HOW TO ACHIEVE A DEMOCRATIC CULTURE IN SCHOOLS - Fostering a Democratic School Culture

HOW TO ACHIEVE A DEMOCRATIC CULTURE IN SCHOOLS - Fostering a Democratic School Culture
Fostering a Democratic
                                                      School Culture

                                   HOW TO ACHIEVE A
                                 DEMOCRATIC CULTURE
                                        IN SCHOOLS

                                             Еxamples of Best Practice

Horizontal Facility for Western Balkans and Turkey

HOW TO ACHIEVE A DEMOCRATIC CULTURE IN SCHOOLS - Fostering a Democratic School Culture
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    European Union under conditions. No part of this publication
  may be translated, reproduced or transmitted, in any form or by
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   including photocopying, recording or any information storage
  or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the
     Directorate of Communication (F-67075 Strasbourg Cedex or

                  Authors: The schools participating in the project

Publisher: Council of Europe Office in Belgrade, Španskih boraca 3,
                       11070 Novi Beograd,

                                Editor: Centre for Education Policy

                                        Design: Maxnova Creative

   The project “Fostering a Democratic School Culture” was imple-
   mented in cooperation with the Ministry of Education, Science
        and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia       Republic of Serbia
                                                                      Ministry of Education, Science
                                                                      and Technological Development
HOW TO ACHIEVE A DEMOCRATIC CULTURE IN SCHOOLS - Fostering a Democratic School Culture
Table of Contents

The schools participating in the project                                                                                   7

PREFACE                                                                                                                    9
            About the publication                                                                                          12

PART ONE: Schools and Project Teams                                                                                        13

PART TWO: Competences for Democratic Culture and Examples of Best Practice                                                 25
Aimed at Strengthening Competences
            Council of Europe Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture                                    26

            Model of Competences for Democratic Culture                                                                    26

            The Whole-School Approach                                                                                      30

            Examples of Best Practice Aimed at Strengthening Competences                                                   31

                  Area 1. Teaching and Learning                                                                            31

                       Workshops at Form Teacher Classes                                                                   32
                       Development of Didactic Visual-imagery Material for the Acquisition of New Knowledge, Skills, and

                       Mathematics: The Greatest Common Divisor                                                            38

                       Thematic Month: the Serbian Language, Civic Education, Form Teacher Class                           39

                       Serbian Language: “The Tortoise and the Hare“, Aesop’s Fable                                        40

                       Serbian Language: Speech Culture                                                                    41
HOW TO ACHIEVE A DEMOCRATIC CULTURE IN SCHOOLS - Fostering a Democratic School Culture
How to Achieve a Democratic Culture in Schools          Page 4

                             Civic Education: From Gender Stereotypes to Discrimination                                                44

                             English Language: Personality                                                                             48

                             Project-based Learning/Teaching and Research Work                                                         50

                             German Language: Männer- und Frauenberufe (Gender Equality)                                               52

                             Serbian Language: “The Gypsies“, A. S. Pushkin                                                            54

                        Area 2. School Culture                                                                                         55

                        Examples of Teaching Activities Aimed at Strengthening Democratic Competences                                  55

                             „Living Library“ Campaign                                                                                 57
                             A Group of Extracurricular Activities Aimed at Introducing Pupils to Cultural Goods of General Interest   58
                             Workshop “Indian Paper Art“                                                                               59
                             Inter-school Exchange Titled “Exchange the Energy of Tolerance and Democracy!“                            60
                             Event on the Occasion of the International Roma Day                                                       61
                             Election of the Most Tolerant Pupil                                                                       62
                             Campaign to Paint the School Wall “Zero Tolerance for Gender-Based Violence “                             65
                             Peer Education Workshops                                                                                  66
                             Data-based Planning of School Activities: Gender Equality in Our School                                   68
                             Regional Meeting of Student Parliaments                                                                   70
                             Language Fair                                                                                             71
                             Programme “Mediation in the Peer Group”                                                                   72
                        Area 3. Co-operation with the Local Community                                                                  75

                        Examples of School Activities Aimed at Strengthening Democratic Competences Through                            75
                        Co-Operation with the Local Community

                             Towards an Inclusive Society Through Dramatic Creativity                                                  76

                             Event on the Occasion of the Ruthenian Day                                                                78

                             Panel Discussion “Status of Students with Developmental Disabilities in the Educational System”           79

                             Fashion Show “Beauty of Experience”                                                                       80

                             Event “Find Your Formula for Democracy”                                                                   81

                             Event “Friendship Tree”                                                                                   82

                             Educational Activities for Youth in the Field of Protection against Violence                              83
                   About the Editor                                                                                                    84

 USEFUL LINKS                                                                                                                          85
HOW TO ACHIEVE A DEMOCRATIC CULTURE IN SCHOOLS - Fostering a Democratic School Culture
HOW TO ACHIEVE A DEMOCRATIC CULTURE IN SCHOOLS - Fostering a Democratic School Culture
HOW TO ACHIEVE A DEMOCRATIC CULTURE IN SCHOOLS - Fostering a Democratic School Culture
How to Achieve a Democratic Culture in Schools   Page 7

The schools participating
in the project1

  1.      Primary School “Žarko Zrenjanin”, Banatsko Novo Selo

  2.      Primary School “Dušan Dugalić”, Belgrade

  3.      School for Tourism and Hospitality, Belgrade

  4.      Primary School “Zdravko Gložanski”, Bečej

  5.      Technical School, Bor

  6.      Primary School “Sveti Sava”, Vladičin Han

  7.      Secondary School “Miloje Vasić”, Veliko Gradište

  8.      Primary School “Jovan Jovanović Zmaj”, Đurđevo

  9.      Zemun Gymnasium, Zemun, Belgrade

 10.      School with Dorm for Children with Impaired Hearing and Speech “11. maj”, Jagodina

 11.      Agricultural-chemical secondary school “Dr Đorđe Radić”, Kralјevo

 12.      Primary School “Radoje Domanović”, Niš

 13.      School of Fashion and Beauty, Niš

 14.      Primary School “Bratstvo”, Novi Pazar

 15.      Primary School “Miroslav Antić Mika”, Pančevo

 16.      Technical School “23.maj“, Pančevo

 17.      Agricultural School with Dormitory “Sonja Marinković”, Požarevac

 18.      Požarevac Gymnasium, Požarevac

 19.      Primary School “Matko Vuković“, Subotica

 20.      Primary School “Velјko Dugošević“, Turija

 1 The   names of the twenty project schools are listed alphabetically by place names.
HOW TO ACHIEVE A DEMOCRATIC CULTURE IN SCHOOLS - Fostering a Democratic School Culture
HOW TO ACHIEVE A DEMOCRATIC CULTURE IN SCHOOLS - Fostering a Democratic School Culture
How to Achieve a Democratic Culture in Schools         Page 9

