Kiribati Education Fact Sheets I 2021 - MICS-EAGLE Analyses for learning and equity using data from Kiribati Development Indicator Survey ...

 
Kiribati Education Fact Sheets I 2021 - MICS-EAGLE Analyses for learning and equity using data from Kiribati Development Indicator Survey ...
Kiribati Education
Fact Sheets I 2021

Analyses for learning and equity using
data from Kiribati Development Indicator
Survey 2018–2019
(as part of the global MICS initiative)

       MICS-EAGLE
Kiribati Education Fact Sheets I 2021 - MICS-EAGLE Analyses for learning and equity using data from Kiribati Development Indicator Survey ...
Acknowledgements

The 2021 MICS-EAGLE Kiribati Education Fact Sheets were jointly developed by: Director
Reetina Katokita, Teeta Kabiriera, Taaruru Taoaba, Tabera Tekatu, Toaiauea Toabwa and
Tokitebwa Nabuange from Kiribati’s Ministry of Education; Sawa Iwakuni and Elaine
Bwebwe from UNICEF Kiribati Office; Anna Smeby, Gail Townsend and James Kaphuka from
UNICEF Pacific Multi Country Office; technical assistance came from Suguru Mizunoya,
Sakshi Mishra and Diogo Amaro of the Education team in the Data and Analytics section,
Division of Data, Analytics, Planning and Monitoring, with support from many helping hands.

                                                                                                   Photocredits
We would like to express our deepest gratitude to the government ministers and their               Cover page: © UNICEF Pacific/2007/Pirozzi   Page 30: © UNICEF Pacific/2019/Saberi
representatives from Kiribati who provided inputs to the MICS-EAGLE fact sheets,                   Page 4: © UNICEF Pacific/2019/Saberi        Page 31: © UNICEF Pacific/2006/Pirozzi
                                                                                                   Page 7: © UNICEF Pacific/2019/Saberi        Page 34: © UNICEF Pacific/2006/PirozzI
and without whose support this initiative could not have advanced.                                 Page 8: © UNICEF Pacific/2018/Sokhin        Page 35: © UNICEF Pacific/2006/Pirozzi
                                                                                                   Page 9: © UNICEF Pacific/2016/Sokhin        Page 36: © UNICEF Pacific/2006/Pirozzi
                                                                                                   Page 12: © UNICEF Pacific/2018/Sokhin       Page 41: © UNICEF Pacific/2016/Sokhin
We would also like to express our gratitude to Norway and Dubai Cares for financial support        Page 13: © UNICEF Pacific/2018/Sokhin       Page 45: © UNICEF Pacific/2016/Sokhin
                                                                                                   Page 17: © UNICEF Pacific/2018/Sokhin       Page 47: © UNICEF Pacific/2016/Vlad Sokhin
to MICS-EAGLE in Kiribati.                                                                                                                     Page 48: © UNICEF Pacific/2016/Vlad Sokhin
                                                                                                   Page 18: © UNICEF Pacific/2016/Sokhin
                                                                                                   Page 23: © UNICEF Pacific/2016/Sokhin       Page 49: © UNICEF Pacific/2018/Sokhin
                                                                                                   Page 26: © UNICEF Pacific/2019/Saberi       Page 53: © UNICEF Pacific/2006/Pirozzi
Last but not least, the team would also like to thank Ruth Griffiths for editing the fact sheets   Page 27: © UNICEF Pacific/2006/Pirozzi      Page 57: © UNICEF Pacific/2016/Sokhin
and Ane Louise Gaudert for the design.                                                             Page 29: © UNICEF Pacific/2006/Pirozzi
Kiribati Education Fact Sheets I 2021 - MICS-EAGLE Analyses for learning and equity using data from Kiribati Development Indicator Survey ...
Table of contents

Introduction                                           5

Topic 1: Adjusted Net Attendance Rate                  6

Topic 2: Out-of-School Children                       10

Topic 3: Completion Rates                             16

Topic 4: Repetition, Dropouts and Non-Transitions     22

Topic 5: Early Childhood Attendance and Development   28

Topic 6: Foundational Learning Skills                 34

Topic 7: Education for Children with Disabilities     42

Topic 8: Child Protection                             46

Topic 9: Remote Learning                              50
Kiribati Education Fact Sheets I 2021 - MICS-EAGLE Analyses for learning and equity using data from Kiribati Development Indicator Survey ...
Kiribati Education Fact Sheets I 2021 - MICS-EAGLE Analyses for learning and equity using data from Kiribati Development Indicator Survey ...
Introduction

What is KSDIS?                                                What is MICS-EAGLE?
                                                                                                                                 How are these fact sheets structured?
The Kiribati Social Development Indicator Survey (KSDIS)      UNICEF launched the MICS-EAGLE (Education Analysis
generates information on women, men and children in           for Global Learning and Equity) Initiative in 2018 with
the country based on the UNICEF Multiple Indicator            the objective of improving learning outcomes and equity            The MICS-EAGLE Initiative offers activities
Cluster Survey (MICS) framework with additional modules       issues in education by addressing two critical education           at the national, regional and global
from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). It was          data problems – gaps in key education indicators, as well          level. The nine topics listed below are
carried out in 2018/19 by Kiribati National Statistics        as lack of effective data utilization by governments and           analysed through an equity lens (gender,
Office in collaboration with the Ministry of Health and       education stakeholders. MICS-EAGLE is designed to:                 socioeconomic status, ethnicity, etc.):
other government ministries, as part of the Global
                                                              •   Support education sector situation analysis and sector
MICS Programme.
                                                                  plan development by building national capacity, and                        Adjusted Net
                                                                  leveraging the vast wealth of education data collected                     Attendance Rate
                                                                  by MICS6; and
What is MICS?
                                                              •   Build on the global data foundation provided by MICS6
UNICEF launched MICS in 1995 to monitor the status                                                                                           Out-of-School Children
                                                                  to yield insights at the national, regional and global level
of children around the world. Over the past 25 years,
                                                                  about ways to ensure each child can reach his or her
this household survey has become the largest source of
                                                                  full potential by reducing barriers to opportunity.
statistically sound and internationally comparable data on
women and children worldwide, and more than 345 MICS                                                                                         Completion Rates
surveys have been carried out in more than 118 countries.     What is profiling?
                                                              One of the characteristics of these fact sheets is profiling.
MICS surveys are conducted by trained fieldworkers            Profiling illustrates the demographic and socioeconomic                        Repetition, Dropouts
who perform face-to-face interviews with household            characteristics of children in a certain category, and                         and Non-Transitions
members on a variety of topics. MICS was a major data         answers questions such as “what per centage of a
source for the Millennium Development Goals indicators        key population group is male and what per centage is
and continues to inform more than 150 Sustainable             female?” or “what per centage of a key population group                        Early Childhood Attendance
Development Goal (SDG) indicators in support of the           lives in rural areas and what per centage lives in urban                       and Development
2030 Sustainable Development Agenda.                          areas?” Because profiles examine all children within a key
                                                              population group, the sum of various characteristics always
MICS has been updated several times with new and              adds up to 100 per cent (although rounding may affect                          Foundational
improved questions. The current version, MICS6,               this).                                                                         Learning Skills
was deployed in 2017 and is being implemented in
58 countries. MICS6 includes new modules that                 For example, a profile of children not completing primary
track SDG4 indicators related to education such as            education will highlight some of the main characteristics of                   Education for
learning (SDG4.1.1), early childhood attendance and           children in the target population group for this indicator.
development (SDG4.2.1 and SDG4.2.2), information and
                                                                                                                                             Children with Disabilities
communication technology skills (ICT – SDG4.4.1), and         Primary completion rates look at children aged 3–5
child functioning (child disability – SDG4.5.1), as well as   years older than the entry age for children for the last
parental involvement in education.                            grade of primary school, so the target population on this
                                                                                                                                             Child Protection
                                                              indicator will be children aged 14–16 years who have not
More information on MICS6 survey design, including            completed primary education. In Kiribati, 73 per cent of
the sampling method and list of questionnaires and            children aged between 14 and 16 who have not completed
indicators, is available from https://mics.unicef.org/        primary education are male, therefore 27 per cent have
tools#survey-design.                                                                                                                         Remote Learning
                                                              to be female. In turn, 39 per cent of children in the target
                                                              population live in urban areas, therefore 61 per cent live
                                                              in rural areas.

                                                                                                                                                                         Introduction   5
Kiribati Education Fact Sheets I 2021 - MICS-EAGLE Analyses for learning and equity using data from Kiribati Development Indicator Survey ...
Topic 1                  Adjusted Net Attendance Rate

                                      1. At which level of                    2. What are the characteristics of                                     3. What regions have                            4. What is the profile of children who do
         Guiding                         education is ANAR                       children who do not attend the age-                                    the lowest ANAR at                              not attend the age-relevant or higher
         questions                       the lowest?                             relevant or higher level of education?                                 each level?                                     level of education?

