ART AND DESIGN - WJEC Eduqas GCSE in

 
 
GCSE



                          WJEC Eduqas GCSE in
                      ART AND DESIGN
                                           ACCREDITED BY OFQUAL




SPECIFICATION

Teaching from 2016
For award from 2018




Version 2 January 2019




                         This Ofqual regulated qualification is not available for
                         candidates in maintained schools and colleges in Wales.
GCSE ART and DESIGN




         SUMMARY OF AMENDMENTS
Version                                   Description                           Page number

     2             'Making entries' section has been amended to clarify resit       41
                   rules and carry forward of NEA marks.




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GCSE ART and DESIGN 2




WJEC Eduqas GCSE (9-1) in
ART and DESIGN
For teaching from 2016
For award from 2018
                                                     Page

Summary of assessment                                 3

1.        Introduction                                3
          1.1 Aims and objectives                     3
          1.2 Prior learning and progression          5
          1.3 Equality and fair access                5

2.        Subject content                             6
          2.1 Qualification titles                    9
          2.2 Summary of titles                      10
          2.3 Component 1                            13
          2.4 Component 2                            14
          2.5 Titles in detail                       16

3.        Assessment                                 32
          3.1 Assessment objectives and weightings   32
          3.2 Assessment arrangements                33

4.        Technical information                      40
          4.1 Making entries                         40
          4.2 Grading, awarding and reporting        40

Appendices                                           41
A:  Drawing                                          41
B:  Mark schemes                                     43
C:  Indicative content                               47




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GCSE ART and DESIGN 3




                   GCSE ART and DESIGN
                   SUMMARY of ASSESSMENT
    Component 1: Portfolio
    60% of qualification: 120 marks
    •  This component comprises a major practical portfolio and outcome/s to be based on
       internally set themes and subject matter developed from personal and/or given starting
       points.
    • This component will be internally set, internally assessed and externally moderated.
    • Work will be selected, evaluated and presented for assessment by the student.
    • Evidence is required of how the student has met each of the assessment objectives.
    • No time limit: duration to be determined by the centre.
    Component 2: Externally Set Assignment
    40% of qualification: 80 marks
    The Externally Set Assignment consists of two parts:
    Part 1: Preparatory study period
    • Externally Set Assignment materials set by WJEC are to be released to the students no
       earlier than 2 January (in the calendar year in which the assessment is to be taken) and
       will consist of assignments based on themes, visual stimuli and written briefs, which are to
       be presented to the student at the start of the preparatory study period.
    • One of the assignments is to be selected by the student and used as a starting point from
       which to elicit a personal, creative response.
    • Responses are developed during the preparatory study period. They should take the form
       of practical, critical and contextual preparatory work/supporting studies which inform the
       resolution of the student’s ideas in the 10 hours sustained focus study.
    • The start of the preparatory study period is defined as the date upon which the externally
       set assignment materials are presented to the student. The preparatory study period may
       commence on or after 2 January. The preparatory study period finishes upon
       commencement of the sustained focus work.
    • Start and finish dates of the preparatory study period to be determined by the centre,
       taking into account the May deadline for the submission of internally assessed marks to
       WJEC.
    Part 2: 10 hour period of sustained focus work
    • The resolution of the student’s ideas from the preparatory work must be completed during
       the designated 10 hours of sustained focus work.
    • The period of sustained focus work must be completed under supervised conditions.
    • Centres determine the scheduling of the supervised sustained focus sessions, taking into
       account the May deadline for the submission of internally assessed marks to WJEC.
    • Work will be selected, evaluated and presented for assessment by the student.
    • The Externally Set Assignment will be set by WJEC, assessed by the teacher and
       externally moderated.
    • Both the preparatory work and sustained focus work will be assessed together using the
       assessment objectives.

    This linear qualification will be available in the summer series each year. It will be
    awarded for the first time in summer 2018.

                       Qualification Accreditation Number: 601/8087/0




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GCSE ART and DESIGN
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Aims and objectives
          The WJEC Eduqas GCSE in Art and Design is designed to provide engaging, challenging,
          coherent and meaningful learning experiences through a flexible structure that supports the
          sequential and incremental development of creative practice. Our rewarding and immersive
          programme of study broadens experience, develops imagination and technical skills,
          fosters creativity and promotes personal and social development. The focus of the
          specification is to nurture an enthusiasm for Art, Craft and Design and, through a broad
          introductory foundation programme, to develop critical, practical and theoretical skills that
          enable students to gain a holistic understanding of a range of practices and contexts in the
          visual arts, crafts and design fields.

          In developing this specification, following extensive consultation with a variety of
          stakeholders, WJEC has been mindful to include the following features:

          •        opportunities for flexible teaching approaches allowing teachers to make the most of
                   the resources and expertise available at their centres
          •        content which enables teachers to continue with best practice and confidently plan and
                   deliver programmes that work to their strengths and the interests and abilities of their
                   students
          •        breadth of study within a range of titles designed to enable students to develop and
                   demonstrate their knowledge, understanding and skills
          •        discipline-specific guidance, which provides supportive amplification of the specialist
                   processes related to each title within the context of the criteria.

          The DfE GCSE Subject Content sets out the knowledge, understanding and skills common
          to all GCSE specifications in a given subject. Together with the assessment objectives, it
          provides the framework within which WJEC has created the detail of this specification, so
          ensuring progression from Key Stage 3 National Curriculum requirements to AS and/or A
          level.

