HOW TO ACHIEVE A DEMOCRATIC CULTURE IN SCHOOLS - Fostering a Democratic School Culture
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Fostering a Democratic School Culture HOW TO ACHIEVE A DEMOCRATIC CULTURE IN SCHOOLS Еxamples of Best Practice Horizontal Facility for Western Balkans and Turkey EUROPEAN UNION
. © 2018 Council of Europe. All rights reserved. Licensed to the European Union under conditions. No part of this publication may be translated, reproduced or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic (CD-Rom, Internet, etc.), or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the Directorate of Communication (F-67075 Strasbourg Cedex or firstname.lastname@example.org). Authors: The schools participating in the project Publisher: Council of Europe Office in Belgrade, Španskih boraca 3, 11070 Novi Beograd, www.coe.int/belgrade Editor: Centre for Education Policy Design: Maxnova Creative The project “Fostering a Democratic School Culture” was imple- mented in cooperation with the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia Republic of Serbia Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development
Table of Contents The schools participating in the project 7 PREFACE 9 About the publication 12 PART ONE: Schools and Project Teams 13 PART TWO: Competences for Democratic Culture and Examples of Best Practice 25 Aimed at Strengthening Competences Council of Europe Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture 26 Model of Competences for Democratic Culture 26 The Whole-School Approach 30 Examples of Best Practice Aimed at Strengthening Competences 31 Area 1. Teaching and Learning 31 Workshops at Form Teacher Classes 32 Development of Didactic Visual-imagery Material for the Acquisition of New Knowledge, Skills, and 37 Competences Mathematics: The Greatest Common Divisor 38 Thematic Month: the Serbian Language, Civic Education, Form Teacher Class 39 Serbian Language: “The Tortoise and the Hare“, Aesop’s Fable 40 Serbian Language: Speech Culture 41
How to Achieve a Democratic Culture in Schools Page 4 Civic Education: From Gender Stereotypes to Discrimination 44 English Language: Personality 48 Project-based Learning/Teaching and Research Work 50 German Language: Männer- und Frauenberufe (Gender Equality) 52 Serbian Language: “The Gypsies“, A. S. Pushkin 54 Area 2. School Culture 55 Examples of Teaching Activities Aimed at Strengthening Democratic Competences 55 „Living Library“ Campaign 57 A Group of Extracurricular Activities Aimed at Introducing Pupils to Cultural Goods of General Interest 58 Workshop “Indian Paper Art“ 59 Inter-school Exchange Titled “Exchange the Energy of Tolerance and Democracy!“ 60 Event on the Occasion of the International Roma Day 61 Election of the Most Tolerant Pupil 62 Campaign to Paint the School Wall “Zero Tolerance for Gender-Based Violence “ 65 Peer Education Workshops 66 Data-based Planning of School Activities: Gender Equality in Our School 68 Regional Meeting of Student Parliaments 70 Language Fair 71 Programme “Mediation in the Peer Group” 72 Area 3. Co-operation with the Local Community 75 Examples of School Activities Aimed at Strengthening Democratic Competences Through 75 Co-Operation with the Local Community Towards an Inclusive Society Through Dramatic Creativity 76 Event on the Occasion of the Ruthenian Day 78 Panel Discussion “Status of Students with Developmental Disabilities in the Educational System” 79 Fashion Show “Beauty of Experience” 80 Event “Find Your Formula for Democracy” 81 Event “Friendship Tree” 82 Educational Activities for Youth in the Field of Protection against Violence 83 About the Editor 84 USEFUL LINKS 85
How to Achieve a Democratic Culture in Schools Page 7 The schools participating in the project1 1. Primary School “Žarko Zrenjanin”, Banatsko Novo Selo 2. Primary School “Dušan Dugalić”, Belgrade 3. School for Tourism and Hospitality, Belgrade 4. Primary School “Zdravko Gložanski”, Bečej 5. Technical School, Bor 6. Primary School “Sveti Sava”, Vladičin Han 7. Secondary School “Miloje Vasić”, Veliko Gradište 8. Primary School “Jovan Jovanović Zmaj”, Đurđevo 9. Zemun Gymnasium, Zemun, Belgrade 10. School with Dorm for Children with Impaired Hearing and Speech “11. maj”, Jagodina 11. Agricultural-chemical secondary school “Dr Đorđe Radić”, Kralјevo 12. Primary School “Radoje Domanović”, Niš 13. School of Fashion and Beauty, Niš 14. Primary School “Bratstvo”, Novi Pazar 15. Primary School “Miroslav Antić Mika”, Pančevo 16. Technical School “23.maj“, Pančevo 17. Agricultural School with Dormitory “Sonja Marinković”, Požarevac 18. Požarevac Gymnasium, Požarevac 19. Primary School “Matko Vuković“, Subotica 20. Primary School “Velјko Dugošević“, Turija 1 The names of the twenty project schools are listed alphabetically by place names.
