” framework programme, the prosperity. Civil security has a bearing on all spheres Federal Government is assuming responsibility for of life in modern and cosmopolitan societies. It en fostering public safety and public order in the intercon- ables citizens to develop freely and individually and nected world of today and tomorrow. Under the new strengthens the formation of democratic communities framework programme, innovative solutions are being where social cohesion and societal participation take developed and put into practice to enhance people’s centre stage. A changing security policy environment, security, safety and quality of life and protect vital the growing trend towards digital technologies – both infrastructures. in private life and in the world of work – and societal change are all calling for a new response from civil se- Funding in the field of civil security research is provid- curity research. This response needs to include holistic ed exclusively for research on civil scenarios involving solutions that help us to address the consequences of research, industry and end users. Technological ad- international terrorism and organized crime and en- vancement and societal progress are inextricably linked hance the protection of critical supply infrastructures. in security research. This means that societal aspects At the same time, national and international measures are taken into consideration from the very beginning are needed to reduce the impact of natural disasters when developing security solutions. The consistent and extreme weather phenomena. Public and private and early involvement of end users in the public and safety and security organizations are facing great and in private sector ensures that civil security solutions are part new challenges regarding civil security. developed to meet practical needs. Civil security research has been firmly enshrined in The Federal Government is investing in the security of the High-Tech Strategy since 2007 and has become an tomorrow with its “Research for Civil Security 2018– established field of interdisciplinary research with a 2023” framework programme. Civil security research thriving research community. With its “Research for is the key to enhancing security in all spheres of public
4 RESEARCH FOR CIVIL SECURITY 2018–2023 life without curtailing the freedom of the individual. It involving experts from public authorities, rescue and creates the preconditions for strengthening prosper- relief organizations, industry and non-governmental ity in Germany and enhancing the quality of life for organizations as well as researchers from all related dis- everyone. ciplines in order to discuss objectives, topics and needs. The agenda process was supported by the Scientific The new “Research for Civil Security 2018–2023” Programme Board, the independent body which ad framework programme vises the Federal Research Ministry n the strategy and The Federal Government’s new “Research for Civil content of German civil security research. Security 2018–2023” framework programme builds on Germany’s experience and success with two predeces- Key focus areas sor programmes and over ten years of civil security re- The central responsibility of civil security research is search. The programme focuses on research on current to better protect the public against threats emanating civil security needs and issues. from natural disasters, terrorism and crime. There are also increasing demands with regard to effective and It follows a holistic approach with a view to firmly sustainable security solutions that guarantee the pro- anchoring civil security research in the broader context tection and resilience of societal structures in the long of the social debate around security. The programme term – in no small part due to the impact of global and constantly extends its perspective beyond aspects of societal change and the increasing speed of technologi- research in the narrower sense and considers research cal advancement. topics in a broader overall context. It makes it easier to understand the steps involved in translating innovative Research aims on the one hand to strengthen public research into practical applications. resilience and people’s ability to take responsibility themselves, and on the other to support end users. Security research overlaps with many diverse policy Under the civil security research programme, end areas and neighbouring fields of research. This results users are those entities that put security solutions into in a vast portfolio of research topics which are carefully practice. These include in particular authorities and reflected in the framework programme, which will run organizations responsible for safety and security such from 2018 to 2023. These research topics demonstrate as fire services, police forces and criminal investiga- the many facets and dimensions of civil security as a tion departments, the Federal Agency for Technical task for society as a whole. On the one hand, security is Relief, rescue services such as the German Red Cross, a public responsibility that goes beyond the state’s mo- the Johanniter Emergency Service and the German nopoly on the use of force. On the other hand, security Sea Rescue Service, as well as disaster management is also a basic individual need for which everyone must and regulatory agencies. Other end users include the take (and share) responsibility. operators of critical infrastructures (such as energy and water utilities and transport entities) and private-sector The new “Research for Civil Security 2018–2023” safety and security companies. framework programme builds on the key factors un- derpinning the success of its predecessor as confirmed One focus of the new framework programme is on in an evaluation of the predecessor programme1, that is supporting rescue and emergency staff from the au- to say: a broad range of topics and the involvement of thorities and organizations responsible for safety and end users. A structured agenda process2 was carried out security and protecting such staff from hazards. The development of new technologies, funding for new organizational competences and measures to open up new ways of communication help to ensure that dis- 1 Final report: “Evaluation of the Federal Government’s ‘Research for Civil Security (2012-2017)’ framework programme”, asters and everyday operations can be dealt with more available in German at www.sifo.de/de/evaluation-des-pro- effectively and more safely. gramms-forschung-fuer-die-zivile-sicherheit-1703.html 2 www.sifo.de/de/agendaprozess-zur-fortschreibung-des-rahmen- programms-forschung-fuer-die-zivile-sicherheit-2257.html (only The digital transformation has a far-reaching impact available in German) on all spheres of human life and thus also on civil secu-