          In keeping with the regulatory requirements for all GCSE Art and Design specifications, this
          specification encourages students to:

          •        actively engage in the creative process of art, craft and design in order to develop as
                   effective and independent learners, and as critical and reflective thinkers with enquiring
                   minds
          •        develop creative, imaginative and intuitive capabilities when exploring and making
                   images, artefacts and products
          •        become confident in taking risks and learn from experience when exploring and
                   experimenting with ideas, processes, media, materials and techniques
          •        develop critical understanding through investigative, analytical, experimental, practical,
                   technical and expressive skills
          •        develop and refine ideas and proposals, personal outcomes or solutions with increasing
                   independence


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          •        acquire and develop technical skills through working with a broad range of media,
                   materials, techniques, processes and technologies with purpose and intent
          •        develop knowledge and understanding of art, craft and design in historical and
                   contemporary contexts, societies and cultures
          •        develop an awareness of the different roles and individual work practices evident in the
                   production of art, craft and design in the creative and cultural industries
          •        develop an awareness of the purposes, intentions and functions of art, craft and design
                   in a variety of contexts and as appropriate to students’ own work
          •        demonstrate safe working practices in art, craft and design.

          Whichever title or combination of titles is followed, this specification gives opportunities to
          follow a course which encourages creativity, sustained investigation, experimentation,
          design and making as a means of developing technical and expressive skills, extending
          experience and personal response, as well as developing imagination and critical, reflective
          thinking. Thus students will have the opportunity to develop a wide range of essential skills
          required for further and higher education, as well as employment.

          The internally assessed, externally moderated Component 1 ‘Portfolio’ encourages
          adventurous and open programmes of study that promote purposeful exploration,
          experimentation and opportunities for productive personal expression. The internally
          assessed, externally moderated Component 2 ‘Externally Set Assignment’ enables
          students to apply the knowledge, understanding and skills that they have acquired in
          Component 1 by producing an appropriate outcome within a set time frame to demonstrate
          their best achievement.

          This specification is designed to encompass four principal areas for critical, practical and
          theoretical study of art, craft and design. These emphasise the qualities of analytical
          understanding, practical experimentation, researching and individual expression required at
          GCSE level. The assessment objective headings below have been provided to assist
          teachers and students:

          AO1         Critical understanding
          AO2         Creative making
          AO3         Reflective recording
          AO4         Personal presentation.

          Please refer to Section 3 of this specification for full details of these assessment objectives.




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1.2 Prior learning and progression
          There are no previous learning requirements for this specification. Any requirements set for
          entry to a course based on this specification are at the school/college’s discretion.

          This specification builds on subject content which is typically taught at Key Stage 3 and
          provides a suitable foundation for the study of Art and Design at either AS or A level. In
          addition, the specification provides a coherent, satisfying and worthwhile course of study
          for students who do not progress to further study in this subject.


1.3 Equality and fair access
          This specification may be followed by any student, irrespective of gender, ethnic, religious
          or cultural background. It has been designed to avoid, where possible, features that could,
          without justification, make it more difficult for a student to achieve because they have a
          particular protected characteristic.

          The protected characteristics under the Equality Act 2010 are age, disability, gender
          reassignment, pregnancy and maternity, race, religion or belief, sex and sexual orientation.

          The specification has been discussed with groups who represent the interests of a diverse
          range of learners, and the specification will be kept under review.

          Reasonable adjustments are made for certain learners in order to enable them to access
          the assessments (e.g. candidates are allowed access to a Sign Language Interpreter,
          using British Sign Language). Information on reasonable adjustments is found in the
          following document from the Joint Council for Qualifications (JCQ): Access Arrangements,
          Reasonable Adjustments and Special Consideration: General and Vocational
          Qualifications.

          This document is available on the JCQ website (www.jcq.org.uk). As a consequence of
          provision for reasonable adjustments, very few learners will have a complete barrier to any
          part of the assessment.




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2         SUBJECT CONTENT
          Introduction
          The WJEC Eduqas GCSE Art and Design is conceived as a two year linear qualification. It
          consists of two components: Component 1, the Portfolio (60% of qualification, internally
          assessed, externally moderated) and Component 2, the Externally Set Assignment (40% of
          qualification, internally assessed, externally moderated).
          This specification provides the flexibility and capacity to build and extend the breadth and depth
          of students’ creative practice and offers the choice of a broad-based general course, plus six
          distinct title options with no prohibited entry combinations.
          In keeping with the regulatory requirements for all GCSE Art and Design specifications, the
          WJEC Eduqas specification requires students to learn through practical experience and
          demonstrate knowledge and understanding of sources that inform their creative intentions.
          Intentions should be realised through purposeful engagement with visual language, visual
          concepts, media, materials and the application of appropriate techniques and working
          methods. Practical and theoretical activities should be complementary.
          Students are required to develop and apply relevant subject-specific skills in order to use visual
          language to communicate personal ideas, meanings and responses. They must, over time,
          reflect critically upon their creative journey and its effectiveness in relation to the realisation of
          their personal intentions. Their extended responses should be of sufficient length to allow
          them to demonstrate their ability to develop a sustained line of reasoning which is relevant,
          well evidenced and coherent, drawing together different areas of knowledge, skills and
          understanding from across the course.

          Students can work entirely in digital media or entirely in non-digital media, or in a mixture of
          both, provided the aims and assessment objectives are met.
          Component 1, the Portfolio, provides opportunities for students to explore and cultivate
          important skills, knowledge and understanding through a variety of experiences. These may
          include using resources (such as the local environment, gallery visits, workshops or other
          sources) to carry out focused research which supports purposeful developments. During the
          course, students should be encouraged to experiment, collaborate, make informed creative
          decisions and innovate. Careful consideration of the selection and presentation of their work
          should also be encouraged. The primary purpose of this course is to develop a confident
          approach that will support students’ creative journeys in the latter part of Component 1 and
          throughout Component 2 and beyond.
          In alignment with the requirements of the DfE Subject Content for Art and Design, there is also
          an emphasis on the value of drawing skills in this specification. All GCSE Art and Design
          specifications require students to ‘use drawing skills for different needs and purposes,
          appropriate to the context’. However, it is important that the context of this requirement is
          recognised. The following excerpt of the DfE subject content provides helpful clarification and
          reassurance for teachers and students:
          All students must use drawing to support the development process within each chosen area of
          study. Students are not required to demonstrate technical mastery of drawing skills unless this
          is relevant to their area of study.