How to Achieve a Democratic Culture in Schools Page 9 Preface Sarah Keating Head, Division of Co-operation and Capacity Building, Education Department Directorate General II – Democracy, Council of Europe O And consider this: how better to prepare n behalf of the Council of Eu- rope, I am delighted to intro- duce this publication. How children for the future when according to to achieve a Democratic Culture in Schools - Еxamples of Best Practice some estimates “65% of children entering highlights what schools can do in practice to make democracy genuine primary school today will ultimately end and alive in our education systems. up working in completely new job types It shows concretely how behaviours and habits can be changed. that don’t yet exist”2. While many future professions may be unknown today, The findings also highlight that schools cannot do it alone. They competences such as analytical thinking, need to work with their commu- nities. From parents to municipal- empathy, responsibility and openness ities, the best practices laid out in to other beliefs will be necessary for the this publication demonstrate that a whole school approach is required. future and, at the same time, contribute to social cohesion and a culture of The publication is the result of two years of intensive project work in democracy. Serbia within the framework of the joint EU/CoE Horizontal Facility for the Western Balkans and Turkey. The project was carried out in partner- ship with the Ministry of Education, indicators within four categories: easily adapted to different national Science and Technological Devel- skills, attitudes, values, and knowl- systems. opment of the Republic of Serbia, edge and critical understanding. schools and their communities. They were endorsed by Ministers of Education in May 2016. We hope that this publication will The pan-European initiative by the serve as an inspiration for other Council of Europe, the Reference Fra The Framework is proving to be a schools both in Serbia and on a wid- mework of Competences for Demo- useful tool for many European coun- er European level. For no person is cratic Culture (RFCDC) underpins this tries - including Serbia - as they make born knowing what democracy is – it project. Based on extensive research, ongoing reforms in their education needs to be learned and, most of all, twenty competences for democratic systems. It is universal, applicable in experienced. Just as these best prac- culture were identified, along with different contexts, and proving to be tices demonstrate. 2 cLeod, Scott and Fisch, Karl, “Shift Happens” as cited in: The World Economic Forum, The Future of Jobs Report 2016, Part 1: M Preparing for the Workforce of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, Chapter 1: The Future of Jobs and Skills, page 3, http://www3. weforum.org/docs/WEF_Future_of_Jobs.pdf, retrieved on 24 January 2019
How to Achieve a Democratic Culture in Schools Page 10 Preface Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia T he Fostering a Democratic democracy and civic society can be project, as it promotes the quality of School Culture project is imple- identified in the contents of the sub- education by fostering a democratic mented by the Council of Eu- ject and syllabus of civic education. culture within the formal education rope Education Department as part system through implementing an- of the Horizontal Facility for Western The educational system of the Re- ti-discriminatory approaches based Balkans and Turkey programme of public of Serbia prescribes general on the Council of Europe standards the European Union and the Council and cross-curricular competences and practice. From this overall ob- of Europe. as the most relevant for adequate jective stem the specific objectives, preparation of students for active which include raising the level of The Ministry of Education, Science participation in the society and life- knowledge and awareness among and Technological Development long learning.3 They include the teachers, staff, students, and local and twenty schools, as main part- competences such as aesthetic com- communities on the concept, pol- ners of the Council of Europe, were petence, communication, co-oper- icy, practice of and benefits from supported by the Institute for the ation, responsible attitude to the inclusive education and democratic Improvement of Education and the environment and a responsible atti- school culture, empowering pilot Institute for Education Quality Eval- tude to health, which, to a lesser or schools to eliminate prejudices and uation, and a local partner (Centre greater extent, (in)directly develop discriminatory approach towards for Education Policy), local commu- democratic culture. The competence vulnerable groups, and resolving the nities, the media, non-governmental for responsible participation in a cases of violence. organisations, experts, etc. Following democratic society also has a direct a careful preparation of the project, impact on the development of dem- Twenty schools from all parts of Ser- a call for proposals was announced ocratic culture. bia applied and were selected for the by the Ministry, and the selection participation in the Fostering a Dem among the interested schools that Cross-curricular competences are de- ocratic School Culture project. They applied was carried out jointly with veloped in teaching and extracurric- were willing to fully promote the the representative of the Council of ular activities, and they constitute a concept of democratic school culture Europe and European Commission in step forward in the understanding of through the teaching content, train- Belgrade. the teaching material and applying ing, awareness raising, information, what is learnt. The responsibility for practices, and activities aimed at en- Although the education on human their development lies with all the abling the development of attitudes rights is incorporated into the syl- teachers and teaching subjects. This and behaviour, but also building the labuses of mandatory and elective demonstrates the additional impor- students’ capacity to exercise and de- subjects, the entire programme con- tance of the overall objective of the fend their democratic rights and re- tent relating to the education for Fostering a Democratic School Culture sponsibilities in the society, to value 3 S tandards of General Cross-Curricular Competences - End of Secondary School, 2013.
