Thoroughbred Welfare Assessment Guidelines - NEW ZEALAND THOROUGHBRED RACING - NZ Racing

 
Thoroughbred Welfare Assessment Guidelines - NEW ZEALAND THOROUGHBRED RACING - NZ Racing
NEW ZEALAND THOROUGHBRED RACING

Thoroughbred
Welfare Assessment Guidelines
October 2019
Thoroughbred Welfare Assessment Guidelines - NEW ZEALAND THOROUGHBRED RACING - NZ Racing
Acknowledgements

NZTR in the process of writing these guidelines is indebted to a number of experts.

In particular, NZTR wishes to acknowledge Professor David Mellor (International Animal Welfare Consultants
Limited, New Zealand), Dr Tim Pearce, Dr Trish Pearce along with Wendy Cooper and Justine Sclater, as repre-
sentatives of trainers and breeders respectively.

Martin Burns
GM – Racing & Equine Welfare

October 2019

These Guidelines are regularly reviewed and updated.

Pre-publish consultation: June 2019.
Initially published: October 2019.
Thoroughbred Welfare Assessment Guidelines - NEW ZEALAND THOROUGHBRED RACING - NZ Racing
THOROUGHBRED WELFARE ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES         1

Contents

Introduction and purpose_______________________________________________________________________ 2

Context and background________________________________________________________________________ 3

Section 1 – Welfare assessment guidelines for the general husbandry and care
of thoroughbreds at all stages of their life______________________________________________________ 6

    1.   Nutrition_______________________________________________________________________________ 10

    2. Environment____________________________________________________________________________ 11

    3. Health__________________________________________________________________________________ 12

    4. Behaviour_______________________________________________________________________________ 12

    5. Mental or affective state________________________________________________________________ 13

Section 2 – Welfare assessment guidelines for thoroughbred horses prior to racing____________ 15

Section 3 – Welfare guidelines for thoroughbred racehorses____________________________________ 17

Section 4 – Welfare assessment guidelines for thoroughbreds in breeding_____________________ 19

Section 5 – Welfare assessment guidelines for thoroughbred horses after racing_______________ 21

Appendices_____________________________________________________________________________________ 23

    A. The 5 Domains Model for Equine Welfare_________________________________________________24

    B. Welfare Guidelines in relation to horses in racing (based on IFHA guidelines)______________26

    C. Body condition scoring of horses_________________________________________________________28

    D. Potential career options for Thoroughbreds after racing________________________________ 31
Thoroughbred Welfare Assessment Guidelines - NEW ZEALAND THOROUGHBRED RACING - NZ Racing
2         NEW ZEALAND THOROUGHBRED RACING

Introduction and purpose

The New Zealand Thoroughbred racing                  NZTR’s expectations of                              Rather, the Rules and these Guidelines
industry is committed to the welfare                 Thoroughbred Welfare                                together intend to set and enforce
of the New Zealand Thoroughbred                                                                          standards of care that exceed the
racehorse and the maintenance of                     By and large, owners, trainers and                  standards that are enforceable under
appropriate horse welfare standards.                 breeders of Thoroughbreds in New                    the Animal Welfare Act and applicable
This reflects the Maori term                         Zealand meet or exceed minimum                      Codes of Welfare. To be clear, were it to
‘tiakitanga’, meaning: guardianship,                 standards as prescribed in these                    be a possibility that breaches of Codes
caring of, protection, upkeep. 1                     guidelines. However, the benchmarks                 of Welfare or acts of cruelty or abject
                                                     provided by these guidelines enable                 neglect might be proven under the
New Zealand Thoroughbred Racing’s                    consideration by New Zealand                        Animal Welfare Act or Animal Welfare
vision for Thoroughbred welfare:                     Thoroughbred Racing (NZTR) or the                   Regulations, then this would be
                                                     Racing Integrity Unit (RIU) when                    referred by New Zealand Thoroughbred
                                                     determining whether standards have                  Racing or the Racing Integrity Unit
    “A Thoroughbred should be                        not been met, and corrective action                 to the appropriate law enforcement
    provided a good life, with                       and/or charges must be laid.                        agency.
    the care and conditions that
                                                     New Zealand Thoroughbred Racing’s
    allow it to thrive and perform
                                                     Rules of Racing contain enforcement
    to its natural abilities.”                       provisions relating to the principles
                                                     and vision within this document.
The aim of these welfare guidelines is               These guidelines are intended as
to ensure that Thoroughbred horses in                objective measures, against which the
New Zealand have a ‘good life’, defined              care and condition of Thoroughbreds
as one with a higher proportion of                   can be assessed for the purposes of
rewarding and positive than negative                 investigations in accordance with
experiences. 2                                       Part XIV of these Rules.

To achieve this aim and to fulfil                    It is important to understand that
tiakitanga responsibility, overall welfare           these guidelines and the powers
must substantially exceed minimum                    provided under the Rules of Racing
legal requirements and should include                are not intended as a substitute to
most of the optimal welfare conditions               the Animal Welfare Act 1999 nor the
for Thoroughbreds.                                   powers conferred to the Police or
                                                     Animal Welfare Inspectors (whether
                                                     employed by the Ministry for Primary
                                                     Industries or SPCA New Zealand).

1   As defined in maoridictionary.co.nz (noun: guardianship, caring of, protection, upkeep)
2   Edgar, J.L., Mullan, S.M., Pritchard, J.C., McFarlane, U.J.C., and Main, D.C.J. (2013). Towards a ‘good life’ for farm animals: development of a
    resource tier framework to achieve positive welfare for laying hens. Animals 2013, 3, 584-605 doi:10:10.3390/ani3030584
Thoroughbred Welfare Assessment Guidelines - NEW ZEALAND THOROUGHBRED RACING - NZ Racing
THOROUGHBRED WELFARE ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES   3

Context and background

High welfare standards benefit the       •   Certification of horses for flat
individual horse as well as the whole        racing and jumping
Thoroughbred racing industry. Horse      •   Minimum age restrictions for
welfare and peak performance are             horses in flat and jumping races
closely connected.
                                         •   Ability to refuse the nomination of
Equine welfare has, for a long time,         a horse
been important to New Zealand            •   Rules restricting the use and type
Thoroughbred Racing, evident through:        of whips
•   Close involvement and support        •   Provision of fully equipped horse
    of NZ Equine Health Association          ambulances (where available) at
    (NZEHA) and NZ Equine Research           trials and races
    Foundation (NZERF), the NZ Equine    •   Regular inspection of stables and
    Trust, the Ministry for Primary          medical assessment
    Industries (MPI), the New Zealand    •   Race day veterinary inspections to
    Equine Veterinary Association            ensure suitability to start
    (NZEVA), the NZ Horse Ambulance
                                         •   Attendance of farriers and plate
    Trust and SPCA New Zealand.
                                             and gear inspections on race day
•   Active support of equine science
                                         •   Powers to euthanise severely
    academic research, principally by
                                             injured horses
    Massey University. The knowledge
    gained from research is typically    •   Powers to abandon race meetings
    extended to the care of horses via   •   Investment in racing and training
    equine veterinarians.                    surfaces and other infrastructure
•   NZTR’s Rules of Racing includes a        improvements
    wide range of clauses relating to    •   Education and training of trainers,
    horse welfare                            breeding staff, jockeys and stable
•   Competency testing and licensing         hands.
    of jockeys and trainers
Thoroughbred Welfare Assessment Guidelines - NEW ZEALAND THOROUGHBRED RACING - NZ Racing
4          NEW ZEALAND THOROUGHBRED RACING

