GOVERNMENT OF BOTSWANA AND UNITED NATIONS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK (UNSDF) 2017 2021 - UNDP

 
GOVERNMENT OF BOTSWANA AND UNITED NATIONS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK (UNSDF) 2017 2021 - UNDP
UNSDF 2017 - 2021

GOVERNMENT OF BOTSWANA AND
 UNITED NATIONS SUSTAINABLE
  DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK
       (UNSDF) 2017 - 2021
GOVERNMENT OF BOTSWANA AND UNITED NATIONS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK (UNSDF) 2017 2021 - UNDP
UNSDF 2017 - 2021
GOVERNMENT OF BOTSWANA AND UNITED NATIONS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK (UNSDF) 2017 2021 - UNDP
UNSDF 2017 - 2021

Contents
Acronyms                                                                                             iii
Signatures Page                                                                                      v
Executive Summary                                                                                    vii
Introduction                                                                                         1
A New Partnership into the Future								                                                            1
Collaborative Formulation of the UNSDF 2017-2021                                                     2
Botswana’s Development Context                                                                       3
Development Trends and Issues                                                                        3
Country Risk Analysis                                                                                11
Considerations Guiding the Partnership                                                               13
Agenda 2030 as a Guiding Framework                                                                   13
Values and Principles of the 2030 Agenda                                                             13
National Priorities and Leadership                                                                   14
Broad-based Partnerships                                                                             17
A Facilitative Role for the United Nations Development System                                        18
Types of Support to be Provided by the United Nations                                                18
UNSDF 2017-2021 Strategic Priority Areas and Results                                                 20
Strategic Priority Areas                                                                             20
Strategic Priority Area 1: Policy and Programme Design                                               23
Strategic Priority Area 2: Implementation of Policies and Programmes                                 24
Strategic Priority Area 3: Data for Planning, Monitoring, Evaluation and Decision-making             25
Resources and Partnership Mobilization                                                               29
The Strategy                                                                                         29
Estimated Resource Requirements                                                                      29
Implementation and Management Modalities                                                             33
Monitoring and Evaluation Mechanisms                                                                 34

Annexes                                                                                              37
Annex 1: UNSDF 2017-2021 Results and Resources Framework                                             37
Annex 2: Roles and Strengths of the United Nations System                                            45
Annex 3: Commitments of the United Nations System to Delivering as One in Botswana                   46

List of Tables
Table 1: Linking Vision 2036, NDP 11 and SDGs                                                        15
Table 2: Estimate of Resources                                                                       30
Table 3: UN Coordination Groups                                                                      33

List of Figures
Figure 1: Vision 2036 Priorities                                                                     vii
Figure 2: Components of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its Integrated Vision        13
Figure 3: National Objectives of Vision 2036 and the SDGs                                            14
Figure 4: Goal 17 - Five Areas of Strengthening Sustainable Development Implementation               17
Figure 5: Vision Priorities                                                                          20
Figure 6: Possible Areas for UNDS to Support                                                         20
Figure 7: The UN Strategic Priorities                                                                21
Figure 8: Botswana Country Outcomes and UN System Support                                            21
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Acronyms
AIDS         Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
ART          Anti-Retrovial Treatment
AU           African Union
BPFA         Beijing Declaration and its Platform of Action
CA           Country Analysis
CEDAW        Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women
CRC          Convention on the Rights of the Child
CRPD         Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
DaO          Delivering As One
DRR          Disaster Risk Reduction
ECOSCO        Economic and Social Council
FAO           Food and Agriculture Organisation
FDI           Foreign Direct Investment
GBV           Gender Based Violence
GDP           Gross Domestic Product
HDI          Human Development Index
HIV          Human Immunodeficiency Virus
HRBA         Human Rights-Based Approach
ICPD         International Conference on Population and Development
IFAD         International Fund for Agricultural Development
IIAG         Ibrahim Index of African Governance
ILO          International Labour Organisation
IMF          International Monetary Fund
IOM          International Organisation for Migration
LED          Local Economic Development
LTA           Long-Term Agreement
M&E           Monitoring and Evaluation
MAPS          Mainstreaming, Acceleration, and Policy Support
MDGs          Millennium Development Goals
MEAs          Multilateral Environmental Agreements
MIC           Middle Income Country
MMR           Maternal Mortality Ratio

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Acronyms
MTR          Mid-Term Review
NCD         Non-Communicable Disease
NER         Net Enrolment Ratio
NDP          National Development Plan
NGO          Non-Governmental Organisation
OaO          Operating As One
ODA          Overseas Development Assistance
PMT          Programme Management Team
QCPR         Quadrennial Comprehensive Policy Review
RBM          Results-Based Management
SADC        Southern African Development Community
SDGs        Sustainable Development Goals
SRH         Sexual and Reproductive Health
STEM        Sciences, Technology and Mathematics
UMIC        Upper Middle Income Country
UNCT        United Nations Country Team
UNDAF       United Nations Development Assistance Framework
UNDP        United Nations Development Programme
UNDS        United Nations Development System
UNEP        United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO      United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
UNFPA       United Nations Population Fund
UNHCR       United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
UNICEF      United Nations Children’s Fund
UNIDO       United Nations Industrial Development Organisation
UNODC       United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
UNOHCHR United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
UNSDF       United Nations Sustainable Development Framework
UPR         Universal Periodic Review
WEE         Women’s Economic Empowerment
WFP         World Food Programme
WHO         World Health Organisation

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Signatures Page
In support of inclusive, equitable and sustainable development in Botswana, the Government and the
United Nations Country Team pledge to work closely together to support fulfilment of Vision 2036
and the National Development Plan 11, as well as national implementation of the 2030 Agenda for
Sustainable Development. In so doing, the Government and the United Nations Country Team will
work in partnership with national counterparts, international development partners, civil society, the
private sector, international finance institutions, and other stakeholders.

The collective aspiration under this United Nations Sustainable Development Framework 2017-2021
will be to move toward greater collaboration, focus and coherence in programming, and to improve the
quality of life for all people in Botswana, particularly the most vulnerable groups.

The United Nations Sustainable Development Framework (UNSDF) for 2017-2021 has been prepared
based on consultations with the Government, development partners and other members of the United
Nations Development System in Botswana, including non-resident agencies.