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          Thus ‘technical mastery’ does not necessarily entail accurate, highly skilful observational
          drawing. Rather it highlights the need for students to develop competence in forms of drawing
          that are appropriate to the discipline/title which they are studying. This focus should encourage
          students to appreciate the significance of drawing in the widest sense, by recognising and
          reviewing how it informs the creative process.
          (For further explanation of this requirement and more guidance and information on the
          definitions and purposes of drawing, refer to Appendix A of this specification.)

          Knowledge and understanding

          This specification requires students to demonstrate the knowledge and understanding
          listed below through the practical application of skills to realise personal intentions relevant
          to their chosen title(s) and related area(s) of study. Students are required to know and
          understand how sources inspire the development of ideas, for example, drawing on:

          •        the work and approaches of artists, craftspeople or designers from contemporary
                   and/or historical contexts, periods, societies and cultures
          •        contemporary and/or historical environments, situations or issues
          •        other relevant sources researched by the student in the chosen qualification title and
                   area(s) of study
          •        the ways in which meanings, ideas and intentions can be communicated through visual
                   and tactile language, using formal elements, including colour, line, form, tone and
                   texture
          •        the characteristics, properties and effects of using different media, materials,
                   techniques and processes, and the ways in which they can be used in relation to
                   students’ own creative intentions and chosen area(s) of study
          •        the different purposes, intentions and functions of art, craft and design in a variety of
                   contexts and as appropriate to students’ own work.

          In this specification, visual language is defined as including formal elements, media,
          materials, tools, processes and technology, as well as the various methods of
          communication other than visual, such as tactile and sensory.

          The formal elements of art, craft and design are generally listed as aspects of colour, line,
          tone, texture and shape or form. However, this is far from being an exclusive list. Other
          formal qualities can offer inspiration and valuable approaches to the development of ideas.
          Examples include transparency, opacity, key, space, plasticity, energy, tension, time, scale,
          movement, contrast, rhythm, and pattern.

          Skills

          This specification requires students to demonstrate the ability to:

          •        develop their ideas through investigations informed by selecting and critically analysing
                   sources
          •        apply an understanding of relevant practices in the creative and cultural industries to
                   their work
          •        refine their ideas as work progresses through experimenting with media, materials,
                   techniques and processes
          •        record their ideas, observations, insights and independent judgements, visually and
                   through written annotation, using appropriate specialist vocabulary, as work progresses
          •        use visual language critically as appropriate to their own creative intentions and chosen
                   area(s) of study through effective and safe use of: media, materials, techniques,
                   processes and technologies

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          •        use drawing skills for different needs and purposes, appropriate to the context, for
                   example, using drawing as part of the development process within each chosen area of
                   study
          •        realise personal intentions through the sustained application of the creative process.

          Students following GCSE Art and Design specifications must use drawing to support the
          development process within each chosen area of study. Students are not required to
          demonstrate technical mastery of drawing skills unless this is relevant to their area of
          study. (See Appendix A, Drawing, for a full explanation of this requirement.)

          Written work

          It should be noted that there is a requirement for students to record their ideas,
          observations, insights and independent judgements, not only in visual terms but also
          through written annotation. Students may also wish to provide more substantial statements
          in support of their working processes. The context and form of such writing will be
          determined by what the student wishes to communicate or express. For example, more
          extended forms of writing may be employed when students write about their encounters
          with the work of others or explain and reflect upon the development of their ideas in their
          Creative Statements. Whether students are using annotation and/or more extended
          formats they should use a style of writing which is suitable for purpose, is legible, clear and
          coherent, and utilises appropriate specialist vocabulary. Written work may be presented in
          either hand written and/or digital form.

          Students may use annotation or more extended forms of writing to show how they have
          met any one, or any combination, of the assessment objectives. In AO1, it is expected that
          written work will demonstrate critical and contextual understanding. In AO2, for example,
          written commentary may be used to consider the relationships between practical working
          methods and outcomes, as well as demonstrating ongoing critical review. In AO3, students
          may use written notes, in conjunction with drawing, as a means of recording observations
          and demonstrating critical reflection and insight into their investigations. In AO4, for
          example, students may use annotation to add meaning to their work and to evaluate their
          working processes.

          Throughout the course students should be encouraged to appreciate the value of
          annotation and understand how, when allied to practical investigation, it can form an
          integral feature of the creative process. Both written and practical responses should be
          purposefully integrated, should complement each other, and will be assessed holistically.




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2.1 Qualification Titles
          This specification requires students to develop and apply the knowledge, understanding
          and skills (set out in the introduction to Section 2) in ways relevant to the recognised
          progression routes for the subject. To ensure transparency for end users, separate GCSE
          Art and Design qualification titles must be used which correspond to these routes.

          This GCSE specification in Art and Design offers a choice of seven titles. Each title offers
          a further choice of areas of study but work need not be limited to a single one of these. The
          Portfolio and Externally Set Assignment may include aspects of any of the areas of study
          separately or in combination.

          Each of the following titles is recognised as a distinct GCSE qualification:

          Art and Design (Art, Craft and Design)

          Art and Design (Fine Art)

          Art and Design (Graphic Communication)

          Art and Design (Textile Design)

          Art and Design (Three-Dimensional Design)

          Art and Design (Photography)

          Art and Design (Critical and Contextual Studies).