How to Achieve a Democratic Culture in Schools Page 11 diversity, and to play an active role workshop, local co-ordinators pro- enhancing their schools’ ethos, and in democratic life, with the aim to vided support to schools with final- supporting their students. promote and defend democracy and ising the action plans, and then the the rule of law. The schools demon- schools began implementing them strated the willingness to enhance and shared their experiences in the We hope that this publication with inclusivity and expand the measures following two workshops. examples will become a guide for for eliminating prejudices and dis- continuing practice in these and all criminatory approach to vulnerable other schools in Serbia, and that the Using the Model of Competences groups, and to address the cases of process of fostering a democratic for Democratic Culture developed violence through strategic plans and school culture is becoming the obli- by the Council of Europe Education policies that contain special actions gation of all those that are involved Department, the teams from select- to fight discrimination and mecha- with schools. ed schools, composed of teachers, nisms to monitor such measures. pedagogists, psychologists and prin- cipals, developed examples of best The Ministry of Education, Science Prior to the beginning of imple practice and piloted them in teach- and Technological Development, mentation of the activities in this ing and extracurricular activities, also together with the Council of Europe, project in schools, local co-or involving the wider local community. continues to provide its support to dinators were selected and trained, the projects that increase the quality and they visited all the schools and Within the framework of twenty of the educational system and make informed them about the concept of competences from the Model of the society better. competences for democratic culture. Competences, from the values, at- The schools opted for three priority titudes, skills and critical thinking competences which they were to groups, the schools organised a implement through planned activi- large number of various activities, ties. In the first peer learning event, with a pedagogical approach app a three-day workshop or ganised ropriate to the development of the for the participants in this project, a competences for democratic cul- hundred school representatives ac- ture and creation of a more pleas- quired knowledge about the build- ant, interesting, and secure school ing of specific competences, and environment, at the same time their connection with the national strengthening their capacities for eli legislative and strategic framework. minating violent, discriminatory and The schools also drafted action plans anti-democratic structures in their for the ensuing period. After the schools and school surroundings,
How to Achieve a Democratic Culture in Schools Page 12 About the publication T he Fostering a Democratic into good practice examples includ- – teaching and learning, school cul- School Culture project, jointly fi- ed in this publication. ture, and co-operation between the nanced by the European Union school and the local community. and the Council of Europe through In the Introduction, the readers can the joint programme Horizontal Fa learn about the perspectives of the The fourth section of the central part cilityfor Western Balkans and Turkey, Ministry of Education, Science and of the publication shows thirty ex- was a joint endeavour of the various Technological Development of the amples of school practice grouped stakeholders of the educational sys- Republic of Serbia and the Council of in three categories, according to tem in Serbia. It brought together Europe, that is, the basis for planning the aspects of school functioning. the representatives of the institu- and motivation for implementing The examples of teaching activities tions from different levels of man- this project. The Introduction also ex- (area 1) demonstrate how, through agement of the educational system plains the educational policy context the curriculum, by various methods (from practitioners to decision-mak- in which the project was implement- of teaching and learning, and in the ers), and representatives of different ed, and from which the examples of learning environment, competenc- sectors (government and non-gov- good school practice were derived. es for democratic culture can be ernmental). Similarly, this publication strengthened. The examples of extra is intended for a varied audience – Part One provides short descriptions curricular activities (area 2) show how teachers looking for inspiration and of the schools participating in the student participation and the overall innovation, decision-makers wishing project, which allows the reader to school atmosphere can be based to form a view of the democratic cul- get acquainted with the schools on democratic principles, and can ture in school practice, non-govern- and their motivation, and with the emanate openness, trust, and good mental organisations and research- members of school teams who were inter-personal relations. Finally, the ers who are in search of indicators of directly involved in shaping the ex- examples of activities directed at good democratic school practices, amples of best practice. building the competences through and to the general public interested co-operation with the local commu in the topic of competences for dem- Part Two is the central part of the nity (area 3) demonstrate how the ocratic culture. In other words, the publication and comprises four sec- competences for democratic culture publication is intended for all those tions. of not only individuals – partici- who believe that the democratisa- pants in the school system (students, tion of the educational process is not Sections one, two and three describe teachers, parents) - but also the wid- only a priority, but also the way in the conceptual framework of the er community, can be enhanced. which the equity and inclusiveness Council of Europe from which the of education can be achieved. examples of good practice resulted. The last section of the publication The first section briefly describes the contains a few words about its edi The publication, How to Achieve a Reference Framework of Compe- tors. Democratic Culture in Schools, is a tences for Democratic Culture. The result of multiannual work of the second section shows the Model of schools participating in the project, Competences (an integral part of the which, through dedication and com- Reference Framework), i.e. describes mitment to democratic principles the individual and psychological re- and values, made great inroads in sources that need to be systematical- the democratisation of school cul- ly developed in the appropriate en- ture and the local community cul- vironment so that students become ture. Participating in this two-year capable of adequately participating project, relying on the Council of Eu- in the culture of democracy. The third rope Framework of Competences for section talks about the schools’ ap- Democratic Culture, the schools ad- proach to building such competenc- ditionally strengthened their capac- es, integrating the democratic values ities and “polished” their skills, and and principles of human rights in then translated their experiences three aspects of school functioning
PART ONE: Schools and Project Teams
1 2 Primary School Primary School “Žarko Zrenjanin“ “Dušan Dugalić“ Banatsko Novo Selo Belgrade www.oszarkozrenjanin.edu.rs www.osdugalic.edu.rs T P he school was founded in Novo Selo as far back rimary School “Dušan Dugalić” was established on as 1772, with a single class and one teacher. the territory of the city municipality of Vračar in Nowadays it is a multi-ethnic school where 1961. Today, it educates 93 pupils, and its curricula teaching is organised in both Serbian and Romanian. are adapted to the individual abilities of pupils. The The project team comprises Jelena Bogojević, Mariana pupils also learn the English language. The teachers use Karabaš, Branka Stjepanović, Snežana Knežević, Gordana the complex method, thematic planning, re-education Topić, Bilјana Maksimović, Tina Tomašević, Gabrijela method, individual work, pair work, workshops, work Buzadžin, Marinel Blaž, Bilјana Beka and Trezika Roškulec, with assistive technologies, and work in the sensory together with pupils, parents, and other employees. room. They think that, during the project, they successfully connected teaching and extracurricular activities to The school’s project team comprises Branislava Živanović, strengthen the programme basis for the improvement Bilјana Petrović, Ivana Milojević, Goran Rojević, Jasmina of the school work in the area of education about values, Kovačević, dr Ivana Mitrović Đorđević, Sašenka Mirković, beliefs and habits, bring the staff closer together on the and all employees, parents, and pupils, who are at the basis of certain things that did not use to be part of the centre of all that is happening in the school. regular practice (strengthening co-operation between committees and teachers’ meetings, correlation and thematic planning) and identified the resources the school has, particularly human resources.