                       Sarah Keating
                       Head, Division of Co-operation and Capacity Building, Education Department
                       Directorate General II – Democracy, Council of Europe

O                                                          And consider this: how better to prepare
        n behalf of the Council of Eu-
        rope, I am delighted to intro-
        duce this publication. How                         children for the future when according to
to achieve a Democratic Culture in
Schools - Еxamples of Best Practice                        some estimates “65% of children entering
highlights what schools can do in
practice to make democracy genuine
                                                           primary school today will ultimately end
and alive in our education systems.                        up working in completely new job types
It shows concretely how behaviours
and habits can be changed.                                 that don’t yet exist”2. While many future
                                                           professions may be unknown today,
The findings also highlight that
schools cannot do it alone. They                           competences such as analytical thinking,
need to work with their commu-
nities. From parents to municipal-
                                                           empathy, responsibility and openness
ities, the best practices laid out in                      to other beliefs will be necessary for the
this publication demonstrate that a
whole school approach is required.                         future and, at the same time, contribute
                                                           to social cohesion and a culture of
The publication is the result of two
years of intensive project work in                         democracy.
Serbia within the framework of the
joint EU/CoE Horizontal Facility for
the Western Balkans and Turkey. The
project was carried out in partner-
ship with the Ministry of Education,           indicators within four categories:             easily adapted to different national
Science and Technological Devel-               skills, atti­tudes, values, and knowl-         systems.
opment of the Republic of Serbia,              edge and critical understanding.
schools and their communities.                 They were endorsed by Ministers of
                                               Education in May 2016.                         We hope that this publication will
The pan-European initiative by the                                                            serve as an inspiration for other
Council of Europe, the Reference Fra­          The Framework is proving to be a               schools both in Serbia and on a wid-
mework of Competences for Demo-                useful tool for many European coun-            er European level. For no person is
cratic Culture (RFCDC) un­derpins this         tries - including Serbia - as they make        born knowing what democracy is – it
project. Based on extensive research,          ongoing reforms in their education             needs to be learned and, most of all,
twenty com­pe­ten­ces for democratic           systems. It is universal, applicable in        experienced. Just as these best prac-
culture were identified, along with            different contexts, and proving to be          tices demonstrate.

    2    cLeod, Scott and Fisch, Karl, “Shift Happens” as cited in: The World Economic Forum, The Future of Jobs Report 2016, Part 1:
        Preparing for the Workforce of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, Chapter 1: The Future of Jobs and Skills, page 3, http://www3., retrieved on 24 January 2019
HOW TO ACHIEVE A DEMOCRATIC CULTURE IN SCHOOLS - Fostering a Democratic School Culture
How to Achieve a Democratic Culture in Schools    Page 10

                    Ministry of Education, Science and Technological
                    Development of the Republic of Serbia

      he Fostering a Democratic              democracy and civic society can be            project, as it promotes the quality of
      School Culture project is imple-       identified in the contents of the sub-        education by fostering a democratic
      mented by the Council of Eu-           ject and syllabus of civic education.         culture within the formal education
rope Education Department as part                                                          system through implementing an-
of the Horizontal Facility for Western       The educational system of the Re-             ti-discriminatory approaches based
Balkans and Turkey programme of              public of Serbia prescribes general           on the Council of Europe standards
the European Union and the Council           and cross-curricular competences              and practice. From this overall ob-
of Europe.                                   as the most relevant for adequate             jective stem the specific objectives,
                                             preparation of students for active            which include raising the level of
The Ministry of Education, Science           participation in the society and life-        knowledge and awareness among
and Technological Development                long learning.3 They include the              teachers, staff, students, and local
and twenty schools, as main part-            competences such as aesthetic com-            communities on the concept, pol-
ners of the Council of Europe, were          petence, communication, co-oper-              icy, practice of and benefits from
supported by the Institute for the           ation, responsible attitude to the            inclusive education and democratic
Improvement of Education and the             environment and a responsible atti-           school culture, empowering pilot
Institute for Education Quality Eval-        tude to health, which, to a lesser or         schools to eliminate prejudices and
uation, and a local partner (Centre          greater extent, (in)directly develop          discriminatory approach towards
for Education Policy), local commu-          democratic culture. The competence            vulnerable groups, and resolving the
nities, the media, non-governmental          for responsible participation in a            cases of violence.
organisations, experts, etc. Following       democratic society also has a direct
a careful preparation of the project,        impact on the development of dem-             Twenty schools from all parts of Ser-
a call for proposals was announced           ocratic culture.                              bia applied and were selected for the
by the Ministry, and the selection                                                         participation in the Fostering a Dem­
among the interested schools that            Cross-curricular competences are de-          ocratic School Culture project. They
applied was carried out jointly with         veloped in teaching and extracurric-          were willing to fully promote the
the representative of the Council of         ular activities, and they constitute a        concept of democratic school culture
Europe and European Commission in            step forward in the understanding of          through the teaching content, train-
Belgrade.                                    the teaching material and applying            ing, awareness raising, information,
                                             what is learnt. The responsibility for        practices, and activities aimed at en-
Although the education on human              their development lies with all the           abling the development of attitudes
rights is incorporated into the syl-         teachers and teaching subjects. This          and behaviour, but also building the
labuses of mandatory and elective            demonstrates the additional impor-            students’ capacity to exercise and de-
subjects, the entire programme con-          tance of the overall objective of the         fend their democratic rights and re-
tent relating to the education for           Fostering a Democratic School Culture         sponsibilities in the society, to value