          Each title is summarised in Section 2.2 and clarified further in Section 2.5.
          The indicative content in Appendix C provides guidance to teachers and students on the
          kinds of evidence required to fulfil each assessment objective in the context of each title.




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2.2 Summary of Titles
Art and Design (Art, Craft and Design)

This title is designed to promote learning across a variety of experiences and through
various processes, tools, techniques, materials and resources to generate different kinds of
evidence of working and outcomes. The emphasis is on an increased breadth of approach
commensurate in demand with the depth of other specialist titles. It is emphasised that the
title ‘Art, craft and design’ is not the same as the title ‘Fine Art’.

This title offers flexibility in content and approach and the opportunity to explore and create
work associated with areas of study from at least two titles listed below.

Students undertaking the art, craft and design title are required to demonstrate the
knowledge, skills and understanding set out in the introduction to Section 2. Students are
required to demonstrate the ability to realise creative intentions relevant to areas of study
drawn from at least two of the following titles:

     •    Fine art
     •    Graphic communication
     •    Textile design
     •    Three-dimensional design
     •    Photography
     •    Critical and contextual studies.

Students may explore overlapping areas and/or combinations of disciplines within any of the
above titles.



Art and Design (Fine Art)

This title is defined as that aspect of art, craft and design where work is developed primarily
for aesthetic, intellectual or purely conceptual purposes rather than for purposes that have a
necessarily practical function.

Students undertaking the fine art title are required to demonstrate the knowledge, skills and
understanding set out in the introduction to Section 2 through areas of study relevant to
their chosen title. Areas of study include:

     •    Drawing
     •    Installation
     •    Lens and light-based media
     •    Mixed media
     •    Land art
     •    Printing
     •    Painting
     •    Sculpture.

Work is not limited to one area of study.




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Art and Design (Graphic Communication)

This title is defined as the process of creating primarily visual material to convey
information, ideas and emotions through the use of graphic elements such as colour, icons,
images, typography and photographs.

Students undertaking the graphic communication title are required to demonstrate the
knowledge, skills and understanding set out in the introduction to Section 2 through areas of
study relevant to their chosen title. Areas of study include:

          •        Advertising
          •        Communication graphics
          •        Design for print
          •        Illustration
          •        Interactive design (including web, app and game)
          •        Multi-media
          •        Package design
          •        Signage
          •        Typography.

Work is not limited to one area of study.




Art and Design (Textile Design)

This title is defined as the creation of designs and products for woven, knitted, stitched or
printed fabrics and involves an understanding of fibres, yarns and fabrics.

Students undertaking the textile design title are required to demonstrate the knowledge,
skills and understanding set out in the introduction to Section 2 through areas of study
relevant to their chosen title. Areas of study include:

     •    Constructed textiles
     •    Digital textiles
     •    Dyed fabrics
     •    Printed fabrics
     •    Fashion design
     •    Installed textiles
     •    Soft furnishings
     •    Stitched and/or embellished textiles.

Work is not limited to one area of study.




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Art and Design (Three-Dimensional Design)

This title is defined as the design, prototyping and modelling or making of primarily functional
and aesthetic consumer products, objects, and environments.

Students undertaking the three-dimensional design title are required to demonstrate the
knowledge, skills and understanding set out in the introduction to Section 2 through areas of
study relevant to their chosen title. Areas of study include:

     •    Architectural design
     •    Interior design
     •    Product design
     •    Exhibition design
     •    Environmental/landscape design
     •    Sculpture
     •    Design for theatre, film and television
     •    Jewellery and body adornment
     •    Ceramics.

Work is not limited to one area of study.



Art and Design (Photography)

This title is defined as the practice of creating durable static or moving images by recording
light with light-sensitive materials such as photographic film or digitally by means of an image
sensor.

Students undertaking the photography title are required to demonstrate the knowledge, skills
and understanding set out in the introduction to Section 2 through areas of study relevant to
their chosen title. Areas of study include:

     •    Documentary photography
     •    Photo-journalism
     •    Studio photography
     •    Location photography
     •    Experimental imagery
     •    Installation
     •    Moving image: film, video and animation.

Work is not limited to one area of study.




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Art and Design (Critical and Contextual studies)

This title is defined as the critical analysis, interpretation and reflective appraisal from a
contemporary perspective of the work of artists, craftspeople and designers.

Students undertaking the critical and contextual studies title are required to demonstrate the
knowledge, skills and understanding set out in the introduction to Section 2 through areas of
study relevant to their chosen title. Areas of study include:

     •    Artists, craftspeople and designers
     •    Genres
     •    Movements
     •    Themes, concepts and ideas in art, craft and design
     •    Contemporary art, craft and design
     •    Popular culture
     •    The human form
     •    Still life
     •    Designed objects
     •    Landscape
     •    Natural forms.

Work is not limited to one area of study and can cover any or all of Art and/or Craft and/or
Design (refer to Section 2.5).




2.3 Component 1
          Portfolio
          This component consists of a major practical project/theme-based portfolio and outcome/s
          with integrated critical and contextual analysis. Assignments, briefs or themes undertaken
          are to be determined by the student and teacher.

          This component is designed to enable students to effectively develop an introductory
          foundation of core skills and encourage engagement with exciting creative experiences
          which build fundamental learning, knowledge, contextualisation skills and critical thinking.
          The time available for this component also provides opportunities to focus on the
          acquisition of valuable skills (which include experimentation, risk-taking, drawing, the
          application of the formal elements and the ability to analyse and synthesise information and
          ideas) as well as to develop and refine techniques.

          The introductory aspects of the course will culminate in a practical project/portfolio, in
          which students should develop, in consultation with their teacher, a body of work based on
          a theme, concept or specific design brief which is of personal significance and links to the
          contexts of contemporary and/or past artists, designers or craftspeople.