Summary 5 rity. Another key forward-looking task under the civil Current technological and societal developments are security research programme therefore is to ensure also addressed as topics cutting across the three pillars. that good use is made of the many opportunities and The primary goal in this context is to analyse the potentials related to digital change. In this context it potential offered by novel technologies and societal is important to take account of both the requirements change and to feed the results of this analysis into the for using digital technologies and applications, and the development of future civil security innovations. risks involved. The framework programme does not only provide funding for civil security research but also supports Figure 1: the transfer of civil security solutions into practice. Programme pillars and cross-cutting topics under the The programme therefore also covers measures for the “Research for Civil Security 2018–2023” framework practical implementation of new research findings. programme Apart from providing funding for field tests and prac- tice-oriented evaluations, the programme also pro- Protection Protection Protection vides funds for training courses and modules as well and rescue of of critical against crime as business models. One important factor here is that people infrastructures and terrorism many of the end users are public-sector entities which are subject to special rules regarding the procurement Technological developments of new security instruments. Societal developments The precondition for the successful transfer of inno- vation and knowledge is close cooperation between the research community, industry and end users that meets user needs for practically relevant research (and its development). The establishment of centres of com- International cooperation petence, clusters of research excellence and innovation labs in particular enables the even closer interlinking Development of structures, transfer to practice and competence-building of research on the one hand, and the specific practical requirements of end users on the other. Other central initiatives are the funding measures for innovative SMEs (“KMU-innovativ”) and innovative end users (“Anwender-Innovativ”), which are aimed at strength- The cross-cutting topics of “International cooperation” ening the innovativeness of small and medium-sized and “Development of structures, transfer to practice enterprises and end users in Germany in order to speed and competence-building” address overarching ques- up the translation of research findings into practice. tions of civil security research. The objective is to en- sure the sustainability of German civil security research The three pillars of the framework programme along the entire innovation chain and to strengthen The “Research for Civil Security 2018–2023” framework European and international cooperation involving programme is structured in three programme pillars researchers, industry and end users. (Figure 1). Against the backdrop of global technological and societal challenges, these three core areas deal with relevant research topics and questions under the head- ings of “Protection and rescue of people”, “Protection of critical infrastructures” and “Protection against crime and terrorism”.
6 1 Security as a precondition for freedom, quality of life and prosperity Living a secure life is not only a key basic human need 1.1 Perspectives and stakeholders in but also an important prerequisite for the well-being civil security of a society and the success of an economy. This is why civil security is firmly anchored in the Federal Govern- ment’s High-Tech Strategy as one of the priority areas Ensuring safety and security in all areas of human of particular relevance for ensuring growth, prosperity life and quality of life. Civil security has a bearing on all spheres of life in modern and cosmopolitan societies. Many people Civil security research plays a major role in securing associate a safe and secure home for example with the social cohesion, a trusting democratic society and Ger- uninterrupted supply of electricity and water and the many’s economic strength in the long term. best possible anti-burglary protection. A sense of safety also means people not having to be afraid of criminal The current framework programme builds on the suc- attacks when using public transport on their way to cesses of over ten years of civil security research. Based work. The same applies when travelling on holiday: on a comprehensive evaluation and broad-based agen- Security measures at airports and train stations ensure da process, the programme will address both future that passengers can reach their destinations quickly technical and social requirements. People are always at and safely. Last but not least, the protection of public the centre of the programme – be it as vulnerable indi- spaces and large-scale events enables people to partici- viduals who need to be protected or as self-determined pate safely in cultural and leisure activities. players who take empowered action. Protecting people in their everyday environments continues to be a shared central responsibility. This means that those people and organizations that work on a full-time or voluntary basis to ensure security