3 4 School for Tourism Primary School and Hospitality “Zdravko Gložanski“ Belgrade Bečej www.ut-skola.znanje.info www.zdravkovci.edu.rs S P chool for Tourism and Hospitalityis the oldest and rimary School “Zdravko Gložanski” is the largest largest school in the region which educates students bilingual school in Bečej and is well-known for its in the fields of gastronomy, catering, and tourism. significant support to interculturalism in the school. It was founded in 1938. The school is now attended by The school is attended by the pupils of the Serbian and 1,156 students in 37 classes within six educational profiles Hungarian nationality. Owing to the differences that – cook, waiter, confectioner, culinary technician, catering bring them closer together, they achieve good results, technician and tourism technician. For the implementation particularly in the development and implementation of practical teaching and dual education the school uses of new educational policies and ideas. In its region, the its workshop in the “Palas” Hotel. school is known as the school open to all children that actively promotes social and educational inclusion in the The fostering of an inclusive environment and local community. enhancing interculturalism and tolerance is one of the development goals of the school and entails long- The school is also known for developing creative thinking term international co-operation with educational and involving parents in all spheres of its work, but the institutions from other countries, based on student project increased the participation of pupils through the and teacher mobility programmes, attending practical implementation of training on the participation ladder. classes, and participation in international competitions Project-based teaching and research are widely used. in gastronomy, catering and tourism. The project Now there is an active debating club, and debate has also team members are Zorica Mihailović, Snježana Krstić, found its place in teaching. Slobodanka Cvetković, Jelena Šalipurović, Dušan Komlenac, Boško Šindić and Ljilјana Mihailović. Gender equality is accepted as an important principle in the school and in horizontal learning and teaching, and the Gender Equality Index will enable them to monitor the development of equality in the school.
5 6 Technical School Primary School “Sveti Sava“ Bor Vladičin Han www.tsbor.edu.rs www.svetisavavhan.edu.rs Т P he Technical School from Bor is a secondary rimary School “Sveti Sava” in Vladičin Han started in VET school, founded in 1945 by the Ministry of 1995. Today, it has 612 pupils in 32 classes, of which Mining for the purposes of education of workers 11 are detached to Prekodolac, Žitorađa, Polom for the Mining and Smelting Basin Bor and other mines and Kržinac. The project team comprises Maja Dodić in the country.The school has become the Centre for Đorđević, Olivera Kostić, Lidija Tašić, Danica Stanković Continuing Adult Education and provides the services and Gorica Kovačević. of non-formal education to adult students in the form of short modules and trainings. The school also has the Through the project, the school improved intercultural Student Co-Operative with a bakery and a hairdressing activities and exchange with the local community to salon. become the cultural centre of the community. The project team believes that the participation in the Fostering a Democratic School Culture project gave them an opportunity to increase their openness to cultural otherness and other beliefs, co-operation skills and respect. The team comprises Sonja Glišić, Nataša Džaković, Valentina Dimitrijević, Ana Vukojević, Marina Živković, Dragana Ćosić, Suzana Ilić and Ljubinka Aksić.
7 8 Secondary School Primary School “Miloje Vasić“ “Jovan Jovanović Zmaj“ Veliko Gradište Đurđevo www.ssvg.edu.rs www.zmaj.edu.rs T T he present Secondary School was founded back in he languages of instruction in Primary School 1879 and is located on the Wheat Square, which is “Jovan Jovanović Zmaj” in Đurđevo are Serbian and a part of the cultural and historical spatial unit - the Ruthenian, and this is the second Council of Europe old town centre of Veliko Gradište. The school is the place project in which the school has participated. The project for learning, socialising, and many of its extracurricular team, comprising Vukica Petrović, Marija Trtić, Jugoslava activities are important both to its students and the local Rađen, Svetlana Šovlјanski and Julkica Ljilјanić, realised community. The project team comprises Velina Stojković, the following activities within this project: the “Chemistry Zoran Tašić, Aleksandra Dimitrijević, Bilјana Lukić, Goran Test“ forum theatre, “Stop to Violence“ workshop, life Mišić, Vesna Novković, Nataša S. Stević, Nataša T. Stević and learning in democracy in the English language, “Life and Sanja Stefanović. behind Walls“ workshop with the Residential Institution from Čurug, “We live in Europe“ workshop, “Democratic The team members believe that they have managed Culture” quiz, etc. to raise the level of knowledge and awareness of teachers, students and the local community about the concept, practice and significance of developing democratic competences in the school and the wider local community, to improve students’ skills for resolving conflict situations in a non-violent manner, to form a group of peer educators, etc. This is why this school is the centre of local events and life of the town.
9 10 Zemun Gymnasium School with Dorm for Chil- dren with Impaired Hearing and Speech „11. maj“ Zemun, Belgrade Jagodina www.zemunskagimnazija.edu.rs www.11maj.edu.rs T T he Zemun Gymnasium has been the town’s he school promotes teachers’ creative work with landmark since inception, and in 1911, when the students, but also the creativity of students Students Library was established, it also became themselves in the field of drama, sensitisation of the cultural centre of Zemun. Already in the school year the local and wider community, co-operation with the of 1912/13, students gave a lecture on young poets elderly citizens, and the engagement of staff in adopting (Milan Rakić) for the students and people of Zemun. The new European trends in the field of surdoaudiology for educational club “Branko Radičević” was formed, only to the purpose of advancing their working practices. The grow into the Yugoslav Secondary School Educational current collection of delivered lessons and materials Club “Branko Radičević” between the two world wars. will be made available to other schools, as part of It was active until World War II. Today the Zemun the professional exchange in the development of Gymnasium is a modern school that takes part in many key competences, by applying the multidisciplinary projects and advances its practice. approach, and it will be supplemented with the new content created within the project. The project team, The school’s project team, comprising Mirko Milojević, composed of Vesna Vukićević, Aleksandra Kostić, Jelena Sanja Štrbac, Bilјana Grujović, Jelena Međedović and Mihajlović, Nikola Rajić and Nikola Stanojević, has Minja Ivanović, implemented numerous activities of contributed most to the achievements within the project. interacting with and connecting secondary school student parliaments in the region with Belgrade secondary school parliaments; strengthened the respect of the students’ rights, obligations, and participation of the local community, and is planning new activities with its students, so that the Zemun Gymnasium remains the cultural centre of Zemun.