          The Portfolio is internally assessed and externally moderated (centres must ensure that
          marks are submitted to WJEC by the May deadline). Work produced for this component will
          be assessed in relation to all four assessment objectives.




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2.4 Component 2
          Externally Set Assignment
          This component represents the culmination of students' GCSE study and provides both
          focus and challenge. Students are required to develop a personal response to one of a
          varied range of stimuli within specified time constraints. Students must therefore bring
          together the best of their understanding, knowledge and skills built up over their course of
          study and demonstrate their highest achievement through this externally set assignment.

          The Externally Set Assignment materials consist of a series of assignments based on
          themes, visual stimuli and written briefs set by WJEC. Students are required to select one
          of the set assignments and develop it in the form of:

          •        a personal response
          •        a specific design brief
          •        or another suitable approach.

          Students will develop their response over a preparatory period (the duration of which is to
          be determined by the centre). Responses must take the form of critical, practical and
          contextual preparatory work and/or supporting studies, which will inform the resolution of
          these ideas in a sustained focus study.

          Following the preparatory study period, students will be allocated a period of 10 hours
          sustained focus study to realise their response unaided and under supervised conditions.
          Once the 10 hour sustained focus period has commenced, students must not have access
          outside the sustained focus period session either to their preparatory study and research
          work or to work produced during the sustained focus period. At the end of each sustained
          focus session all candidates’ Component 2 work must be stored securely by the centre to
          ensure that no additional work is brought in or taken out of the designated workplace.

          At the conclusion of their preparatory study and sustained focus periods of work, students
          will be required to select, evaluate and present their submissions for assessment. Work
          completed during the sustained focus period must be clearly identified. In addition,
          students must ensure that all secondary source material is appropriately acknowledged. If
          work is included in the submission which is not entirely that of the student, such as quotes
          and images produced by others, it is essential that each of these is specifically identified
          and acknowledged.

          Students are assessed on their ability to work independently, within specific time
          constraints and in relation to all four assessment objectives. Both the preparatory study
          and sustained focus work are assessed together. (See Section 3.2 for conditions relating
          to the Externally Set Assignment.)




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          The supervised sustained focus period

          •        The Externally Set Assignment materials set by WJEC are to be released to students
                   on or after 2 January in the calendar year in which the assessment is to be taken.
          •        The start of the preparatory study period is defined as the date upon which the
                   Externally Set Assignment materials are presented to the student. The preparatory
                   study period may commence on or after 2 January. The preparatory study period
                   finishes upon commencement of the sustained focus work.
          •        The start and finish dates of the preparatory study period and the 10 hour sustained
                   focus study are determined by the centre but will need to take into account the May
                   deadline for the submission of marks to WJEC.
          •        Work is internally assessed and externally moderated.




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2.5 Titles in Detail
            Introduction

            The following subject content for titles within the specification is indicative and is designed
            to offer teachers and students choice and provide helpful details showing the possible
            breadth and diversity within art and design disciplines. Further discussion of titles and
            related areas of study will be provided within the WJEC GCSE Teachers’ Guide. Centres
            should ensure that students have access to an appropriate range of specialist resources
            relating to the titles they have selected before embarking on such courses. All titles allow
            students to work solely with digital media within any title provided the aims and assessment
            objectives are met. Within each title, students’ work should integrate practical and
            critical/contextual work.

            Knowledge, skills and understanding
            All the following titles require students to demonstrate the knowledge, skills and
            understanding set out in the introduction to Section 2, through the areas of study relevant
            to their chosen title.


  Art and Design (Art, Craft and Design)
  This title offers a broad-based course designed to promote learning across a variety of
  experiences. Art, Craft and Design can involve use of an almost limitless range of techniques,
  processes and materials, including those that are recyclable. A wide range of processes, tools,
  techniques, materials and resources may be employed to create artefacts and to generate
  diverse evidence of working methods and outcomes.

  The emphasis is on an increased breadth of approach commensurate in demand with the
  depth of learning required in the more specialised titles. Art, Craft and Design can be
  distinguished from other titles in as much as students are able to explore personal interests
  and demonstrate their abilities across a particularly broad course of study.

  Students must also explore practical and relevant critical and contextual sources such as the
  work of historical and contemporary artists, craftspeople and designers as well as the different
  purposes, intentions and functions of art, craft and design as appropriate to their own work.

  Art, Craft and Design offers flexibility in content and approach and students undertaking this
  option must explore and create work associated with at least two of the titles listed below:

        •    Fine Art
        •    Graphic Communication
        •    Textile Design
        •    Three-dimensional Design
        •    Photography
        •    Critical and Contextual Studies.




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GCSE ART and DESIGN 18


Art, Craft and Design: terms and definitions

The following broad, working definitions of ‘art’, ‘craft’ and ‘design’ are provided in the interests of
clarity although it should be understood that precise demarcations between these activities are
impossible; these fields are often interdependent and interrelated.

Art

Art combines practical and intellectual activity and tends to focus on creative expression.
Processes and outcomes are influenced by certain constraints or intentions, many of which are
personally determined by the artist. Processes can be structured or open-ended and might involve
exploration of experiences, feelings, perceptions and observations that may include direct, critical
and analytical study of artefacts, objects, places and people. They may be initiated by the
individual or in response to given stimuli, such as a theme, issue, or problem. Outcomes can
reflect the individual’s imagination, influences and intentions in following an idea, conveying an
experience or expressing feelings, often with the purpose of engaging those who will see the work.

Craft

Craft combines practical and intellectual skills and focuses on creatively using them to sensitively
and intelligently manipulate materials, tools and processes. It involves applying knowledge and
understanding of materials and their working characteristics, together with specific craft skills and
creative intentions that take account of the needs of both the maker and the user of the final
outcome. Although students need to have a working knowledge and appreciation of traditional
materials, tools and processes, they should also be familiar with the use of new and emerging
materials and technologies in contemporary craftwork. It is essential for appropriate emphasis to
be placed not just on manual skills but also on creative ideas and imaginative approaches to the
use of materials and processes.

