The Space Foundation Report. The Authoritative Guide To Global Space Activity 2015. →
The Space Foundation Report. The Authoritative Guide To Global Space Activity 2015. →
2 0 1 5 THE AUTHORITATIVE GUIDE TO GLOBAL SPACE ACTIVITY Copyright © 2015 Space Foundation All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book may be reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. For more information, please contact: Space Foundation 4425 Arrowswest Drive Colorado Springs, CO 80907 1655 N. Fort Myer Drive, Suite 910 Arlington, VA 22209 www.SpaceFoundation.org All images used in this publication are property of their respective owners. Sign up for an online subscription at www.TheSpaceReport.org to read updates, download the data behind the charts in this report, and much more! Overview . 1 1.0 | Space Products and Services . 4 1.0 Introduction . 5 1.1 The Benefits of Space Products and Services . 5 1.2 Collaboration Between Space Agencies and the Public . . 12 2.0 | The Space Economy . . 13 2.0 Introduction . . 14 2.1 Commercial Infrastructure and Support Industries . . 14 2.2 Commercial Space Products and Services . . 18 2.3 Government Space Budgets . . 22 2.4 Summary of Data . . 38 A Snapshot: The Global Space Economy in 2014 . . 40 3.0 | Space Infrastructure . . 41 3.0 Introduction . . 42 3.1 Orbital Human Spaceflight Systems . . 42 3.2 Launch Vehicles . . 44 3.3 Space Stations . . 49 3.4 Satellites . . 50 3.5 Spaceports . . 60 4.0 | Workforce . . 63 4.0 Introduction . . 64 4.1 U.S. Space Workforce . . 64 4.2 European Space Workforce . . 71 4.3 Japanese Space Workforce . . 72 4.4 Other Space Employment . . 73 Authors and Contributors . . 74 Endnotes . . 75 Index of Exhibits . . 81 Table of Contents A view of the Milky Way Galaxy’s magnetic field along the galactic plane. ESA’s Planck satellite provided the image, which shows how the magnetic field interacts with interstellar gas clouds and dust. Darker colors represent higher concentrations of dust. Credit: ESA In an ESA telerobotics lab, André Schiele demonstrates remote robotic operations with a lightweight exoskeleton. The exoskeleton allows an operator to control a robot over a cellphone network. Credit: ESA Even seasoned NASA Administrator Charles Bolden gets excited during NASA’s test of the Orion spacecraft in December 2014. The Orion is designed to eventually transport humans to Mars and other interesting Solar System locations. Credit: NASA Astronauts and cosmonauts pose for a photo in the International Space Station. Koichi Wakata, in the center-bottom of the circle, was the first Japanese astronaut to assume space station command. Credit: NASA Polish high school students show off space models during a video teleconference with the Rosetta Program’s project manager. The Rosetta spacecraft travelled billions of kilometers to rendezvous with a comet and land a small probe on it in 2014. Credit: NASA/JPL Radar Technologies International’s use of GPS, Landsat imagery, Spaceborne Imaging Radar, and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission technology enabled the company to find trillions of gallons of water beneath drought-ridden Kenya. Credit: NASA Parents and children learn to remotely drive rovers in the Space Foundation’s Mars Yard, a simulated Martian landscape with various challenging surfaces for rovers to drive through. The Mars Yard resides in the Space Foundation’s Discovery Center in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Credit: Space Foundation
Overview EXHIBIT 1. Global Space Activity, 2014 Total: $330.00 Billion ©SpaceFoundation Commercial Infrastructure and Support Industries Commercial Space Products and Services U.S. Government Space Budgets Non-U.S. Government Space Budgets $127.65 B (39%) $123.18 B (37%) $42.96 B (13%) $36.21 B (11%) 1 The Space Report 2015 | The Authoritative Guide to Global Space Activity Introduction | After years of steady, respectable growth, the space industry appears to be on the cusp of a new era of rapid expansion in both capabilities and customers. Startup companies are experimenting with novel approaches for building and deploying constellations of spacecraft and delivering services to their customers in new ways. Long-established space operators are refreshing their offerings as well, taking advantage of the latest technology to offer increasingly powerful products at more affordable prices.