By signing hereunder, the participating parties endorse the UNSDF 2017 - 2021.

                 REPUBLIC OF BOTSWANA                                   UNITED NATIONS BOTSWANA

    _____________________________________                  _____________________________________
    HONOURABLE ONTEFETSE K. MATAMBO                        ANDERS PEDERSEN
    Minister - Ministry of Finance and                     UN Resident Coordinator
    Development Planning                                   UNDP Resident Representative

    _____________________________________                  _____________________________________
    SIKHULILE DHLAMINI                                     JULIANNA LINDSEY
    IOM Head of Office a.i                                 UNICEF Resident Representative

    _____________________________________                  _____________________________________
    IZEDUWA DEREX-BRIGGS                                   MARTINS OVBEREDJO
    UN WOMEN Regional Director for                         WHO Representative
    Eastern and Southern Africa

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_____________________________________   _____________________________________
MARELEDI SEGOTSO                        GANG SUN
UNFPA Deputy Representative             UNAIDS Country Director

_____________________________________   _____________________________________
DAVID TIBE                              MULUGETA ZEWDIE
FAO Deputy Representative               UNHCR Representative

_____________________________________   _____________________________________
MAHAMANE CISSE-GOURO                    HUBERT GIJZEN
Chief of Africa Branch                  Regional Director & Representative
OHCHR                                   UNESCO Regional Office for Southern
                                        Africa

_____________________________________   _____________________________________
SHAUKAT ABDULRAZAK                      MOHAMED EISA
IAEA Director                           Representative and Director of UNIDO
Director for Africa                     Regional Office
Department for Technical Cooperation

_____________________________________
JONI TOKO MUSABAYANA
Director ILO

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Executive Summary
The United Nations Sustainable Development Framework (UNSDF) 2017-2021 presents the framework
for the partnership between Botswana and the United Nations Development System (UNDS) over the
period 2017-2021. It is developed through a consultative process between the Government, development
sector stakeholders including academia, civil society, development partners and the UNDS. The
UNSDF 2017-2021 outlines how the UNDS will provide support to broad-based partnerships towards
the realization of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development that encompasses the Sustainable
Development Goals (SDGs) and the Africa Agenda 2063. The 2030 Agenda commits countries and
stakeholders to work together to achieve sustained and inclusive economic growth, social development
and environmental protection. The Agenda is to be implemented in a manner consistent with existing
obligations of member States under international law, including international human rights law, and
in particular the commitment to eradicate poverty, address inequalities, end discrimination, and leave
no one behind. The 2030 Agenda and other post-2015 agreements make it clear that inclusive, strategic
and mutually beneficial partnerships at global, regional, national and local levels are a prerequisite to
achieving the SDGs.

The UNSDF draws from a synthesis of analyses and dialogues on the country’s strategic needs,
and on the lessons learned from past cooperation as documented in the evaluation of the UNDAF
2010-2016. Botswana has aligned the SDGs into the national vision (Vision 2036) and the Eleventh
National Development Plan (NDP11). Therefore, the UNDS will use its limited resources to
fulfil the UN’s normative and advocacy role and provide high quality support that will assist
Botswana to accelerate its implementation of SDGs. The UNSDF 2017-2021 thus focuses on
strengthening coherence between Agencies, and promotes greater, accountability, efficiency,
effectiveness and sustainability in Botswana’s pursuit of sustained and inclusive economic growth,
social development and environmental protection. NDP11 sets out the actions for the period
2017– 2023 that will help in achieving the Vision 2036. The 2036 vision sets out four priorities as follows:

        Sustainable                  Human                                              Government,
                                                              Sustainable
         Economic                   and Social                                           Peace and
                                                             Environment
       Development                 Development                                            Security

Figure 1: Vision 2036 Priorities

The UNSDF 2017-2021 is focused on three strategic priority areas that cut across the four National
Priorities. These three strategic priority areas are as follows

   Strategic Priority 1 - Policy and Programme Design

   Strategic Priority 2 - Implementation of Policies and Programmes

   Strategic Priority 3 - Data for Planning, Monitoring, Evaluation and Decision Making

Embedded in each of the priority areas is innovation and partnerships.

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The focus of Strategic Priority Area 1 is on strengthening capacities for policy and programme
development in social protection, economic development, environment protection and great democratic
governance with a particular focus on access to essential services for population groups that are furthest
behind. Increasing the resilience of societies, to withstand shocks and manage risks and uncertainties
will also be a focus. Because Botswana has already strong policies in place, the bulk of the UN’s focus
will likely be in Strategic Priority areas 2 and 3.

The focus of Strategic Priority Area 2 is on identifying bottlenecks for the effective implementation of
existing policies, programmes, and legislation at the national and district level. While Botswana has
created strong policies, programmes, and legislation, it is widely acknowledged that Botswana faces
many challenges in implementation. Therefore UN support will focus on strengthening capacities of
personnel, systems and procedures to address the implementation challenges to allow the priorities in
NDP11 be achieved.

The focus of Strategic Priority Area 3 is on the collection of comprehensive data to best identify, prioritize
and track progress of the most vulnerable and disadvantaged groups. Support will be provided for the
development of a national SDG indicator framework. In addition, government accountability requires
robust data and information for policy formulation, programme design and implementation, therefore
the UN will support the strengthening of existing demographic and other data sources (censuses,
surveys, administrative data, civil registration systems); utilization of new sources of data; big data;
and expanding “open data” (access to data). This Priority area will also focus on strengthening impact
evaluations and research to help Government ensure that programmes meet their objectives and that
policies are developed based on evidence based data .

In summary, the UN will strengthen national capacity at all levels; support the monitoring and
implementation of international commitments, norms and standards, including the 2030 Agenda, the
Paris Agreement on Climate Change, the Sendai Framework on Disaster Risk Reduction, Multilateral
Environmental Agreements (MEAs), international/regional human rights treaties and agreed
international norms and standards; act as a convener for a wide range of national and international
partners; provide high-quality technical expertise; support objective monitoring and evaluation of the
national development framework; provide impartial policy advice based on international experience,
technical expertise and good practices; provide a neutral space within which sensitive political issues
can be addressed and resolved; and facilitate knowledge access and exchange through South-South and
Triangular Cooperation.