In general, the New Zealand                        Further, and in relation to the post-
Thoroughbred industry is performing                retirement welfare of Thoroughbreds,
well on equine welfare matters.                    these Guidelines outline the Duty
However, there are some welfare                    of Care of persons accountable for
compromises, which we aim to improve               Thoroughbreds. They also include
over time. These include, but are not              educational material that aims to
limited to, whip use, racing injuries              ensure that post-retirement owners
and deaths. Whilst typically not a                 understand appropriate care, stabling
welfare matter per se for individual               and feed requirements of their horse.
horses, the general guardianship of
the Thoroughbred population will be                These guidelines are aligned with:
enhanced by improved traceability                  •    The provisions of the Animal
of the Thoroughbred population and                      Welfare Act 1999 3
gaining a better understanding of                  •    Code of Welfare: Horses and
welfare matters arising from the exit                   Donkeys 4
of horses from the active racing or
                                                   •    Equine relevant Animal Welfare
breeding populations. To address this,
                                                        (Care and Procedures) Regulations
NZTR aims to further increase demand
                                                        2018 5
for Thoroughbreds as sport or pleasure
horses, and to educate owners of                   •    International Group of Specialist
retired Thoroughbreds regarding best                    Racing Veterinarians (IGSRV)
care.                                                   Welfare Guidelines for Horse
                                                        Racing 6
The Thoroughbred Welfare Guidelines                •    International Federation of
outlined in this document provide a                     Horseracing Authorities (IFHA)
clearly understandable framework                        Welfare Standards 7
for the care of Thoroughbreds before,
                                                   •    Equine health and welfare
during and after racing, and include
                                                        materials published by the NZ
aligned welfare benchmarks that
                                                        Equine Research Foundation. 8
clarify:
1.    Desired or optimal welfare
      conditions for Thoroughbreds; and
2.    Minimum acceptable welfare
      conditions for Thoroughbreds in
      development, racing, retirement
      and breeding which, if not
      consistently met, will lead to
      required corrective measures as
      provisioned under the Rules of
      Racing.

3    http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1999/0142/56.0/whole.html#DLM49664 and http://www.legislation.govt.nz/regulation/
     public/2018/0050/latest/whole.html#LMS22850
4 https://www.mpi.govt.nz/dmsdocument/11003-horses-and-donkeys-code-of-welfare
5 http://www.legislation.govt.nz/regulation/public/2018/0050/latest/whole.html [note: as at mid-2019 the regulations on surgical procedures
  remain in process of consultation by the Ministry for Primary Industries – see http://www.vetcouncil.org.nz/documentation/Other/MPI_2016-
  12-Proposed-Animal-Welfare-Regulations.pdf]
6    https://igsrv.org/welfare and outlined in Section 3 of this document
7    https://www.ifhaonline.org/default.asp?section=About%20IFHA&area=30
8    http://www.nzerf.co.nz/books
Thoroughbred Welfare Assessment Guidelines - NEW ZEALAND THOROUGHBRED RACING - NZ Racing
THOROUGHBRED WELFARE ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES   5
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6         NEW ZEALAND THOROUGHBRED RACING

Section 1 – Welfare assessment guidelines
for the general husbandry and care of
thoroughbreds at all stages of their life

Introduction                                     It is critical, therefore, that licence           We recognise they have individual
                                                 holders (trainers and jockeys), owners            personalities and are alert to the
As stated in the general introduction,           and breeders of racehorses are familiar           different and subtle cues that are
the welfare assessment guidelines                with this entire document. Ignorance              indicators of welfare for each horse. We
outlined in this document provide a              of these guidelines is not a defence              recognise that each horse will develop
framework of clear expectations for the          or justification for failure to meet              differently, and because of this, we
care of Thoroughbreds before, during             minimum welfare standards.                        tailor training to the individual horse.
and after racing, and include aligned
welfare benchmarks that clarify:                                                                   It matters because we often form
1.   Desired or optimal welfare                  The Thoroughbred-human                            emotional bonds with the horses in
     conditions for Thoroughbreds; and           relationship in New Zealand                       our care. We have a high regard for
2.   Minimum acceptable welfare                                                                    their abilities and contributions as an
                                                 The horse-human bond underpins
     conditions for Thoroughbreds in                                                               athlete. It matters because a happy,
                                                 Thoroughbred welfare and is exhibited
     development, racing, retirement                                                               healthy horse is generally a well
                                                 on a daily basis in the racing and
     and breeding specifically                                                                     performing horse. It matters because
                                                 breeding of Thoroughbreds. The
     addressing:                                                                                   even occasional cases of poor horse
                                                 industry and stakeholders have
                                                                                                   welfare are usually preventable.
     a.   Disease prevention and                 chosen to take a proactive approach
          management;                            to addressing Thoroughbred welfare
     b.   Unresolved pain or stress;             because it matters to the people                  The science behind our welfare
                                                 responsible for their care.                       approach – the Five Domains
     c.   Inappropriate nutrition;
     d.   Inappropriate stabling or              It matters because it fits with our               Model of animal welfare
          transport conditions; and              beliefs about how horses should be                In addition to international racing
     e.   Failure to meet a defined              treated. We believe that it is acceptable         conventions and the NZ legislative and
          Duty of Care regarding the             to use horses as long as their use is             regulatory environment, NZTR bases
          retirement, sale or other              humane, that we have responsibilities             our welfare vision for Thoroughbred
          disposal of a Thoroughbred.            and a duty to care for horses. We                 racing on the Five Domains Model
                                                 are also committed to seeking to                  of Animal Welfare9. This model is a
Failure to meet these benchmarks will            continuously improve Thoroughbred                 focusing device for defining optimal
lead to required corrective measures             welfare management.                               and minimal provisions, and has
as provisioned under the Rules of                                                                  successfully identified a range of
Racing and/or the appropriate welfare            It matters because horses are sentient            husbandry, veterinary and equitation
legislation.                                     bonded animals; they can feel pain,               impacts on horse welfare10. By adopting
                                                 distress and anxiety.                             this model, NZTR aims to reduce
                                                                                                   avoidable negative experiences and
                                                                                                   ensure our horses enjoy ‘a life worth
                                                                                                   living’.

9 Mellor, D. Updating animal welfare thinking: Moving beyond the “Five Freedoms” towards “a Life Worth Living”. Animals 2016, 6. Available
  online here.
10 McGreevy, P. et al (2018). Using the Five Domains Model to assess the adverse impacts of husbandry, veterinary and equitation impacts on
   horse welfare. Animals 2018, 8, 41 doi:10:10.3390/ani8030041
Thoroughbred Welfare Assessment Guidelines - NEW ZEALAND THOROUGHBRED RACING - NZ Racing
THOROUGHBRED WELFARE ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES              7

                          Behaviour                                                     Nutrition
           Able to express natural                                                      Enough water and food.
        and rewarding behaviours.                                                       Balanced and varied diet.