                                                                      3   S tandards of General Cross-Curricular Competences - End of
                                                                           Secondary School, 2013.
How to Achieve a Democratic Culture in Schools    Page 11

diversity, and to play an active role     workshop, local co-ordinators pro-          enhancing their schools’ ethos, and
in democratic life, with the aim to       vided support to schools with final-        supporting their students.
promote and defend democracy and          ising the action plans, and then the
the rule of law. The schools demon-       schools began implementing them
strated the willingness to enhance        and shared their experiences in the         We hope that this publication with
inclusivity and expand the measures       following two workshops.                    examples will become a guide for
for eliminating prejudices and dis-                                                   continuing practice in these and all
criminatory app­roach to vulnerable                                                   other schools in Serbia, and that the
                                          Using the Model of Competences
groups, and to address the cases of                                                   process of fostering a democratic
                                          for Democratic Culture developed
violence through strategic plans and                                                  school culture is becoming the obli-
                                          by the Council of Europe Education
policies that contain special actions                                                 gation of all those that are involved
                                          Department, the teams from select-
to fight discrimination and mecha-                                                    with schools.
                                          ed schools, composed of teachers,
nisms to monitor such measures.           pedagogists, psychologists and prin-
                                          cipals, developed examples of best          The Ministry of Education, Science
Prior to the beginning of imple­          practice and piloted them in teach-         and Technological Development,
mentation of the activities in this       ing and extracurricular activities, also    together with the Council of Europe,
project in schools, local co-or­          involving the wider local community.        continues to provide its support to
dinators were selected and trained,                                                   the projects that increase the quality
and they visited all the schools and      Within the framework of twenty              of the educational system and make
informed them about the concept of        competences from the Model of               the society better.
competences for democratic cul­ture.      Competences, from the values, at-
The schools opted for three priority      titudes, skills and critical thinking
competences which they were to            groups, the schools organised a
implement through planned activi-         large number of various activities,
ties. In the first peer learning event,   with a pedagogical approach app­
a three-day workshop or­       ganised    ropriate to the development of the
for the participants in this project, a   competences for democratic cul-
hundred school re­presentatives ac-       ture and creation of a more pleas-
quired knowledge about the build-         ant, in­teresting, and secure school
ing of specific competences, and          environment, at the same time
their connection with the national        strengthening their capacities for eli­
legislative and strategic framework.      minating violent, discriminatory and
The schools also drafted action plans     anti-democratic structures in their
for the ensuing period. After the         schools and school surroundings,
How to Achieve a Democratic Culture in Schools    Page 12

                     About the publication

       he Fostering a Democratic             into good practice examples includ-       – teaching and learning, school cul-
       School Culture project, jointly fi-   ed in this publication.                   ture, and co-operation between the
       nanced by the European Union                                                    school and the local community.
and the Council of Europe through            In the Introduction, the readers can
the joint programme Horizontal Fa­           learn about the perspectives of the       The fourth section of the central part
cilityfor Western Balkans and Turkey,        Ministry of Education, Science and        of the publication shows thirty ex-
was a joint endeavour of the various         Technological Development of the          amples of school practice grouped
stakeholders of the educational sys-         Republic of Serbia and the Council of     in three categories, according to
tem in Serbia. It brought together           Europe, that is, the basis for planning   the aspects of school functioning.
the representatives of the institu-          and motivation for implementing           The examples of teaching activities
tions from different levels of man-          this project. The Introduction also ex-   (area 1) demonstrate how, through
agement of the educational system            plains the educational policy context     the curriculum, by various methods
(from practitioners to decision-mak-         in which the project was implement-       of teaching and learning, and in the
ers), and representatives of different       ed, and from which the examples of        learning environment, competenc-
sec­­tors (government and non-gov-           good school practice were derived.        es for democratic culture can be
ernmental). Similarly, this pub­li­cation                                              strengthened. The examples of extra­
is intended for a varied audience –          Part One provides short descriptions      curricular activities (area 2) show how
teachers looking for ins­piration and        of the schools participating in the       student participation and the overall
innovation, decision-makers wishing          project, which allows the reader to       school atmosphere can be based
to form a view of the democratic cul-        get acquainted with the schools           on democratic principles, and can
ture in school practice, non-govern-         and their motivation, and with the        emanate openness, trust, and good
mental organisations and research-           members of school teams who were          inter-personal relations. Finally, the
ers who are in search of indicators of       directly involved in shaping the ex-      examples of activities directed at
good democratic school practices,            amples of best practice.                  building the competences through
and to the general public interested                                                   co-operation with the local commu­
in the topic of competences for dem-         Part Two is the central part of the       nity (area 3) demonstrate how the
ocratic culture. In other words, the         publication and comprises four sec-       competences for democratic culture
publication is intended for all those        tions.                                    of not only individuals – partici-
who believe that the democratisa-                                                      pants in the school system (students,
tion of the educational process is not       Sections one, two and three describe      teachers, parents) - but also the wid-
only a priority, but also the way in         the conceptual framework of the           er community, can be enhanced.
which the equity and inclusiveness           Council of Europe from which the
of education can be achieved.                examples of good practice resulted.       The last section of the publication
                                             The first section briefly describes the   contains a few words about its edi­
The publication, How to Achieve a            Reference Framework of Compe-             tors.
Democratic Culture in Schools, is a          tences for Democratic Culture. The
result of multiannual work of the            second section shows the Model of
schools participating in the project,        Competences (an integral part of the
which, through dedication and com-           Reference Framework), i.e. describes
mitment to democratic principles             the individual and psychological re-
and values, made great inroads in            sources that need to be systematical-
the democratisation of school cul-           ly developed in the appropriate en-
ture and the local community cul-            vironment so that students become
ture. Participating in this two-year         capable of adequately participating
project, relying on the Council of Eu-       in the culture of democracy. The third
rope Framework of Competences for            section talks about the schools’ ap-
Democratic Culture, the schools ad-          proach to building such competenc-
ditionally strengthened their capac-         es, integrating the de­mo­cratic values
ities and “polished” their skills, and       and principles of human rights in
then translated their experiences            three aspects of school functioning
  Schools and
 Project Teams
1                                                             2
Primary School                                               Primary School
“Žarko Zrenjanin“                                            “Dušan Dugalić“
Banatsko Novo Selo                                           Belgrade                        