To ensure its continued fitness for purpose, the UNDS in Botswana will build on lessons learned and
emerging best practice in the application of the Delivering as One approach to joint and complementary
programming and implementation. The UNSDF 2017-2021 will be operationalise through Joint Work
Plans that provide national partners, the United Nations, and donors with a holistic overview of planned
actions and required/available resources.

Implementation of the UNSDF will require an estimated US$49,675,102.00; including US$20,206,122.00
for Strategic Priority Area 1: Policy and Programme Design; US$16,011,764.00 for Strategic Priority Area
2: Implementation Capacity, Delivery and Accountability Systems; and US$13,457,216.00 for Strategic
Priority Area 3: Quality Data for Intervention Design, Management and Tracking of Effects.

The United Nations Country Team (UNCT) will strive for robust joint programming and inter-Agency
cooperation, and explore opportunities for resource mobilization, applying the most appropriate and
feasible elements of the Standard Operating Procedures for Delivering as One. This will include elements
of One Leader (Empowered Resident Coordinator (RC) and Empowered UNCT), Operating as One, and
Communicating as One.

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Introduction
A New Partnership into the Future

Cooperation between the United Nations Development System (UNDS) and Botswana dates to 1966
when the country became a member of the United Nations. Today, Botswana faces the challenge of
ensuring that all women and men, boys and girls, and future generations, fulfil their potential in
dignity and equality in a healthy environment. In 2016, the year of Botswana’s 50th anniversary, the
United Nations and Botswana re-affirmed their joint commitment to improving the lives of all who live
in Botswana, especially those who are most vulnerable.

On 25 September 2015, Member States of the United Nations adopted The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable
Development with the SDGs at its core. The 2030 Agenda commits all countries and stakeholders to
work together to achieve sustained and inclusive economic growth, as well as social development and
environmental protection. The 2030 Agenda is to be implemented in a manner consistent with existing
obligations of Member States under international law, including international human rights law, and
in particular the commitment to eradicate poverty, address inequalities and discrimination, and leave
no one behind. The 2030 Agenda demonstrates the commitment of the international community to
complete the unfinished business of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by expanding on
previous efforts to address the multi-dimensional causes of poverty and reduce the vulnerabilities
of the poorest. The 2030 Agenda and other post-2015 agreements make clear that inclusive, strategic
and mutually beneficial partnerships at the global, regional, national and local levels that strengthen
issue-based coalitions and platforms that integrate diverse stakeholders, including central and local
governments, major groups, civil society and the private sector are a prerequisite to achieving the
SDGs.

The partnerships required to deliver on the 2030 Agenda represent a paradigm shift away from
relationships based on delivery of activities to the development of shared understanding of challenges,
solutions and roles in achieving the SDGs; coordination of multi-stakeholder partners; promotion of
broad ownership of progress by all relevant stakeholders; strengthening issue-based coalitions and
platforms; and leveraging greater knowledge, capacities and resources.

This document, known as the United Nations Sustainable Development Framework (UNSDF) 2017-2021
defines and facilitates the delivery of a partnership between Botswana and the UNDS that reflects the
requirements for achieving the 2030 Agenda as adapted to national and local contexts and reflected in
the Botswana Vision 2036. The UNSDF 2017-2021 is aligned with the NDP11 and continues the reform
of the relationship between the United Nations System and Botswana that dates back to 2008 when the
Government of Botswana sought and received support for Botswana to adopt the Delivering as One
(DaO) approach. Under the DaO approach, the United Nations System focused on greater coordination,
harmonization and alignment of agency efforts with country priorities in order to establish a more
effective and better performing UNCT in each country. In the UNSDF 2017-2021, the focus is on inclusive
partnerships for the delivery of a broadly shared agenda to achieve sustained and inclusive economic
growth, social development and environmental protection. This UNSDF reflects a stronger partnership
between the Government of Botswana and the United Nations to achieve the SDGs.

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Collaborative Formulation of the UNSDF 2017-2021

In developing the UNSDF 2017-2021, the partners took advantage of the robust processes already in
place for the development of Vision 2036 and the development of the NDP11. These were complemented
by multi-stakeholder consultative processes aimed at developing shared lessons from past cooperation
and agreement on the strategic priorities for the partnership between Botswana and the UNDS.

The Country Analysis (CA) drew on preceding work, including: national and sub-national level
follow-up processes towards the main streaming and implementation of the SDGs; global and regional
engagement on strategic approaches to working with Middle Income Countries (MICs); nationally
commissioned studies reviewing performance in selected areas (governance, poverty eradication,
education, social protection, and the World Bank’s Systematic Country Diagnostics Study); development
partner supported studies on malnutrition, HIV&AIDS, child deprivation, and gender-based violence
among others; and a multi-stakeholder validation process. The CA was followed by an inclusive
process of defining strategic priorities for the partnership and a validation process for the draft UNSDF
2017-2021.

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Botswana Development Context
Development Trends and Issues
In less than five decades, Botswana has transformed itself from one of the world’s poorest countries at its
independence in 1966 into an Upper Middle Income Country (UMIC)1. Per capita Gross Domestic Product
(GDP) stands at USD 7,7212 and the population of about 2.1 million3 4. The country has a relatively young
population (32.6 percent of the population is below 15, 30.3 percent is aged between 10-24 years, while
those 65 years and older constitute 5.1 percent)5 6. This youth bulge presents an opportunity to harness
the demographic dividend to accelerate socio-economic development7. Females represent 51 percent of
the population with a sex ratio (males to 100 females) of 95.58. The country is urbanizing rapidly with
64.1 percent of the nation classified as urban9 owing to a mix of migration and reclassification of areas.
HIV/AIDS prevalence is high; 25.2 percent among 15-49 year olds and 18.5 percent when computed as a
percentage of the population aged 18 months to 49 years. HIV prevalence is higher among females (20.8
percent) than males (15.6 percent)10.

Massive improvements in the population’s well-being have been achieved over the years through
prudent management and investment of revenues from natural wealth into human development11 12.
Botswana spends 4.4 percent of GDP on social protection, 4.5 percent on health, and 8.5 percent on
education13. While the heavy investment in the social sectors has extended service reach and accessibility,
the outcomes achieved in some areas including poverty reduction, education and health, have fallen
below expectations14.