Design

Design places emphasis on the way practical and intellectual activity combine in order to respond
to the wants and needs of people. The designer may generate design briefs alone or at the behest
of a client. This tends to distinguish design from art and craft procedures that have largely been
initiated by the individual artist or craftsperson. The designer tends to work within externally set
parameters and takes account of such matters as the use that is to be made of the outcome in
terms of durability, ergonomics, aesthetic appearance, costs, and the availability of materials,
ethical considerations and methods of production. Processes and outcomes can range from the
quirky, imaginative and risky to the thoughtful adaptation of existing designs – design is often an
incremental process of continuing small improvements. An understanding of the importance of the
relationship between form and function is essential.

In Component 1, the Portfolio, students opting for Art, Craft and Design should explore both
practical and critical and contextual work. The work selected for portfolios must include examples
of two-dimensional and/or three-dimensional processes and media associated with areas of study
from more than one specialist title. It is recommended that the detailed descriptions of the
specialist titles that follow should be reviewed to inform the range of possible areas of study.

In Component 2, the Externally Set Assignment, students can choose to produce preparatory
studies and work in the sustained period of focused study that reflects one or more of the
specialist titles.




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GCSE ART and DESIGN 19


All work submitted for both Components 1 and 2 will be assessed holistically in relation to the four
assessment objectives, taking account of the breadth and depth of the evidence presented.

Students undertaking this title must explore selected practical and contextual areas of art, craft
and design through a range of two and/or three dimensional media and processes. Art, craft and
design can involve the use of an almost limitless range of techniques, processes and materials,
including those that are recyclable, but due regard should be given to achieving reasonable depth
as well as breadth of learning experiences.

In order to provide sufficient opportunities for research into art, craft and design practice, students
can explore practitioners working in occupations associated with the specialist titles, Fine Art,
Graphic Communication, Textile Design, Three-dimensional Design or Photography and areas of
study related to these.

As part of their studies for Art, craft and design students should aim to present clear
evidence of addressing the assessment objectives, as in the following examples.

AO1
  •       Develop ideas that are informed by investigative, contextual and cultural studies of
          historical and contemporary art, craft and design and other sources relevant to their
          selected areas of study in their own and other societies.
     •    Explore a wide variety of work produced by artists, craftspeople and designers and the
          differences in their methods, approaches, purposes and intentions.
     •    Provide evidence of analytical skills and critical and contextual understanding by
          appraising, comparing and contrasting the work of relevant artists, craftspeople and
          designers and other historical and contextual sources, using this evidence to inform their
          own work.
     •    Increase awareness of the wide variety of art, craft and design processes and outcomes
          and the differences between them, including the more utilitarian applications of art, craft
          and design forms.

AO2
  •       Refine and reflect upon work as it progresses by exploring ideas, selecting and
          experimenting with appropriate media, materials, techniques and processes. Exercise
          skilful and safe application of these to maximise creative potential and produce quality
          outcomes.
     •    Explore a stimulating and rich variety of resources to initiate and develop innovative ideas.
          Pay due regard to line, tone, colour, shape, texture and other visual elements and, where
          appropriate, use drawing to explore and communicate ideas.
     •    Provide evidence of appropriate depth and breadth of study and employ sensitive control,
          for example, in refining detail in the design and production of ceramic pieces, or in using
          tone or colour accurately, or establishing relationships between typography and images.
     •    Show discrimination in reviewing ideas as work develops. Establish a clear working
          relationship between working methods and outcomes by documenting significant steps so
          that final outcomes do not emerge without evidence of the creative process.




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GCSE ART and DESIGN 20



AO3
  •       Gather, select, organise and communicate information that is relevant to their personal
          interests as a consequence of careful research and analysis of a rich variety of resources.
     •    Record ideas, first-hand observations, insights and judgments by any suitable means,
          especially drawing, including for example, line, colour, tonal and textural studies,
          photographs and annotation in sketchbooks, study sheets and/or on tablets or other
          means, to support personal intentions.
     •    Critically reflect on work as it progresses in order to review what has been learned, acquire
          deeper understanding and clarify purposes and meanings.
     •    Consider opportunities, where appropriate, to transfer knowledge, skills and understanding
          to new contexts. For example, by adapting a small-scale ceramic form to a design for land
          art.

AO4
  •       Present personal, imaginative final outcomes that, together with selective evidence of
          thinking and production processes, effectively realise the student’s stated intentions and
          demonstrate critical understanding of visual, tactile and, where appropriate, other forms of
          communication.
     •    Make explicit connections, where appropriate, between the different elements of the
          submission, including contextual, practical and written responses, presenting work that is
          meaningful, well-informed and in a sequence that can be easily followed.
     •    Consider different presentational formats and select the most appropriate for the
          submission. Due regard should be given to the purpose of the work and how it might
          engage the interest of an audience. For example, visuals and text can be used to show
          how an initial idea for a fine art piece could be developed into a poster for a music festival.




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GCSE ART and DESIGN 21



Art and Design (Fine Art)
Possible areas of study include:

     •       Drawing
     •       Installation
     •       Lens and light-based media
     •       Mixed media
     •       Land art
     •       Printing
     •       Painting
     •       Sculpture.
     Work is not limited to one area of study.