    Overview

    What is ANAR?
    ANAR measures the per centage of children of a given                                   FIGURE 1           Overview of ANAR                              10 0%
    age who are attending an education level compatible with                                                                                                 90 %
    their age or attending a higher education level. The rate is
                                                                                                                                                             80 %
    termed “adjusted” since it includes both groups. It can be                              Richest           97%            93%              71%
    divided into three indicators:                                                                                                                           70 %
                                                                                                Urban         95%            82%              57%            60 %
    • ANAR primary – per centage of children of primary school                                                                                               50 %
                                                                                                 Total        96%            80%              53%
       age currently attending primary or higher
                                                                                                                                                             40 %
                                                                                                Rural         96%            77%              48%
    • ANAR lower secondary – per centage of children of lower                                                                                                30 %
       secondary school age currently attending lower secondary                             Poorest           95%            71%              35%            20 %
       school or higher
                                                                                                                             JUNIOR        SENIOR
                                                                                                          PRIMARY
                                                                                                                           SECONDARY     SECONDARY                               PRIMARY                 JUNIOR SECONDARY        SENIOR SECONDARY
    • ANAR upper secondary – per centage of children of upper
       secondary school age currently attending upper secondary
       school or higher

      FIGURE 2   Primary ANAR                                                                                                          FIGURE 3      Junior secondary ANAR

     10 0%
              96%      95%           97%      95%            96%     95%      96%      96%           95%         97%                                                                                                                               93%
                                                                                                                                   10 0%
                                                                                                                                                                        87%
      90 %                                                                                                                             90 %       80%                             82%                                       79%       82%
                                                                                                                                                                                                 77%               77%
      80 %                                                                                                                             80 %               73%                                            71%
      70 %                                                                                                                             70 %
      60 %                                                                                                                             60 %
      50 %                                                                                                                             50 %
      40 %                                                                                                                             40 %
      30 %                                                                                                                             30 %
      20 %                                                                                                                             20 %
      10 %                                                                                                                             10 %
       0%                                                                                                                               0%
                        Male         Female   Urban          Rural   Lowest   Second   Middle        Fourth      Highest                                   Male         Female    Urban          Rural   Lowest   Second    Middle        Fourth   Highest
              TOTAL                                                                                                                               TOTAL
                               SEX                    AREA                         WEALTH QUINTILE                                                                SEX                     AREA                          WEALTH QUINTILE

6   Kiribati Education Fact Sheets 2021 I Analyses for learning and equity using MICS data
Kiribati Education Fact Sheets I 2021 - MICS-EAGLE Analyses for learning and equity using data from Kiribati Development Indicator Survey ...
FIGURE 4      Senior secondary ANAR

10 0%
 90 %
 80 %                                                                                                    71%
 70 %                           63%
                                         57%
 60 %     53%                                                            53%      51%       51%
                   45%                                  48%
 50 %
 40 %
                                                                35%
 30 %
 20 %
 10 %
  0%
                   Male         Female   Urban          Rural   Lowest   Second   Middle        Fourth   Highest
           TOTAL
                          SEX                    AREA                         WEALTH QUINTILE

   Findings

    • About 96 per cent of primary school-age                     • At primary level, there is a small
        children are attending school at either                      (2 per centage point) gender gap
        primary or a higher level. However, the                      in ANAR in favour of girls. At
        attendance rate declines steeply for                         junior secondary level, this gap
        junior and senior secondary education,                       increases to a 14 per centage
        with 80 per cent of junior secondary-age                     point difference in favour of girls.
        children attending junior secondary or a                     At senior secondary level, this gap
        higher level and only 53 per cent of senior                  increases to an 18 per centage
        secondary-age children attending senior                      point difference in favour of girls.
        secondary or a higher level.
                                                                  • Besides gender, there is an
    • While there is no difference in ANAR                           association between ANAR
        at primary level among children from                         and wealth at junior secondary
        different wealth quintiles, children                         and senior secondary levels. In
        belonging to the lowest quintile present a                   particular, at senior secondary
        particularly low ANAR compared to other                      level, ANAR of children in the
        socioeconomic groups at junior and senior                    lowest wealth quintile was
        secondary levels. At junior and senior                       one half of children in the
        seconday levels, rural and poor children                     wealthiest quintile.
        attend the respective or a higher level
        of education below the national average
        whereas urban and rich children attend at
        a level higher than the national average.

                                                                                                                   Topic 1: Adjusted Net Attendance Rate   7
Kiribati Education Fact Sheets I 2021 - MICS-EAGLE Analyses for learning and equity using data from Kiribati Development Indicator Survey ...
Regional disaggregation

     FIGURE 5     ANAR, by island group

     10 0%         95%                                   96%                                 95%                  97%                  97%
                                                                                                                                                            Primary
      90 %                  82%                                                                    85%                  83%                                 Junior secondary
                                                                                                                                             79%
      80 %                                                                                                                                                  Senior secondary
                                                                  70%
      70 %
                                    57%                                                                                          55%
      60 %                                                                                                  52%
                                                                           47%
      50 %

      40 %
                                                                                                                                                      30%
      30 %

      20 %

      10 %

       0%
                        SOUTH TARAWA                         NORTHERN GILBERT                  CENTRAL GILBERT     SOUTHERN GILBERT     LINE AND PHOENIX

         Findings

         Primary ANAR:
         • There is little regional disparity in ANAR in primary
             education. All island groups have an ANAR greater than
             95 per cent.
         Junior secondary ANAR:
         • The regional disparity in ANAR increases from primary to
             junior secondary.

         • Among all island groups, Central Gilbert has the highest
             junior secondary ANAR at 85 per cent and Northern
             Gilbert has the lowest at 70 per cent.
         Senior secondary ANAR:
         • The decrease in ANAR from junior secondary to senior
             secondary is greater than the decrease in ANAR
             from primary to junior secondary in four out of five
             island groups.

         • South Tarawa has the highest ANAR at senior secondary
             level at 57 per cent probably because most senior
             secondary schools are located in South Tarawa, whereas
             Line and Phoenix has the lowest at 30 per cent.

8   Kiribati Education Fact Sheets 2021 I Analyses for learning and equity using MICS data
Kiribati Education Fact Sheets I 2021 - MICS-EAGLE Analyses for learning and equity using data from Kiribati Development Indicator Survey ...
Profile of children not attending school

The profile of children not attending school for each level of education is based on the per centage of children not attending their age-respective or a higher level of education – i.e., of the 4 per cent of primary school age not attending
primary or a higher level, 20 per cent of junior secondary school age not attending junior secondary or a higher level and 47 per cent of senior secondary age not attending senior secondary or a higher level.

 FIGURE 6      Profile of children not attending, by sex                                      FIGURE 7     Profile of children not attending, by area

     SENIOR                                                                                       SENIOR
 SECONDARY                       63%                           37%                            SECONDARY                 52%                                48%

     JUNIOR                                                                                       JUNIOR
 SECONDARY                        71%                             29%                         SECONDARY               41%                                 59%

    PRIMARY                      64%                           36%                               PRIMARY                  57%                                  43%

              0%         20 %        40 %         60 %         80 %          10 0%                       0%           20 %          40 %           60 %         80 %         10 0%

                                                              Male       Female                                                                                  Urban      Rural

 FIGURE 8      Profile of children not attending, by wealth quintile

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Findings
     SENIOR                                                                                                                                                              Lowest
 SECONDARY                  25%                              19%                        20%                           21%                     15%                        Second                   • Among those not attending, boys
                                                                                                                                                                         Middle                      form the majority at all levels
     JUNIOR                                                                                                                                                              Fourth
                                 31%                                     25%                             20%                        17%                   6%                                         of education.
 SECONDARY                                                                                                                                                               Highest
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • At primary and senior secondary
                                                                                                                                                                                                     levels, most children not
    PRIMARY                24%                             18%                         21%                            22%                     14%
                                                                                                                                                                                                     attending their level or a higher
            0%            10 %          20 %          30 %            40 %           50 %       60 %           70 %          80 %           90 %           10 0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                     level are in urban areas whereas
                                                                                                                                                                                                     at junior secondary level the
                                                                                                                                                                                                     opposite is true.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  • At all levels of education, children
 FIGURE 9      Profile of children not attending, by island group                                                                                                                                    belonging to the richest quintile are
                                                                                                                                                                                                     under-represented ,while children
                                                                                                                                                                                                     belonging to the lowest quintile are
     SENIOR                                                                                                                                                              South Tarawa                over-represented.
 SECONDARY                                     52%                                                 23%                  6%           12%             8%                  Northern Gilbert
                                                                                                                                                                         Central Gilbert          • South Tarawa has the highest per
     JUNIOR                                                                                                                                                              Southern Gilbert            centage because of the size of its
 SECONDARY                             41%                                                  33%                        5%           13%              9%
                                                                                                                                                                         Line and Phoenix            population; it is followed in this by
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Northern Gilbert.
    PRIMARY                                        57%                                                   18%                 8%            11%            6%

            0%            10 %          20 %          30 %            40 %           50 %       60 %           70 %          80 %           90 %           10 0%

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Topic 1: Adjusted Net Attendance Rate    9
Kiribati Education Fact Sheets I 2021 - MICS-EAGLE Analyses for learning and equity using data from Kiribati Development Indicator Survey ...
Topic 2                Out-of-School Children

                                   1. Which level of education                        2. How many children are                      3. What regions have the              4. Where do most out-of-school
         Guiding                      has the highest out-of-school                      out of school?                                highest out-of school                 children live and what is their
         questions                    children rate?                                                                                   rates?                                background?