                                                         Five
                                                       Domains
                                                       Model of
                                                        Animal
                                                       Welfare

              Health                                                                                Environmental
       Healthy and fit.                                                                             Physical environment
Injuries appropriately                                                                              comfortable and
              treated.                                                                              pleasant.

                                               Mental or Affective State
                                               Comfortable in environment.
                                            Sociable contact and bonding with
                                            other animals. Close bond between
                                                    horse and human.

                     Figure 1: The Five Domains Model of Animal Welfare applied to Thoroughbred horses

       “The Five Domains Model is an aid to detailed assessment of Thoroughbred welfare. Its use
       facilitates systematic and thorough welfare evaluations by focusing attention on a wide range of
       specific factors that can have negative or positive welfare impacts. The internal functional states
       and external circumstances of the horse give rise to subjective experiences, which include feelings,
       emotions and moods, which are technically called ‘affects’. The welfare state of the horse reflects
       the overall balance of its negative and positive experiences at any particular time. Knowing what
       generates these experiences directs attention to what needs to be provided to the horse in order
       to minimise its negative experiences and to give it opportunities to have positive experiences.
       Practical welfare management therefore revolves around knowledgeable provision of resources,
       facilities and opportunities – collectively known as ‘provisions’ (see Table 1).”  – Professor David Mellor
Thoroughbred Welfare Assessment Guidelines - NEW ZEALAND THOROUGHBRED RACING - NZ Racing
8        NEW ZEALAND THOROUGHBRED RACING

The first three domains of the               However, if there is no provision for      •   Secondly, experiences that are
Model – nutrition, environment and           shade or contact with another horse,           associated with the horse’s
health – focus on key elements of            the drive to seek them will be thwarted.       perception of its external
the internal functioning of the horse        We now know that behaviours such               circumstances, captured by the
that are essential for its survival.         as windsucking, cribbing, weaving and          behaviour domain.
Thus, these domains draw attention           pawing are not ‘naughty’ or learned
to basic management provisions that          by copying other horses; rather, they      Thus, the first four domains all focus
are necessary to meet horses’ innate         could be an indication of frustration,     attention on situations that contribute
needs for sufficient food, water, shelter,   boredom, health issues or management       negative and positive experiences which
health and safety (see Table 1).             deficiencies. The ‘provision’ of           are accumulated for consideration
                                             behavioural opportunities is the remedy    in the fifth mental domain. Our
The fourth domain – behaviour –              for the deficiencies highlighted by this   knowledge of the sources of different
focuses on the extent to which the           domain (Table 1).                          affects means that appropriate
horse can express ‘agency’; i.e.,                                                       management of specific provisions can
the opportunities it has to exhibit          The fifth domain – the mental state of     be used to forestall welfare problems
voluntary, self-generated behaviours to      the Thoroughbred – focuses attention       before they arise or correct problems
achieve goals it finds rewarding.            on negative and positive subjective        that do arise.
                                             experiences (affects) of two main types:
Thus, key provisions for this domain                                                    The manager of the horse needs to be
                                             •   Firstly, those generated by the
aim to make available opportunities                                                     cognisant of the signals that the horse
                                                 functional conditions within the
to have rewarding behaviours (Table                                                     provides regarding posture, demeanour,
                                                 body, captured by the nutrition,
1). For example, this might include                                                     activity, vocalisation etc to indicate its
                                                 environment and health domains;
seeking shade or mutual grooming.                                                       mental state.
                                                 and
THOROUGHBRED WELFARE ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES                              9

 Provisions                                                              Animal Welfare Aims
 Good nutrition                                                          Minimise thirst and hunger
 Provide ready access to safe water and a diet adjusted to               Enable eating to be a pleasurable experience
 maintain optimal health and fitness

 Good environment                                                        Minimise discomfort and exposure
 Provide suitable safe enclosures with room to move, shade,              Promote thermal, physical, auditory, visual, atmospheric
 good air quality and comfortable resting areas                          and other comforts

 Good health                                                             Minimise negative experiences of ill-health
 Prevent or rapidly diagnose and treat disease, injury                   Promote pleasures of optimal health, fitness, and free
 and functional impairment, and foster good exercise                     exercise
 conditioning and free exercise

 Appropriate behaviour                                                   Minimise threats and unpleasant restrictions on behaviour
 Provide sufficient space, proper facilities, compatible                 Promote engagement in rewarding activities
 company and appropriately varied conditions to enable
 expression of normal behaviours

 Positive mental experiences                                             Minimise boredom, anxiety, fear and loneliness
 Provide safe, compatible and appropriate opportunities to               Promote various forms of comfort, pleasure, interest and
 have pleasurable experiences                                            confidence

Table 1: The five provisions and aligned animal welfare aims – specific to Thoroughbred horses 11, 12

11 Adapted from D.J. Mellor (2016). Moving beyond the ‘Five Freedoms’ by updating the ‘Five Provisions’ and introducing aligned ‘Animal Welfare
   Aims’. Animals 6(10), 55; doi:10.3390/ani6100059.
12 Adapted from D.J. Mellor (2017). Operational details of the Five Domains Model and its key applications to the assessment and management
   of animal welfare. Animals 7(8), 60; doi:10.3390/ani7080060.
10       NEW ZEALAND THOROUGHBRED RACING

1. Nutrition                               Minimum acceptable welfare
                                           conditions for Thoroughbreds may not
Nutrition provided to Thoroughbreds        be met in circumstances where:
in racing and breeding is generally
excellent, due to:                         •   Insufficient quantities of food and
•    High levels of understanding of           water are made available.
     the nutritional requirements for      •   Temperature, taste and or odour
     Thoroughbred racehorses                   of water discourage horses from
•    The benefits of the competitive           drinking
     commercial feed market which has      •   Food quality is poor or unpalatable
     significantly improved nutritional        or additives make the taste
     outcomes                                  unpleasant
•    The generally good variety, quality   •   Regular eating patterns are
     and composition of feed                   disturbed
•    The usually very good variety and     •   Horses may indulge in voluntary
     quality of natural feed (including        overeating
     grazing) when offered
                                           •   Horses are not fed to meet their
•    The quantity of food offered being        metabolic requirements
     generally appropriate for work
                                           •   Horses are over-fat or very thin
     regime
•    Appropriate adjustments being         Body condition score (BCS) assesses
     made for physiological stages and     the thickness of subcutaneous fat of a
     environment                           horse is and is a useful indicator of the
•    Recognised good husbandry             nutritional health of horses. BCS is well
     practices being deployed.             recognised as an overall indicator of
                                           the nutritional health and requirements
Desired or optimal welfare                 of a horse. NZTR expects that persons
conditions would be provided where         responsible for Thoroughbreds will
Thoroughbreds have opportunities to:       know how to monitor body condition
•    Drink enough water                    scores.