Fine art is defined here as that aspect of art, craft and design where work is developed primarily
for aesthetic, intellectual or conceptual purposes rather than considerations that are principally
functional and utilitarian.
Students undertaking this title must explore practical and relevant critical and contextual sources
such as the work of historical and contemporary fine artists and the different purposes, intentions
and functions of fine art as appropriate to their own work. They should demonstrate the ability to
work creatively with processes and techniques appropriate to their chosen area study such as:
painting (various media); drawing (various media); printing (e.g. screen printing; etching; aquatint;
lithography; block printing; stencils; carving; modelling; constructing; mosaic; mobiles;
environmental art; graffito; kinetic media; light-based media; digital media; mixed media. This is a
broad and developing area of study that also includes performance and conceptual art, as well as
aspects of printmaking, photography and film.
Fine art offers a choice of traditional, digital media and processes and involves expressive use of
a particularly wide range of materials, techniques and skills, including those that are recyclable.
In order to provide sufficient opportunities for research into contemporary fine art practice,
students can explore practitioners working in such areas as film, publishing, arts administration,
museums and galleries, community arts and teaching and all occupations associated with this
title.

As part of their studies for Fine art students should aim to present clear evidence of
addressing the assessment objectives, as in the following examples.

AO1
         •    Develop ideas that are informed by investigative, contextual and cultural studies of
              historical and contemporary fine art and other sources such as architecture, music,
              dance, drama, production design and published media and the place of fine art within
              these in their own and other societies.
         •    Explore a wide variety of work produced by fine artists and understand the differences
              in their methods, approaches, purposes and intentions.
         •    Provide evidence of analytical skills and critical and contextual understanding by
              appraising, comparing and contrasting the work of relevant fine artists and other
              historical and contextual sources and use this to inform their own work.
         •    Increase awareness of the wide variety of fine art processes and outcomes and the
              differences between fine art sculpture, ceramics, printmaking and photography and the
              more utilitarian application of these art, craft and design forms.




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GCSE ART and DESIGN 22



  AO2
   • Refine and reflect upon work as it progresses by exploring ideas, selecting and
      experimenting with appropriate breadth of fine art media, techniques and processes,
      singly and in combination. Exercise skilful and safe application of these to maximise
      creative potential and produce quality outcomes.
   • Explore a stimulating and rich variety of resources to initiate and develop innovative ideas
      Pay due regard to line, tone, colour, shape, texture and other visual elements to explore
      and communicate ideas.
   • Provide evidence of appropriate depth and breadth of study of fine art practices, including
      drawing as an end in itself. Employ sensitive control, for example, in refining detail or in
      using accurate or exaggerated colour and tone.
   • Show discrimination in reviewing ideas as work develops. Establish a clear working
      relationship between working methods and outcomes by documenting significant steps so
      that final outcomes do not emerge without evidence of the creative process.

  AO3
   • Gather, select, organise and communicate information that is relevant to their personal
      interests as a consequence of careful research and analysis of a rich variety of resources.
   • Record ideas, first-hand observations, insights and judgments by any suitable means,
      especially drawing, and including, for example, line, colour, tonal and textural studies,
      photographs and annotation in sketchbooks, study sheets and/or on tablets or other
      means, to support personal intentions.
   • Critically reflect on work as it progresses in order to review what has been learned,
      acquire deeper understanding and clarify purposes and meanings.

  AO4
   • Present personal, imaginative final outcomes that, together with selective evidence of
      thinking and production processes, effectively realise the student’s stated intentions and
      demonstrate critical understanding of visual, tactile and, where appropriate, other forms of
      communication.
   • Make explicit connections, where appropriate, between the different elements of the
      submission, including contextual, practical and written responses, presenting work that is
      meaningful, well-informed and in a sequence that can be easily followed and results in
      quality outcomes.
   • Consider different presentational formats and select the most appropriate for the
      submission. Due regard should be given to the purpose of the work and how it might
      engage the interest of an audience. For example, preliminary drawings, photographs and
      notes can be used to show how a sequence of images of a flower from bud stage to final
      decay might be developed into a painted triptych.




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GCSE ART and DESIGN 23


Art and Design (Graphic Communication)
Possible areas of study include:

     •    Advertising
     •    Communication graphics
     •    Design for print
     •    Illustration
     •    Interactive design (including web, app and game)
     •    Multi-media
     •    Package design
     •    Signage
     •    Typography.

     Work is not limited to one area of study.


Graphic Communication is defined here as the process of creating primarily visual material to
convey information, ideas and emotions through the use of graphic elements such as symbols,
diagrams, drawings, photographs, maps and typography. This option encompasses a wide and
developing area of study, incorporating a variety of related disciplines and utilising traditional
skills, such as calligraphy and hand-formed lettering, alongside cutting-edge digital technologies.
Boundaries between related graphic processes are becoming increasingly blurred. The following
indicate what might be covered within this title: computer aided design; web design, apps and
games; letterforms; typography; drawing; technical and book illustration; design for print; TV
idents, film title sequences, photography and package design.

Students undertaking this title must explore practical and relevant critical and contextual sources,
such as the work of historical and contemporary graphic designers and the different purposes,
intentions and functions of graphic communication as appropriate to their own work. They should
demonstrate the ability to work creatively with processes and techniques appropriate to their
chosen area. Outcomes may be two- or three-dimensional or time-based, taking the form of
posters, brochures, flyers, T-shirts, CD/DVD sleeves, book covers, magazine spreads, calendars,
stamps, packaging, publicity materials, vehicle livery, billboards, advertising, logos, branding,
corporate identity, audio-visual (e.g. time-based and animated graphics), three-dimensional point-
of-sale and exhibition design.

Designers often combine images and letterform/type to communicate a client’s message to an
audience and explore the creative possibilities presented by combining words and images. It is
the task of the designer not only to find or create appropriate letterforms and images but also to
establish the best balance between them.