    Overview

     Who are out-of-school children?
     Out-of-school children are children and young people in                          FIGURE 10   Overview of out-of-school rates              60 %
     the official age range for a given level of education who
     are not attending either pre-primary, primary, secondary                                                                                  50 %
     or higher levels of education. The objective of the out-of-
     school children rate is to identify the part of the population                    Poorest     3%          15%          52%                40 %
     in the official age range for a given level of education not
                                                                                         Rural     2%          11%          41%
     attending school, in order to formulate targeted policies                                                                                 30 %

     that can be put in place to ensure they have access to                              Total     3%          10%          38%
     education. It is used to calculate SDG4.1.4 – out-of-school                                                                               20 %

     rate for different levels of education, including primary,                         Urban      4%          8%           35%
     lower secondary and upper secondary.                                                                                                      10 %
                                                                                       Richest     2%          1%           23%
                                                                                                                                                0%
                                                                                                              JUNIOR        SENIOR
                                                                                                  PRIMARY
                                                                                                            SECONDARY     SECONDARY                         PRIMARY           JUNIOR SECONDARY     SENIOR SECONDARY

       FIGURE 11    Number of out-of-school children (estimates)

                                          517                                             Findings

                                                                                          • Nationally, 3 per cent of primary          • Compared with the national           • In total, an estimated number
                                                      659                                   school-age children are out of               average, children from the             of 517 children are out of school
                                                                                            school at primary level.                     poorest wealth quintile have           when they should be attending
                                                                                                                                         higher out-of school rates             primary school and 659 when
                                                                                          • While there is no big difference
                                                                                                                                         at all levels. Urban and rural         they should be attending
                                                                                            in the out-of-school-children
                                                                                                                                         out-of-school per centages are         junior secondary.
                                                                                            rate at primary level among
                                                                                                                                         similar to the national average
                                                                                            different wealth quintile groups,                                                 • The out-of-school children rate
                   3,095                                                                                                                 in primary. In junior and senior
                                                                   Primary                  inequity widens as children enter                                                   worsens at the senior secondary
                                                                                                                                         secondary, this gap increases,
                                                                   Junior secondary         secondary level.                                                                    level, with 3,095 children out
                                                                                                                                         with higher out-of-school children
                                                                   Senior secondary                                                                                             of school.
                                                                                                                                         rates in rural areas.

10 Kiribati Education Fact Sheets 2021 I Analyses for learning and equity using MICS data
Out-of-school children by level of education

FIGURE 12    Out-of-school children rates at primary level

60 %
                                                                                                                                           Findings
50 %

40 %                                                                                                                                       Primary level
                                                                                                                                           • At the primary education level,
30 %
                                                                                                                                             3 per cent of children are out of
20 %                                                                                                                                         school. A higher per centage of
                                                                                                                                             children from some groups than
10 %
            3%             4%              2%                4%             2%      3%        2%           4%           4%        2%         others are out of school. For
 0%                                                                                                                                          example, the per centage of out-of-
                           Male           Female             Urban          Rural   Lowest   Second       Middle        Fourth   Highest
            TOTAL                                                                                                                            school children from urban areas is
                                    SEX                              AREA                             WEALTH QUINTILE
                                                                                                                                             twice as high as that of out-of-
                                                                                                                                             school children from rural areas.
FIGURE 13    Out-of-school children rates at junior secondary level                                                                        Junior secondary level
                                                                                                                                           • For children who should be
60 %                                                                                                                                         attending junior secondary
50 %                                                                                                                                         education, the out-of-school rate
                                                                                                                                             is at 10 per cent, with more males
40 %
                                                                                                                                             out of school than females. The
30 %                                                                                                                                         out-of-school rate is higher for
                                                                                                                                             rural than urban areas, which is
20 %                       14%                                                      15%
            10%                                                             11%              11%           10%           9%                  the opposite of what is the case at
                                                             8%
10 %                                       5%                                                                                                primary level. The wealth disparity
                                                                                                                                  1%
 0%
                                                                                                                                             increases, with the per centage of
                           Male            Female            Urban          Rural   Lowest   Second       Middle        Fourth   Highest     children from the poorest wealth
            TOTAL
                                    SEX                              AREA                             WEALTH QUINTILE                        quintile 1.5 times higher than the
                                                                                                                                             national average.

FIGURE 14    Out-of-school children rates at senior secondary level
                                                                                                                                           Senior secondary level
                                                                                                                                           • In senior seondary, the per centage
60 %                                                                                                                                         of out-of school children increases
                                                                                    52%
                                                                                                                                             to 38 per cent, with a higher per
50 %                       45%
                                                                            41%                            42%          40%                  centage of boys than girls out
            38%                                                                              36%
40 %                                                         35%                                                                             of school. More than twice as
                                           29%                                                                                               many of the poorest children are
30 %
                                                                                                                                 23%         out of school compared with the
20 %                                                                                                                                         richest children.
10 %

 0%
                           Male           Female             Urban          Rural   Lowest   Second       Middle        Fourth   Highest
            TOTAL
                                    SEX                              AREA                             WEALTH QUINTILE

                                                                                                                                                        Topic 2: Out-of-School Children   11
Regional disaggregation

     FIGURE 15    Out-of-school children rates, by island group

     10 0%
                                                                                                                                                          Primary
      90 %                                                                                                                                                Junior secondary
      80 %                                                                                                                                                Senior secondary

      70 %                                                                                                                                          60%
      60 %

      50 %                                                                      41%
      40 %                            35%                                                                 37%                  34%
      30 %

      20 %
                                                                       15%                       12%
                              8%                                                                                       7%                   9%
      10 %           4%                                     3%                              3%                  2%                   2%
       0%
                          SOUTH TARAWA                            NORTHERN GILBERT           CENTRAL GILBERT     SOUTHERN GILBERT     LINE AND PHOENIX

          Findings

         • Across all levels of education, the out-
             of-school rate for children is drastically
             high for senior secondary education.
             Most children are in school at primary
             level; at junior and senior secondary
             levels the per centage out of school is
             much higher.

         • The out-of-school rate increase in Line
             and Phoenix is particularly dramatic.
             The rate in the island group increases
             from 2 per cent in primary to 60 per
             cent in senior secondary.

         • The out-of school rate at junior
             secondary level is highest in the
             Northern Gilbert and Central Gilbert
             island groups.

         • In senior secondary, although high, the
             out-of school rate is lowest in Southern
             Gilbert, followed by South Tarawa and
             Central Gilbert.

12 Kiribati Education Fact Sheets 2021 I Analyses for learning and equity using MICS data
Profile of children out of school

This profiling is based on the per centage of out-of-school children for each level – i.e., of the 3 per cent out of school in primary, 10 per cent in junior secondary and 38 per cent in senior secondary.

 FIGURE 16    Profile of children out of school, by sex                                        FIGURE 17      Profile of children out of school, by area
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Findings
     SENIOR                                                                                         SENIOR
 SECONDARY                       64%                             36%                            SECONDARY                 52%                              48%                                      • At all levels the majority of out-
                                                                                                                                                                                                       of-school children are boys.
     JUNIOR
                                    77%                                23%
                                                                                                    JUNIOR
                                                                                                                        40%                              60%                                        • At primary and senior secondary
 SECONDARY                                                                                      SECONDARY
                                                                                                                                                                                                       levels, there are more out-of-
                                                                                                                                                                                                       school children in urban areas,
    PRIMARY                      64%                             36%                                PRIMARY                    63%                             37%                                     whereas at junior secondary
                                                                                                                                                                                                       level there are more out-of-
             0%          20 %         40 %         60 %          80 %          10 0%                       0%           20 %          40 %        60 %         80 %          10 0%                     school children in rural areas.
                                                                Male       Female                                                                                Urban      Rural                   • Of the children out of school in
                                                                                                                                                                                                       primary and junior secondary,
                                                                                                                                                                                                       very few belong to the highest
                                                                                                                                                                                                       wealth quintile.
 FIGURE 18    Profile of children out of school, by wealth quintile
                                                                                                                                                                                                    • In primary and senior secondary
                                                                                                                                                                                                       level, more than 50 per cent of
                                                                                                                                                                         Lowest
     SENIOR                                                                                                                                                                                            children who are out of school
 SECONDARY                  25%                               19%                         21%                           22%                     14%                      Second
                                                                                                                                                                                                       are in South Tarawa. In junior
                                                                                                                                                                         Middle
                                                                                                                                                                                                       secondary as well, South Tarawa
     JUNIOR                                                                                                                                                              Fourth
 SECONDARY                          35%                                             26%                         19%                          19%           1%
                                                                                                                                                            1%           Highest
                                                                                                                                                                                                       has the highest proportion of
                                                                                                                                                                                                       children who are out of school.
                                                                                                                                                                                                       For all levels of education,
    PRIMARY              20%                        17%                             24%                                 26%                       12%
                                                                                                                                                                                                       following South Tarawa, Northern
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Gilbert group has the next
             0%           10 %          20 %           30 %             40 %           50 %      60 %            70 %          80 %          90 %          10 0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                       highest proportion of children
                                                                                                                                                                                                       who are out of school.