Security as a precondition for freedom, quality of life and prosperity 7 must be able to rely on the best possible protection and 1.2 The central missions equipment. Police forces, rescue workers and skilled professionals who work to ensure around the clock civil security in Germany need to be particularly well The “Research for Civil Security 2018–2023” framework protected against hazards and violent assaults. programme is based on four central missions: Stakeholders share responsibility 1. Enhancing the protection and resilience of societal All societal stakeholders are called upon to help shape structures and the population civil security in the future: the government sector, citi- Global changes in societal structures and security zens and rescue and emergency workers in particular. policy – as well as the use of new technologies – are giving rise to a variety of opportunities and risks The primary task of the government sector is to create with regard to civil security. Civil security research the legal and structural framework that enables people helps to strengthen society’s resilience. Innovative in Germany to live safe, free and self-determined lives. solutions, instruments and options for action can However, absolute security can never be guaranteed. enhance the safety and security of the population That is why there needs to be a continuous dialogue and enable the comprehensive protection of societal about the right balance between security and freedom, structures. bearing in mind the residual risks for society. 2. Enabling societal innovation for civil security Citizens bear an important share of the responsibility Civil security is a pillar of social cohesion and can for safeguarding and improving civil security in the therefore be an important driver of positive societal context of societal security provision. This involves change in Germany and Europe. Civil security re- strengthening and expanding the skills and abilities of search provides a powerful stimulus for accelerating the individual in order to prepare for emergencies and the practical application of social and technological ensure an appropriate level of responsible self-protec- innovations that make society more secure and thus tion. enable everyone to develop freely and individually. It is first and foremost the rescue staff and skilled 3. Strengthening the role of the state as the guarantor experts from the authorities and organizations re- of security sponsible for safety and security and the operators of Ensuring civil security requires organizations at the critical infrastructures who use their know-how and national and international level to take joint action. commitment to ensure the best possible protection Authorities at the federal, Länder and municipal for people and infrastructures. Civil society’s existing level are important intermediaries when it comes to technological and organizational competences need promoting and coordinating cooperation between to be consistently developed in order to meet the high civil society, industry and organizations responsi- security demands of a modern industrial and knowl- ble for safety and security. Civil security research edge society. provides the know-how and technological capa- bilities to support authorities and organizations Researchers, industry and civil society play a significant responsible for safety and security in fulfilling their role in shaping and integrating security solutions that protection and prevention duties. A particular focus are tailored to practical needs. Their research find- is on unlocking the potential offered by the digital ings provide the technological and social innovations transformation. needed to ensure that civil security strategies meet the challenges of the future. Security solutions with the 4. Understanding civil security as a task for society as ‘made in Germany’ trademark are also in high demand a whole at the international level and are thus an important While it is the task of the state to create the politi- economic factor. cal and legal framework for action, it is the shared responsibility of all societal actors to safeguard civil security. Civil security research strengthens social
8 RESEARCH FOR CIVIL SECURITY 2018–2023 dialogue and provides suitable instruments to facil- We aim to promote social, organizational and cul- itate the development and expansion of civil society tural innovations for civil security. cooperation. We will provide funding for the development of reversible security solutions that can be removed entirely if required. We will expand the platforms for networking and 1.3 Objectives of the framework exchanges in civil security research. programme We aim to provide funding for cooperation between civil security organizations in the private and public sector. We aim to enhance everyday safety and security by We will dovetail the implementation of government actively involving the population in civil security initiatives such as the National Strategy for Critical research. Infrastructure Protection, the Civil Defence Concept We will provide funding for civil security solutions and the Global Initiative on Disaster Risk Manage- that improve the ability of rescue and emergency ment with our own independent measures. workers to protect themselves. We will play an active role in the development of We will provide funding for forward-looking solu- civil security policies at the European and interna- tions and instruments for the overall provision of tional levels. security organized by all sectors of society. We aim to strengthen the international competi- We will create the preconditions for the practical tiveness of Germany’s civil security industry and the application of innovative services and products to ‘Security made in Germany’ trademark. enhance civil security. We will make technological, scientific and societal developments available to the civil security commu- nity.