•    Eat enough food                       Factors other than nutrition that
•    Eat a balanced diet including         contribute to body condition (i.e.
     sufficient natural fibre/roughage     training workload, age, disease             2. Environment
     and essential trace minerals          or thermal extremes) should be
                                                                                       Stabling and the general environment
•    Eat a variety of foods aligned to     considered when assessing different
                                                                                       provided to New Zealand
     innate preferences                    classes of horses. For instance,
                                                                                       Thoroughbreds in racing and breeding
                                           yearlings and horses in race training
•    Eat at a natural rate and timing                                                  would normally include the following
                                           will have less fat and a lower BCS
•    Eat correct quantities                                                            features:
                                           than broodmares and Thoroughbreds
                                           used for recreational riding. Horses        •   Safe containment
                                           of any age or occupation should be          •   Use of substantial and/or electric
                                           maintained between BCS 2-4.                     fencing to reinforce boundaries –
                                           Refer appendix C.                               providing social barriers, reducing
                                                                                           injuries, protecting horses
                                                                                       •   Predictability and routine that
                                                                                           ‘protects’ horses
                                                                                       •   Farms that are well set up to
                                                                                           manage herd hierarchies
                                                                                       •   Pasture based management of
                                                                                           mares and young stock which
                                                                                           allows expression of natural
                                                                                           behaviours
THOROUGHBRED WELFARE ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES                     11

•   Stable and paddock management        Desired or optimal welfare conditions      Minimum acceptable welfare
    and maintenance that provide         are achieved where Thoroughbreds are       conditions for Thoroughbreds may not
    good hygiene                         provided stabling with:                    be met in circumstances which include:
•   Good air quality                     •   Safe enclosures made from              •   Thermal extremes
•   Comfortable variation in light and       appropriate materials with             •   Unsuitable ground surface
    temperature                              opportunities for shade and shelter
                                                                                    •   Sustained close confinement
•   Handling and husbandry of            •   A thermally comfortable
                                                                                    •   High levels of atmospheric
    transported horses which is              environment
                                                                                        pollutants (CO2, ammonia, dust,
    appropriate                          •   Suitable ground surfaces in stables,       smoke)
•   A licensing system backed up by          yards and paddocks, and training
                                                                                    •   Unpleasant or strong odours
    stable inspections which enable          and racing venues
                                                                                    •   Inappropriate light intensity
    conditions to be assessed by         •   Space for free movement
    Stipendiary Stewards.                                                           •   Environmental monotony (ambient,
                                         •   Fresh air
                                                                                        physical, lighting)
                                         •   Comfortable light intensity
                                                                                    •   Unpredictable noise or events
                                         •   Acceptable noise exposure
                                                                                    •   Unsafe enclosures and risk for injury
                                         •   Familiar routines and consistent
                                                                                    •   Exposure to toxic plants.
                                             environment
                                         •   Familiarisation with normal
                                             activity
12       NEW ZEALAND THOROUGHBRED RACING

3. Health                                  •   The body and coat condition and      4. Behaviour
                                               foot care are appropriate
In general, owners, breeders, trainers,                                             The horse-human bond enables
                                           •   Good fitness level, posture,
jockeys, stablehands and farriers                                                   breeders, trainers, and handlers to
                                               demeanour and gait are apparent
demonstrate a longstanding culture                                                  recognise the many subtle behavioural
of good husbandry, including high                                                   cues that are indicators of welfare,
                                           Minimum acceptable welfare
regard for the physical wellbeing of                                                reinforced by:
                                           conditions may not be met in
Thoroughbreds, demonstrated by:                                                     •   Regular consistent contact which
                                           circumstances where Thoroughbreds
•    Expert equine veterinary care         exhibit:                                     builds familiarity with each
•    Industry training                                                                  individual horse’s behaviour
                                           •   Chronic conditions or infectious
•    Good regulatory control                   diseases                             •   Daily interaction with horses which
                                                                                        allows behaviours to be observed
•    Vet checks conducted before and       •   Acute or unmanaged chronic injury
     after a race to assess the horse’s        or unsoundness                       •   A culture of empathy and concern
     suitability to race                                                                for horse wellbeing
                                           •   Extreme obesity or leanness
•    Conditioning (enhancing the                                                    •   Horses having scheduled routines
                                           •   Poor physical fitness and muscle
     horses’ fitness, confidence and                                                    of exercise, feed and rest
                                               de-conditioning
     competence) which is done                                                      •   Horses having varied
                                           •   Toxicity induced health problems
     appropriately for age and stage of                                                 environmental challenges and
     preparation                           Also, minimum acceptable welfare             choices and opportunities for
•    Positive human-horse interaction      conditions may not be met in                 engaging in rewarding behaviours
     conferring health benefits            Thoroughbreds when:                      •   Appropriately consistent training
•    Prevention of the spread of           •   Therapeutic substances are used          and management (meeting
     contagious disease                        inappropriately, or prohibited           the minimum requirements of
                                               substances are used in competition       Part 6.1 of the Code of Welfare:
Desired or optimal welfare                                                              Horses and Donkeys, but ideally
conditions would be provided where                                                      using graduated learning
Thoroughbreds are regularly observed                                                    training practices with positive
and appropriately treated when                                                          reinforcement)
necessary to ensure that:
                                                                                    Desirable or optimal conditions or
•    Chronic injuries or conditions, and
                                                                                    available opportunities that would
     acute or contagious disease are
                                                                                    enhance the welfare of Thoroughbreds
     well managed
                                                                                    include the following:
•    Acute injuries are well managed
                                                                                    •   Comfortable sensory inputs
•    Vaccinations are conducted in line
                                                                                    •   Engaging activities
     with Equine Vaccination Guidelines
     for NZ                                                                         •   Training based on graduated
                                                                                        training practices supported by
•    Elective surgeries are expertly
                                                                                        positive reinforcement of the
     conducted in line with regulations
                                                                                        horse’s learning
•    Therapeutic substances are used
     appropriately
THOROUGHBRED WELFARE ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES                                 13

•    Opportunities for spontaneous free             5. Mental or affective state                        Minimum legal requirements
     movement
                                                    Breeders, trainers and stablehands                  In addition to the provisions above,
•    Opportunities to respond to varied
                                                    depend on healthy and willing horses,               people in charge of Thoroughbreds
     and interesting environmental
                                                    so they will regularly monitor their                must also be familiar with minimum
     challenges
                                                    mental state for:                                   legal requirements under legislation
•    Opportunities for foraging and                                                                     and regulation that relate to horses:
                                                    •    Alertness and engagement with
     browsing
                                                         handlers
•    Opportunities to bond with other                                                                   Animal Welfare Act 1999
                                                    •    Appropriate energy levels for
     animals and with humans
                                                         workload                                       Code of Welfare: Horses and Donkeys
•    Opportunities to play
                                                    •    Willingness to work
•    Opportunities to use safe spaces,                                                                  Code of Welfare: Transport within
                                                    •    Confidence and calmness
     retreat, or defensive activity                                                                     New Zealand
                                                    •    The absence of signs of anxiety,
•    Having sufficient sleep and rest.
                                                         fear or panic                                  Animal Welfare (Care and Procedures)
Minimum acceptable welfare                          •    The absence of signs of pain, anger            Regulations 2018
conditions may not be met in                             or frustration                                 •     s18 – Tethered horses need to be
circumstances where Thoroughbreds                                                                             provided access to food, water,
exhibit the following behaviours:                   Desired or optimal welfare conditions                     shade and protections from
                                                    for Thoroughbreds would be provided                       extremes of heat or cold;
•    Stereotypies
                                                    where:
•    Resistance or lack of cooperation                                                                  •     s19 – Must ensure that equipment
                                                    •    Management provisions meet                           (halters, lead ropes, or other
     when worked or handled
                                                         nutritional, environmental, health                   equipment does not cause cuts,
•    Lethargy                                            and behavioural requirements                         abrasions, swelling or hinders
•    Exhaustion                                     •    Negative experiences are kept at                     normal breathing or drinking); and
                                                         tolerably low levels                           •     s20 – A horse must not be struck
                                                    •    Opportunities are available for                      on the head.
                                                         positive experiences