 FIGURE 19    Profile of children out of school, by island group

     SENIOR                                                                                                                                                              South Tarawa
 SECONDARY                                      52%                                                   23%                   6%          11%          8%                  Northern Gilbert
                                                                                                                                                                         Central Gilbert
     JUNIOR                                                                                                                                                              Southern Gilbert
 SECONDARY                             40%                                                    33%                         8%            11%          8%
                                                                                                                                                                         Line and Phoenix

    PRIMARY                                               63%                                                    16%             6%          9%          6%

             0%           10 %          20 %           30 %             40 %           50 %      60 %            70 %          80 %          90 %          10 0%

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Topic 2: Out-of-School Children   13
TABLE 1. OUT OF SCHOOL
                                                                                    Out-of-school rates (%)                           Headcount of children out of school
      Rates & headcounts by various
      socioeconomic characteristics
                                                                     Primary                Junior secondary   Senior secondary   Primary      Junior secondary   Senior secondary

                                                   TOTAL                3%                        10%                38%            523               665               3,041

                                Male                                    4%                        14%                45%            333               513               1,939
               Sex
                                Female                                  2%                        5%                 29%            190               152               1,102

                                Urban                                   4%                        8%                 35%            334               265               1,573
               Area
                                Rural                                   2%                        11%                41%            188               400               1,467

                                Lowest                                  3%                        15%                52%            104               230               758

                                Second                                  2%                        11%                36%            87                175               577

        Wealth quintile         Middle                                  4%                        10%                42%            120               128               630

                                Fourth                                  4%                        9%                 40%            143               121               651

                                Highest                                 2%                        1%                 23%            68                10                425

                                South Tarawa                            4%                        8%                 35%            334               265               1,573

                                Northern Gilbert                        3%                        15%                41%            76                223               703

          Island group          Central Gilbert                         3%                        12%                37%            30                55                171

                                Southern Gilbert                        2%                        7%                 34%            49                70                340

                                Line and Phoenix                        2%                        9%                 60%            33                52                253

     * Headcounts based on population data from UNSD.

14 Kiribati Education Fact Sheets 2021 I Analyses for learning and equity using MICS data
Per centages and headcounts, by various socioeconomic characteristics

These charts show the trade-off between per centages and population size, where the height on the Y-axis of the bubble represents the per centage of children who are out of school at each level, meaning that, the higher the bubble, the
larger the per centage. Population size is represented by the size of the bubble.

 FIGURE
  5%    20    Primary out-of school rate and headcount of children not attending school
                                                                                                                                                                           Findings
  4%          4%                  4%                                      4%        4%                  4%
                                                                                                                                                                             Across all three levels:
                                                                                                                                                                             • Males have higher out-of-school rates and higher
  3%                                                  3%                                                          3%       3%                                TOTAL
                                                                                                                                                                                headcounts as well compared with females.

                                                                                                                                                                             • Out-of-school rates differ along socioeconomic
                                                                                                                                                                                lines at junior and senior secondary levels.
  2%                    2%                  2%                  2%                            2%                                      2%         2%
                                                                                                                                                                                Although the lowest wealth quintile comprises
                                                                                                                                                                                20 per cent of the population, the per centage of
  1%
             Male     Female    Urban      Rural    Lowest    Second    Middle    Fourth    Highest    South   Northern   Central   Southern   Line and                         children belonging to the lowest wealth quintile
                                                                                                      Tarawa    Gilbert   Gilbert    Gilbert   Phoenix
                                                                                                                                                                                who are out of school and the headcount are
                                                                                                                                                                                large for all three levels compared with the
 FIGURE 21    Junior secondary out-of-school rate and headcount of children not attending school
  0%                                                                                                                                                                            highest wealth quintile.
 18%

                                                                                                                                                                             Primary level:
 16%
                                                                                                                                                                             • At primary level, the out-of-school rates for
                                                     15%                                                         15%
 14%         14%                                                                                                                                                                children belonging to the middle and second rich
                                                                                                                                                                                wealth quintiles is higher than for other groups.
 12%                                                                                                                       12%
                                                                                                                                                                                This shows that, rather than the poorest, the
                                           11%                 11%
 10%                                                                     10%                                                                                 TOTAL              middle class may face some barriers that lead to
                                                                                    9%                                                           9%                             children being out of school in primary.
  8%                              8%                                                                    8%
                                                                                                                                      7%                                     • In terms of island groups, at the primary level,
  6%
                                                                                                                                                                                South Tarawa has the highest per centage and
                        5%
  4%
                                                                                                                                                                                the largest headcount of out-of-school children.

  2%
             Male     Female    Urban      Rural    Lowest    Second    Middle    Fourth    Highest    South   Northern   Central   Southern   Line and                      Junior secondary level:
                                                                                              1%
                                                                                                      Tarawa    Gilbert   Gilbert    Gilbert   Phoenix                       • At junior secondary level, Northern Gilbert
  0%                                                                                                                                                                            and South Tarawa island groups have similar
 FIGURE
 70%    22    Senior secondary out-of-school rate and headcount of children not attending school                                                                                headcounts of children who are out of school
                                                                                                                                                                                but the out-of-school children rate in Northern
 60%                                                                                                                                            60%                             Gilbert is higher.

 50%
                                                     52%                                                                                                                     Senior secondary level:
                                                                                                                                                                             • At senior secondary level, Line and Phoenix
             45%
                                           41%                           42%                                     41%                                                            has the highest out-of-school children rate
 40%                                                                               40%
                                                               36%                                                         37%                               TOTAL              but a small headcount. This owes to the small
                                 35%                                                                   35%                            34%
 30%
                                                                                                                                                                                population size of this island group, whereby,
                       29%
                                                                                                                                                                                given the small population size, the high per
                                                                                             23%                                                                                centage does not translate to large numbers of
 20%
                                                                                                                                                                                out-of-school children.
             Male     Female    Urban      Rural    Lowest    Second    Middle    Fourth    Highest    South   Northern   Central   Southern   Line and
 10%                                                                                                  Tarawa    Gilbert   Gilbert    Gilbert   Phoenix

  0%

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Topic 2: Out-of-School Children   15
Topic 3                 Completion Rates

                                      1. At which level of education                   2. What regions have the                                3. What is the profile of children                       4. What are the socioeconomic
         Guiding                         is the completion rate the                       lowest completion rates                                 who do not complete each                                 characteristics of children who not
         questions                       lowest?                                          at each level?                                          level of education?                                      complete each level of education?

    Overview

     What is the completion rate?
     The completion rate reflects the per centage of a cohort                             FIGURE 23           Overview of completion rates                  10 0%
     of children or young people 3–5 years older than the                                                                                                    90 %
     intended age for the last grade of each level of education
                                                                                                                                                             80 %
     (primary, junior secondary or senior secondary) who have
                                                                                            Richest           96%            89%              45%            70 %
     completed that level of education. For example, if the
     official age of entry into primary education is 6 years,                                   Urban         96%            83%              29%
                                                                                                                                                             60 %

     and primary school has 6 grades, then the intended age                                                                                                  50 %
     for the last grade of primary education is 11 years. In                                     Total        94%            78%              20%            40 %
     this case, the reference age group for calculation of the                                                                                               30 %
     primary completion rate would be 14–16 years (11 + 3
                                                                                                Rural         93%            71%               8%
                                                                                                                                                             20 %
     = 14 and 11 + 5 = 16). This indicator is used to calculate                             Poorest           88%            62%               4%            10 %
     SDG4.1.2 – completion rate (primary education, lower
     secondary education, upper secondary education).                                                                        JUNIOR        SENIOR                0%
                                                                                                          PRIMARY
                                                                                                                           SECONDARY     SECONDARY                              PRIMARY                 JUNIOR SECONDARY        SENIOR SECONDARY

     FIGURE 24   Primary completion rate                                                                                           FIGURE 25        Junior secondary completion rate

              94%                    96%      96%            93%              93%      96%           97%          96%
     10 0%             92%                                                                                                             10 0%
                                                                                                                                                                       88%                                                                        89%
                                                                     88%
      90 %                                                                                                                              90 %                                     83%                                        81%          82%
                                                                                                                                                 78%
      80 %                                                                                                                              80 %              69%                                   71%               72%
      70 %                                                                                                                              70 %                                                             62%
      60 %                                                                                                                              60 %
      50 %                                                                                                                              50 %
      40 %                                                                                                                              40 %
      30 %                                                                                                                              30 %
      20 %                                                                                                                              20 %
      10 %                                                                                                                              10 %
       0%                                                                                                                                0%
                        Male         Female   Urban          Rural   Lowest   Second   Middle        Fourth      Highest                                  Male         Female    Urban          Rural    Lowest   Second   Middle        Fourth   Highest
              TOTAL                                                                                                                             TOTAL
                               SEX                    AREA                         WEALTH QUINTILE                                                               SEX                     AREA                          WEALTH QUINTILE

16 Kiribati Education Fact Sheets 2021 I Analyses for learning and equity using MICS data
FIGURE 26   Senior secondary completion rate
                                                                                                                  Findings