9 2 Research and innovation for civil security: Developing solutions for a changing world We will provide funding for civil security research 2.1 Protection and rescue of people under three programme pillars with a view to strength- ening the resilience of the people and societal struc- tures in Germany: Shaping the future of civil protection Advancements in digital technology and the resulting Protection and rescue of people interconnectedness will have a profound impact on Protection of critical infrastructures working conditions, communication and information processes and on opportunities for participation in Protection against crime and terrorism civil protection activities. Professional and voluntary workers in the fire services, police forces, rescue servic- Research and development of practice-oriented and es and disaster management units work together in the value-driven security solutions under the programme field of civil security research with citizens, operators pillars should in particular: of critical infrastructures and private-sector security Continuously take account of the dynamism of providers to make use of digital technology and thus current security policy developments and long-term ensure sustainable civil protection in Germany. societal change processes. Take into practical consideration the opportunities, Strengthening Germany’s emergency response risks and requirements of digital change for author- system ities and organizations responsible for safety and Germany’s emergency response system is unique by in- security with regard to connecting critical infra- ternational standards and founded on a broad societal structures and protecting civil society. basis of both voluntary and full-time workers. Rescue Integrate the results of inter- and transdisciplinary and emergency staff from the authorities and organi- research during the two previous programme phases zations responsible for safety and security are primarily and the vast expertise of all relevant actors in sci- responsible for protecting citizens and vital supply in- ence, industry, government authorities and security frastructures. Emergency workers must be able to take organizations. quick and effective measures in order to save lives in the event of major incidents such as natural disasters,
10 RESEARCH FOR CIVIL SECURITY 2018–2023 Relevant research topics under the programme pillar “Protection and rescue of people” include in particular: The digital transformation of civil protection (BOS 4.0) zz Practical application of digital technology in risk and crisis management systems, public safety equipment and training for emergency staff and team leaders from the authorities and organizations responsible for safety and security zz Impact of digital change on human-technology interaction as well as on organizational structures and practices in civil emergency management The human face of the emergency response system zz Encouraging potential volunteers to engage in vol- untary civil protection zz Modern, user-oriented training courses for rescue and emergency workers zz Strategies for the development and evaluation of realistic training scenarios and exercises zz More efficient communication and coordination be- tween full-time professionals and volunteers, taking into account the secure and constitutional handling of personal and sensitive data the escape of hazardous CBRN3 substances, large-scale Civil protection and danger prevention at the local fires in factories and accidents. authority level zz Training and information strategies to overcome Civil protection organizations must receive support inhibitions about providing neighbourly help in order to be prepared for dealing with complex or zz Enhancing the ability of private households to help transregional crises better and more efficiently and and provide for themselves in different emergency limiting the impact of such crises as much as possible. scenarios Additional efforts need to be made to enhance preven- zz Protecting particularly vulnerable groups of society tion, coordination and communication in crisis and before, during and after an emergency operations management. zz Strengthening cooperation between society and industry in the event of an emergency It is equally important to foster the ability of individ- zz Developing tools for socio-technological coopera- uals and communities to respond faster and more tion in danger prevention at the local authority level competently to natural disasters, CBRN hazards and other emergencies. Public action in the event of a crisis and the resilience of civil protection zz Impact of hybrid threats – i.e. emergency situations caused by state and non-state actors that can inflict coordinated damage below the war threshold and destabilise societies – on civil protection and rele- vant adapted strategies to prevent and control crises zz Approaches to a real-time analysis and assessment of complex crisis situations (for example CBRN 3 CBRN stands for chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear hazards) substances.
Research and innovation for civil security: Developing solutions for a changing world 11 zz Technologies and strategies for enhancing the 2.2 Protection of critical public capacity to respond to and ward off threats infrastructures in the event of CBRN emergencies zz Bolstering the resilience of authorities and civil protection organizations – within and across Protecting infrastructures and ensuring supply organizations security The level of supply security in Germany is above the in- zz Enhancing the capability of authorities and or- ternational average. This gives Germany a competitive ganizations responsible for safety and security to advantage that enables a high standard of living. At the improvise in the event of an emergency same time, however, a high level of supply security can zz Strategies to strengthen the ability of the health- also create a false sense of security which leaves people care system to respond to complex crisis situa- inadequately prepared for incidents. tions (including CBRN hazards), taking account of changing structures and aspects of disaster Critical infrastructures and services (Figure 2) play medicine a central role for the community. Disturbances or The impact of innovations on civil protection breakdowns can lead to considerable disruptions such zz Impact of the practical application of technolog- as supply shortages. These disruptions can jeopardize ical and societal innovations on the entire danger public security and cause major economic damage. prevention system and the everyday work of rescue Critical infrastructures are exposed, for example, to the and emergency workers threat of natural disasters. But technical failure and zz Analysis of unintended consequences of inno- terrorist or criminal attacks also pose a threat. vations with a particular focus on the growing complexity and interconnectedness of technologi- Critical infrastructures and services must also be con- cal systems sidered in a supranational context. Complex products, for example in the automotive or mechanical engi- The international dimension of an emergency neering industries, are often made of components that zz Networked real-time early warning systems, risk are not only manufactured in Europe but in factories analysis and assessment of international disasters around the globe. The global import and export of oth- zz Analysing the economic and social impact of inter- national disasters zz Bolstering the resilience of state and societal struc- tures in countries and regions particularly affected by disasters zz Stepping up the fight against the threat of trans- national health crises such as those triggered by infectious diseases zz Developing strategies and technical solutions for treating patients with severe infectious diseases in the event of an international health crisis and evac- uating these people from international operation areas