T                                                            P
      he school was founded in Novo Selo as far back               rimary School “Dušan Dugalić” was established on
      as 1772, with a single class and one teacher.                the territory of the city municipality of Vračar in
      Nowadays it is a multi-ethnic school where                   1961. Today, it educates 93 pupils, and its curricula
teaching is organised in both Serbian and Romanian.          are adapted to the individual abilities of pupils. The
The project team comprises Jelena Bogojević, Mariana         pupils also learn the English language. The teachers use
Karabaš, Branka Stjepanović, Snežana Knežević, Gordana       the complex method, thematic planning, re-education
Topić, Bilјana Maksimović, Tina Tomašević, Gabrijela         method, individual work, pair work, workshops, work
Buzadžin, Marinel Blaž, Bilјana Beka and Trezika Roškulec,   with assistive technologies, and work in the sensory
together with pupils, parents, and other employees.          room.
They think that, during the project, they successfully
connected teaching and extracurricular activities to         The school’s project team comprises Branislava Živanović,
strengthen the programme basis for the improvement           Bilјana Petrović, Ivana Milojević, Goran Rojević, Jasmina
of the school work in the area of education about values,    Kovačević, dr Ivana Mitrović Đorđević, Sašenka Mirković,
beliefs and habits, bring the staff closer together on the   and all employees, parents, and pupils, who are at the
basis of certain things that did not use to be part of the   centre of all that is happening in the school.
regular practice (strengthening co-operation between
committees and teachers’ meetings, correlation and
thematic planning) and identified the resources the
school has, particularly human resources.
3                                                              4
School for Tourism                                             Primary School
and Hospitality                                                “Zdravko Gložanski“
Belgrade                                                       Bečej                             

S                                                              P
      chool for Tourism and Hospitalityis the oldest and             rimary School “Zdravko Gložanski” is the largest
      largest school in the region which educates students           bilingual school in Bečej and is well-known for its
      in the fields of gastronomy, catering, and tourism.            significant support to interculturalism in the school.
It was founded in 1938. The school is now attended by          The school is attended by the pupils of the Serbian and
1,156 students in 37 classes within six educational profiles   Hungarian nationality. Owing to the differences that
– cook, waiter, confectioner, culinary technician, catering    bring them closer together, they achieve good results,
technician and tourism technician. For the implementation      particularly in the development and implementation
of practical teaching and dual education the school uses       of new educational policies and ideas. In its region, the
its workshop in the “Palas” Hotel.                             school is known as the school open to all children that
                                                               actively promotes social and educational inclusion in the
The fostering of an inclusive environment and                  local community.
enhancing interculturalism and tolerance is one of the
development goals of the school and entails long-              The school is also known for developing creative thinking
term international co-operation with educational               and involving parents in all spheres of its work, but the
institutions from other countries, based on student            project increased the participation of pupils through the
and teacher mobility programmes, attending practical           implementation of training on the participation ladder.
classes, and participation in international competitions       Project-based teaching and research are widely used.
in gastronomy, catering and tourism. The project               Now there is an active debating club, and debate has also
team members are Zorica Mihailović, Snježana Krstić,           found its place in teaching.
Slobodanka Cvetković, Jelena Šalipurović, Dušan
Komlenac, Boško Šindić and Ljilјana Mihailović.                Gender equality is accepted as an important principle in
                                                               the school and in horizontal learning and teaching, and
                                                               the Gender Equality Index will enable them to monitor
                                                               the development of equality in the school.
5                                                           6
Technical School                                            Primary School
                                                            “Sveti Sava“
Bor                                                         Vladičin Han                                  

Т                                                           P
       he Technical School from Bor is a secondary              rimary School “Sveti Sava” in Vladičin Han started in
       VET school, founded in 1945 by the Ministry of           1995. Today, it has 612 pupils in 32 classes, of which
       Mining for the purposes of education of workers          11 are detached to Prekodolac, Žitorađa, Polom
for the Mining and Smelting Basin Bor and other mines       and Kržinac. The project team comprises Maja Dodić
in the country.The school has become the Centre for         Đorđević, Olivera Kostić, Lidija Tašić, Danica Stanković
Continuing Adult Education and provides the services        and Gorica Kovačević.
of non-formal education to adult students in the form
of short modules and trainings. The school also has the     Through the project, the school improved intercultural
Student Co-Operative with a bakery and a hairdressing       activities and exchange with the local community to
salon.                                                      become the cultural centre of the community.

The project team believes that the participation in the
Fostering a Democratic School Culture project gave
them an opportunity to increase their openness to
cultural otherness and other beliefs, co-operation skills
and respect. The team comprises Sonja Glišić, Nataša
Džaković, Valentina Dimitrijević, Ana Vukojević, Marina
Živković, Dragana Ćosić, Suzana Ilić and Ljubinka Aksić.
7                                                                8
Secondary School                                                  Primary School
“Miloje Vasić“                                                    “Jovan Jovanović Zmaj“
Veliko Gradište                                                   Đurđevo                                         

T                                                                 T
       he present Secondary School was founded back in                  he languages of instruction in Primary School
       1879 and is located on the Wheat Square, which is                “Jovan Jovanović Zmaj” in Đurđevo are Serbian and
       a part of the cultural and historical spatial unit - the         Ruthenian, and this is the second Council of Europe
old town centre of Veliko Gradište. The school is the place       project in which the school has participated. The project
for learning, socialising, and many of its extracurricular        team, comprising Vukica Petrović, Marija Trtić, Jugoslava
activities are important both to its students and the local       Rađen, Svetlana Šovlјanski and Julkica Ljilјanić, realised
community. The project team comprises Velina Stojković,           the following activities within this project: the “Chemistry
Zoran Tašić, Aleksandra Dimitrijević, Bilјana Lukić, Goran        Test“ forum theatre, “Stop to Violence“ workshop, life
Mišić, Vesna Novković, Nataša S. Stević, Nataša T. Stević         and learning in democracy in the English language, “Life
and Sanja Stefanović.                                             behind Walls“ workshop with the Residential Institution
                                                                  from Čurug, “We live in Europe“ workshop, “Democratic
The team members believe that they have managed                   Culture” quiz, etc.
to raise the level of knowledge and awareness of
teachers, students and the local community about
the concept, practice and significance of developing
democratic competences in the school and the wider
local community, to improve students’ skills for resolving
conflict situations in a non-violent manner, to form a
group of peer educators, etc. This is why this school is the
centre of local events and life of the town.
9                                                          10
Zemun Gymnasium                                              School with Dorm for Chil-
                                                             dren with Impaired Hearing
                                                             and Speech „11. maj“
Zemun, Belgrade                                              Jagodina                       