In order to provide sufficient opportunities for research into contemporary practice, students can
explore practitioners working in such areas as general illustration, typography, corporate identity
and branding consultancy, information graphics, computer-generated imagery, 2D animation, 3D
modelling, design for learning, print technology, web design, television, video and computer
games.




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GCSE ART and DESIGN 24


As part of their studies for Graphic communication students should aim to present clear
evidence of addressing the assessment objectives, as in the following examples.

AO1
  •          Develop ideas that are informed by investigative, contextual and cultural studies of historical
             and contemporary graphic design and other sources relevant to their selected area of study
             in their own and other societies.
     •       Explore a wide variety of work produced by graphic communicators and understand the
             differences in their methods, approaches, purposes and intentions such as ethical
             considerations, marketing strategies, promotional campaigning, and design for print and the
             web.
     •       Provide evidence of analytical skills and critical and contextual understanding by appraising,
             comparing and contrasting the work of relevant graphic communicators and other historical
             and contextual sources, using this to inform their own work.
     •       Increase awareness of the wide variety of graphic communication processes and outcomes
             and the differences between these.
AO2
  •          Refine and reflect upon work as it progresses by exploring ideas, selecting and
             experimenting with appropriate breadth of graphic communication approaches and
             processes, including the purposeful manipulation of digital software. Exercise skilful and safe
             application of these to maximise creative potential and produce quality outcomes.
     •       Explore a stimulating and rich variety of resources to initiate and develop innovative ideas.
             Pay due regard to line, tone, colour, shape, texture and other visual elements to explore and
             communicate ideas.
     •       Provide evidence of appropriate depth and breadth of study of graphic communication
             practices, including drawing as a means to explore and communicate ideas. Employ sensitive
             control, for example in refining detail, such as selection of fonts, relationship of typography to
             images and recognising suitable reprographic processes.
     •       Show discrimination in reviewing ideas as work develops. Establish a clear working
             relationship between working methods and outcomes by documenting significant steps so
             that final outcomes do not emerge without evidence of the creative process.
  AO3
    •         Gather, select, organise and communicate information that is relevant to their personal
              interests as a consequence of careful research and analysis of a stimulating and rich
              variety of resources.
         •    Record ideas, first-hand observations, insights and judgments by any suitable means, such
              as layout drawings, thumbnail sketches, storyboards and written notes that are relevant to
              and support personal intentions.
         •    Critically reflect on work as it progresses in order to review what has been learned, acquire
              deeper understanding and clarify purposes and meanings.

  AO4
    •         Present personal, imaginative final outcomes, together with selective evidence of thinking
              and production processes, that effectively realise the student’s stated intentions, fulfil any
              design brief and demonstrate critical understanding of visual and, where appropriate, other
              forms of communication.
         •    Make explicit connections, where appropriate, between the different elements of the
              submission, including contextual, practical and written responses, presenting work that is
              meaningful, well-informed and in a sequence that can be easily followed and results in
              quality outcomes.
         •    Consider different presentational formats and select the most appropriate for the
              submission. Due regard should be given to the purpose of the work and how it might
              engage the interest of an audience or potential clients. For example, alternative ideas might
              be presented using PowerPoint to show possible layouts, colourways and typefaces as well
              as how large-scale work such as billboards might look in location.

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GCSE ART and DESIGN 25



    Art and Design (Textile Design)
    Possible areas of study include:

         •     Constructed textiles
         •     Digital textiles
         •     Dyed fabrics
         •     Printed fabrics
         •     Fashion design
         •     Installed textiles
         •     Soft furnishings
         •     Stitched and/or embellished textiles.
    Work is not limited to one area of study.


  Textile Design is defined here as the creation of designs and products for woven, knitted, stitched
  or printed fabrics and involves an understanding of fibres, yarns and fabrics.

  Students undertaking this title must explore practical and relevant critical and contextual sources
  such as the work of historical and contemporary textile designers and makers, as well as the
  different purposes, intentions and functions of textile design as appropriate to their own work. There
  are close links between constructed, embellished, printed, sewn and dyed methods of textile design
  and with fashion design and installed textiles. Interdisciplinary opportunities might be explored as
  well as developing a specialisation in one area. Students should demonstrate the ability to work
  creatively with processes and techniques appropriate to the chosen areas of study such as:
  weaving, surface printing (block, screen or digital), pattern making, pattern cutting, embroidery
  (machine or hand), knitting, batik, soft sculpture, appliqué and collage.

  Textile Design encompasses a very broad range of materials, techniques and processes, including
  recyclable materials and a growing number of interdisciplinary approaches. The range is increasing
  as new materials and technologies emerge, for example, in the field of ‘intelligent textiles’.

  In order to provide sufficient opportunities for research into contemporary practice, students can
  explore practitioners working in occupations such as a textile designer, textile buyer, fashion
  designer, fashion forecaster, knitwear designer, milliner, fashion journalist, colour consultant,
  theatrical costume designer, fashion illustrator, pattern-cutter and designer-maker.

As part of their studies for Textile design students should aim to present clear evidence of
addressing the assessment objectives, as in the following examples.

AO1
  •       Develop ideas that are informed by investigative, contextual and cultural studies of historical
          and contemporary textile design in their own and other societies and other sources, for
          example fine art and crafts such as jewellery.
     •    Explore a wide variety of work produced by textile designers and understand the differences in
          their methods, approaches, purposes and intentions, such as ethical, cultural, aesthetic and
          utilitarian considerations.
     •    Provide evidence of analytical skills and critical and contextual understanding by appraising,
          comparing and contrasting the work of relevant textile designers and other historical and
          contextual sources, using this to inform their own work.
     •    Increase awareness of the wide variety of textile design processes and outcomes and the
          differences between these, including relationships between functional, aesthetic, stylistic and
          technological considerations and how these are applied and adapted to meet particular needs.


© WJEC CBAC Ltd.
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