The global reach of satellites, which has long been one of the space industry’s defining characteristics, is attracting interest and investment from other industries, particularly those whose continued growth may depend on connecting the billions of people on the planet who currently are without access to modern communications. For those customers who are already a part of the modern, networked world, there is the prospect of seeing that world in a new way as several space companies vie to provide transportation into space and a new view of the world in which we live. The way we go about our daily lives is going to undergo many changes in next several years, and the skilled professionals who constitute the space industry are poised to take a leading role in making those changes a reality. 1.0 | Space Products and Services People recognize the benefits of space products and services, using creativity to overcome daily existential challenges and improve lives. The space products and services industry crosses the spectrum of demands and necessities, and continued to grow in 2014, sometimes leveraging the same kind of technology to help with different challenges. Space technology benefitting skiers in the backcountry also saved crews from deadly scenarios at sea. Neurosurgery, the smallest and finest of surgeries, applied technologies initially developed for manipulating large objects around a space station. But perhaps the biggest impact of the space industry was in the form of tool that many of us carry around each day.
Billions of people use satellite-augmented devices in their lives, whether the cheapest tablet or the most upscale smartphone. More often than not, the processors within those devices have a satellite position, navigation, and timing (PNT) function embedded within. In less than eight years since the smartphone’s introduction, more people than ever use application services on mobile computers to hail and track a ride; find the closest, cheapest, and tastiest food offerings; conduct banking securely; learn about a city’s history, while being guided to prominent tourist sites; and more. None would be as convenient, accurate, or secure without satellite PNT integrated in each device. Satellite-provided imagery became more affordable in 2014 and nearly ubiquitous on every mobile device. Manufacturers included imagery applications on their devices in the form of map and navigation software. Combined with a device’s PNT function, a person could order an updated image of their location. Other users received updated imagery of disaster areas to see if relatives were safe. Combining imagery with PNT and communications networks yielded real-time traffic updates for the drive home, updated delivery estimates of when a gift would arrive for a loved one, or real-time weather conditions in tornado-prone regions.
Overview 2 The Space Report 2015 | The Authoritative Guide to Global Space Activity These, and other space products and services, depend on data coming from fleets of satellites, operated by governments and commercial entities. Many entrepreneurs and other talented individuals sought to provide more data and products in unique ways, stimulating more growth in the growing space economy. 2.0 | The Space Economy The year 2014 was a good one for the global space economy overall. Consisting of launch and ground services, satellite manufacturing, satellite television and communications, government exploration, military spending, and other interests, the global space economy grew by 9% in 2014, reaching a total of $330 billion worldwide. Together, commercial space activities made up 76% of the global space economy and grew 9.7% in 2014. The remainder was composed of government investments in space, which experienced a combined growth of 7.3% in 2014.
U.S. government and military space budgets in aggregate comprised about 54% of space spending by all world governments in 2014. NASA’s budget, which grew 4.6% over the 2013 budget, was 22% of what governments around the world invested in space in 2014. Non-U.S. government space spending grew 12.9%, outpacing space investment growth in the United States, as nations invested in new capabilities or expanded existing ones. Revenue from commercial space products and services, which constituted more than a third of the global space economy, grew modestly—slightly less than 2.5%. Direct-to-home television services dominate this sector, making up more than three-quarters of the global commercial space products and services market in 2014. The biggest growth in 2014 occurred in the commercial infrastructure and support industries sector, which also constitutes more than a third of overall global space revenues. Industries such as launch, ground stations and equipment, and satellite manufacturing were some of the mainstays that helped increase commercial infrastructure and support industry revenues nearly 18% in 2014. High-value military satellite launches decreased, but the number of launches conducted in 2014 increased significantly, rising to levels not seen in more than a decade.
3.0 | Space Infrastructure Space infrastructure is associated with launch vehicles, satellite operations and services, human spaceflight, and other critical functions. Rocket launch attempts, the most publicly visible reminder of space activity, increased in 2014 to 92, up from 81 launch attempts in 2013. The United States and Russia conducted the majority of the launch attempts in 2014, but organizations and countries such as the European Space Agency, China, India, and Japan also successfully launched payloads into orbit. New launch systems continued to be explored in 2014, with one company testing space launch vehicle reusability as a possible way to lower the costs of launch objects into orbit. Other companies focused on suborbital rocket flight, hoping to entice potential passengers into an adventure to the edge of space and back.
The nature and size of rocket payloads, the satellites, are changing. Of the nearly 300 satellites launched in 2014, slightly less than half weighed 10 kilograms (22 pounds) or less. In 2014, a single Russian space launch vehicle launched and deployed a combination of 33 small satellites and cubesats into low Earth orbit. Some of those deployed satellites eventually deployed more satellites into orbit as well. The size and commonality of parts in cubesats is increasingly attracting researchers, small companies, and schools to invest, build, launch, and operate satellites in space. The International Space Station started to become a launch platform itself, deploying small satellites into orbit.