The country has a Human Development Index (HDI) of 0.703, ranking in the medium HDI category15. A
major factor in the HDI ranking of the country has been life expectancy in Botswana which was affected
by a high HIV&AIDS-related mortality rate16. The country’s wealth is heavily concentrated making it
one of the most unequal countries in the world and resulting in a Gini Coefficient of 0.60517. Reliance on
mining revenues, particularly diamonds, has made the country vulnerable to fluctuations in mineral
prices and carries future uncertainty18. The mining sector contributes substantially to revenues but not
to job creation19. The country’s economic diversification efforts are bearing fruit but the pace of growth
in the other sectors is slow and employment creation has been inadequate, leading to an unemployment
rate that is greater than prevailing rates among Botswana’s UMIC peers20. Poverty rates are higher than
among peers, owing to exclusion caused primarily by the reliance on mining and low incomes in the
agricultural sector where the majority of the rural population is engaged21. Increasingly, unsustainable
development is negatively impacting the natural environment, threatening the diversity of flora and
fauna as well as human health.

Extreme poverty and income inequality 22: Poverty rates (as measured against the national poverty
line) have declined from 47 percent in 1993/94 to 30.6 percent in 2002/03 and 19.3 percent in 2009/1023
24
   . However, these national averages mask disparities as some locations lag behind with poverty levels
in excess of 30 percent25, i.e. Kweneng West (48.6 percent), Ngamiland West (47.3 percent), Ghanzi (35.7
percent) and Kgalagadi North (31.2 percent). Furthermore, poverty is higher among children and youth
(57 percent) as well as female-headed households (58 percent)26. Many of those living in poverty face
multiple deprivations that must be addressed through a multi-dimensional approach to poverty.

1. World Bank, Botswana systematic country diagnostic, 2015 2. Botswana ‘Vision 2036’ 3. National development plan 11 (draft) 4. National
population census, 2011 5. United Nations, Botswana common country assessment, 2016 6. National population census, 2011 7. National
Development Plan 11 (Draft) 8. ibid 9. ibid 10. Botswana AIDS impact survey, 2013 11. World Bank, Botswana systematic country diagnostic, 2015
12. United Nations, Botswana common country assessment, 2016 13. ibid 14. World Bank, Botswana systematic country diagnostic, 2015 15. Global
Human Development Report, 2015 16. United Nations, Botswana common country assessment, 2016 17. ibid 18. Botswana Vision 2036 19. United
Nations, Botswana common country assessment, 2016 20. ibid 21. ibid 22. Vision 2036 Frame work Document, 2015 23. Botswana core welfare
indicator survey, 2009-2010 24. World Bank, Botswana poverty assessment, 2015 25. United Nations, Botswana common country assessment, 2016
26. ibid 27. Botswana National Strategy for Poverty Reduction, 2003 28. United Nations, Botswana common country assessment, 2016 29. World
Bank, Botswana poverty assessment, 2015 30. ibid

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BOTSWANA HAS INVESTED
HEAVILY IN HEALTH (9.5 PERCENT
OF GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT),
HIV & AIDS (16 PERCENT OF TOTAL
HEALTH EXPENDITURE IN 2013/2014)
AND EDUCATION (5.4 PERCENT OF
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT).

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Botswana’s response to poverty has focused on improving the welfare status of citizens’ investments
in social protection27. Consequently, significant resources (4.4 percent of gross domestic product)
are invested in social protection programmes28 and recent studies show that if redirected and better
coordinated, these investments are adequate to eliminate extreme poverty in less than 10 years29. Going
forward, keeping those that escape from poverty permanently out of it, needs to be part of a deliberate
strategy that includes improving productivity in sectors such as agriculture where a considerable
proportion of the working poor are found30.

Human Development Outcomes31: Botswana has invested heavily in health (9.5 percent of gross
domestic product32), HIV&AIDS (16 percent of total health expenditure in 2013/2014)33 and education
(5.4 percent of gross domestic product34). In health, high coverage and utilization rates are not
translating into expected outcomes, largely due to quality issues35. Non-communicable diseases
are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Botswana36 .While access to clean water and safe
sanitation has increased, safe sanitation lags behind37. Stunting is very high at 30 percent, even by
the standards of poorer countries38 39. The causes of stunting relate to inadequate utilization of proven
evidence-based interventions such as proper nutrition for both mother and child40. With respect to
the 44 UMIC for which comparable maternal mortality estimates are available, Botswana ranks 40
out of 4441. The maternal mortality rate (MMR) was at 152 in 201442. Major causes of maternal deaths
include preventable causes such as haemorrhage, abortions and hypertensive diseases accounting for
74 percent of maternal deaths43. Contributing factors include: a) a lack of skilled personnel to manage
obstetric complications; b) a lack of essential equipment and drugs due to weak logistical management;
and c) weak referral systems especially in rural and geographically remote areas44. Neonatal mortality
accounts for 54 percent of child deaths45 but there are wide differences in neonatal mortality rates
between locations ranging from a low of 6/1000 to a high of 28/100046. While the country has contained
HIV-related mortality by administering anti-retroviral therapy (ART) drugs, there are still more than
10,000 new infections each year 47. The last two HIV&AIDS impact household surveys (2008 and 2013)
suggest some negative trends in behaviour, particularly among young people48 49. There is a decline in
condom use across all ages and sexes and among concurrent sexual partners50 while Botswana is faced
with the responsibility of providing high cost Anti-Retroviral Treatment (ART)51. Projections suggest
that Botswana’s hope of reducing the HIV&AIDS epidemic requires a combination of testing and
treatment of everyone who is HIV positive and maximum investment in gender-sensitive prevention,
particularly among young people52.

Regarding reproductive health, recent information has revealed that 56 percent of pregnancies among
HIV positive women are unplanned suggesting high unmet needs for family planning among this
group53. It has only been 3 years since an integrated sexual and reproductive health (SRH)/HIV service
delivery was piloted54. Integrated services to include maternal, neonatal, and child and adolescent
health will ensure Botswana maximizes on the limited resources (both human and financial) available.