11 12 Agricultural-chemical sec- Primary School ondary school “Miroslav Antić Mika“ “Dr Đorđe Radić“ Kralјevo Pančevo www.ratarica.edu.rs www.osmantic.edu.rs T T he school dates back to 1882, when dr Đorđe he school is developing and becoming larger owing Radić, a teacher in the School of Agriculture and to its teaching and extracurricular activities. The Forestry in Požarevac, was appointed the principal project team, comprising Dragana Krstić, Radmila of the newly founded school for crop farming in Kralјevo Kišić Novaković, Jasna Sladaković, Mirjana Davidović, by decree. Nowadays, it is a modern school, educating Marijana Radivojev, Radica Milovanović and Ivana Baškot, students in the fields of agriculture, food production as well as all pupils, employees and parents, have the and processing, and chemistry, non-ferrous metals pleasure of strengthening their co-operation skills and and printing. The project team, comprising Marsela participating in the activities of valuing, democracy, Eskenazi Milutinović, Aleksandra Jovankin Aleksić, Ivana justice, fairness, equality, empathy and the rule of law. Čađenović, Ana Radenković, Bilјana Bošković, Violeta Ivković and Marija Žarković, implemented the activities of strengthening conflict resolution skills, learning about Roma culture, forum theatre, etc.
13 14 Technical School Agricultural School with “23. maj“ Dormitory “Sonja Marinković“ Pančevo Požarevac www.skola23maj.edu.rs www.poljsk.edu.rs T T he school educates students in four areas of work, he school is considered to be the place where participates in many projects, and takes particular students gain personal experience in democratic care of the health and safety of its students. The procedures and processes, participate through project team, comprising Nataša Zečević, Zorica Prpa, dialogue, consensus, non-violent resolution of conflict, Nataša Stankovski, Branislava Krga, Ljilјana Đuretanović, communication and interaction, establishing the culture Vukica Stanojević Momčilović and Dragana Vučić, of rights and responsibilities. The school provides for implemented numerous activities relating to non-violent gradual acquisition of knowledge about democratic conflict resolution and openness of the school to cultural competences and skills required for the development otherness. of democracy, civil and civic society, which is the main responsibility of the project team comprising Marina Perić, Ivan Perić, Sanja Živković, Milena Jovanović and Nada Jelić. Students’ comments: “We learnt something new that we can apply in school“, “We found out how good it is to work as a team“, “For the first time, we are in our teacher’s shoes and we liked it very much“, “We spoke, danced and sang in the languages of national minorities for the first time“, “We brought the Miljacka river closer to the Morava river“. Teachers’ comments: “How creative our students are when we give them the freedom“, “Us and parents towards the same goal”. Parents’ comments: “Our children can do anything, with the support of adults”, “For the first time were took the role of our children”, “The workshop brought us back to school“.
15 16 Požarevac Primary School Gymnasium “Radoje Domanović“ Požarevac Niš www.pozarevackagimnazija.edu.rs www.osrdomanovic.edu.rs T I he Požarevac Gymnasium tradition is 150 years n this school Serbs, Roma, Russian, Belarusians, old and many of its students were and are highly Spaniards, Greeks and Bulgarians learn as equals. accomplished people. The school has attached The school intensively collaborates with partner particular importance to learning foreign languages institutions: primary schools “Ratko Vukićević“ and (English, Russian, French, German and Italian). “Dositej Obradović“, “Do-re-mi“ Music School, “Maslačak“ Kindergarten, and the School of Fashion and Beauty from Taking part in this project is a continuation of the school’s Niš. creative activities. The project team is copomsed of: Miloš Jeremić, Nataša Berić, Danijela Žukovski, Jana Jacić, The team members, Dušica Tričković, Ljilјana Radovanović Živkica Đorđević, Nenad Milošević, Kristijan Marković, Tošić, Nataša Ignjatović, Desanka Nešić, Gordana Rako, Maja Jovanović Gligorijević, Katarina Vukašinović and Sanja Pešić, Danijela Tričković, Aleksandra Gligorijević Dragana Mihajlović. This team has developed the and Aleksandar Asanović intensively work on fostering activities that are primarily focused on fostering the skills co-operation inside and outside school, respecting the of listening and observing, critical understanding of the rights of students and developing creativity in all fields self, and encouraging co-operation. of work. All are respected and respect one another. Besides promoting the work of the school and its pupils, the Domanovići also promote the work of neighbouring schools. They never claim to be the best in something, although there is plenty of proof that this is indeed the case in many activities.