Overview 3 The Space Report 2015 | The Authoritative Guide to Global Space Activity Although the United States spends the most money in space-related activities and industries, it does not currently have its own human-rated space transportation system, instead choosing to buy passage to space from Russia. The U.S. government, in partnership with industry, continued to make progress during 2014 to eventually change this situation. If all goes well, one of NASA’s programs may provide U.S. astronauts direct access to space again by 2017. While NASA will likely continue using established spaceports, other organizations made plans to build, kept building, or finished new spaceports in 2014. One U.S. company broke ground for a new spaceport near Brownsville, Texas, and China was rumored to have completed a new launch site. The Russians continued to build launch facilities in Siberia, hoping to reduce dependence on launch facilities in Kazakhstan. But Russia still wrestles with the question of how to entice a skilled workforce to Siberia to support the new spaceport’s activities. 4.0 | Workforce A nation’s space workforce reflects its national priorities. Each spacefaring country’s workforce contains a mix of age, education level, and gender. For 2014, the United States had a civil space workforce that continued to skew older while getting smaller. Japan’s space workforce decreased slightly in 2014 after four consecutive years of growth. European countries continued to foster growth in ESA and the European space industry workforce. In most countries, the space industry is male-dominated, particularly in technical fields, although efforts are being made in many places to increase the number of women in the workforce. The reasons for all these employment fluctuations vary among countries as each makes policy and budget decisions affecting direction and leadership in an increasingly competitive and productive industry.
An invitation from the Space Foundation Over the course of the past decade, the Space Foundation research team has gathered an ever-expanding collection of information about the space industry, government policies and priorities, and the evolving trends that influence space activity. Each year, we present the highlights in The Space Report, focusing on the points that we believe are of greatest interest to a broad audience. Beginning in 2015, the Space Foundation is offering an online service that will provide subscribers with access to all the research conducted for The Space Report throughout its existence, as well as new data sets that have never appeared in the report. We hope that this will become an even more valuable resource for the space community, and we look forward to expanding the types of data we offer in response to requests from our readers. To view more information about this new service, please visit www.TheSpaceReport.org. This Hubble Space Telescope image shows the most massive cluster of galaxies ever detected, roughly 3,000 times the mass of our own galaxy. The blue overlay shows the distribution of dark matter, which has to be inferred from the way it bends light coming from more distant galaxies because the dark matter itself is not visible. Credit: NASA, ESA
81 The Space Report 2015 | The Authoritative Guide to Global Space Activity Index of Exhibits Overview 1 EXHIBIT 1. Global Space Activity, 2014 1.0|SpaceProductsandServices 5 EXHIBIT 1a. Topics Covered in Space Products and Services 2.0|TheSpaceEconomy 14 EXHIBIT 2a. Topics Covered in The Space Economy 14 EXHIBIT 2b. The Global Space Economy 14 EXHIBIT 2c. Global Space Activity, 2014 14 EXHIBIT 2d. Revenues for Space Infrastructure, 2014 15 EXHIBIT 2e. Orbital Launch Attempts, 2014 15 EXHIBIT 2f. Launch Services Value by Market, 2012–2014 15 EXHIBIT 2g. Spacecraft Value by Market, 2012–2014 16 EXHIBIT 2h. Spacecraft Value by Manufacturing Country, 2012–2014 16 EXHIBIT 2i. NASA Commercial Crew Funding 18 EXHIBIT 2j. Space Insurance Industry Estimates, 1994–2014 18 EXHIBIT 2k. Revenues for Commercial Space Products and Services, 2014 19 EXHIBIT 2l. North American Direct-to-Home Television Revenue, 2014 21 EXHIBIT 2m. Earth Observation