10 0%                                                                                                             • About 94 per cent of children complete      • This gap between children from
 90 %                                                                                                               primary education. However, the               the lowest and the highest wealth
 80 %                                                                                                               completion rate declines steeply for          quintiles reveals a picture of inequity in
 70 %                                                                                                               junior and senior secondary education,        completing education.
 60 %                                                                                                               with only 78 per cent completing
                                                                                                        45%                                                     • There are gaps by gender and location
 50 %                                                                                                               junior secondary and only 20 per cent
                                                                                                                                                                  as well. At all levels, a higher per
 40 %                                   29%                                                                         completing senior secondary.
                                                                                                                                                                  centage of females and children from
 30 %                          24%                                                         21%
        20%                                                                                                       • The declining completion rate can be          urban areas complete a level.
                 16%                                                             15%
 20 %
                                                       8%               6%                                          attributed to dropout, push out and
 10 %                                                          4%
                                                                                                                    repetition or delayed completion – this
  0%
                  Male         Female   Urban          Rural   Lowest   Second   Middle        Fourth   Highest     means that higher levels of education       Note
        TOTAL
                         SEX                    AREA                         WEALTH QUINTILE
                                                                                                                    experience these internal inefficiencies
                                                                                                                    more than primary.                          • When interpreting location/geographic
                                                                                                                                                                  completion rates, it is important that
                                                                                                                  • Boys have a lower completion rate
                                                                                                                                                                  these are based on “current location”
                                                                                                                    than girls at all levels. The difference
                                                                                                                                                                  and the completion rate looks at the
                                                                                                                    in the completion rate between
                                                                                                                                                                  cohort of children three to five years
                                                                                                                    boys and girls is the highest at junior
                                                                                                                                                                  over the age of a level. Therefore,
                                                                                                                    secondary level.
                                                                                                                                                                  individuals may have migrated
                                                                                                                  • Children belonging to the lowest              from one location to another after
                                                                                                                    wealth quintile and those living in rural     completing a level but this analysis
                                                                                                                    areas have particularly low completion        notes only the location where the data
                                                                                                                    rates. At all levels, rural and poor          was collected, and not the migration.
                                                                                                                    children complete below the national
                                                                                                                    average whereas urban and richest
                                                                                                                    children complete at levels higher than
                                                                                                                    the national average.

                                                                                                                  • The gap between the completion
                                                                                                                    rates of children from the highest and
                                                                                                                    the lowest wealth quintile widens
                                                                                                                    starkly as they progress through
                                                                                                                    the education system. At primary
                                                                                                                    level, the gap in the completion rate
                                                                                                                    between richest and poorest is of 8
                                                                                                                    per centage points (in favour of the
                                                                                                                    richest). At junior secondary level, it
                                                                                                                    increases to 27 per centage points
                                                                                                                    and at senior secondary it is at 41
                                                                                                                    per centage points. This increasing
                                                                                                                    gap indicates that children complete
                                                                                                                    a level of education based along
                                                                                                                    socioeconomic lines.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Topic 3: Completion Rates   17
Regional disaggregation

     FIGURE 27    Completion rates, by island group

     10 0%         96%                                   92%                                 92%                                   95%
                                                                                                                                                                         91%                              Primary
      90 %                  83%                                                                                                                                                                           Junior secondary
                                                                                                      78%                                   75%                                                           Senior secondary
      80 %
                                                                 70%
      70 %

      60 %
                                                                                                                                                                                 56%
      50 %

      40 %
                                    29%
      30 %

      20 %
                                                                          8%                                    8%                                   6%                                    9%
      10 %

       0%
                        SOUTH TARAWA                        NORTHERN GILBERT                      CENTRAL GILBERT                     SOUTHERN GILBERT                      LINE AND PHOENIX

                                                                                    Findings

                                                                                    Primary completion rate:                                         Senior secondary completion rate:
                                                                                    • There is little regional disparity in completion rates in      • The senior secondary completion rate sees the most
                                                                                       primary education. All island groups have a completion             drastic decline in all regions compared with the primary
                                                                                       rate greater than 90 per cent but some are slightly                and junior secondary completion rates.
                                                                                       higher than others. For example, South Tarawa and
                                                                                                                                                     • The decline in completion rates between junior
                                                                                       Southern Gilbert have primary completion rates at
                                                                                                                                                          secondary and senior secondary is as follows: South
                                                                                       around 95 per cent whereas Northern and Central
                                                                                                                                                          Tarawa (54 per centage points), Northern Gilbert (62
                                                                                       Gilbert and Line and Phoenix have primary completion
                                                                                                                                                          per centage points), Central Gilbert (70 per centage
                                                                                       rates at around 92 per cent.
                                                                                                                                                          points), Southern Gilbert (69 per centage points) and
                                                                                    Junior secondary completion rate:                                     Line and Phoenix (47 per centage points).
                                                                                    • The regional disparity in completion rates increases           • Southern Gilbert has the most drastic decline in
                                                                                       between primary and junior secondary.                              completion rates between education levels. It
                                                                                    • Among all island groups, South Tarawa has the highest               decreases from a 95 per cent primary completion rate
                                                                                       lower secondary completion rate at 83 per cent and                 to a 6 per cent senior secondary completion rate.
                                                                                       Line and Phoenix has the lowest at 56 per cent. The           • Between island groups, South Tarawa has the highest
                                                                                       gap between the two is of 27 per centage points.                   senior secondary completion rate (albeit this rate is
                                                                                                                                                          lower than at other levels) whereas Southern Gilbert
                                                                                                                                                          has the lowest.

18 Kiribati Education Fact Sheets 2021 I Analyses for learning and equity using MICS data
Profile of children not completing school

The profiles of children not completing school for each level of education are based on the per centage of children not completing a level of education – i.e., of the 6 per cent not completing primary, the 22 per cent not completing junior
secondary and the 80 per cent not completing senior secondary.

FIGURE 28     Profile of children not completing, by sex                                       FIGURE 29        Profile of children not completing, by area
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Findings
     SENIOR                                                                                            SENIOR
 SECONDARY                 53%                              47%                                    SECONDARY                     52%                             48%                             • Among those not completing
                                                                                                                                                                                                    their education, across all levels, a
                                                                                                                                                                                                    higher per centage of boys do not
     JUNIOR                                                                                            JUNIOR
 SECONDARY                        75%                                 25%                          SECONDARY                 44%                                56%                                 complete their respective levels.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    In particular, in primary and junior
                                                                                                                                                                                                    secondary, boys make up about 73
    PRIMARY                       73%                                 27%                            PRIMARY                39%                                 61%                                 and 75 per cent of those who do
                                                                                                                                                                                                    not complete. In senior secondary,
             0%         20 %         40 %         60 %          80 %          10 0%                             0%           20 %          40 %          60 %         80 %        10 0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                    53 per cent of those who do not
                                                               Male       Female                                                                                      Urban      Rural
                                                                                                                                                                                                    complete are boys. Girls make up
                                                                                                                                                                                                    only 27 per cent of those who do
                                                                                                                                                                                                    not complete primary level and
                                                                                                                                                                                                    25 per cent of those who do not
 FIGURE 30    Profile of children not completing, by wealth quintile                                                                                                                                complete junior secondary, but
                                                                                                                                                                                                    this increases to 47 per cent in
                                                                                                                                                                                                    senior secondary.
     SENIOR                                                                                                                                                                   Lowest
 SECONDARY               21%                             21%                            20%                            21%                         16%                        Second             • More children not completing
                                                                                                                                                                              Middle                education in primary and junior
     JUNIOR                                                                                                                                                                   Fourth                secondary live in rural areas, which
 SECONDARY
                                31%                                     23%                           17%                           18%                  11%                                        could be a result of the larger
                                                                                                                                                                              Highest
                                                                                                                                                                                                    population size of rural children.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    However, in senior secondary, the
    PRIMARY                         37%                                               26%                        11%                10%            15%
                                                                                                                                                                                                    trend reverses, with more urban
                                                                                                                                                                                                    children not completing the level.
             0%          10 %          20 %          30 %             40 %            50 %          60 %             70 %           80 %          90 %           10 0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                 • The poorest two wealth quintiles
                                                                                                                                                                                                    make up over half of those who
                                                                                                                                                                                                    have not completed primary and
                                                                                                                                                                                                    junior secondary level although
 FIGURE 31    Profile of children not completing, by island group
                                                                                                                                                                                                    they comprise two-fifths of
                                                                                                                                                                                                    the population.
     SENIOR                                                                                                                                                                   South Tarawa       • Of those not completing each
 SECONDARY                                     52%                                                   18%                    7%             14%             9%                 Northern Gilbert      level, more than 50 per cent are in
                                                                                                                                                                              Central Gilbert       South Tarawa and Northern Gilbert.
     JUNIOR                                                                                                                                                                   Southern Gilbert
 SECONDARY                               44%                                                  25%                     5%             15%                 11%
                                                                                                                                                                              Line and Phoenix

    PRIMARY                           39%                                                    31%                            10%             12%            8%

             0%          10 %          20 %          30 %              40 %           50 %          60 %             70 %           80 %          90 %           10 0%

Note: Numbers may not sum to 100 per cent owing to rounding.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Topic 3: Completion Rates   19
TABLE 2. NON-COMPLETION
                                                                                  Non-completion rates (%)                           Headcount of children not completing
      Rates & headcounts by various
      socioeconomic characteristics                                  Primary                Junior secondary   Senior secondary   Primary      Junior secondary   Senior secondary

                                                   TOTAL                6%                        22%                80%            358              1,426              5,271

                                Male                                    8%                        31%                84%            262              1,069              2,777
               Sex
                                Female                                  4%                        12%                76%            96               357                2,494

                                Urban                                   4%                        17%                71%            139              638                2,762
               Area
                                Rural                                   7%                        29%                92%            219              788                2,510

                                Lowest                                 12%                        38%                96%            135              434                1,095

                                Second                                  7%                        28%                94%            92               331                1,124

        Wealth quintile         Middle                                  4%                        19%                85%            42               235                1,077

                                Fourth                                  3%                        18%                79%            35               263                1,107

                                Highest                                 4%                        11%                55%            54               163                867

                                South Tarawa                            4%                        17%                71%            139              638                2,762

                                Northern Gilbert                        8%                        30%                92%            110              351                941

          Island group          Central Gilbert                         8%                        22%                92%            34                74                364

                                Southern Gilbert                        5%                        25%                94%            43               211                741

                                Line and Phoenix                        9%                        44%                91%            31               152                463

     * Headcounts based on population data from UNSD.