17 18 School of Fashion and Primary School Beauty “Bratstvo“ Niš Novi Pazar www.skolamodeilepote.com www.osnovneskole.edukacija.rs/drza- vne/novi-pazar/os-bratstvo S T chool of Fashion and Beauty has been around for he school has about 1,600 pupils instructed in more than a century. Throughout its 135 years, Serbian or Bosnian language. Cultural diversity is the school has changed names and introduced the advantage nurtured by the school, and the new fields of work, in accordance with the needs of democratic competences are a special responsibility the society. In addition to introducing new profiles, of the project team: Malić Saračević, Dejan Kulundžić, the school followed all the developments in the area Ajhana Dukađinac, Slađana Velјović, Goran Bogdanović, of interpersonal relations, democracy, tolerance and Marija Radomirović, Elmir Habibović, Teodora Drašković, multiculturality. Mersada Mašović, and Bilјana Vulović. Although the school has a large number of pupils and has to work in Dual education enabled students to parallelly learn three shifts, it does not prevent it from organising many how to become good hairdressers, manicurists and extracurricular activities. pedicurists, cosmetic technicians, masseurs, carers, tailors, and how to be tolerant, empathic mediators, ready for life in a democratic society. That is the responsibility of the project team, comprising Radmila Ilić, Julijana Milivojević, Radmila Nikolić, Milan Kostić, Milan Vukić, Vesna Živković and Marina Marinković. Many years of co-operation with NGOs, associations and institutions, and a large number of projects help the School of Fashion and Beauty in Niš to (continue to) be an educational institution oriented towards the future.
19 20 Primary School Primary School “Matko Vuković“ “Velјko Dugošević“ Subotica Turija www.matkovukovic.edu.rs www.vdugosevic.edu.rs T T he school operates in four buildings, and the he school in Turija, in both its central and detached languages of instruction are Serbian, Croatian, and facilities, is an example of the fast development Serbian/English. Our staff is also involved in the of and change in the quality of the school’s work process of educating migrant children from reception in all areas. Democratic competences and their internal centres. indicators, as well as the Living Library, are examples of the results of great effort invested by the project team, The project team comprises Mirjana Stevanović, Nada comprising Jelena Živanović, Nebojša Ilić, Ivana Pavlović, Dimović, Marijana Dobrilović, Bilјana Vujević, Katarina Sofia Milenković, Sanela Ankić, Vesna Velimirović and Božić Petronijević, Mirjana Ivanković, Nenad Stojanović, Milica Jeremić. Students who commute to school are Ramadan Mehmedi, Vukica Marković, Sanja Milјković and provided with a fresh meal and a warm place to stay, Miran Bačlija. which demonstrates that the school is a place for living. We do not learn for school, but for life! They organise activities aimed at increasing empathy and valuing diversity, improving mutual support between pupils, accepting differences as something that constitutes a value and advantage of a society, creating a better climate in pupil-child-parent relations, etc.
PART TWO: Competences for Democratic Culture and Examples of Best Practice Aimed at Strengthening Competences
How to Achieve a Democratic Culture in Schools Page 26 Council of Europe Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture F For the Council of Europe, the The Framework has three volumes. pedagogical practice, assessment, purpose of education, among The first is the Model of Competences teacher education, the whole-school other things, is to prepare stu- for Democratic Culture (Model), adopt- approach to strengthening democrat- dents for democratic citizenship, that ed in 2016 by the standing conference ic culture and building resilience to is, for competent participation in a of ministers of education of the Coun- radicalisation). democratic culture. Based on this, and cil of Europe member states, devel- with the awareness of the complex oped by an international inter-discipli- The sections below present in detail and culturally diverse societies that nary expert group. The second volume the model competences for demo- comprises competence descriptors, cratic culture, followed by the whole are constantly changing, the Refer- intended to help teachers to plan their school approach, that the Council of ence Framework of Competences for teaching activities and assess the level Europe presents as a useful approach Democratic Culture (Framework)4 was of achievement of planned outcome. to building democratic culture u developed. The Framework is a result The descriptors were tested in by schools in Volume 3. This approach is of broad consultations and testing car- schools in sixteen countries. The third also further elaborated with the exam- ried out in the Council of Europe mem- volume provide guidance on how the ples of school activities, that is, exam- ber states and is built on the principles Model can be integrated in the school ples of good practice of the schools of democracy and human rights. context (guidance for the curriculum, that participated in the project. Model of Competences for Democratic Culture M odel of Competences for The Model is based on the concepts but various individuals will appropri- Democratic Culture5 is a con of identity, culture, intercultural- ate and use various clusters of such ceptual model of compe- ism and intercultural dialogue. The resources, depending on the extent tences, that is, individual and psycho- identity denotes a person’s sense of to which they are available to them. logical resources, to be acquired in who they are and self-descriptions Therefore, cultures are basically un- order to participate adequately and to which they attribute significance derstood as heterogenous, dynamic and value. Culture refers to the net- and changeable, and individuals can effectively in a culture of democracy. work of material, social and subjec- belong to several cultural groups at A democratically competent individ- tive resources that the members of a the same time. Interculturalism, or ual, together with others, successfully culture have and use. Many resources intercultural situations arise when participates in a culturally diverse so- from these three groups are available an individual perceives another in- ciety. to all members of that cultural group, dividual (or a group) as culturally dif- 4 https://www.coe.int/en/web/education/competences-for-democratic-culture 5 https://rm.coe.int/competences-for-democratic-culture-srp/1680782138
How to Achieve a Democratic Culture in Schools Page 27 ferent from themselves. Intercultural petences can be defined as the The Model is intended for decision situations, identified in this way, may ability to mobilise and use relevant makers, to inform their policy plan- involve individuals from different psychological resources (values, atti- ning and decision-making. In addi- countries and regions, people who tudes, skills, knowledge, and critical tion, it is intended for teachers and speak a different language, have dif- understanding) in order to respond other practitioners in the field of ed- ferent ethnic background, faith, gen- appropriately and effectively to the ucation – as a tool for preparing the der, sexual orientation, education, demands, challenges and opportu- students and young people for life as occupation, socioeconomic status, nities presented by democratic and competent democratic citizens, but etc. Therefore, intercultural dialogue intercultural situations. Competence also as a tool for assessing own prac- is defined as an open exchange of is, therefore, a dynamic process. tices and competences. views, based on mutual understand- ing and respect, between individuals The Model contains twenty com- or groups who perceive themselves petences grouped in four broad as having different cultural affilia- clusters: values, attitudes, skills, and tions. knowledge and critical understand- ing, and implies that the develop- Moreover, as its name implies, the ment of such democratic competenc- Model is based on the concept of es requires a systemic engagement competences. According to the in an enabling environment. School Council of Europe, democratic com- is definitely such an environment. Valuing human dignity and human rights VALUES This value is based on the general belief that every individual human being is of equal worth, has equal dignity, is entitled to equal respect, and is entitled to the same set of human rights and fundamental free- doms, and ought to be treated accordingly. Valuing cultural diversity T his value is based on the general belief that other cultural affiliations, cultural variability and diversity, and pluralism of perspectives, views and practices ought to be positively regarded, appreciated and cher- ished. Valuing democracy, justice, fairness, equality and the rule of law The set of values based on the general belief that the societies ought to operate and be governed by democratic processes respecting the principles of justice, fairness, equality, and the rule of law.