                                                    Minimum acceptable welfare
                                                    conditions for Thoroughbreds may not
                                                    be met in circumstances where:
                                                    •    Provision for nutritional,
                                                         environmental, health and
                                                         behavioural requirements have not
                                                         been met
                                                    •    Horses have negative experiences
                                                         that exceed tolerably low levels 13
                                                    •    Horses have no or few
                                                         opportunities for positive
                                                         experiences

13 Note that the negative affects in the nutrition, environment and health domains (see Appendix A Figure 1) have roles in motivating horses
   to engage in specific behaviours that are essential for their survival, e.g., thirst leads to drinking water, hunger to eating, pain to escape from
   or avoidance of injury, etc. So, these negative experiences cannot be eliminated, but careful attention to the ‘provisions’ can keep them at
   tolerably low levels most of the time. Adjustment of the ‘provisions’ enables restoration to tolerable levels when e.g., ill-health or injury
   occur, and the intensity of the associated negative experiences increases.
THOROUGHBRED WELFARE ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES   15

Section 2 – Welfare assessment guidelines for
thoroughbred horses prior to racing

Welfare in the first two years of             •   Breeders and trainers can access a
the Thoroughbred life cycle                       high level of veterinary support and
                                                  technical expertise to ensure horse
The New Zealand Thoroughbred                      welfare.
production cycle begins with the annual
                                              •   While NZTR Rules of Racing do not
foal crop in the Spring and progresses
                                                  govern this juvenile stage of the
to horses being prepared for yearling
                                                  Thoroughbred life cycle, there are
sales, and/or having a trial or race start,
                                                  rules for the minimum age that a
and/or being exported. At this stage of
                                                  horse may start in racing, hurdle or
the life cycle, there are few apparent
                                                  steeplechase races.
welfare issues:

•   Animal welfare codes (as noted            Early life: Post-weaning
    on the prior page) regulate
    management practices such as              Breeders and handlers are well aware
    branding, microchipping and               of the challenges involved in weaning
    surgeries such as gelding.                and manage the process to avoid stress
                                              and reduce the risk of injury or harm.
•   The industry is well organised and
                                              Thoroughbreds prepared and offered
    regulated with codes of practice,
                                              for sale as yearlings are carefully
    and health and safety processes.
                                              managed, conditioned and expertly
•   Thoroughbred breeders aim to              cared for.
    produce healthy, sound horses
    with few heritable conformational         Horses start in work between 18–24
    or genetic problems.                      months after birth with a short period
•   Production efficiencies developed         of general education and habituation to
    over the years have resulted              the environment and routines of race
    in a higher proportion of foals           training, followed by a spell. Training
    eventually becoming part of the           of horses usually resumes with a ‘first
    racing population.                        preparation’, which may culminate in
•   New Zealand’s temperate climate           a trial start that will enable trainers
    enables year-round pasture-               and owners to assess each horse’s
    based management of breeding              ability and likely racing career. Trainers,
    and young stock, contributing to          handlers and jockeys are aware that
    optimal athletic development and          young horses require understanding
    expression of natural behaviours.         and patience. Training regimes are
                                              tailored to individual horses, and
•   There is a high level of horse
                                              horses are spelled if they are not coping
    handling and management
                                              physically or mentally with training.
    expertise, and many staff hold
    industry qualifications.
•   Long-standing and ongoing
    research provides insights into
    processes that contribute to better
    understanding, and consequently,
    improved practices.
THOROUGHBRED WELFARE ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES   17

Section 3 – Welfare guidelines for thoroughbred
racehorses

NZTR has adopted the Thoroughbred            The New Zealand Rules of Racing
Welfare Guidelines formulated by             contain provisions relating to the
the International Group of Specialist        principles within this document.
Racing Veterinarians’ (IGSRV). These
Guidelines provide a benchmark for           These guidelines are reviewed
welfare standards deemed acceptable          periodically, provide a foundation for
by NZTR and aim to provide clarity           NZTR and racing industry regulation,
and accountability around racehorse          policy and initiatives, and form an
welfare before, during, and also after       additional basis for the general welfare
racing.                                      guidelines as outlined in Section 1 of
                                             this document.
The key tenets of these Guidelines
include the following:                       NZTR recognises and regulates the
                                             welfare of horses in racing through the
•   Reasonable steps should be taken         Rules of Racing, and consistent with
    to prevent unnecessary pain and          the IFHA Welfare Guidelines for Horses
    distress of racehorses in breeding,      in racing, as contained in Appendix B.
    racing and training by ensuring          Further to this, NZTR recognises the
    adequate care, a suitable diet, the      primacy of the Animal Welfare Act and
    ability to exhibit normal behaviour,     associated Codes and Regulations.
    appropriate housing, and
    protection from injury and disease.
•   While horse racing carries risks,
    reasonable steps should be taken
    to prevent avoidable risks and
    research should be undertaken
    to reduce risks, and to share this
    information between participants
    in horseracing.
•   In the context of these
    responsibilities it is recognised that
    properly conducted euthanasia can
    be a humane option for racehorses;
    for example, for individual horses
    with severe or chronic injuries, or
    where care would be inadequate,
    and long-term pain and distress is
    likely to be the result.
18   NEW ZEALAND THOROUGHBRED RACING
THOROUGHBRED WELFARE ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES   19

Section 4 – Welfare assessment guidelines for
thoroughbreds in breeding

The well-being of Thoroughbreds is the   The NZTBA guidelines state:
primary consideration of breeders who
are committed to the enhancement         •   Horses should be provided with
of the health and welfare of the             appropriate amounts of food and
Thoroughbreds in their care.                 have access to quality drinking
                                             water.
The NZ Thoroughbred Breeders             •   Handling should accommodate the
Association (NZTBA) regularly provides       horse’s behaviour and be done in a
its members with advice, education,          calm manner.
guidance and policy updates via
                                         •   Horses should not be forced into
newsletters, resources and information
                                             positions or situations which cause
available to them on the NZTBA
                                             unnecessary pain, harm or injury
website.
                                             and no horse should be abused.
The NZTBA also supports equine           •   Horses should not be subjected to
research, development and educational        submissive techniques that injure
projects through the NZ Equine               or harm.
Research Foundation (NZERF) and the      •   Sick and injured horses should be
NZ Equine Trust as well as endorsing         given appropriate care and medical
updated equine health and biosecurity        attention in a timely manner in
information through the NZ Equine            keeping with best practice. Where
Health Association (NZEHA).                  necessary, veterinary advice should
                                             be sought.
The NZTBA aims to provide members
with information ensuring a standard
of care well above the minimum
standards and constantly promotes
and encourages this through its
guidelines.
20   NEW ZEALAND THOROUGHBRED RACING
THOROUGHBRED WELFARE ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES                       21