In education, Botswana has almost achieved universal education and the estimated Net Enrolment Ratio
(NER) for children aged 7-13 years nearly reached 100 percent in 200055 56. Gender parity at enrolment
has also been achieved at secondary and tertiary education levels57. However there are challenges in
education such as; the quality of education provided, girls dropping out due to pregnancy and lower
female enrolment in Science, Technology and Mathematics (STEM)58 59. There is also a low uptake of
early childhood education60, and good enrolment and retention rates at primary and secondary level

31. Vision 2036 Frame work Document, 2015 32. United Nations, Botswana common country assessment, 2016 33. National Health Accounts
report 2013/2014, 2016 34. ibid 35. ibid 36. World Bank, World Development Indicators, 30 June 2016 ibid 37. ibid 38. ibid 39. World Bank, Botswana
systematic country diagnostic, 2015 40. United Nations, Botswana common country assessment, 2016 41. United Nations, Botswana common
country assessment, 2016 42. ibid 43. ibid 43. ibid 44. ibid 45. ibid 46. ibid 47. ibid 48. Botswana AIDS impact survey, 2013 49. Botswana AIDS
impact survey, 2008 50. Botswana AIDS impact survey, 2013 51. ibid 52. ibid 53. ibid 54. ibid 55. ibid 56. Botswana MDGs Status Report 2015 57. ibid
58. ibid 59. United Nations, Botswana common country assessment, 2016 60. ibid 61. Vision 2036 Frame work Document, 2015 62. Botswana Vision
2036, 2016 63. Botswana Education & Training Sector Strategic Plan (ETSSP 2015-2020), 2015 64. United Nations, Botswana common country
assessment, 2016 65. Vision 2036 Frame work Document, 2015 66. ibid 67. ibid 68. ibid 69. World Bank, systematic country diagnostic, March 2015
70. ibid 71. ILO, Informal Economy http://ilo.org/global/topics/employment-promotion/informal-economy/lang--en/index.htm 72. Botswana
core welfare indicators survey, 2009-2010 73. Vision 2036 Frame work Document, 2015 74. National development plan 11 (draft) 75. ibid

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are masked by poor performance as reflected by low pass rates61. There are also concerns that the education
and training system is not producing young people that are suitable for employment62. A new five-year
education and training sector strategy has been developed with the purpose of reforming the education
sector63. Minimizing the risk of failure and learning from parts of the system that currently work well
present strategic opportunities to support the reform process64.

Export-led diversified growth and employment 65: Botswana has over the years experienced high but
declining growth rates66. Recognition of this trend, fueled by the low potential of mining to create
employment and the realization that diamond revenues have a finite lifespan, has underpinned the drive
for economic diversification67. Various analyses suggest that Botswana is not well positioned for export-led
growth and would have to make domestic companies competitive and attract external investment68. Among
the groups heavily represented among the unemployed are young people and many in the agricultural
sector who constitute the ‘working poor’69. With the economy creating employment at a small fraction
of the rate of new labour market entrants, the informal economy has become increasingly important,
particularly for women, migrants and other vulnerable groups of workers who are excluded from other
opportunities and have little choice but to take informal, low-quality jobs70 71. The youth unemployment
rate is about 41.4 percent for 15-19 year olds, 34 percent for 20-24 year olds and 22.4 percent for 25-29
year olds72 indicating that Botswana is not benefiting from its youth bulge 73 74. Against a backdrop of
an oversupply of unskilled (and deskilled) labour, much of the labour currently unemployed will face
difficulties even in a growing labour market75.

Managing the trade-off between income generation and environmental sustainability76: As Botswana’s
population has grown, the country has expanded irrigated land, and increased power generation and
other amenities77. The trade-offs between development and environmental sustainability are becoming
more evident in the form of threats to fauna and flora, air pollution and water pollution78. Ensuring that
resource extraction levels are within the capacity of the environment to assimilate and regenerate is a key
concern79. Human/animal conflicts are increasingly important, particularly where geographic proximity
does not necessarily ensure formal access to benefits80. Efforts at environmental management are
hampered by a multiplicity of actors including weak coordination capacity, inadequate data, inadequate
follow-up on environmental assessments, weak cost-benefit analysis of investments, and limited active
engagement of citizens in environmental protection and management81.

Deepening democracy outcomes and governance institutions 82: Botswana has sound governance
institutions in place and the country scores highly on many fronts83 84. However, there are areas where
Botswana’s ranking relative to other countries falls below expected levels. On the basis of the Ibrahim
Index of African Governance (IIAG), Botswana achieves its lowest rankings in the areas of: international
human rights conventions, statistical capacity, undernourishment; tertiary enrolment, air transport,
electricity, and agricultural research and extension85. In relation to international human rights conventions,
the challenges relate to reporting, follow-up, and absent or weak accountability mechanisms. A focus of
national plans is to strengthen the performance of institutions86 through increased citizen engagement
and social accountability87. This calls for a greater role for representative bodies and civil society which
current assessments suggest are useful but limited, particularly at the points of interaction between
citizens and the State.

Gender equality and women’s empowerment: Botswana outperforms many of her peers in terms of
women’s participation in the labour force, education, senior management positions and as voters in
elections88. However, women’s representation in cabinet (17 percent), parliament (8 percent) and local
government (18percent) is low89. Concrete measures and mechanisms must be put in place to increase
women’s representation in political positions.

76. Vision 2036 Frame work Document, 2015 77. ibid 78. ibid 79. ibid 80. ibid 81. ibid 82. ibid 83. World Bank, systematic country diagnostic, March
2015 84. Vision 2036 Frame work Document, 2015 85. Ibrahim Index of African Governance, 2015 86. United Nations, Botswana common country
assessment, 2016 87. ibid 88. ibid 89. The Gender Based Violence Indicators Study, 2012 90. ibid 91. ibid 92. ibid 93. ibid 94. ibid 95. ibid 96. Botswana
AIDS impact survey, 2013 97. The Gender Based Violence Indicators Study 98. ibid 99. United Nations, Botswana common country assessment,
2016 100. Vision 2036 Framework Document, 2015 101. ibid 102. ibid

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Gender based violence (GBV) is a key concern affecting girls and women with 67 percent of women
in Botswana having reported experiencing some form of GBV in their lifetime90. Cases of defilement
and rape are high with 27 percent of rape victims aged below 16 years according to 2012 GBV study91.
Pockets of child marriage and high teenage pregnancy have also been identified. The engagement of
men and boys in the prevention of GBV and the promotion of gender equality should be improved.
Accepting attitudes towards GBV persist92 and the culture of silence and treatment of GBV as a private
or domestic matter continues93. Victims often choose to not report this abuse citing social pressures as
well as the costs of accessing justice94 . Reporting of cases is low (1.7 percent)95 and services for victims
are inadequate and not adequately coordinated. There is limited data on GBV and research in this area
is weak. Gender based violence is also identified as one of the drivers of HIV in the country 96.