How to Achieve a Democratic Culture in Schools Page 28 Openness to cultural otherness and to other beliefs, world ATTITUDES views and practices Openness is an attitude towards the people who are perceived to have different cultural affiliations from oneself or towards world views, beliefs, values and practices that differ from one’s own. Openness involves sensitivity, curiosity, and readiness to interact with other people and other world views. Respect Respect is a positive attitude towards someone or something judged to have some kind of importance, worth or value. Having respect towards other people who are perceived to have different cultural affiliations or different beliefs, opinions or practices from one’s own is of key importance for effective intercultural dia- logue and the culture of democracy. Civic-mindedness Civic-mindedness is an attitude towards a community or social group to which one belongs that is larger than one’s immediate circle of family and friends. Civic-mindedness involves a feeling of belonging to the community, mindfulness of other people in the community and the effects of one’s actions on those people, solidarity with other members of the community, and a sense of civic duty towards the community. Responsibility Responsibility is an attitude towards one’s own actions. It is reflection on own actions, forming intentions about how to act in a morally appropriate manner, conscious execution of such actions, and holding one- self accountable for the outcomes of such acts. Self-efficacy Self-efficacy is an attitude towards the self. It involves a positive belief in one’s own ability to undertake the actions which are required to achieve particular goals, and confidence that one can understand what is required, can select appropriate methods for accomplishing tasks, can navigate obstacles successfully, can make a difference in the world. Tolerance of ambiguity Tolerance of ambiguity is an attitude towards situations which are uncertain and subject to multiple con- flicting interpretations. Tolerance is positive evaluation of such situations and dealing with them con- structively. Autonomous learning skills SKILLS Autonomous learning skills are required to pursue, organise and evaluate own learning in accordance with own needs, in self-directed manner, without being prompted by others. Analytical and critical thinking skills Analytical and critical thinking skills are those skills that are required to analyse, evaluate and make judg- ments about materials of any kind (for example texts, arguments, interpretations, issues, events, experi- ences, etc.) in a systematic and logical manner. Skills of listening and observing Skills of listening and observing are the skills that are required to notice and understand what is being said and how it is being said, and to notice and understand the non-verbal behaviour of other people.
How to Achieve a Democratic Culture in Schools Page 29 Empathy SKILLS Empathy is the set of skills required to understand and relate to other people’s thoughts, beliefs and feel- ings, and to see the world from other people’s perspectives. Flexibility and adaptability Flexibility and adaptability are the skills that are required to adjust and regulate one’s thoughts, feelings or behaviours so that one can respond effectively and appropriately to new contexts and situations. Linguistic, communicative and plurilingual skills Linguistic, communicative and plurilingual skills are those skills that are required to communicate effec- tively and appropriately with other people who speak the same or a different language and to act as a mediator between those who speak different languages. Co-operation skills Co-operation skills are those skills that are required to participate successfully with others on shared activ- ities, tasks and ventures, and to encourage others to co-operate in order to achieve group goals. Conflict-resolution skills Conflict-resolution skills are those skills that are required to address, manage and resolve conflicts in a peaceful way, by guiding the conflicting parties towards optimal solutions acceptable to all parties. Knowledge and critical understanding of the self Knowledge and critical understanding Knowledge and critical understanding of the self includes the knowledge and critical understanding of one’s own thoughts, beliefs, feelings and motivations, one’s own cultural affiliation and perspective of the world. Knowledge and critical understanding of language and communication Knowledge and critical understanding of language and communication include the knowledge and crit- ical understanding of socially appropriate verbal and non-verbal communicative conventions which op- erate in the language(s) which one speaks, effects of different communication styles on other people, and the way in which each language expresses culturally shared ideas in a unique way. Knowledge and critical understanding of the world Knowledge and critical understanding of the world subsumes a large and complex range of knowledge and understanding in a variety of domains including politics, law, human rights, culture, cultures, reli- gions, history, media, economies, environment and sustainability.