Section 5 – Welfare assessment guidelines for
thoroughbred horses after racing

Thoroughbred racehorses are retired        rare occasions, potentially up to 12            between NZTR and Equestrian
from racing by their owners for a          months of active and skilled retraining         Sport New Zealand to promote
variety of reasons, because:               for a horse to physiologically and              Thoroughbreds in dressage,
                                           psychologically transition out of racing.       show jumping, show hunter and
•   the horse does not show an initial                                                     eventing.
    desire or aptitude for racing,         Many mares with commercial pedigrees
                                                                                       •   Also, the NZ Show Horse Council
•   the horse has progressed to a          are recruited into the broodmare
                                                                                           runs a series for Off the Track
    point where it struggles to be         population when they are retired from
                                                                                           Thoroughbreds in showing.
    competitive,                           racing. Outside the racing industry,
                                           Thoroughbred dams can also be utilised      NZTR has jurisdiction over horses in
•   it is relocated to a stud for
                                           to improve sport horse breeds, or           racing, with the Owner(s) and Racing
    breeding,
                                           occasionally as surrogate dams. When        Managers able to be held responsible
•   it is disabled, injured or lame, or    it is necessary (unresolvable injuries or   and accountable for not meeting the
•   of its age or the owners wish to       unmanageable temperament), horses           requirements, as outlined in the Rules
    relocate the horse to a retirement     may be euthanised.                          of Racing and these guidelines.
    paddock.
                                           Off the track Thoroughbreds may be          NZTR does not have jurisdiction over
The most common outcome for retired        sold for a nominal sum. A low value         adopters and anyone else in charge
racehorses is rehoming, with the           horse may attract adopters who may          of the care of a Thoroughbred after
potential for horses to have a ‘good       not have the financial capability to        retired from racing, unless those
life’ for decades in a second career.      provide sustained adequate care. This       persons are licenced by NZTR or
Thoroughbred horses are well suited        creates the potential for poor welfare      deemed an accountable person under
for other equestrian disciplines because   outcomes. The average cost of keeping       the Rules of Racing. Where NZTR lacks
they are relatively young, intelligent,    a recreational sport horse in New           jurisdiction, the compliance framework
athletic and attractive animals (see       Zealand is significant ($12,000pa), so      and enforcement are addressed in
Appendix D for a list of possible          potential adopters must be realistic        animal and equine welfare legislation
‘second careers’). NZTR endorses and       about their financial ability to support    and regulation (principally the Animal
promotes rehoming of Thoroughbreds         a horse.                                    Welfare Act and the Code of Welfare:
after racing where it is possible and                                                  Horses and Donkeys).
appropriate.                               NZTR also supports initiatives that
                                           celebrate the achievements of               Some racing jurisdictions promote
Retraining ensures a greater likelihood    Thoroughbred racehorses in their            a ‘full circle’ approach, whereby one
of better future homes and is an           second careers.                             owner takes responsibility for the
effective way to minimise any potential                                                Thoroughbred in retirement. This may
welfare problems arising from the          •   Beyond the Barriers has a website
                                                                                       be regarded as an improvement in the
transition out of racing. Having started       providing support and information
                                                                                       retiree management for the industry
under saddle, racehorses are prepared          for adopters, and sponsorship
                                                                                       but is not a guarantee of good welfare
specifically to race, but in the right         for various events that involve
                                                                                       outcomes.
hands are usually very adaptable               Thoroughbreds, including the
to training and learning new skills.           Dunstan Ex-Factor competition           If owners are to take responsibility for
Racehorses are adapted to sometimes            and showcase for Thoroughbreds          retired Thoroughbreds, they should
specific high-energy diets, and to some        within 12 months of leaving racing      have the required knowledge, skills,
extent, will need to learn to forage or        which is held at Equidays each year.    support and resources to provide a
find water from natural sources, or to         Further, Beyond the Barriers also       ‘good life’ in retirement for their horse.
negotiate and utilise natural terrain          conducts horse and rider clinics.       NZTR is able to provide education
for protection from bad weather. It        •   Thoroughbreds in Equestrian             materials such as these guidelines.
may take as little as a few days, or on        Sports (TiES) is a joint project
22       NEW ZEALAND THOROUGHBRED RACING

Deliberate neglect and abuse are rare,          that need to be actively managed       g) Responsibility of Adopters
so the problem is more one of benign            or may make the horse unsuitable          Prospective adopters or purchasers
neglect due to inadequate knowledge.            for the anticipated use.                  of retired racehorses straight from
However, neglect – even if unintended      d) Decisions around Retirement                 training should be aware of the
– is not an acceptable condition for          If the trainer is not the                   need to manage the transition out
retired Thoroughbred racehorses.              Accountable Person or Racing                of racing and consider their ability
                                              Manager, they should be involved            to achieve this successfully. If
                                              when considering which option is            they do not have this ability, they
Responsibilities and processes                                                            should seek support and guidance
                                              best for the horse. The trainer’s
to ensure good horse welfare                  knowledge from their working                from a capable source.
when retiring Thoroughbreds                   relationship with the horse during           Adopters should also consider
from racing                                   training will be useful when                 their financial ability and the
                                              making a decision.                           resources required to provide
a) Duty of Care
                                           e)   Retraining                                 adequate care for horses.
   The duty of care to ensure that
   the horse is treated in a way                The Racing Manager or                  h) Euthanasia (humane death of the
   that enables it to transition to a           Accountable Person could consider         retired horse)
   second career. Responsibility will           retraining by a capable person to         Adopters should consider
   ultimately lie with the new owner,           transition the horse to a career          euthanasia if injury, temperament,
   but prior to a potential transfer of         after racing.                             illness, age or other conditions
   ownership, the person in charge         f)   Assessing Adopters and                    negatively affect the physical
   of the horse (the vendor) needs              Purchasers                                welfare or mental state of the
   to satisfy him/herself that the              The Racing Manager or                     horse they have adopted. This will
   person intending to own the horse            Accountable Person has a                  not be an easy decision, but the
   possesses the competence and                 responsibility to assess prospective      need to avoid suffering of the horse
   resources necessary for the horse’s          purchasers or adopters if the horse       must outweigh personal feelings
   future well-being.                           is being rehomed straight from            and loss of companionship.
                                                training. The Owner or Racing             Anyone that euthanises, or
b) Traceability
                                                Manager should consider the               arranges the euthanasia of a
   The Racing Manager or
                                                match of the horse’s temperament          retired Thoroughbred:
   Accountable Person must
   promptly submit the SR24 Death               with the skills, resources and
                                                                                           i.    must ensure that the
   or Retirement form within one                capability of the prospective
                                                                                                 euthanasia is carried out either
   month of a horse dying or being              adopter.
                                                                                                 by:
   retired from racing.                         If the Racing Manager or
                                                                                                 a.   intravenous injection by a
     Anyone who euthanises, or                  Accountable Person is not satisfied
                                                                                                      veterinarian; or
     arranges the euthanasia of a               that the person would provide
                                                proper care of the horse they                    b.   by a veterinarian or
     retired Thoroughbred, should
     notify NZTR of the death.                  should decide against proceeding                      another person who is
                                                with a sale or adoption of the                        competent in the use of
     All Thoroughbreds are traceable
                                                horse.                                                captive bolt or firearm, in
     via permanent identification in the
                                                                                                      compliance with Schedule
     form of a brand on the shoulder            NZTR acknowledges that whilst
                                                                                                      III of the Code of Welfare:
     and/or a microchip and or DNA              resale of horses through public
                                                                                                      Horses and Donkeys, and
     hair samples. This identification          auction is a legitimate means
     links to individual horse                  of securing a new owner for                ii.   notify NZTR of the death.
     registration with NZTR.                    a horse, this diminishes the
                                                ability of the vendor to assess
c)   Responsibility to communicate
                                                the appropriateness of the
     The Racing Manager or
                                                purchaser. NZTR will seek to work
     Accountable Person must
                                                with auction houses to develop
     communicate to any adopter
                                                appropriate safeguards on behalf
     the temperament and physical
                                                of vendors.
     condition of the horse, including
     any injuries or chronic conditions
Appendices
24           NEW ZEALAND THOROUGHBRED RACING