20 Kiribati Education Fact Sheets 2021 I Analyses for learning and equity using MICS data
Percentages and headcounts, by various socioeconomic characteristics

These charts show the trade-off between per centages and population size, where the height of the bubble on the Y-axis represents the per centage of children who have not completed a level, meaning that, the higher the bubble, the larger
the per centage. Population size is represented by the size of the bubble, meaning that, the bigger the bubble, the larger the population not completing.

 FIGURE 32
16%           Primary non-completion rates and headcount of children not completing
                                                                                                                                                                      Findings
14%

12%                                                12%                                                                                                               Trends across all three levels:
                                                                                                                                                                     • At all three levels, the non-completion rate and
10%
                                                                                                                                                                        headcount of the richest children is lower than for other
                                                                                                                                               9%
 8%          8%                                                                                                 8%        8%                                            socioeconomic groups. This means other groups may
                                          7%                  7%                                                                                                        face additional hindrances that children from the richest
 6%                                                                                                                                                      TOTAL
                                                                                                                                                                        quintile do not face or are able to overcome in Kiribati.
                                                                                                                                    5%
 4%                   4%        4%                                      4%                  4%        4%
                                                                                  3%
                                                                                                                                                                     Primary level:
 2%                                                                                                                                                                  • At primary level, South Tarawa and Northern Gilbert have
             Male    Female     Urban     Rural    Lowest    Second    Middle    Fourth    Highest    South   Northern   Central   Southern   Line and                  the highest headcount of children not completing, with
 0%
                                                                                                     Tarawa    Gilbert   Gilbert    Gilbert   Phoenix
100%                                                                                                                                                                    the other island groups having a much smaller headcount.
                                                                                                                                                                        In terms of per centages, Line and Phoenix island group
90%
                                                                                                                                                                        has the highest non-completion rate, followed by Central
80%
 FIGURE 33    Junior secondary non-completion rates and headcount of children not completing                                                                            Gilbert and Northern Gilbert island groups. Given the
70%
                                                                                                                                                                        high non-completion rate as well as high headcount of
60%                                                                                                                                                                     Northern Gilbert, focusing on this region to improve the
50%                                                                                                                                                                     completion rate can have a scaled impact at this level.
                                                                                                                                               44%
40%
                                                    38%                                                                                                              Junior secondary level:
30%          31%                          29%                                                                   30%                                                  • At junior secondary level, South Tarawa has the highest
                                                              28%
                                                                                                                                     25%                 TOTAL          headcount of children not completing, followed by
20%
                                                                        19%                                               22%
                                17%                                               18%                 17%                                                               Northern Gilbert and Southern Gilbert, meaning that,
10%                   12%                                                                   11%
                                                                                                                                                                        if Kiribati wants to improve completion rates for many
 0%
                                                                                                                                                                        children, it can target one of these island groups.
             Male    Female     Urban     Rural    Lowest    Second    Middle    Fourth    Highest    South   Northern   Central   Southern   Line and                  Alternatively, the non-completion rate is extremely high
                                                                                                     Tarawa    Gilbert   Gilbert    Gilbert   Phoenix                   in Line and Phoenix group, indicating that children in this
                                                                                                                                                                        island group are the most disadvantaged compared with
                                                                                                                                                                        their peers in other island groups.

 FIGURE 34    Senior secondary non-completion rates and headcount of children not completing                                                                         Senior secondary level:
                                                                                                                                                                     • At senior secondary level, South Tarawa has the
                                                                                                                                                                        highest headcount of children not completing but has
100%
                                                    96%                                                                                                                 a comparatively low non-completion rate. At senior
                                          92%                 94%                                               92%       92%       94%
90%                                                                                                                                            91%                      secondary level, South Tarawa has the highest headcount
             84%                                                        85%
80%
                                                                                  79%                                                                    TOTAL          of children not completing but has a comparatively low
                      76%
70%                             71%                                                                   71%                                                               non-completion rate. Other island groups have a high
60%
                                                                                                                                                                        non-completion rate, which is similar above 90%. This
                                                                                            55%                                                                         indicates that children across all island groups except
50%
                                                                                                                                                                        South Tarawa are not completing senior secondary level.
40%
                                                                                                                                                                        The focus therefore should be to nationally improve
30%                                                                                                                                                                     completion rates across all island groups.
             Male    Female    Urban      Rural    Lowest    Second    Middle    Fourth    Highest    South   Northern   Central   Southern   Line and
20%                                                                                                  Tarawa    Gilbert   Gilbert    Gilbert   Phoenix
10%

 0%

                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Topic 3: Completion Rates      21
Topic 4                  Repetition, Dropouts and Non-Transitions
                                   1. Which level or grade                             2. What is the profile of                           3. What is the profile of                            4. What is the profile of children
         Guiding                      has the highest rates of                            children who repeat a                               children who drop out of                             who do not transition to the
         questions                    repetitions, dropouts and                           grade?                                              school?                                              next level of education?
                                      non-transitions?

    Overview

     What is the repetition rate?
     The repetition rate measures the share of children in a                       FIGURE 35         Repetition rate by grade
     given grade in a given school year who repeated that
     grade as a per centage of the total number of children who                   6%
     attended the grade in the previous year.                                                                                                                                                   5%                                 5%
                                                                                  5%

     What is the dropout rate?                                                                            4%
                                                                                  4%
     The dropout rate measures the proportion of children                                   3%                       3%                      3%                       3%          3%                         3%
     from a cohort attending a given grade in a given school                      3%
     year who are no longer attending school in the following                                                                     2%                     2%
     year. It is worth clarifying that children who repeat are still              2%

     considered to be in school and are therefore not included                                                                                                                                                        1%
                                                                                  1%
     in the calculation for the dropout rate.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0%
                                                                                  0%
     Who is a non-transitioner?                                                            Grade 1       Grade 2    Grade 3      Grade 4    Grade 5     Grade 6       Form 1     Form 2        Form 3        Form 4   Form 5       Form 6         Form 7

     Non-transitioners refer to those children who attended the                                                          PRIMARY                                           JUNIOR SECONDARY                           SENIOR SECONDARY

     last grade of a level but did not continue to the next level.

     FIGURE 36   Dropout rate by grade                                                                                        FIGURE 37    Per centage of non-transitioners from last grade of a level to a higher level

     40 %                                                                                                  36%                   60 %
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   52%
     35 %
                                                                                                                                 50 %
     30 %
                                                                                                                                 40 %
     25 %

     20 %
                                                                                             18%                                 30 %

     15 %
                                                                                                                                 20 %
     10 %
                                                                         8%       8%                                                                                                          13%

             2%        2%                             3%        3%                                                               10 %
      5%                          1%        1%                                                                                                          2%
      0%                                                                                                                           0%
            Grade 1   Grade 2    Grade 3   Grade 4   Grade 5   Form 1    Form 2   Form 4     Form 5        Form 6                                 Grade 6 to Form 1                       Form 3 to Form 4                     Form 7 to higher

                                PRIMARY                        JUNIOR SECONDARY        SENIOR SECONDARY                                      PRIMARY TO JUNIOR SECONDARY       JUNIOR SECONDARY TO SENIOR SECONDARY      SENIOR SECONDARY TO HIGHER

22 Kiribati Education Fact Sheets 2021 I Analyses for learning and equity using MICS data
FIGURE 38    Education attendance, by age

                       0           0          0        0                    0          0           0           0          0
10 0%
                                  1%                                                              1%                                1%                           1%          1%          3%       Vocational or
                                                                                                                                                11%                                               higher education
 90 %                                                                                                                                                                                             Senior secondary
                                                                                                              24%
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Junior secondary
                                             33%
 80 %                                                                                                                                                                                             Primary
                                                                                                                                                      49%                                41%      ECE/pre-primary

                                                                                                                                                                            57%                   Out of school
 70 %
                                                                                                                                                                 54%
            72%                                                                                                          73%
 60 %
                      86%                                                                                                           83%                                                  0%
                                 92%                  92%                                                                                       74%
                                                                97%        97%                    94%
 50 %                                                                                 97%

 40 %                                                                                                                                                                        0%
                                                                                                              73%                                     26%
                                             63%
 30 %                                                                                                                                                            8%
                                                                                                                                                                 0%                      56%
                                                                                                                                                      0%
 20 %                                                                                                                                                                       41%
                                                                                                                         21%                    0%
            28%                                                                                                                     7%                           27%
                                                                                                                                                      24%
 10 %                                                                                                                               0%
                      14%                                                                                                                       15%
                                                       4%                  0%                     0%          0%         0%         9%
                                  7%                             1%                   0%                                 6%
  0%
                                             4%        4%        3%        3%         2%          5%          3%
             2         3           4          5         6         7         8          9          10           11         12         13          14    15         16         17           18

                             ECE-GOING AGE                                PRIMARY-GOING AGE                              JUNIOR SECONDARY-GOING AGE         SENIOR SECONDARY-GOING AGE