T                                                            T
      he Zemun Gymnasium has been the town’s                       he school promotes teachers’ creative work with
      landmark since inception, and in 1911, when the              students, but also the creativity of students
      Students Library was established, it also became             themselves in the field of drama, sensitisation of
the cultural centre of Zemun. Already in the school year     the local and wider community, co-operation with the
of 1912/13, students gave a lecture on young poets           elderly citizens, and the engagement of staff in adopting
(Milan Rakić) for the students and people of Zemun. The      new European trends in the field of surdoaudiology for
educational club “Branko Radičević” was formed, only to      the purpose of advancing their working practices. The
grow into the Yugoslav Secondary School Educational          current collection of delivered lessons and materials
Club “Branko Radičević” between the two world wars.          will be made available to other schools, as part of
It was active until World War II. Today the Zemun            the professional exchange in the development of
Gymnasium is a modern school that takes part in many         key competences, by applying the multidisciplinary
projects and advances its practice.                          approach, and it will be supplemented with the new
                                                             content created within the project. The project team,
The school’s project team, comprising Mirko Milojević,       composed of Vesna Vukićević, Aleksandra Kostić, Jelena
Sanja Štrbac, Bilјana Grujović, Jelena Međedović and         Mihajlović, Nikola Rajić and Nikola Stanojević, has
Minja Ivanović, implemented numerous activities of           contributed most to the achievements within the project.
interacting with and connecting secondary school
student parliaments in the region with Belgrade
secondary school parliaments; strengthened the respect
of the students’ rights, obligations, and participation of
the local community, and is planning new activities with
its students, so that the Zemun Gymnasium remains the
      cultural centre of Zemun.
11                                                            12
Agricultural-chemical sec-                                    Primary School
ondary school                                                 “Miroslav Antić Mika“
“Dr Đorđe Radić“
Kralјevo                                                      Pančevo                                 

T                                                             T
      he school dates back to 1882, when dr Đorđe                   he school is developing and becoming larger owing
      Radić, a teacher in the School of Agriculture and             to its teaching and extracurricular activities. The
      Forestry in Požarevac, was appointed the principal            project team, comprising Dragana Krstić, Radmila
of the newly founded school for crop farming in Kralјevo      Kišić Novaković, Jasna Sladaković, Mirjana Davidović,
by decree. Nowadays, it is a modern school, educating         Marijana Radivojev, Radica Milovanović and Ivana Baškot,
students in the fields of agriculture, food production        as well as all pupils, employees and parents, have the
and processing, and chemistry, non-ferrous metals             pleasure of strengthening their co-operation skills and
and printing. The project team, comprising Marsela            participating in the activities of valuing, democracy,
Eskenazi Milutinović, Aleksandra Jovankin Aleksić, Ivana      justice, fairness, equality, empathy and the rule of law.
Čađenović, Ana Radenković, Bilјana Bošković, Violeta
Ivković and Marija Žarković, implemented the activities
of strengthening conflict resolution skills, learning about
Roma culture, forum theatre, etc.
13                                                           14
Technical School                                             Agricultural School with
“23. maj“                                                    Dormitory
                                                             “Sonja Marinković“
Pančevo                                                      Požarevac                              

T                                                            T
      he school educates students in four areas of work,           he school is considered to be the place where
      participates in many projects, and takes particular          students gain personal experience in democratic
      care of the health and safety of its students. The           procedures and processes, participate through
project team, comprising Nataša Zečević, Zorica Prpa,        dialogue, consensus, non-violent resolution of conflict,
Nataša Stankovski, Branislava Krga, Ljilјana Đuretanović,    communication and interaction, establishing the culture
Vukica Stanojević Momčilović and Dragana Vučić,              of rights and responsibilities. The school provides for
implemented numerous activities relating to non-violent      gradual acquisition of knowledge about democratic
conflict resolution and openness of the school to cultural   competences and skills required for the development
otherness.                                                   of democracy, civil and civic society, which is the main
                                                             responsibility of the project team comprising Marina
                                                             Perić, Ivan Perić, Sanja Živković, Milena Jovanović and
                                                             Nada Jelić.

                                                             Students’ comments:
                                                             “We learnt something new that we can apply in school“,
                                                             “We found out how good it is to work as a team“, “For the
                                                             first time, we are in our teacher’s shoes and we liked it very
                                                             much“, “We spoke, danced and sang in the languages of
                                                             national minorities for the first time“, “We brought the
                                                             Miljacka river closer to the Morava river“.
                                                             Teachers’ comments: “How creative our students are when
                                                             we give them the freedom“,
                                                             “Us and parents towards the same goal”.
                                                             Parents’ comments: “Our children can do anything, with the
                                                             support of adults”, “For the first time were took the role of our
                                                             children”, “The workshop brought us back to school“.
15                                                               16
Požarevac                                                       Primary School
Gymnasium                                                       “Radoje Domanović“
Požarevac                                                       Niš                       

T                                                               I
      he Požarevac Gymnasium tradition is 150 years               n this school Serbs, Roma, Russian, Belarusians,
      old and many of its students were and are highly            Spaniards, Greeks and Bulgarians learn as equals.
      accomplished people. The school has attached                The school intensively collaborates with partner
particular importance to learning foreign languages             institutions: primary schools “Ratko Vukićević“ and
(English, Russian, French, German and Italian).                 “Dositej Obradović“, “Do-re-mi“ Music School, “Maslačak“
                                                                Kindergarten, and the School of Fashion and Beauty from
Taking part in this project is a continuation of the school’s   Niš.
creative activities. The project team is copomsed of:
Miloš Jeremić, Nataša Berić, Danijela Žukovski, Jana Jacić,     The team members, Dušica Tričković, Ljilјana Radovanović
Živkica Đorđević, Nenad Milošević, Kristijan Marković,          Tošić, Nataša Ignjatović, Desanka Nešić, Gordana Rako,
Maja Jovanović Gligorijević, Katarina Vukašinović and           Sanja Pešić, Danijela Tričković, Aleksandra Gligorijević
Dragana Mihajlović. This team has developed the                 and Aleksandar Asanović intensively work on fostering
activities that are primarily focused on fostering the skills   co-operation inside and outside school, respecting the
of listening and observing, critical understanding of the       rights of students and developing creativity in all fields
self, and encouraging co-operation.                             of work. All are respected and respect one another.
                                                                Besides promoting the work of the school and its pupils,
                                                                the Domanovići also promote the work of neighbouring
                                                                schools. They never claim to be the best in something,
                                                                although there is plenty of proof that this is indeed the
                                                                case in many activities.
17                                                             18
School of Fashion and                                           Primary School
Beauty                                                          “Bratstvo“
Niš                                                             Novi Pazar                              