12 RESEARCH FOR CIVIL SECURITY 2018–2023 er critical goods such as food and medicines is also on the rise. As a consequence, there is an increasing need for secure, integrated and transparent supply chains and logistics processes. Integrating critical infrastructures while safe- guarding their resilience Civil security research places a particular focus on the protection of critical infrastructures and their resil- ience to disruptions and attacks. It is important in this context to expand the focus to also include infrastruc- ture systems such as banks, cultural assets, the media, and the health and care system since these systems are as essential as the basic supply of water, energy and internet access when it comes to maintaining a func- tioning society. Today, many infrastructures in Germany depend on the smooth operation of the information infrastructure. This increases dependence on the secure and efficient performance of information technology. The current trend is towards the formation of what are known as ‘mega-infrastructures’. The big challenge is to ensure the fail-safety of these complex and high- ly integrated infrastructure systems. Already today, Figure 2: disruptions in one infrastructure can have a cascade The different critical infrastructure and services effect with major and far-reaching consequences for sectors (Source: own chart based on the National other infrastructures. That is why critical infrastruc- Strategy for Critical Infrastructure Protection tures need to be considered from a broader angle in the (or KRITIS Strategy)) future, across sectoral and national borders. Civil security research aims to support public and Government private-sector operators in increasing the resilience of and Energy administration critical infrastructures against disruptions. Ensuring the safety and security of people, ma- Food Health chines and infrastructures in a digital world The vision of ‘Industrie 4.0’ is characterized by net- worked, automated and autonomous systems and Finance and IT and stronger human-machine interaction. Open, some- insurance telecommunications times global and fully coupled information networks play a central role in this context. The potential they bring for critical infrastructures is obvious: Faster and more transparent processes, decentralized control, Water Transport cross-institutional communication among systems and Media a more sustainable economy are significant factors in and culture enhancing society’s quality of life, efficiency and supply security.
Research and innovation for civil security: Developing solutions for a changing world 13 The rising number of networked systems means that from the start. This includes considering ethical and le- new risks are emerging with regard to the efficient gal issues, for example whether and when autonomous functioning of critical infrastructures. Security aspects or partially autonomous systems should be allowed to need to be considered in complex control systems right take critical security decisions. Relevant research topics under the programme pillar “Protection of critical infrastructures” include in particular: The security architecture of networked infrastructures Manufacturing and logistics and mega-infrastructures zz Risk analysis of highly integrated, automated and (par- zz Increasing the resilience, adaptability and self-organi- tially) autonomous infrastructures and their behaviour zation of security-relevant infrastructure components and protection in the event of a crisis and systems while taking account of socio-technolog- zz Increasing the resilience of international supply chains ical interaction zz System-relevant fallback levels to maintain, discon- Securing critical services nect and restore critical infrastructures and services zz Ensuring the provision of critical services in the zz Strategies for ensuring timely emergency manage- energy, water, transport, food, health, finance and ment measures and for the swift provision of min- insurance sectors in the light of processes of societal imum supplies for the population in the event of a change and current or future threats crisis zz Impact of the integration of decentralized energy zz Analysis of socio-technological interaction and inter- generation and storage systems and the use of digital faces in the context of operational safety and resil- control technologies (such as smart meters or smart ience to attacks, so-called safety and security applica- grids) on the security of power grids and critical tions in critical infrastructure systems and processes services along the entire life cycle zz Using the potential offered by networked communi- cations and control infrastructures to protect critical Securing socio-economic infrastructures infrastructures and ward off threats zz Ensuring the continuity of vital services in critical supply areas (e.g. medical care and the media) in crisis Risk and complexity research situations zz Studying the risks and growing complexity developing zz Ensuring the functioning of economic infrastructures in the wake of the digital transformation and the inte- during a crisis (e.g. cash supply, payment transactions, gration of critical infrastructure systems while taking online and stock exchange trading) account of technological, organizational, regulatory zz Strategies to enhance the protection of cultural assets and individual perspectives zz Strengthening capacities to analyse future threat Transport in a modern society situations zz Enhancing the safety and security of transport infra- structures in the light of automation and the use of digital technology zz Using digital transport technology for managing emergencies and crises (e.g. through traffic routing and control)