In relation to Women’s Economic Empowerment (WEE), women make up 41 percent of those in paid
employment and operate an estimated 74 percent of informal businesses97. Initiatives that focus on
women’s economic empowerment are limited and poorly monitored98. Capacity to monitor and track the
impact of the government’s WEE policies and programmes must be strengthened. National and sector
policies must be made more gender responsive allowing women to make meaningful contributions to
the economy99. Policy measures and programmes must be put in place to ensure women’s increased
ownership, access to, and control over productive resources. Policies must also be developed to
institutionalize Gender Responsive Budgeting (GRB) in all ministries. Well-coordinated national gender
main-streaming programmes for effective gender outcomes in all sectors is paramount.

Policy implementation and programme effectiveness: Implementation and programme effectiveness
are negatively impacted in Botswana by several gaps, particularly where implementation requires
the coordination of inputs from various sectors/agencies100. Weakly defined relationships between
institutions, budgets that are not linked to results, weak or absent implementation plans, weak
technical capacities, and weak or absent monitoring and evaluation systems are key factors limiting
policy implementation and programme effectiveness101. Across a number of areas, country plans and
equity analyses are formulated on the basis of outdated data102.

Against a backdrop of the progress made, the solutions to Botswana’s remaining challenges in reaching
the most vulnerable and improving outcomes and inclusiveness are less likely to be found in blanket
approaches and more likely to lie in specifically designed interventions as well as stronger citizen voices
and accountability processes103. There is a wealth of experiences from other countries that Botswana can
draw upon to craft locally suitable models. Botswana’s civil society faces capacity constraints including
limited access to funding that have accompanied the country’s status as a MIC104. The decline in official
development assistance flows into the country that has accompanied the country’s status as a MIC is a
major factor impacting civil society capacity.

Looking ahead, indications are that with adequate commitment and support, Botswana can address
many of its challenges including eliminating extreme poverty in less than 10 years by reforming its
social protection system105. The country has a new five-year education and training sector strategy
aimed at reforming the education sector. There are also measures in place to strengthen access to the
justice system, mainstream sustainable development, and improve capacities for locally led economic
development. Strengthening policy implementation will be key to future success.

While there are multiple sector-specific challenges, some challenges cut across several areas such
as, reaching excluded populations and maintaining social inclusion; improving effective coverage
of services, scaling up services and utilization for issues that have not been adequately invested in,
sustaining services coverage, quality and utilization in a context of budgetary constraints; improving
citizen engagement and ownership of the sustainable development process, creating gender-responsive
policies and programmes, and moving beyond planning to effective implementation.

103. United Nations, Botswana common country assessment, 2016 104. ibid 105. World Bank, Botswana poverty assessment, 2015

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To respond to these challenges, strategic interventions are required to address the following, quality and
frequency of data, quality of citizen engagement and social accountability processes, local (decentralized)
capacities for delivery, capacity to work across sectors/departments, improved partnerships with civil
society and the private sector, institutionalization of quality improvement and assurance processes;
improved monitoring and evaluation; improved learning through research and documentation and
improved linkages between results and budgetary allocations.

Country Risk Analysis
In planning for the medium to long term, Botswana must factor in a number of risks, including:

     a) Climate and weather-related risks: The country periodically faces episodes of drought and/or
     flooding. To date, the country has managed to cope with these while minimizing loss of human life,
     however these events do have major effects through the loss of livestock and crops that undermine
     household and community resilience to other shocks. Droughts also pose major challenges for
     urban settlements, often necessitating the imposition of water use restrictions. In recognition of
     the challenges to its water resources, the country intends to intensify efforts at water recycling
     and promoting the efficient use of water. Similarly, the country has in the past experienced energy
     shortages that affected economic performance, country’s potential and presents an opportunity to
     improve access without affecting the supply of energy for the country’s industrialization bid. The
     use of renewable energy remains well below the country’s potential and presents an opportunity
     to improve access without affecting the supply of energy for the country’s industrialization bid.

     b) Reliance on high-risk-low return agriculture: Botswana’s agricultural communities primarily
     include the working poor. Continued reliance on current methods means that these communities
     are perpetually trapped in a cycle of growth and decline with limited ability to build up assets.
     Failure to improve productivity and minimize declines occasioned by weather will keep households
     at the margins of poverty. Priority responses should include climate smart technologies (drought
     tolerant varieties, conservation agriculture, and water harvesting), and moving away from the
     current over-reliance on rain-fed agriculture through diversification of livelihood support systems
     in agricultural research and innovation, investments in agriculture support services, value chains
     and market infrastructure.

     c) The significant role of diamonds in the national economy: The risk associated with heavy
     dependence on an exhaustible resource has long been realized and factored into Botswana’s
     planning. Emphasis on economic diversification, using diamond revenues for capital investments
     and ensuring budgets can be financed from non-diamond revenues are often touted. Until such
     a time that the country achieves reduced reliance on diamond revenues, it remains vulnerable to
     fluctuations in prices and/or changes in production.

     d) Increasing inequality: Botswana falls into the category of one of the 10 most unequal countries
     in the world raising the need for close monitoring and adjustment of strategies for inclusion. Without
     such a focus, some population groups may lag further behind which in turn may negatively impact
     social relations.

     e) Rapid urbanization: Botswana’s increasing urbanization offers the potential for improved
     services provision. However, rapid expansion also carries risks including land disputes, informal
     settlements, inadequate access to services and environmental degradation and pollution. Monitoring
     trends and adopting effective responses will remain important.

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Considerations Guiding the Partnership
Agenda 2030 as a Guiding Framework
The UNSDF is built on the preamble of assisting Botswana implement the SDGs. The components of
the 2030 agenda are captured in figure 2.