    Findings

    • Repetition rates vary widely                   • In primary and junior secondary, the        • Of the junior secondary age group, the
        for each grade of primary and                  non-transition rate is 2 and 13 per              majority of 12–14 year olds are in junior
        secondary education.                           cent, respectively. However, in senior           secondary. Some 12 and 13 year olds
                                                       secondary it is 52 per cent, meaning             continue to be in primary when they
    • In primary, Kiribati has comparatively
                                                       that most children did not continue              should be in junior secondary.
        high repetition rates in the early
                                                       education after attending the last grade
        grades. In junior and senior secondary,                                                    • Among children aged 14–18, the per
                                                       of senior secondary.
        repetition is high for the end grades of                                                        centage of children who are out of
        the level.                                   • The age for early childhood education            school increases substantially. This
                                                       (ECE) in Kiribati is 3–5, for primary            also reinforces that Kiribati schools
    • One explanation for the high repetition
                                                       it is 6–11, for junior secondary it is           lose most children at the senior
        rate in early primary grades could be
                                                       12–14 and for senior secondary it is             secondary level.
        early entry. 33 per cent of five year olds
                                                       15–18. Most of the 6–10 year olds are
        attend primary education even though
                                                       in primary but some (24 per cent) 11
        the primary beginning age is six.
                                                       year olds have already progressed to
    • Dropout is low in primary but increases          junior secondary when they should
        in junior and senior secondary.                be in primary.

                                                                                                                                                             Topic 4: Repetition, Dropouts and Non-Transitions       23
Profile of repeaters, dropouts and non-transitioners (including primary, junior secondary and senior secondary levels)

    These profiles are based on the per centage of children who repeat, drop out or do not transition to the next level – i.e., 3 per cent of repeaters, 7 per cent of dropouts and 2 per cent of non-transitioners.

     FIGURE 39       Profile of repeaters, dropouts and non-transitioners, by sex                   FIGURE 40   Profile of repeaters, dropouts and non-transitioners, by area
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Findings
              NON-                                                                                           NON-
     TRANSITIONERS                50%                              50%                              TRANSITIONERS                      67%                          33%                          • Of the children who are non-
                                                                                                                                                                                                    transitioners, the distribution is almost
                                                                                                                                                                                                    evenly split between girls and boys.
         DROPOUTS                   57%                             43%                                  DROPOUTS                      63%                         37%
                                                                                                                                                                                                    However, among those who are
                                                                                                                                                                                                    repeaters or who drop out, there are
        REPEATERS                  53%                             47%                                 REPEATERS                 48%                           52%                                  more boys than girls.

                                                                                                                                                                                                 • Of those who drop out and are non-
                  0%            20 %        40 %         60 %         80 %          10 0%                           0%          20 %          40 %      60 %       80 %            10 0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                    transitioners, children from urban areas
                                                                   Male       Female                                                                              Urban      Rural                  form the majority. This means that
                                                                                                                                                                                                    more urban children drop out and are
                                                                                                                                                                                                    unable to transition from the last grade
                                                                                                                                                                                                    of a level to another level of education.
      FIGURE 41      Profile of repeaters, dropouts and non-transitioners, by wealth quintile
                                                                                                                                                                                                 • Among dropouts and non-transitioners,
                                                                                                                                                                                                    the per centage representing children
              NON-                                                                                                                                                        Lowest                    of the lowest wealth quintile is lower
     TRANSITIONERS            16%                     18%                           22%                             24%                              20%                  Second
                                                                                                                                                                                                    than for other indicators: the poorest
                                                                                                                                                                          Middle
                                                                                                                                                                                                    20 per cent of children are 17 per cent
                                                                                                                                                                          Fourth
         DROPOUTS             17%                     18%                              25%                               19%                         21%                                            of dropouts and 16 per cent of non-
                                                                                                                                                                          Highest
                                                                                                                                                                                                    transitioners. But the trend reverses
                                                                                                                                                                                                    among repeaters.
         REPEATERS                  25%                            21%                             18%                     18%                       18%
                                                                                                                                                                                                 • In terms of level of education, most
                  0%             10 %          20 %         30 %             40 %           50 %         60 %            70 %          80 %          90 %      10 0%                                repeaters are repeating a grade of
                                                                                                                                                                                                    primary education. In fact, 56 per
                                                                                                                                                                                                    cent of repeaters are at the primary
                                                                                                                                                                                                    level whereas most dropouts and
                                                                                                                                                                                                    most non-transitioners are in senior
      FIGURE 42      Profile of repeaters, dropouts and non-transitioners, level of education
                                                                                                                                                                                                    secondary. One reason for this is that
                                                                                                                                                                                                    most children are in school in primary,
              NON-                                                                                                                                                                                  whereas in junior and senior secondary
     TRANSITIONERS
                          9%                             39%                                                                52%                                           Primary
                                                                                                                                                                          Junior secondary          children drop out and non-transition
                                                                                                                                                                          Senior secondary          more than they repeat. The reason
         DROPOUTS              19%                      18%                                                          64%                                                                            for higher dropouts and higher non-
                                                                                                                                                                                                    transitioners at secondary level could
                                                                                                                                                                                                    be high stake examinations that screen
         REPEATERS                                       56%                                                             27%                          16%                                           students to transit to secondary level.

                  0%             10 %          20 %         30 %             40 %           50 %         60 %            70 %          80 %          90 %      10 0%

24 Kiribati Education Fact Sheets 2021 I Analyses for learning and equity using MICS data
TABLE 3. REPETITION, DROPOUTS                                                                               Headcount of children who
AND NON-TRANSITIONS                          Repetition, dropout and non-transition rates (%)
                                                                                                           repeat, drop out or transition
Rates & headcounts by various
socioeconomic characteristics                Repetition          Dropout         Non-transition   Repetition          Dropout              Non-transition

                                     TOTAL      3%                 7%                 12%            906                1559                      543

                   Male                         4%                 7%                 12%            534                 883                      278
      Sex
                   Female                       3%                 6%                 12%            372                 677                      264

                   Urban                        4%                 8%                 14%            567                1035                      357
      Area
                   Rural                        3%                 5%                 9%             339                 524                      186

                   Lowest                       3%                 5%                 11%            155                 229                       92

                   Second                       3%                 5%                 11%            142                 269                       99

 Wealth quintile   Middle                       2%                 8%                 14%            132                 376                       117

                   Fourth                       4%                 6%                 14%            200                 298                      132

                   Highest                      4%                 8%                 9%             277                 387                       103

                   South Tarawa                 4%                 8%                 14%            567                1035                      357

                   Northern Gilbert             3%                 5%                 11%            140                 217                      100

  Island group     Central Gilbert              2%                 5%                 6%              38                  74                       16

                   Southern Gilbert             2%                 5%                 8%              88                 162                       50

                   Line and Phoenix             4%                 4%                 6%              73                  72                       21

                                                                                                                 Topic 4: Repetition, Dropouts and Non-Transitions   25
Per centages and headcounts, by various socioeconomic characteristics

    These charts show the trade-off between per centages and population size, where the height of the bubble on the Y-axis represents the per centage of children who are repeaters (top), dropouts (middle) and non-transitioners (bottom),
    meaning that, the higher the bubble, the larger the per centage. Population size is represented by the size of the bubble.

     FIGURE 43     Per centage and headcount of repeaters

     5%                                                                                                                                                                               Findings

                                                                                                                                                                                      Repetition rate:
     4%           4%                  4%                                                    4%        4%         4%                                         4%                        • The per centage of repeaters varies across
                                                                                                                                                                                         groups. Repetition rates are higher among
     3%                     3%                   3%         3%        3%                                                   3%                                        TOTAL               wealthier children.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Dropout rate:
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Dropout rates also vary by group. The rate is
     2%                                                                          2%                                                   2%         2%
                                                                                                                                                                                         higher in urban areas and in South Tarawa.

                  Male    Female     Urban      Rural     Lowest    Second     Middle     Fourth    Highest     South    Northern    Central   Southern   Line and                    • The headcount for dropout is largest in
     1%                                                                                                        Tarawa     Gilbert    Gilbert    Gilbert   Phoenix
                                                                                                                                                                                         South Tarawa.
                                                                                                                                                                                       Non-transitioners
     0%
      FIGURE 44    Per centage and headcount of dropouts                                                                                                                              • The per centage and headcount of
                                                                                                                                                                                         non-transitioners is high in urban areas
    10%
                                                                                                                                                                                         compared with rural areas. Among regions,
     9%                                                                                                                                                                                  South Tarawa and Northern Gilbert have a
     8%                               8%                                         8%                   8%         8%                                                                      higher per centage compared with other
     7%           7%                                                                                                                                                 TOTAL               island groups, with South Tarawa having the
     6%                     6%                                                             6%
                                                                                                                                                                                         biggest headcount.
     5%                                          5%         5%        5%                                                   5%         5%         5%
     4%                                                                                                                                                     4%
     3%

     2%           Male    Female     Urban      Rural     Lowest    Second     Middle     Fourth    Highest     South    Northern    Central   Southern   Line and
                                                                                                               Tarawa     Gilbert    Gilbert    Gilbert   Phoenix
     1%

     0%

     20%

      FIGURE 45    Per centage and headcount of non-transitioners
     18%

     16%

     14%                              14%                                       14%        14%                  14%
     12%          12%      12%                                        11%                                                  11%
                                                           11%
     10%                                                                                                                                                             TOTAL
                                                 9%                                                   9%
     8%                                                                                                                                          8%
                                                                                                                                                            6%
     6%
                                                                                                                                      6%
     4%
                  Male    Female     Urban      Rural     Lowest    Second     Middle     Fourth    Highest     South    Northern    Central   Southern   Line and
     2%                                                                                                        Tarawa     Gilbert    Gilbert    Gilbert   Phoenix

     0%

26 Kiribati Education Fact Sheets 2021 I Analyses for learning and equity using MICS data
Topic 5                 Early Childhood Attendance and Development
                                     1. Which children are                      2. Which level(s) of                 3. Do children attend                    4. What is the profile                      5. What is the profile of children
         Guiding                        developmentally on                         education do young                   Grade 1 at the                           of children not                             who are not developmentally
         questions                      track (as measured                         children attend?                     right age?                               attending ECE?                              on track (as measured by the
                                        by the ECDI)?                                                                                                                                                        ECDI)?