Appendix A
The 5 Domains Model for Equine Welfare
                        HORSE WELFARE ASSESSMENT GUIDE
                                This guide is an adaptation of the Five Domains Model of Welfare Assessment and Monitoring
                               that shows how it can be applied to achieve good horse welfare. The model has four physical or
                                      functional domains and a mental domain that acknowledges the horse’s experience.
                                The aim for providing good welfare is to achieve physical and functional well-being, as well
                                as give horses the opportunity to experience positive emotions in all areas: nutrition, health,
                                                   environment, behaviour and interactions with humans.

                                 Nutrition                                                                                   Health
     The physical domain                                                                           The physical domain

     Restrictions:                   Opportunities:                  Minimum                       Signs of ill-health:                 Signs of health:
                                                                    standard of                                                                                        Minimum
                                                                                                   Disease (acute, chronic)             Little or no disease
     Not enough water                Drink enough water
                                                                     Care                          Injury (acute, chronic, surgery)     Little or no injuries
                                                                                                                                                                      standard of
     Not enough food
     Poor quality food
                                     Eat enough food
                                     Eat a balanced diet                                           Functional impairment (due           Little or no dysunctional      Care
     Lack of food variety            Eating correct quantities                                     to limb, lung, heart, kidney,        body systems
                                     Eat a variety of foods                                        neural or other problems).           Well nourished
                                                                                                   Poisons                              Body condition is
                                                                                                   Obesity/leanness                     appropriate
                                                                                                   Poor physical fitness (muscle        Good fitness level
     The mental domain                                                                             de-conditioning)

     Negative experience:            Positive experiences:                                         The mental domain
     Thirst                          Wetting/quenching and        Welfare                          Negative experience:                  Positive experience:
     Hunger (general)
     Hunger (salt)
                                     the pleasure of drinking
                                     The pleasure of different                                     Breathlessness                       Comfort of good health
                                                                                                                                                                      Welfare
     Malnutrition, malaise           tastes, smells and textures                                   Pain (many types)                    and a high functional
     Bloated, over full              The pleasure of salt taste                                    Debility, weakness                   capacity
     Colic (gastrointestinal         The pleasure of chewing for long periods                      Sickness, malaise                    Vitality and fitness
     pain), gastric ulcers           Post prandial satiety (comfortably full)                      Nausea
                                     Gastrointestinal comfort                                      Dizziness
                                                                                                   Physical exhaustion

                                        As well as providing for the physical and behavioural
                                        needs, how many positive experiences can you make
                                              available to your horse on a daily basis?

                               Environment                                                                         Behaviour and
                                                                                                                 human interaction
     The physical domain                                                                          The physical domain
      Restrictions:                  Opportunities:                                               Agency is impeded:                   Agency:
     Thermal extremes                Thermally tolerable             Minimum                      Barren environment                   Varied, novel,
     Unsuitable footing              Suitable footing               standard of                   Choices markedly restricted          engaging                      Minimum

                                                                      Care
                                                                                                                                                                    standard of
     Confinement                     Space for free movement                                      Constraints on environment-          environmental challenges
     Pollutants and odours           Fresh air                                                    focused activities (exploration,     Free movement                  Care
     Noise                           Noise acceptable                                             grazing)                             Exploration
     Monotony - ambient,             Normal environmental                                         Constraints on horse-to-horse        Foraging
     lighting                        variety                                                      interactions.                        Bonding
                                                                                                  Sleep/rest deprivation               Rearing young, sexual behaviour
                                                                                                  Training confusion                   Sufficient sleep/rest
                                                                                                  Inconsistent human interaction       Consistent, clear training
     The mental domain

      Negative experience:           Positive experience:                                         The mental domain
      Discomfort due to:             Comfort:
                                                                                                   Negative experience:                Positive experience:
      Chilling, overheating          Thermal                        Welfare                                                                                           Welfare
      Physical pain, skin            Physical                                                      Frustration, loneliness            Calm, engaged, in control
      irritation, muscle stiffness   Respiratory                                                   Boredom, helplessness              Affectionate sociability
      and tension.                   Olfactory, visual                                             Depression                         Maternally rewarded, sexual
      Breathlessness, auditory       Herd living                                                   Sexual frutstration                gratification, playfullness
      impairment, eye strain         Variety related comfort                                       Anxiety, fear, panic, anger        Secure, protected, confident,
      Malaise from unnatural                                                                       Neophobia                          likes novelty, energised
      constancy                                                                                    Exhaustion

                                         Adapted by Cristina Wilkins, Horses and People Magazine, in collaboration with NZ Thoroughbred
                                      Racing, from Mellor, D.J. (2017). Operational details of the Five Domains Model and its key applications
                                        to the assessment and management of animal welfare. Animals 7(8), 60. doi: 10.3390/ani7080060

Figure 1: How optimal and minimal provisions for nutrition, environment, health and behaviour
contribute to the mental state of Thoroughbreds14

14 Adapted from D.J. Mellor (2017). Operational details of the Five Domains Model and its key applications to the assessment and management
   of animal welfare. Animals 7(8), 60; doi:10.3390/ani7080060.
THOROUGHBRED WELFARE ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES                25

 Domain            Challenge or Measure
 Nutrition         Sufficient energy intake to maintain body condition for winter outdoors

                   Calcium: Phosphorus ratios balanced

                   Sufficient carbohydrate/protein in weanling/yearling ration to achieve growth

                   Identification and management of toxic plants

 Environment       Appropriate shelter and rugging during winter

                   Stock and pasture management to minimize slippery terrain and mud in winter

                   Safe enclosures

                   Transport – safety during loading and unloading, and periodic access to food and drink while
                   transported