S                                                               T
      chool of Fashion and Beauty has been around for                 he school has about 1,600 pupils instructed in
      more than a century. Throughout its 135 years,                  Serbian or Bosnian language. Cultural diversity is
      the school has changed names and introduced                     the advantage nurtured by the school, and the
new fields of work, in accordance with the needs of             democratic competences are a special responsibility
the society. In addition to introducing new profiles,           of the project team: Malić Saračević, Dejan Kulundžić,
the school followed all the developments in the area            Ajhana Dukađinac, Slađana Velјović, Goran Bogdanović,
of interpersonal relations, democracy, tolerance and            Marija Radomirović, Elmir Habibović, Teodora Drašković,
multiculturality.                                               Mersada Mašović, and Bilјana Vulović. Although the
                                                                school has a large number of pupils and has to work in
Dual education enabled students to parallelly learn             three shifts, it does not prevent it from organising many
how to become good hairdressers, manicurists and                extracurricular activities.
pedicurists, cosmetic technicians, masseurs, carers, tailors,
and how to be tolerant, empathic mediators, ready for life
in a democratic society. That is the responsibility of the
project team, comprising Radmila Ilić, Julijana Milivojević,
Radmila Nikolić, Milan Kostić, Milan Vukić, Vesna Živković
and Marina Marinković.

Many years of co-operation with NGOs, associations and
institutions, and a large number of projects help the
School of Fashion and Beauty in Niš to (continue to) be an
educational institution oriented towards the future.
19                                                           20
Primary School                                               Primary School
“Matko Vuković“                                              “Velјko Dugošević“
Subotica                                                     Turija                            

T                                                            T
     he school operates in four buildings, and the                  he school in Turija, in both its central and detached
     languages of instruction are Serbian, Croatian, and            facilities, is an example of the fast development
     Serbian/English. Our staff is also involved in the             of and change in the quality of the school’s work
process of educating migrant children from reception         in all areas. Democratic competences and their internal
centres.                                                     indicators, as well as the Living Library, are examples of
                                                             the results of great effort invested by the project team,
The project team comprises Mirjana Stevanović, Nada          comprising Jelena Živanović, Nebojša Ilić, Ivana Pavlović,
Dimović, Marijana Dobrilović, Bilјana Vujević, Katarina      Sofia Milenković, Sanela Ankić, Vesna Velimirović and
Božić Petronijević, Mirjana Ivanković, Nenad Stojanović,     Milica Jeremić. Students who commute to school are
Ramadan Mehmedi, Vukica Marković, Sanja Milјković and        provided with a fresh meal and a warm place to stay,
Miran Bačlija.                                               which demonstrates that the school is a place for living.
                                                             We do not learn for school, but for life!
They organise activities aimed at increasing empathy
and valuing diversity, improving mutual support
between pupils, accepting differences as something that
constitutes a value and advantage of a society, creating a
better climate in pupil-child-parent relations, etc.
Competences for Democratic Culture and Examples of
 Best Practice Aimed at Strengthening Competences
How to Achieve a Democratic Culture in Schools      Page 26

                      Council of Europe Reference Framework of
                      Competences for Democratic Culture

      For the Council of Europe, the          The Framework has three volumes.           pedagogical practice, assessment,
      purpose of education, among             The first is the Model of Competences      teacher education, the whole-school
      other things, is to prepare stu-        for Democratic Culture (Model), adopt-     approach to strengthening democrat-
dents for democratic citizenship, that        ed in 2016 by the standing conference      ic culture and building resilience to
is, for competent participation in a          of ministers of education of the Coun-     radicalisation).
democratic culture. Based on this, and        cil of Europe member states, devel-
with the awareness of the complex             oped by an international inter-discipli-   The sections below present in detail
and culturally diverse societies that         nary expert group. The second volume       the model competences for demo-
                                              comprises competence descriptors,          cratic culture, followed by the whole
are constantly changing, the Refer-
                                              intended to help teachers to plan their    school approach, that the Council of
ence Framework of Competences for
                                              teaching activities and assess the level   Europe presents as a useful approach
Democratic Culture (Framework)4 was           of achievement of planned outcome.         to building democratic culture u
developed. The Framework is a result          The descriptors were tested in by          schools in Volume 3. This approach is
of broad consultations and testing car-       schools in sixteen countries. The third    also further elaborated with the exam-
ried out in the Council of Europe mem-        volume provide guidance on how the         ples of school activities, that is, exam-
ber states and is built on the principles     Model can be integrated in the school      ples of good practice of the schools
of democracy and human rights.                context (guidance for the curriculum,      that participated in the project.

                      Model of Competences for
                      Democratic Culture

         odel of Competences for              The Model is based on the concepts         but various individuals will appropri-
         Democratic Culture5 is a con­        of identity, culture, intercultural-       ate and use various clusters of such
         ceptual model of compe-              ism and intercultural dialogue. The        resources, depending on the extent
tences, that is, individual and psycho-       identity denotes a person’s sense of       to which they are available to them.
logical resources, to be acquired in          who they are and self-descriptions         Therefore, cultures are basically un-
order to participate adequately and           to which they attribute significance       derstood as heterogenous, dynamic
                                              and value. Culture refers to the net-      and changeable, and individuals can
effectively in a culture of democracy.
                                              work of material, social and subjec-       belong to several cultural groups at
A democratically competent individ-           tive resources that the members of a       the same time. Interculturalism, or
ual, together with others, successfully       culture have and use. Many resources       intercultural situations arise when
participates in a culturally diverse so-      from these three groups are available      an individual perceives another in-
ciety.                                        to all members of that cultural group,     dividual (or a group) as culturally dif-

How to Achieve a Democratic Culture in Schools       Page 27

 ferent from themselves. Intercultural       petences can be defined as the              The Model is intended for decision
 situations, identified in this way, may     ability to mobilise and use relevant        makers, to inform their policy plan-
 involve individuals from different          psychological resources (values, atti-      ning and decision-making. In addi-
 countries and regions, people who           tudes, skills, knowledge, and critical      tion, it is intended for teachers and
 speak a different language, have dif-       understanding) in order to respond          other practitioners in the field of ed-
 ferent ethnic background, faith, gen-       appropriately and effectively to the        ucation – as a tool for preparing the
 der, sexual orientation, education,         demands, challenges and opportu-            students and young people for life as
 occupation, socioeconomic status,           nities presented by democratic and          competent democratic citizens, but
 etc. Therefore, intercultural dialogue      intercultural situations. Competence        also as a tool for assessing own prac-
 is defined as an open exchange of           is, therefore, a dynamic process.           tices and competences.
 views, based on mutual understand-
 ing and respect, between individuals        The Model contains twenty com-
 or groups who perceive themselves           petences grouped in four broad
 as having different cultural affilia-       clusters: values, attitudes, skills, and
 tions.                                      knowledge and critical understand-
                                             ing, and implies that the develop-
 Moreover, as its name implies, the          ment of such democratic competenc-
 Model is based on the concept of            es requires a systemic engagement
 competences. According to the               in an enabling environment. School
 Council of Europe, democratic com-          is definitely such an environment.