How to Achieve a Democratic Culture in Schools Page 30 The Whole-School Approach T he whole-school approach6 in- The principles that underlie the whole-school approach: tegrates democratic values and human rights principles into • local context – a democratic school culture cannot teaching and learning, governance be imposed from outside, but needs to be built in and the overall atmosphere of the co-operation of all key stakeholders in the school school providing the students with system and local community; the experience, development, and practical application of democratic • empowering all key stakeholders to understand competences. The three areas where the school situation and give their individual democratic values and human rights principles need to be integrated in contribution to addressing common issues. This order to build the competences for increases the sense of ownership of change in all democratic culture are: participants in the school life; • encouraging learning by doing and participation 1. TEACHING AND LEARNING, – daily practice of competences for democratic culture, participatory decision making, respect and 2. SCHOOL CULTURE, AND equality, democratic teaching and learning methods, 3. CO-OPERATION WITH THE LOCAL partnership and co-operation; COMMUNITY. • integrating capacity building and strengthening of democratic culture in school policies and For democratic culture and respect for human rights to become a real- documents; ity in the community and society, it • supporting local projects and initiatives over the long is important that they first become a reality in educational institutions. term– systemic change does not happen quickly, it Schools are where young people takes time to overcome resistance to change and actually get their first opportunity transform relations and practices in schools. outside the family to develop the democratic competences that they need for living in culturally and so- The whole-school approach implies mind that strengthening democratic cially diverse societies. Knowing that, the active involvement and commit- culture and integrating the principles it is necessary that the incentives for ment of all stakeholders in the school of democracy and human rights into such development be incorporated system and the co mmu nity where all aspects of school functioning is a in the school curriculum and, equally, the school is located. It, therefore, gradual process that takes time. in all aspects of school life – for exam- implies the co-operation of school ple, participation in shared decision administration, pedagogy and psy- making and school governance can chology office, teachers, students In the next section of this publication, lead to gaining practical knowledge and parents, representatives of local on the examples of good school pra and develop trust in the democrat- institutions and the community in ctices, it will be shown how various ic and participative processes. Also, general. The three areas (teaching com petences for democratic culture research has already demonstrated and learning, school culture, and are connected with each area, and how that positive school environment, co-operation with the local commu- such approach contributes to the de- that the students feel as a safe envi- nity) are not independent from each velopment of students’ competences ronment where they can learn and other but overlap, meaning that the for democratic culture, enhancement spend time to get her, is associated activities and changes in one area of the schools’ democratic culture, and with good school achievements and will have an impact on the others. development of an inclusive and dem- later life satisfaction. However, it is important to have in ocratic society. 6 https://rm.coe.int/prems-008518-gbr-2508-reference-framework-of-competences-vol-3-8575-co/16807bc66e
Examples of Best Practice Aimed at Strengthening Competences Area 1. Teaching and Learning The school’s programme provides How can this be ensured? By: The examples that represent good numerous opportunities for learning practice of the schools participating about democracy and human rights at a formal level. Competences for • Promoting participation and in the project demonstrate ways of strengthening democratic com pe respect and encouraging stu democratic culture may be incorpo- dents to express their own opi tences through teaching activities. rated into the school curriculum as a nions and emotions, joint setting The examples not only offer the separate subject, separate teaching and respecting of ground rules. ideas about the ways in which com- units in difference subjects, and at petences for democratic culture can a cross-curricular level (as a theme within some or all subjects). • Peer learning and assessment. be strengthened in different classes and in different areas (themes), but Different teaching and lear ning • Co-operative and project-based describe very vividly how one activ- ity may strengthen entire clusters of learning, discussions, and group methods and learning environments work. mutually inseparable competences. have a great impact on the develop- ment of democratic com petences. They give students the opportunity • Collaboration between teachers of different subjects in planning, to learn through the experience of action research, and analysis of democracy and human rights ‘in ac- own practices. tion’ – in the classroom, which is a safe place, where students feel free to exchange their experiences and to • Using various sources that enable students to consider and explore learn, actively participating in teach- alternative perspectives with ing and learning processes. others, etc.
How to Achieve a Democratic Culture in Schools Page 32 Workshops at Form Teacher Classes Primary School “Radoje Domanović“, Niš Competence: Responsibility Aim of the activity was to introduce pupils, in a most straightforward manner, to democratic val- ues, human rights, and examples of the violation of human rights. Topics addressed by the workshops included: pupil participation, responsibility, co-operation, toler- ance, pluralism, violation of human rights, learning about differences. Examples of preparation for a form teacher class have been taken from the Council of Europe Manual “Living in Democracy“ 7. Оutcomes: pupils will have greater awareness of the presence of discrimination and understanding of it; express their opinion about the topic concerned; develop their grasp of the problem; suggest the ways to resolve the problem. Results Grade: By directly participating in workshops, pupils experi- Sixth (6/2) enced different situations from the point of view of the persons whose rights are threatened and those who Learning objectives of the lesson: threaten other people’s rights. The experience which Pupils become aware of social prejudices and they gained created conditions for understanding and discrimination. Pupils are able to understand the victims accepting democratic values much more directly and of discrimination and their situation. Pupils are capable strongly than through formal instruction. That the ef- of reacting appropriately in discrimination situations. fects on the attitudes of pupils were positive could be observed in subsequent discussions with the pupils. They would refer to their experiences from the work- Tasks: shops in some new situations that resembled those in Pupils discuss a case of discrimination and compare it the workshops. At the end of the form teacher class, with the situation in their community. form teachers received feedback from their pupils with regard to two questions: how did I feel during Teaching resources: the class (emoji grading scale), and were we learning Story, cards in this class? The feedback analysis shows that almost all of them felt very good and that they were indeed Methods: learning. Out of 360 fifth to eighth graders, only five Text-based discussion, critical thinking disagreed with the above statements. Lesson delivery report: With regard to the planning of these activities, the The workshop was delivered in a fortress, where the team recommends the following: pupils went in the company of their form teacher, in order to be in an environment most favourable for work • The contents should be adapted to suit the age of and contemplation. pupils; The pupils were divided into four groups in such a way • It is important to be familiar with the needs of that each group had a member belonging to the Roma community or a religion other than Serbian Orthodox. the class considering that not all offered content They first discussed the concept of discrimination, and then the text was read to them. 7 https://www.living-democracy.rs/textbooks/volume-3/
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