 Health            Adverse heritable conditions and conformational traits

                   Injuries which are difficult to detect

                   Surgeries (bone chips, gelding)

                   Well maintained and knowledgeably fitted equipment and saddlery to avoid pain or pressure points

                   Diagnosis and treatment of gut ulcers

                   Allergens and pathogens managed at pasture

                   Appropriate cycle of training workload and rest training to ensure optimal musculoskeletal
                   development

 Behaviour         Managing changes in interaction with humans at weaning and start of work

                   Requirement for play (foals and weanlings) or other daily interaction with other horses

                   Recognition of stereotypies that indicate unmet needs

                   Habituation and training to deal with novel and new experiences and environments

                   Balance between variety and ability to cope with new situations and objects

                   Enablement of spontaneous or managed exercise movement to induce optimal musculoskeletal
                   development in foals through to yearlings

                   Sufficient sleep and rest

                   Limits on threat avoidance, escape and defensive activity in herd

 Mental state      Distress, fear, anxiety at weaning

                   Transport – initial stress reduced by familiarization, travel with companions

                   Managing transitions to new experiences and environments (avoiding neophobia)

Table 2: Using the Five Domains to identify potential challenges to optimal welfare for Thoroughbred horses
(illustrative examples):
26       NEW ZEALAND THOROUGHBRED RACING

Appendix B
Welfare Guidelines in relation to horses in racing
(based on IFHA guidelines)

1. At all stages during                   c)   Shoeing                               2. Horses should be suitably
   the preparation and                         Horseshoes and racing plates must        conditioned and healthy
                                               be designed and fitted to minimise
   presentation of horses for                                                           before being allowed to race
                                               the risk of injury. Shoes used in
   racing, welfare should be a                 racing must be included in the        a) Veterinary Examinations
   primary consideration                       NZTR Register of Notifiable Gear.        A veterinary examination must be
a) Good Horse Management                  d) Transport                                  undertaken of any horse showing
   The housing, feeding and training         The risk of injury and disease must        signs of disease, lameness or
   of racehorses should be consistent        be minimised when racehorses               other ailments to determine its
   with good horse management and            are transported. Vehicles should           suitability to race.
   must not compromise welfare.              be purpose built, safe, clean, well     b) Immaturity
     Any practices whether in stables,       ventilated, regularly maintained           Horses mature at widely different
     training or racing which are            and disinfected.                           rates. Training and racing
     inconsistent with legislative             Long journeys must be planned            schedules should be carefully
     requirements, nor with the                carefully, and horses should be          planned to minimise the risk of
     minimum provisions outlined in            allowed regular rest periods             musculoskeletal injuries.
     Section 1 of this document, must          and access to water and feed as       c)   Surgical Procedures
     not be tolerated and may lead             necessary. Respiratory problems            Any surgical procedure which
     to penalties, as stipulated in the        arising from transport can often be        compromises the welfare or safety
     NZTR Rules of Racing.                     reduced if horses are able to lower        of any horse or rider must not be
     Industry training programmes              their heads to ground level during         allowed. Refer to Rules 345 and
     should contain components on              rest periods.                              650 (NZTR Rules of Racing)
     animal welfare relevant to the                                                  d) Severe or Recurrent Conditions
     role performed by the person                                                       • Horses with severe or
     receiving the training. Audits of                                                      recurrent clinical conditions
     Thoroughbreds under the control                                                        should, on veterinary advice,
     of licensed trainers should be                                                         be temporarily or permanently
     undertaken by the RIU or other                                                         excluded from racing. Without
     officers mandated by NZTR, or                                                          limitation, two specific
     officers mandated by legislation.                                                      examples are:
b) Training Methods for Racehorses                                                        •   Two instances of nasal
   Pre-training and training                                                                  bleeding caused by exercise
   methods which unreasonably                                                                 induced pulmonary
   influence the normal behaviour                                                             haemorrhage (EIPH) (Rule
   of racehorses should not be                                                                651); and
   used. Horse training schedules                                                         •   Cardiac arrhythmia (Link:
   should include graduated learning                                                          NZTR Directive)
   training practices with positive
   reinforcement, adjusted to the                                                    e)   Pregnant Mares
   horse’s physical capabilities and                                                      Mares must not be raced beyond
   level of maturity.                                                                     120 days of pregnancy.
THOROUGHBRED WELFARE ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES                           27

3. Conditions of racing should              e)   Medication                             4. Racehorses should receive
   not prejudice horse welfare                   One purpose of the rules                  proper attention after they
                                                 controlling medication is to
a) Racecourse Conditions                                                                   have raced and be treated
                                                 protect the welfare of the horse
   Racecourses and racing surfaces               and the safety of riders. After any       humanely when their racing
   should be designed and maintained             veterinary treatment, sufficient          careers are over
   to reduce risk factors which may              time should be allowed for             a) Veterinary Treatment
   lead to injuries. Attention should            recuperation before competition.          When a horse is injured during a
   be paid to running rails, crossings,          Drugs must not be allowed to              race, the jockey must dismount. A
   and the provision of good and                 modify the racing performance of          registered veterinarian must be in
   consistent running surfaces.                  the horse, adversely impact on its        attendance on the racecourse at
b) Steeplechasing and Hurdling                   welfare or conceal adverse genetic        race meetings and official barrier
   Participation in these races should           or acquired conditions. (NZTR             trials. Injured horses must be given
   be restricted to horses with a                Prohibited Substances Regulations)        appropriate first aid. A suitable
   demonstrated level of fitness            f)   Starting Gates / Barriers                 vehicle for moving injured horses
   and jumping ability. Weights to               Horses should be educated to be           from the racetrack should be made
   be carried, race distances, and               familiar with loading procedures.         available. If required, an injured
   the number, size, design and                  Barriers should be properly               horse should be transported to the
   placement of fences should all be             designed and safe. Aids to loading        nearest referral centre for further
   carefully assessed when planning              must be humane and used                   assessment and therapy.
   these races.                                  appropriately.                         b) Racing Injuries
c)   Extreme Weather                        g) Racecourse accommodation                    The incidence of injuries sustained
     Due care and attention should be          Stabling and sampling facilities            in racing and training should be
     paid to the welfare of horses racing      for horses on racecourses should            monitored wherever possible. Track
     in extreme weather. Provision must        be safe, clean and well-ventilated.         conditions, frequency of racing,
     be made to cool horses quickly            Suitable drinking and washing-              age and any other risk factors,
     after racing in hot and/or humid          down water must always be                   should be carefully examined to
     conditions.                               available. Safe facilities for loading      indicate ways to minimise the risk
d) Misuse of the Whip                          and unloading horses should be              of injury.
   Excessive, unnecessary or improper          provided.                                c)   Euthanasia
   use of whips is not condoned, for                                                         If injuries are sufficiently severe,
   example, on a horse that is clearly                                                       an injured horse may need to be
   out of contention, a horse that is                                                        euthanised. If after evaluation
   fatigued and unable to respond,                                                           euthanasia is deemed necessary,
   or a horse clearly winning. (NZTR                                                         it should be undertaken as soon
   Whip Directive)                                                                           as possible with the sole aim of
                                                                                             minimising suffering.
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