Integrated Nonlinear and Quantum Photonics - Matteo Galli Matteo Galli

 
Integrated Nonlinear and Quantum Photonics - Matteo Galli Matteo Galli
Integrated Nonlinear and Quantum
Photonics
                     Matteo Galli

                   Matteo Galli

   Incontri del Martedì, Pavia 17 Aprile 2018

 Congresso del Dipartimento di Fisica, 13-14 Settembre 2018
Integrated Nonlinear and Quantum Photonics - Matteo Galli Matteo Galli
Integrated Nonlinear and Quantum
             Photonics
     at the Physics Department

             Experimental Activity
             Matteo Galli and Daniele Bajoni

Micol Previde Massara, Marco Clementi, Francesco Garrisi,
            Federico Sabattoli, Andrea Barone

              Theoretical Activity
      Marco Liscidini, Dario Gerace, Lucio Andreani
Integrated Nonlinear and Quantum Photonics - Matteo Galli Matteo Galli
Integrated Silicon Photonics
Motivation: Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is still based on
integrated electronic circuits, but increases in their power consumption and
heat generation are now hampering further improvements in the speed and
capacity of ICT and also hindering the realization of the ‘Green Internet’

New approach: using light (photons) to move huge amounts of data at very
high speeds with extremely low power over a thin optical fiber rather than
using electrical signals over a copper cable

            Moving data with silicon and light
Integrated Nonlinear and Quantum Photonics - Matteo Galli Matteo Galli
Integrated Photonic Circuits

                               1 mm
               1 μm
Integrated Nonlinear and Quantum Photonics - Matteo Galli Matteo Galli
Nonlinear Optics in Photonic Crystal Cavities
 Use a photonic crystal (PhC) cavity to strongly enhance nonlinear
                optical properties of host material

                         THG , l = 525 nm THG , l = 451 nm

                                                           1 µm

 • Very efficient second- and third-harmonic generation at ultra-low
   pump power (µW) in continuous-wave regime

• Realization of a bright, visible and microscopic light source in
  different integrated platforms: Si, SiN, GaN, …
Integrated Nonlinear and Quantum Photonics - Matteo Galli Matteo Galli
All-optical switching (transistor) in Si PhC nanocavities
                                          0.4
     Pulsed pump laser
                                          0.3                                           All-optical

                           Transmission
                                                                                     sw itching w ith
                                                                                       fem tojoule
                                          0.2                                             pow er

                                          0.1

                                          0.0
                                           148 0   148 1     148 2           148 3           148 4       148 5
                                                           W aveleng th (nm)

             All-optical RAM in Si PhC nanocavities
IR control beam                                                      write

                                                                                     reset

                                                               storage                         storage
            1 µm

                                                                               Time (µs)
Integrated Nonlinear and Quantum Photonics - Matteo Galli Matteo Galli
Light Emission in Silicon
          Use a photonic crystal (PhC) cavity to realize
         an efficient and integrated light source in silicon

• Electrically driven                • Emits in the telecom window
• Operates CW at room T              • Is small (µm-sized)
• Exhibits a narrow linewidth        • Operates at low power
Integrated Nonlinear and Quantum Photonics - Matteo Galli Matteo Galli
Integrated Quantum Photonics
Integrated quantum photonics uses photonic integrated circuits to
control photonic quantum states for applications in quantum
technologies.

integrated quantum photonics provides a promising approach to the
miniaturization and optical scaling of optical quantum circuits.

Major areas of application of integrated quantum photonics include: quantum
computing, quantum communication, quantum simulation, quantum walks
and quantum metrology.

Quantum photonics is expected to play a central role in advancing future
technologies - such as Quantum Information Processing (QIP).