                 Valuing human dignity and human rights

                 This value is based on the general belief that every individual human being is of equal worth, has equal
                 dignity, is entitled to equal respect, and is entitled to the same set of human rights and fundamental free-
                 doms, and ought to be treated accordingly.

                 Valuing cultural diversity
                 T his value is based on the general belief that other cultural affiliations, cultural variability and diversity,
                  and pluralism of perspectives, views and practices ought to be positively regarded, appreciated and cher-

                 Valuing democracy, justice, fairness,
                 equality and the rule of law
                 The set of values based on the general belief that the societies ought to operate and be governed by
                 democratic processes respecting the principles of justice, fairness, equality, and the rule of law.
How to Achieve a Democratic Culture in Schools    Page 28

                  Openness to cultural otherness and to other beliefs, world
                  views and practices
                  Openness is an attitude towards the people who are perceived to have different cultural affiliations from
                  oneself or towards world views, beliefs, values and practices that differ from one’s own. Openness involves
                  sensitivity, curiosity, and readiness to interact with other people and other world views.

                  Respect is a positive attitude towards someone or something judged to have some kind of importance,
                  worth or value. Having respect towards other people who are perceived to have different cultural affiliations
                  or different beliefs, opinions or practices from one’s own is of key importance for effective intercultural dia-
                  logue and the culture of democracy.

                  Civic-mindedness is an attitude towards a community or social group to which one belongs that is larger
                  than one’s immediate circle of family and friends. Civic-mindedness involves a feeling of belonging to the
                  community, mindfulness of other people in the community and the effects of one’s actions on those people,
                  solidarity with other members of the community, and a sense of civic duty towards the community.

                  Responsibility is an attitude towards one’s own actions. It is reflection on own actions, forming intentions
                  about how to act in a morally appropriate manner, conscious execution of such actions, and holding one-
                  self accountable for the outcomes of such acts.

                  Self-efficacy is an attitude towards the self. It involves a positive belief in one’s own ability to undertake
                  the actions which are required to achieve particular goals, and confidence that one can understand what
                  is required, can select appropriate methods for accomplishing tasks, can navigate obstacles successfully,
                  can make a difference in the world.

                  Tolerance of ambiguity
                  Tolerance of ambiguity is an attitude towards situations which are uncertain and subject to multiple con-
                  flicting interpretations. Tolerance is positive evaluation of such situations and dealing with them con-

                  Autonomous learning skills

                  Autonomous learning skills are required to pursue, organise and evaluate own learning in accordance
                  with own needs, in self-directed manner, without being prompted by others.

                  Analytical and critical thinking skills
                  Analytical and critical thinking skills are those skills that are required to analyse, evaluate and make judg-
                  ments about materials of any kind (for example texts, arguments, interpretations, issues, events, experi-
                  ences, etc.) in a systematic and logical manner.

                  Skills of listening and observing
                  Skills of listening and observing are the skills that are required to notice and understand what is being
                  said and how it is being said, and to notice and understand the non-verbal behaviour of other people.
How to Achieve a Democratic Culture in Schools      Page 29

                         Empathy is the set of skills required to understand and relate to other people’s thoughts, beliefs and feel-
                         ings, and to see the world from other people’s perspectives.

                         Flexibility and adaptability
                         Flexibility and adaptability are the skills that are required to adjust and regulate one’s thoughts, feelings or
                         behaviours so that one can respond effectively and appropriately to new contexts and situations.

                         Linguistic, communicative and plurilingual skills
                         Linguistic, communicative and plurilingual skills are those skills that are required to communicate effec-
                         tively and appropriately with other people who speak the same or a different language and to act as a
                         mediator between those who speak different languages.

                         Co-operation skills
                         Co-operation skills are those skills that are required to participate successfully with others on shared activ-
                         ities, tasks and ventures, and to encourage others to co-operate in order to achieve group goals.

                         Conflict-resolution skills
                         Conflict-resolution skills are those skills that are required to address, manage and resolve conflicts in a
                         peaceful way, by guiding the conflicting parties towards optimal solutions acceptable to all parties.

                         Knowledge and critical understanding of the self
Knowledge and critical

                         Knowledge and critical understanding of the self includes the knowledge and critical understanding of
                         one’s own thoughts, beliefs, feelings and motivations, one’s own cultural affiliation and perspective of the

                         Knowledge and critical understanding of language and
                         Knowledge and critical understanding of language and communication include the knowledge and crit-
                         ical understanding of socially appropriate verbal and non-verbal communicative conventions which op-
                         erate in the language(s) which one speaks, effects of different communication styles on other people, and
                         the way in which each language expresses culturally shared ideas in a unique way.

                         Knowledge and critical understanding of the world
                         Knowledge and critical understanding of the world subsumes a large and complex range of knowledge
                         and understanding in a variety of domains including politics, law, human rights, culture, cultures, reli-
                         gions, history, media, economies, environment and sustainability.
How to Achieve a Democratic Culture in Schools     Page 30