                      VISION                                                       PEOPLE
                          &
                    PRINCIPLES
                     Reflection in
                                                                 PLANET
                     declaration
                                                                                                PARTNERSHIP
                   RESULTS
                 FRAMEWORK
                   Sustainable                                   PROSPERITY
       Global     Development
     Partnership     Goals                                                                  PEACE
      Means of
   Implementation              FOLLOW-UP
        (Mols)                  & REVIEW
 IMPLEMENTATION

Figure 2: Components of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its Integrated Vision

Values and Principles of the 2030 Agenda
The partners will be guided by the principles arising from the values, norms and standards reflected
in the 2030 Agenda. The key ones are:

      I. Human rights, gender equality and women’s empowerment: This principle focuses on
         promoting international human rights principles and applying a human rights-based approach
         in the analysis, planning, implementation and monitoring of all SDGs and targets in order to
         effectively address the root causes of poverty, inequality and discrimination to ensure that
         development is more equitable, sustainable, participatory and accountable to people. This
         principle also mainstreams a gender perspective in order to transform discriminatory social
         institutions recognizing that discrimination can be embedded in laws, cultural norms and
         community practices.

     II. Sustainable development and resilience: This principle adopts and promotes a balanced
         approach to development whereby interventions reflect the connections between the social,
         economic and environmental dimensions of development. It also seeks to increase the resilience
         of societies, economies and the natural environment to withstand shocks and manage risks
         and uncertainties.

     III. Leave no one behind: The Leave no one behind principle adopts a strong people-centred focus
          based on a clear identification of population groups that have been left furthest behind and the

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 causes of inequality. It also reaffirms the responsibilities of all States to “respect, protect

 and promote human rights, without distinction of any kind as to race, colour, sex, language,
 religion, political or other opinions, national and social origin, property, birth, disability or
 other status.” This principle includes recognition of individual rights to enjoy social protection,
 economic opportunity, access to essential services, participation in decision-making processes
 and a response to sudden shocks and changes in the needs of vulnerable populations.

    Iv. Accountability: This principle provides the link between right-holders and duty-bearers,
        requiring duty-bearers to deliver on their obligations and of right-holders to realize and utilize
        their rights. Higher standards of social accountability are enabled by open public engagement
        and transparency of information in the public domain combined with strengthening the voice
        and capacities of rights holders. This entails ensuring responsive, inclusive, participatory and
        representative decision-making at all levels.

National Priorities and Leadership
Building on Botswana’s commitment and progress to date, the partnership will seek to strengthen
effectiveness in furthering both the specific goals and targets and the norms, principles and spirit
that underlie the 2030 Agenda. A key step is the main-streaming of the 2030 Agenda into national
development plans as illustrated in Figure 3 below.

                                                                                         Overall Development
                                                     VISION                              Objectives

                                            Long-term National                           National Mid-Term
                                          Development Framework                          Strategy

                                  Mid-term National Development Plan
      17 SDGs
      169 targets

                          National
                                                    National         National            Sectoral Mid-Term
                         Biodiversity
                                                  Health Policy   Energy Strategy        Strategy
                           Strategy

                                          Annual plan and Budgets                        Priority for the year

Figure 3: National Objectives of Vision 2036 and the SDGs

The country has aligned the SDGs to the national vision and the national development plan (see Table
1) thereby allowing for identification of specific interventions to further each goal. The timing of the
development of Vision 2036 as well as NDP11 has provided Botswana with the opportunity to build on
the process leading up to and including the adoption of the Africa Agenda 2063 and The 2030 Agenda
for Sustainable Development.

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Linking Vision 2036, NDP11 and SDGs
Sustainable Development Goals                                   Vision 2036 pillars        NDP 11 Priorities

                                                                Sustainable Economic       Developing Diversified
Goal 1: End of poverty in all its forms                         Development Human Social   Source of Economic Growth
                                                                Development                Social development
                                                                                           Developing Diversified
Goal 7: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable,     Sustainable Economic
                                                                                           Source of Economic Growth
and modern energy for all                                       Development
                                                                                           Human Capital Development
Goal 8: Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable                                 Developing Diversified
                                                                Sustainable Economic
economic growth, full and productive employment and                                        Source of Economic Growth
                                                                Development
decent work for all                                                                        Human Capital Development
                                                                                           Developing Diversified
Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and   Sustainable Economic
                                                                                           Source of Economic Growth
sustainable industrialization and foster innovation             Development
                                                                                           Human Capital Development
                                                                                           Developing Diversified
                                                                Sustainable Economic
Goal 10: Reduce inequality within and among countries                                      Source of Economic Growth
                                                                Development
                                                                                           Human Capital Development
                                                                                           Developing Diversified
Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe,     Sustainable Economic
                                                                                           Source of Economic Growth
resilient and sustainable                                       Development
                                                                                           Human Capital Development
Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved
                                                                Human Social Development   Social Development
nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture

Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all     Human Social Development   Social Development

Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education                                   Social Development
                                                                Human Social Development
and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all                                        Human Capital Development

Goal 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women                                      Social Development
                                                                Human Social Development
and girls                                                                                  Human Capital Development

Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of
                                                                Human Social Development   Social Development
water and sanitation for all

Goal 12: Ensure sustainable consumption and production
                                                                Human Social Development   Social Development
patterns

Goal 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and                                   Sustainable Use of Natural
                                                                Sustainable Environment
its impacts                                                                                Resources

Goal 14: Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and                                 Sustainable Use of Natural
                                                                Sustainable Environment
marine resources for sustainable development                                               Resources

Goal 15: Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of
terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forest, combat                                  Sustainable Use of Natural
                                                                Sustainable Environment
desertification, and halt land degradation and halt                                        Resources
bio-diversity loss

Goal 16: Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for
                                                                                           Consolidation of Good
sustainable development, provide access to justice for all,     Governance, Peace and
                                                                                           Governance and Strengthening
and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions     Security
                                                                                           National Security
at all levels

Goal 17: Strengthen the means of implementation                                            Implementation of an effective
and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable                                      monitoring and evaluation
development                                                                                system

Table 1: Linking Vision 2036, NDP11 and SDGs                                                    Source: NDP 11, Pg 26-27

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The UN will provide
support to the development
and operationalization of
partnerships that cover the
five implementation areas.