Photons are particularly attractive carriers of quantum information due to
their low decoherence properties, light-speed transmission and ease of
manipulation.
Integrated Nonlinear and Quantum Photonics - Matteo Galli Matteo Galli
Integrated Source of Entangled Photons

                       Photon pair generation by
                         resonantly enhanced
                     spontaneous four wave mixing

                                    js           ji

                                   Signal    Idler
                                  counter   counter

                         signal          Event        idler
                                         timer

                   D. Grassani et al., Optica 2, 88-94 (2015)
Integrated Nonlinear and Quantum Photonics - Matteo Galli Matteo Galli
Chip-to-chip Entanglement

            N. Harris et al., Phys. Rev. X 4, 041047 (2014)
ich does not take into account of eventual phase correlation. From the experimental data we

               Stimulated Emission Tomography
  is very close to the expected K, as in a ring resonator the phase of the BWF is predicted to
ying the spectral region in which most of the generation occurs.
nt we consider the case of CW pump, thus the generated photons are expected to be highly-
we show the corresponding measured JSD. Our pump has a coherence time of about 1 µs,
                                             4P
predicted K = 37038. A lower bound analysis here, yielding Kbound =3.93, is too severely
                                  P       =Q
                                     i , st
 correlated, and that our technique is          P        s the data clearly confirms that the
 ntal resolution to be used in a quantitative analysis. Yet
                                         able to discriminate  i , sp a device would generate
                                                          2 whether
 ghly-correlated photon pairs.               !w           p

                    almost unentangled                            strongly entangled

                               Δλ S (pm)

                                                    D. Grassani
ured joint spectral density (JSD) for a 21 ps laser pump        et al.
                                                         pulse and  (b)Scientific Reports 6, 23564 (2016)
                                                                        corresponding
Flagship on Quantum Technologies
"With quantum theory now fully established, we are required to look at the world
in a fundamentally new way: objects can be in different states at the same time
(superposition) and can be deeply connected without any direct physical
interaction (entanglement)"

       • Quantum Communication               • Quantum Simulators
       • Quantum Sensing                     • Quantum Computers
European Project QUANTERA
         Project CUSPIDOR - 2018-2021 (D. Gerace and M. Galli)

         Development of novel single photon sources in the
   telecommunication wavelength range based on group IV CMOS

• A room-temperature electrically driven silicon-germanium quantum dot
  based deterministic single photon source

• A single-photon source based on the unconventional photon blockade
CUSPIDOR Consortium

    JKU - Johannes Kepler Universität Linz
    T. Fromherz

CIT - Cork Institute of Technology - CIT
                              L. O Faolain

  Masaryk University
  P. Klenovsky

                  Tyndall National Institute
                                    S. Fahy
Dipartimento di Eccellenza
         Fisica quantistica: fondamenti e tecnologie
Potenziare la ricerca sperimentale in quantum photonics finalizzata allo
sviluppo di nuove tecnologie quantistiche

•   Creazione di un laboratorio avanzato di fotonica quantistica finalizzato alla
    generazione e manipolazione di stati quantistici (1.45 MEuro)
•   estendere i risultati ottenuti a sistemi a più alta dimensionalità e comprendenti un
    più elevato numero di particelle (hyper-entanglement, entanglement swapping)
•   Sviluppo di nuove sorgenti mediante due distinti approcci, fluorescenza
    parametrica e nonlinerità a singolo fotone, sfruttando confinamento della luce in
    sistemi micro e nanostrutturati
•   sviluppo di sorgenti nonclassiche che siano integrate, portatili, possibilmente
    operanti a temperatura ambiente, e interfacciabili con le infrastrutture telecom
    esistenti.

Creare un percorso didattico di laurea magistrale
•   Istituzione di un nuovo curriculum di Fisica e Tecnologie Quantistiche, con
    l'ampliamento dell'offerta didattica e la creazione di un nuovo laboratorio didattico di
    fotonica quantistica
Ongoing Collaborations
  ST Microelectronics
   A. Fincato

           JKU - Johannes Kepler Universität Linz
                                        T. Fromherz
School of Physics and Astronomy, University of
St. Andrews, United Kingdom
L. O Faolain

           Massachussets Institue of Technology USA
                                N. Harris, D. Englund

University of Toronto, Canada
 J. Sipe

EPFL | École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne

                                  C. Galland, V. Savona
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