14 RESEARCH FOR CIVIL SECURITY 2018–2023 2.3 Protection against crime and awareness and enable the public to cope with terrorist terrorism events. To this end, it is also necessary to systematically pool interdisciplinary research on the early recognition and prevention of and fight against extremism and Fighting crime and terrorism more effectively terrorism – as exemplified by the recently established Civil security is a fundamental prerequisite for an open cluster of research excellence on Islamist extremism. and democratic society and social peace. However, The aim is to build lasting bridges between research globalization and the worldwide exchange of goods, and practice in order to enable users to cooperate with data and capital have increased the threat of new and researchers and respond swiftly and flexibly to chang- network-based forms of crime. International terrorism ing threats. continues to pose a serious threat and jeopardize soci- ety’s free and democratic lifestyle. These developments Enhancing protection against everyday crime and are raising a number of issues to which new responses violence need to be found. Everyday crime ranging from stolen bicycles to bur- glary and even assaults on life and limb can affect each Responding to new forms of terrorism and every one of us in our personal environment. The International terrorism aims to hit people primarily boundaries between everyday crime and organized in public spaces where they normally experience a crime are fluid. New and changing criminal phenome- sense of community. The intention of terrorist attacks na affect social peace and social cohesion. Research in on festivals, large-scale events and transport hubs this context is therefore focusing, for example, on how in various European cities has been to disrupt social the security needs of young and old people will de- cohesion in democratic societies and stir public fear. velop in the future. The aim is to develop measures to Terrorist groups are making use of digital technologies improve prevention, people’s capacity for self-help and and social media to pursue their purposes. law enforcement in order to prevent domestic violence and violence against children and other vulnerable Civil security research helps to fight terrorism effec- groups (such as the elderly, refugees or the infirm). tively by analysing online propaganda more rapidly and developing suitable measures to raise public
Research and innovation for civil security: Developing solutions for a changing world 15 Protecting businesses against crime and safeguard- quality and are therefore increasingly becoming the ing economic strength target of criminals. This threat applies to both large The rise of globalization and growing international in- companies and small and medium-sized enterprises. terdependencies are not only opening up new econom- ic and social prospects but are also opening new doors New digital technologies and methods can help to to criminal activities. German businesses in particular combat crime more effectively and ensure the quicker stand for technological progress and a high level of and more targeted prosecution of criminal offences. Relevant research topics under the “Protection against crime and terrorism” programme pillar include in particular: The fight against terrorism and crime The perception of security and crime prevention zz Research on the roots and prevention of terrorism zz Empirical research on changing perceptions of general and extremism (e.g. processes of radicalization and social anxieties during security threats and on the de-radicalization and the reintegration of returning effect of crime prevention measures ‘foreign fighters’) zz Impact of migration on civil security architecture, zz Strengthening the ability to prevent and cope with particularly with regard to changing requirements terrorist events, including the protection of public for danger prevention based on growing ethnic and spaces and the protection of emergency workers cultural diversity zz Analysing the impact of previous counter-terrorism zz Significance of intercultural skills within authorities measures and how society is dealing with terrorist and organizations responsible for safety and security attacks zz Analysing and establishing institutional or informal zz Conditions favourable to the development of organ- security cooperation at the regional level ized crime (e.g. human trafficking, burglary rings or zz Information and training strategies to strengthen the organized theft of cultural assets) moral courage in the social space zz Legal and illegal markets and their criminal actors zz The impact of specific population structures and Digital technologies and social media for public security demographic change on the emergence and develop- zz Contributing towards the swifter assessment of forms ment of criminal activities (e.g. in the context of fraud of organized crime on the Web or the Dark Web or clan crime) zz Using digital technology for the targeted prosecution zz Economic security, primarily the prevention and aver- of criminal offences and to secure court-admissible sion of corporate and industrial espionage, with a par- evidence ticular focus on small and medium-sized enterprises zz Enhancing crisis communication by involving different zz New technological approaches to enhancing forensic media channels and social target groups procedures and methods zz New technologies to detect weapons and explosives zz New approaches to the prevention and prosecution of financial crimes (e.g. money laundering) zz Optimizing operations tactics and technologies used by police forces, specialist authorities, fire brigades and rescue services to recognize, assess and control emergency situations caused by the deliberate release of CBRN substances
16 3 Cross-cutting issues of civil security research: Shaping the future, developing cooperation and strengthening expertise 3.1 Technological developments the development of big data solutions which enable the efficient collection and visualization of large amounts of data while safeguarding fundamental rights. Future innovations in the field of civil security will to a great extent depend on the use and adaptation of new The digital transformation is also accelerating the de- technologies. This applies in particular to the introduc- velopment of robots and semi-autonomous machines tion of digital technologies and progress in the areas into self-learning systems which act independently. of energy, environmental, nano and biotechnology While hybrid systems are subject to strategic human as well as materials research and additive production control, autonomous systems will increasingly be able techniques. to explore new territory and take their own decisions. In future, the collective intelligence of linked assistance Technological developments trigger advances in systems will support rescue workers in assessing the civil security situation on land, in water and in the air or in hard-to- The digital transformation opens up a broad range of reach and dangerous places. Autonomous systems will possibilities for civil security research to develop future eliminate the risk of human injury or danger. They will security solutions. This involves, for example, the ex- be designed for intuitive, low-maintenance operation change of real-time data in crisis situations, improved and use in the most varied civil security scenarios. It is control of linked infrastructures and the systematic absolutely essential that research addresses at an early prosecution of criminal and terrorist activities. The stage questions relating to responsibility, liability and fight against crime and terrorism increasingly requires acceptance.