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Broad-Based Partnerships
The 2030 Agenda and other post-2015 agreements make clear that inclusive, strategic and mutually
beneficial partnerships at global, regional, national and local levels are a prerequisite to achieving the
SDGs. Goal 17 identifies five areas of strengthening SDG implementation:

                                                                                                  Policy &
                                                                                              Institutional
                                                                                                 coherence

                                     Capacity                            Systemic        Multi stakeholder
   Finance        Technology                             Trade                               partnerships
                                     Building                             Issues

                                                                                         Data Monitoring
                                                                                         & Accountability

Figure 4: Goal 17 - Five Areas of Strengthening Sustainable Development Implementation

The UN will provide support to the development and operationalization of partnerships that cover
the five implementation areas. Within a context of decreasing amounts of Overseas Development
Assistance (ODA), partnerships at the global levels are increasingly focused on other areas such as
technology transfer, tax avoidance and climate finance. Botswana and other emerging economies have
the opportunity to step up their involvement in global policy-making in line with their increasing
power and in so doing influence the rules of engagement.

At the local level, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), corporate social responsibility, domestic resource
mobilization and regional cooperation through institutions such as the South African Development
Community (SADC), based in Gaborone, carry great potential for strengthening delivery on the Agenda
2030. There is also scope for partnerships with neighbouring countries towards the minimization of social
and environmental fallout from developments or practices across borders, for example, management
of shared water courses, wildlife, animal and human diseases and economies. Partnerships with the
private sector may include strengthening commitments to international standards, such as the UN
Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, adopting Integrated Reporting, and also improved
oversight and accountability of the financial sector.

Botswana and other emerging economies have experience with a range of policies to address poverty
and sustainability that could be extremely valuable to other countries. Thus, there is scope for non-
financial support or in-kind contribution to the alleviation of capacity constraints in other countries.

At the local level, the 2030 Agenda calls for partnerships that bring together government, private
sector, civil society, academia, associations, individuals, and development partners to co-create
outcomes through shared planning and mutual accountability. The UN is well positioned to support
the development and operationalization of such partnerships and still remain responsive to country-
specific needs.

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A Facilitative Role for the United Nations Development System
The United Nations Development System addresses the complex and interconnected nature of the
SDGs by ensuring the following:

    •   National Ownership: supporting national development priorities and inclusive and
        participatory development processes that contribute to the achievement of sustainable
        development and human rights, guided by international norms and standards.

    •   Impact-focused substantive engagement: focusing UN engagement where it can have greatest
        impact.

    •   Strategic focus: focusing efforts and resources on interventions that are catalytic, accelerate
        progress across a broad range of areas, target and address the rights of the most vulnerable,
        and strengthen the capacity of duty bearers and right holders.

    •   UN coherence: demonstrating UN cohesion, and the coordination of UN country-level
        operations, including joint policy and programming approaches and opportunities for
        harmonized business practices.

    •   Effective and efficient: tackling complex, interconnected issues in a transformative way,
        upholding transparency, accountability and value for money, and making sure that systems,
        staffing and financial resources are appropriately aligned with results.

    •   Technical excellence: employing cutting edge expertise and knowledge, evidence-based
        programming approaches.

    •   Partnership: providing a platform to both leverage and facilitate dialogue, innovation and
        partnership; and

    •   Inclusiveness: explicitly reflecting the people-centred and universal nature of the 2030 Agenda,
        with an emphasis on leaving no one behind and focusing on the most disadvantaged.

Types of Support to be provided by the United Nations
The UN will provide different types of support that build on its relative strengths. These will include:

    •   Strengthening national capacities at all levels underpinned by and leading to national
        ownership;

    •   Supporting monitoring and implementation of international commitments, norms and
        standards, including the 2030 Agenda, the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, the Sendai
        Framework on Disaster Risk Reduction, Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs),
        the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), the Convention on the
        Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), the Beijing Declaration
        and its Platform of Action (BPFA), international/regional human rights treaties and agreed
        international norms and standards;

    •   Acting as a convener for a wide range of national and international partners;

    •   Providing high-quality technical expertise in specific areas;

    •   Objective monitoring and evaluation of the national development framework;

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     •   Providing impartial policy advice based on international experience, technical expertise and
         good practices; and

     •   Facilitating knowledge access and exchange through South-South and Triangular Cooperation.

The UN Development System will provide support to the development and implementation of activities
within the UNSDF 2017-2021, which may include technical support, funds for advocacy, research and
studies, consultancies, programme development, monitoring and evaluation, training activities and
in less prominent roles, cash assistance, supplies, commodities and equipment, procurement services,
transport, and staff support. Part of the UN Agencies’ support may be provided to non-governmental,
private sector and civil society organizations as agreed within the framework of the individual work
plans and project documents. Additional support may include access to UN organizations’ global
information systems as well as the network of the UN system agencies’ country offices and specialized
information systems, including rosters of consultants and providers of development services. The UN
system agencies shall appoint staff and consultants for programme development, programme support,
technical assistance, as well as monitoring and evaluation activities.

These key means of implementation will be further refined during UNSDF 2017-2021 implementation
through coordination mechanisms that build on experiences with Delivering as One, including
collaborative programming. The UNDS will strive for robust joint programming and inter-Agency
cooperation, and explore opportunities for resource mobilization, applying the most appropriate and
feasible elements of the Standard Operating Procedures for Delivering as One. This will include elements
of One Leader (Empowered RC and Empowered UNDS), Operating as One, and Communicating as
One giving rise to: better United Nations-wide coordinated efforts with national institutions; better
balance between policy development and effective delivery of quality service; better balance between
development of the centre and local communities; increasing empowerment of civil society to take
active part in the development process; increasing commitment to social inclusion, particularly for
women, youth, children and vulnerable groups (ethnic minorities, persons with disabilities, orphans
and vulnerable children, among others); and stronger focus on results through effective monitoring
and evaluation mechanisms.

In addition to joint partnerships and thematic collaboration, the UNSDF 2017-2021 recognizes the
importance of the individual mandates and work of UN Agencies in the context of Botswana as a
middle-income country. As part of the process of preparing the UNSDF 2017-2021, each Agency has
reviewed its own strategy and work programme to ensure that it is responding adequately to national
priorities, with a focus on better utilizing the strengths of the UNDS for effective delivery. The results
and activities to be undertaken by the United Nations are briefly described in the Results Framework
provided in Annex 1.

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