Revenue Estimates, 2007–2013 22 EXHIBIT 2n. Government Space Budgets, 2014 22 EXHIBIT 2o. Government Space Budget Growth, 2012–2014 23 EXHIBIT 2p. U.S. Government Agency Space Budgets, 2014 23 EXHIBIT 2q. NASA Fiscal Year 2016 Budget Request 24 EXHIBIT 2r. Funding for Major U.S. National Security Space Programs, Fiscal Years 2011–2015 26 EXHIBIT 2s. Canadian Space Agency Spending Profile by Program Activity 27 EXHIBIT 2t. Space Spending as a Percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Selected Countries 28 EXHIBIT 2u. European Commission Budget for H2020/Space, 2014–2015 28 EXHIBIT 2v. ESA Member Contributions to 2014 Budget 29 EXHIBIT 2w. ESA’s 2014 Budget by Program and Funding Source 30 EXHIBIT 2x. CNES Planned Spending by Program Area, 2014 33 EXHIBIT 2y. Indian Space Budgets 34 EXHIBIT 2z. Japanese Space Spending by Agency, 2014 36 EXHIBIT 2aa. Republic of Korea Government Agency Work on Satellite Applications, 2014 37 EXHIBIT 2bb. South Korean Government Institutions Working with Satellite Imagery Applications, 2014 38 EXHIBIT 2cc. Space Budgets of Selected Additional Countries, 2014 39 EXHIBIT 2dd. Summary of Global Space Activity Revenues and Budgets, 2012–2014 3.0|SpaceInfrastructure 42 EXHIBIT 3a. Topics Covered in Space Infrastructure 43 EXHIBIT 3b. Number of Launches Attempted and Payload Mass Aboard Attempted Launches, 1983-2014 43 EXHIBIT 3c. Geosynchronous (GSO) and Non-geosynchronous (NGSO) Historical Commercial Launches and Launch Forecast, 2015 44 EXHIBIT 3d. Commercial Satellite and Launch Forecasts, 2016–2024 45 EXHIBIT 3e. U.S. Orbital Launches, 2014 46 EXHIBIT 3f. Russian Orbital Launches, 2014 46 EXHIBIT 3g. Chinese Orbital Launches, 2014 47 EXHIBIT 3h. Other Orbital Launches, 2014 49 EXHIBIT 3i. Spacecraft Mass Delivered by Market, 1995–2014 49 EXHIBIT 3j. Number and Mass of Spacecraft Launched by Market, 2014 50 EXHIBIT 3k. Mass Launched by Intended Orbit, 1995–2014 50 EXHIBIT 3l. Spacecraft Mass Delivered by Manufacturer Country, 1995–2014 51 EXHIBIT 3m. Number and Mass of Spacecraft Launched by Mission, 2014 51 EXHIBIT 3n. Number and Mass of Spacecraft Launched by Prime Manufacturer Country, 2014 51 EXHIBIT 3o. Geosynchronous Communications Capacity Launched Per Year and Per Band, 1995–2014 52 EXHIBIT 3p. Total Available Geosynchronous Communications Capacity Per Year and Per Band, 2000–2014 52 EXHIBIT 3q. Total Available Geosynchronous High Throughput Satellite Capacity per Year and Per Band, 2004–2014 52 EXHIBIT 3r. Civil Government and Commercial Satellite Communications Contracts By Contractor Country, 2000–2014 53 EXHIBIT 3s. Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Systems, December 2014 61 EXHIBIT 3t. Spaceports in Operation or Development, 2014 4.0|Workforce 64 EXHIBIT 4a. Topics Covered in Workforce 64 EXHIBIT 4b. Space Workforce Trends in the United States, Europe, and Japan 65 EXHIBIT 4c. U.S. Space Industry Employment by Sector, 2003, 2008, 2012, and 2013 65 EXHIBIT 4d. U.S. Space Industry Core Employment, 2003–2014 65 EXHIBIT 4e. U.S. Space Industry Employment and U.S. Total Employment, 2003–2014 66 EXHIBIT 4f. U.S. Space Industry Salaries and Real Salary Growth by Sector, 2008–2013 67 EXHIBIT 4g. NASA Civil Servant Workforce, FY 2005–2015 68 EXHIBIT 4h. NASA Civil Servant Workforce Age Profiles Over Time 68 EXHIBIT 4i. NASA Civil Servant Workforce Demographics, Start of FY 2015 69 EXHIBIT 4j. U.S. Air Force Space Workforce, FY 2004–FY 2014 69 EXHIBIT 4k. U.S. Air Force Space Workforce Demographics, FY 2014 71 EXHIBIT 4l. U.S. Space-Related Occupations and Projected Growth Rates 71 EXHIBIT 4m. European Space Industry Employment, 2003–2013 71 EXHIBIT 4n. European Space Industry Employment by Country, 2008–2013 72 EXHIBIT 4o. European Space Workforce Demographics, 2013 72 EXHIBIT 4p. ESA Workforce Demographics, 2014 72 EXHIBIT 4q. Japanese Space Industry Employment, 2003–2013 72 EXHIBIT 4r. Japanese Space Industry Employment by Sector, 2008–2013 72 EXHIBIT 4s. JAXA Workforce, 2004–2014 72 EXHIBIT 4t. JAXA Workforce Demographics, 2014 73 EXHIBIT 4u. Space Agency Employment for Selected Countries, 2014
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