CROSS-CUTTING ISSUES OF CIVIL SECURITY RESEARCH 17 For example, new miniaturized sensors with improved tional safety on the one hand and security from outside cognitive features may be used to warn against immi- attacks on the other. nent damage in critical infrastructures. Advances and new approaches to modelling and simulation help to Civil security research sees itself as a generic discipline. better understand and visualize highly complex dam- It will develop new important and promising technol- age processes in networked infrastructures. Augment- ogies for the purposes of civil security. In this process, ed/virtual reality technologies enable quicker and more equal consideration will be given to both technological effective damage management. potential and ethical and legal criteria. Developments in other science disciplines or research areas sometimes provide unexpected solutions. For example, biological design principles can be used to Relevant aspects of the cross-cutting topic of “Tech- develop robust self-healing or self-organizing technical nological developments” include among others: systems which can respond flexibly to external inter- ference and damage. zz Creation of competence centres and innovation labs to test and validate under real-life conditions Ensuring safer technological developments autonomous systems in hostile-to-life environ- New security technologies aim to ensure a higher ments level of safety and security for the population. These zz Safe collaboration between humans and autono- technologies must be designed in such a way that they mous systems taking account of ethical and legal themselves pose no risk and do not unduly restrict aspects people’s lifestyles. zz Use of new technologies and design principles to design robust and fail-safe technical security The design and use of civil security systems is becom- systems ing ever more complex as new technologies become zz Model-based analyses of specific socio-techno- logical systems for the systematic development of increasingly interlinked and integrated. It is therefore resilience strategies important that designers of socio-technological sys- zz Modular and flexible design of technical systems to tems for civil security applications consider at an early accelerate exchanges and enable quicker discon- stage the interaction and interdependence of opera- nection in the event of interference or attack zz Study of the consequences and responsibilities involved in the use of new technologies in the area of civil security zz Holistic resilience strategies to firmly integrate aspects of robustness, flexibility and longevity in civil security zz Consideration of the criteria for sustainable devel- opment and resource efficiency in the future devel- opment and integration of civil security solutions and systems
18 RESEARCH FOR CIVIL SECURITY 2018–2023 3.2 Societal developments quires increasing private and community support. Civil security research must increasingly study the impact of societal trends on voluntary work and private com- Social, cultural and regional changes, for example as mitment as well as possible ways of improving public a result of demographic change or migration, have a involvement in the various fields of civil protection. direct impact on society’s safety and security culture. This affects public confidence in the authorities and or- Societal change and life in a modern industrialized ganizations responsible for security as well as people’s world are continuously changing people’s risk and sense of safety. The subjective perception of personal security awareness. Efforts to enhance people’s risk safety depends on the individual’s age, social status, ori- literacy can help them to recognize hazards and re- gin and sex. Security cultures and a sense of safety may spond appropriately as well as to implement practical also differ between regions. For example, the impor- solutions in the best possible way in the event of an tance and perception of safety and security depend on emergency. This requires the continuous development different cultural, political and social factors in urban of science-based training schemes in the field of safety and rural areas. Civil security research must therefore and security. The aim must be to trace individual path- address the question of how to reduce excessive safety ways towards enhancing risk awareness and encourag- concerns and consider what strategies can be devel- ing precautionary behaviour in the population. oped to organize and ensure safety and security on a national scale. Studying the role of social media and their impor- tance for public security Changes in the security architecture are an additional The use of social media is radically altering the forms factor. For example, personal safety at events and rail and conditions of security communications. Authori- stations, and passenger screening at airports is increas- ties and organizations responsible for safety and securi- ingly being provided by private firms. The increasing ty are increasingly communicating with the population role of private service providers in the rescue and via social media. For example, the police use Twitter to health sectors also has a direct impact on viable safety inform the public about accidents, demonstrations or and security planning. Research must therefore focus disturbances at security-relevant events. The sys- more strongly on the conditions for and limits to the tematic analysis of communication in social media is privatization of security services. becoming increasingly important, for example in order to improve the planning and organization of large- Strengthening participation and individual respon- scale events. However, social media are also frequently sibility in civil security used to spread false information which contributes to a People’s desire to participate and have a say in safety feeling of insecurity in the population. Further research and security matters has increased in recent years. is therefore needed on the use of digital technologies This requires new forms of dialogue and cooperative in risk and crisis communication and regarding the participation. impact of social media on security perception. Although there is great willingness to engage in social activities, it is becoming increasingly difficult for many people to balance work and family duties with vol- untary activities including activities in the field of fire safety and disaster control. At the same time, expecta- tions are high when it comes to government responsi- bility for providing relevant services. Ensuring effective nationwide disaster control is a joint task which re-