                      The Whole-School Approach

      he whole-school approach6 in-                   The principles that underlie the whole-school approach:
      tegrates democratic values and
      human rights principles into                    • local context – a democratic school culture cannot
teaching and learning, governance                        be imposed from outside, but needs to be built in
and the overall atmosphere of the                        co-operation of all key stakeholders in the school
school providing the students with                       system and local community;
the experience, development, and
practical application of democratic                   • empowering all key stakeholders to understand
competences. The three areas where                       the school situation and give their individual
democratic values and human rights
principles need to be integrated in                      contribution to addressing common issues. This
order to build the competences for                       increases the sense of ownership of change in all
democratic culture are:
                                                         participants in the school life;
                                                      • encouraging learning by doing and participation
1. TEACHING AND LEARNING,                                – daily practice of competences for democratic
                                                         culture, participatory decision making, respect and
                                                         equality, democratic teaching and learning methods,
3. CO-OPERATION WITH THE LOCAL                           partnership and co-operation;
        COMMUNITY.                                    • integrating capacity building and strengthening
                                                         of democratic culture in school policies and
For democratic culture and respect
for human rights to become a real-
ity in the community and society, it                  • supporting local projects and initiatives over the long
is important that they first become
a reality in educational institutions.
                                                         term– systemic change does not happen quickly, it
Schools are where young people                           takes time to overcome resistance to change and
actually get their first opportunity
                                                         transform relations and practices in schools.
outside the family to develop the
democratic competences that they
need for living in culturally and so-         The whole-school approach im­pli­es       mind that strengthening democratic
cially diverse societies. Kno­wing that,      the active involvement and commit-        culture and integrating the principles
it is necessary that the incentives for       ment of all stakeholders in the school    of democracy and human rights into
such development be incorporated              system and the co­   mmu­  nity where     all aspects of school functioning is a
in the school curriculum and, equally,        the school is located. It, therefore,     gradual process that takes time.
in all as­pec­ts of school life – for exam-   implies the co-operation of school
ple, participation in shared decision         administration, pedagogy and psy-
making and school governance can              chology office, teachers, students        In the next section of this publication,
lead to gaining practical knowledge           and parents, representatives of local     on the examples of good school pra­
and develop trust in the democrat-            institutions and the community in         c­tices, it will be shown how various
ic and participative processes. Also,         general. The three areas (teaching        com­  petences for democratic culture
research has already demonstrated             and learning, school culture, and         are connected with each area, and how
that positive school environment,             co-ope­ration with the local commu-       such approach contributes to the de-
that the students feel as a safe envi-        nity) are not independent from each       velopment of students’ com­­petences
ronment where they can learn and              ot­her but overlap, meaning that the      for democratic cul­tu­re, enhancement
spend time to­      get­
                       her, is associated     ac­tivities and changes in one area       of the sch­ools’ de­mocratic culture, and
with good school achievements and             will have an impact on the others.        development of an inclusive and dem-
later life satisfaction.                      Ho­wever, it is important to have in      ocratic society.

Examples of Best Practice Aimed at
                    Strengthening Competences

Area 1. Teaching and Learning

The school’s programme provides           How can this be ensured? By:             The examples that represent good
numerous opportunities for lear­ning                                               practice of the schools participating
about democracy and human rights
at a formal level. Competences for
                                          •   Promoting participation and          in the project demonstrate ways of
                                                                                   strengthening democratic com­     pe­
                                              respect and encouraging stu­
democratic culture may be incorpo-            dents to express their own opi­      tences through teaching activities.
rated into the school curri­culum as a        nions and emotions, joint setting    The examples not only offer the
separate subject, separate teaching           and respecting of ground rules.      ideas about the ways in which com-
units in difference subjects, and at                                               petences for democratic culture can
a cross-curricular level (as a theme
within some or all subjects).
                                          •   Peer learning and assessment.        be strengthened in different cla­sses
                                                                                   and in different areas (themes), but

Different teaching and lear­       ning
                                          •   Co-operative and project-based       describe very vividly how one activ-
                                                                                   ity may strengthen entire clus­ters of
                                              learning, discussions, and group
methods and learning envi­ron­ments           work.                                mutually inseparable com­petences.
have a great impact on the develop-
ment of democratic com­      pe­tences.
They give students the opportunity
                                          •   Collaboration between teachers
                                              of different subjects in planning,
to learn through the ex­perience of           action research, and analysis of
democracy and hu­man rights ‘in ac-           own practices.
tion’ – in the class­room, which is a
safe place, where students feel free
to exchange their experiences and to      •   Using various sources that enable
                                              students to consider and explore
learn, actively participating in teach-       alternative perspectives with
ing and learning processes.                   others, etc.
How to Achieve a Democratic Culture in Schools     Page 32

Workshops at
Form Teacher Classes

Primary School “Radoje Domanović“, Niš
Competence: Responsibility
Aim of the activity was to introduce pupils, in a most straightforward manner, to democratic val-
ues, human rights, and examples of the violation of human rights.
Topics addressed by the workshops included: pupil participation, responsibility, co-operation, toler-
ance, pluralism, violation of human rights, learning about differences. Examples of preparation for
a form teacher class have been taken from the Council of Europe Manual “Living in Democracy“ 7.
Оutcomes: pupils will have greater awareness of the presence of discrimination and understanding
of it; express their opinion about the topic concerned; develop their grasp of the problem; suggest
the ways to resolve the problem.

Results                                                       Grade:
By directly participating in work­shops, pupils experi-       Sixth (6/2)
enced different situations from the point of view of the
persons whose rights are threatened and those who             Learning objectives of the lesson:
threaten other people’s rights. The experience which          Pupils become aware of social prejudices and
they gained created con­di­tions for understanding and        discrimination. Pupils are able to understand the victims
accepting democratic values much more directly and            of discrimination and their situation. Pupils are capable
strongly than through formal instruction. That the ef-        of reacting appropriately in discrimination situations.
fects on the attitudes of pupils were positive could be
observed in subsequent discussions with the pupils.
They would refer to their experiences from the work-          Tasks:
shops in some new situations that resembled those in          Pupils discuss a case of discrimination and compare it
the workshops. At the end of the form teacher class,          with the situation in their community.
form teachers received feedback from their pupils
with regard to two questions: how did I feel during           Teaching resources:
the class (emoji grading scale), and were we learning         Story, cards
in this class? The feedback analysis shows that almost
all of them felt very good and that they were indeed          Methods:
learning. Out of 360 fifth to eighth graders, only five
                                                              Text-based discussion, critical thinking
disagreed with the above statements.

                                                              Lesson delivery report:
With regard to the planning of these activities, the          The workshop was delivered in a fortress, where the
team recommends the following:                                pupils went in the company of their form teacher, in
                                                              order to be in an environment most favourable for work
•   The contents should be adapted to suit the age of         and contemplation.
    pupils;                                                   The pupils were divided into four groups in such a way
•   It is important to be familiar with the needs of          that each group had a member belonging to the Roma
                                                              community or a religion other than Serbian Orthodox.
    the class considering that not all offered content
                                                              They first discussed the concept of discrimination, and
                                                              then the text was read to them.
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