CROSS-CUTTING ISSUES OF CIVIL SECURITY RESEARCH 19 3.3 International cooperation Crises and disasters do not stop at national borders. Natural events like floods, storms and heat waves as well as the disruption of critical infrastructures, terror- ist or hacking attacks are a threat to millions of people worldwide and cause great economic damage. Secur- ing the protection of the population and of critical infrastructures in the long term is a joint European and international task. A strong Europe for greater security The European Union has been committed to the the- matic area of civil security for more than ten years now. Civil security was already become firmly established as a funding priority in FP7 and seamlessly continued un- der the current European framework programme for research and innovation, Horizon 2020. The European Commission is providing a total of 1.7 billion euros for European security research until 2020 under its ‘Secure Societies’ challenge. Research cooperation in the European Union aims primarily to link national and European activities in civil security research and to use the resulting synergy. Relevant aspects of the cross-cutting topic of National research stakeholders contribute their exper- “Societal developments” include among others: tise in numerous projects and initiatives, thus enabling the European security architecture to meet future zz Analysis of the causes of security-relevant societal challenges and strengthening the competitiveness of developments, particularly the perception of the security industry in Europe. insecurity in the population (including the impact of social media) Encouraging international cooperation zz Study of the limits to societal resilience Bilateral collaborations with strong European and in- zz Adaptation of existing risk and crisis management ternational research and technology partners are need- processes to social trends and changes ed to develop new prospects and solutions for global zz Strengthening of people’s self-help and learning civil security problems. Existing national knowledge ability to enhance their risk awareness and precau- and technological know-how can be made available, tionary behaviour in the long term exchanged and developed across borders through zz Application of new digital technologies in secu- cooperation with stakeholders in selected countries. rity training and cooperative participation (digital Bilateral cooperation contributes to the development teaching and learning approaches, use of social of security solutions that meet the needs of interna- media, etc.) tional markets. zz Strategies for participation and security provision Current cooperation at EU level primarily involves Ger- many’s neighbours Austria and France. This success- ful cooperation will be continued and strengthened. Further international research alliances are based on intergovernmental agreements with India, Israel and
20 RESEARCH FOR CIVIL SECURITY 2018–2023 the United States. These strategic science collaborations The objectives and aspects of the cross-cutting topic will also be systematically expanded to include coun- of “International cooperation” include among others: tries that are developing into major growth markets for civil security. zz Strengthening of resilient structures in developing Developing and emerging countries often find it and emerging countries (for example under the difficult to manage the social, economic and ecological IKARIM “International disaster and risk manage- effects of natural disasters. The question of how to cope ment” funding measure) with these risks and effects at governmental and soci- zz Continuation and needs-based expansion of etal level and how resilient structures can be supported bilateral European collaborations and international has long since become a global issue. research alliances zz Expansion of European cooperation in the field of Germany will contribute to improving international pre-commercial procurement risk and disaster management. The national securi- zz Efficient and effective dissemination and exploita- ty research programme and the extensive scientific tion of the results of civil security research at expertise of the German security research community European level provide an optimal basis in this context. The IKARIM zz Joint development of the European security archi- “International disaster and risk management” fund- tecture and strengthening of the competitiveness ing measure provides a framework for cooperating of Europe’s civil security industry with stakeholders from partner countries on an equal basis to develop civil security solutions that meet local needs. In addition, the Federal Government launched the interministerial “Global Initiative on Disaster Risk 3.4 Development of structures, Management” to improve global risk and crisis transfer to practice and management by means of systematic innovation and competence-building knowledge transfer. Special conditions apply to the translation of civil secu- rity innovations into marketable practical products and services. A major strength of civil security solutions is their specific focus on user needs. Civil society require- ments and limits are always given equal consideration in this process. Only innovations which combine economic success and societal responsibility ultimately lead to greater security. With their extensive research and technology expertise, companies in the civil security sector play an important role in securing the future security architecture in Germany and Europe. In particular small and medium-sized companies are key players when it comes to successfully linking research and practice. The security research programme helps to create relevant structures for developing the innovative capacity of research-intensive companies.
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