    Overview

     What is the                                  FIGURE 46    Age distribution at Grade 1 of primary education                  FIGURE 47      Per centage of children of specific age attending school by school level

     Early Child                                                        2% 1%
     Development                                                                                                                10 0%
                                                                                                                                                  0%                       1%
     Index (ECDI)?                                                 8%                                                            90 %
                                                                                                                                 80 %
                                                                                                                                                                                                   33%
     The ECDI is a 10-item
     module that UNICEF                                                              28%            Two or more years younger    70 %
                                                                                                    One year younger             60 %                                                                                                             Primary
     has developed to                                                                                                                            86%
                                                                                                    Right age                    50 %                                      92%                                                92%                 Pre-primary or ECE
     measure the per
                                                                                                    One year older                                                                                                                                Out of school
     centage of children aged                                                                                                    40 %
                                                                                                                                                                                                   63%
                                                                                                    Two or more years older
     three to four who are                                                                                                       30 %

     developmentally on track                                                                                                    20 %
     in literacy, numeracy,                                                                                                      10 %
                                                                                                                                                 14%                                                                          4%
                                                              61%                                                                                                          7%                       4%                        4%
     physical, social-emotional                                                                                                   0%
                                                                                                                                                    3                        4                        5                        6
     and learning domains.

                                                                                                                                                Per centage of 3–4 year olds attending early childhood
     FIGURE 48      Per centage of 3–4 year olds who are developmentally on track using ECDI                                     FIGURE 49
                                                                                                                                                education

     10 0%
                                                                                                                                10 0%
      90 %       80%                     82%        83%                                   83%                   81%
                           78%                                     76%      76%                  78%                             90 %
      80 %                                                                                                                                              77%     78% 75%         76% 77%         76%
                                                                                                                                 80 %   72% 69% 75% 68%                 70% 73%
      70 %                                                                                                                                                  66%                         66% 66%
                                                                                                                                 70 %
      60 %
                                                                                                                                 60 %
      50 %
                                                                                                                                 50 %
      40 %                                                                                                                       40 %
      30 %                                                                                                                       30 %
      20 %                                                                                                                       20 %
      10 %                                                                                                                       10 %
       0%                                                                                                                         0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Junior    Senior
                            Male         Female     Urban          Rural        3          4       No            Yes                             Male     Female Urban   Rural   3         4   Primary secondary secondary Lowest Second Middle Fourth Highest
                 TOTAL                                                                                                                  Total
                                                                                                                                                                                                  HIGHEST EDUCATION LEVEL
                                   SEX                      AREA                    AGE            ATTENDING ECE                                        SEX         AREA             AGE       OBTAINED BY MOTHER/CAREGIVER
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   WEALTH QUINTILE

28 Kiribati Education Fact Sheets 2021 I Analyses for learning and equity using MICS data
Participation rate in organized learning
Findings
                                                  FIGURE 50   Per centage of children age one year younger than the official primary school entry age attending ECE or primary education
• Around 80 per cent of children aged three
  to four are developmentally on track, based
                                                  10 0%                                                                                                 100%
  on the ECDI.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           98%
• The per centage of children                      98 %                          97%      97%                                                97%                    97%
  developmentally on track is higher for girls
                                                          96%                                                             96%                                                   96%
  and urban children.                              96 %
                                                                   95%                               95%         95%               95%                                                                 95%       95%
• The per centage of children attending ECE                                                                                                                                                 94%
  who are developmentally on track is about        94 %

  3 per centage points higher than that of
                                                   92 %
  children not attending ECE. However, this
  difference is not statistically significant.
                                                   90 %
• More girls than boys attend ECE. ECE                                                                                                                               South     Northern   Southern                Junior    Senior
                                                                    Male         Female   Urban          Rural   Lowest   Second   Middle    Fourth     Highest                                       Primary
                                                                                                                                                                    Tarawa      Gilbert    Gilbert              secondary secondary
  attendance is higher among rural children               TOTAL
                                                                                                                                                                                                        HIGHEST EDUCATION LEVEL
  and children who are four years old.                                     SEX                    AREA                         WEALTH QUINTILE                               ISLAND GROUP
                                                                                                                                                                                                     OBTAINED BY MOTHER/CAREGIVER

• Mother/caregiver’s level of education
  and ECE attendance do not show a clear
  relationship.

• Wealth quintile and ECE attendance do not
  show a clear relationship.                                                                                                                          Findings
• Based on level of education attended by                                                                                                             • Nationally, 96 per cent of children aged one year
  age, the majority of three to four year olds                                                                                                          younger than the official primary starting age are
  in Kiribati are attending ECE or pre-primary.                                                                                                         attending either pre-primary or primary education.
  86 per cent of three year olds are in ECE
                                                                                                                                                      • The rates are over 90 per cent across all
  or pre-primary and 92 per cent of four year
                                                                                                                                                        socioeconomic and demographic groups.
  olds are in ECE or pre-primary.
                                                                                                                                                      • All five-year-old children from the highest wealth
• Six is the official starting age for primary
                                                                                                                                                        quintile are in primary or in pre-primary whereas
  school in Kiribati with 92 per cent of six
                                                                                                                                                        95 per cent of children from the poorest wealth
  year olds attending primary.
                                                                                                                                                        quintile are in primary or pre-primary.
• However, younger children attend primary
                                                                                                                                                      • The participation rate in organized learning is
  as well, with 33 per cent of five year olds
                                                                                                                                                        higher for girls compared with boys, and among
  attending primary.
                                                                                                                                                        urban children compared with rural children.
• In Grade 1, the majority of students are at
                                                                                                                                                      • Between island groups, South Tarawa has higher
  the official starting age. However, 28 per
                                                                                                                                                        rates and Southern Gilbert has the lowest (Central
  cent of children are a year younger and 8
                                                                                                                                                        Gilbert and Line and Phoenix groups are not
  per cent of children are a year older than
                                                                                                                                                        shown in Figure 50 because there were fewer
  the right age.
                                                                                                                                                        than 50 unweighted observations)

                                                                                                                                                                  Topic 5: Early Childhood Attendance and Development                 29
Regional disaggregation

     FIGURE 51     Per centage of 3–4 year olds who are attending ECE                                          FIGURE 52     Per centage of 3–4 year olds who are developmentally on track

     10 0%                                                                                                     10 0%

      90 %                            82%                                                                       90 %          83%
                                                                                                 79%                                            80%
                                                                                                                                                                                      76%
      80 %                                               73%                 72%                                80 %                                               72%                                   72%
                    68%
      70 %                                                                                                      70 %

      60 %                                                                                                      60 %

      50 %                                                                                                      50 %

      40 %                                                                                                      40 %

      30 %                                                                                                      30 %

      20 %                                                                                                      20 %

      10 %                                                                                                      10 %

       0%                                                                                                        0%
                 SOUTH TARAWA    NORTHERN GILBERT    CENTRAL GILBERT    SOUTHERN GILBERT    LINE AND PHOENIX               SOUTH TARAWA    NORTHERN GILBERT    CENTRAL GILBERT   SOUTHERN GILBERT   LINE AND PHOENIX

                                                                                                                                                                       Findings

                                                                                                                                                                       • ECE attendance is highest in the
                                                                                                                                                                          Northern Gilbert island group and
                                                                                                                                                                          lowest in South Tarawa. There is
                                                                                                                                                                          a 14 per centage point difference
                                                                                                                                                                          between the two island groups.

                                                                                                                                                                       • Despite the difference in ECE
                                                                                                                                                                          attendance, the per centage of
                                                                                                                                                                          children who are developmentally
                                                                                                                                                                          on track in South Tarawa is the
                                                                                                                                                                          highest of all regions.

                                                                                                                                                                       • The Central Gilbert island group
                                                                                                                                                                          has both comparatively low ECE
                                                                                                                                                                          attendance and a low per centage
                                                                                                                                                                          of children on track in ECDI.

30 Kiribati Education Fact Sheets 2021 I Analyses for learning and equity using MICS data
Profile of young children not attending ECE or not developmentally on track

These charts are based on the per centage of three to four year olds not attending ECE and not developmentally on track – i.e., of the 28 per cent not attending ECE and the 20 per cent not on track on ECDI.

              Profile of young children aged 3–4 not attending ECE or                                    Profile of young children aged 3–4 not attending ECE or not
FIGURE 53                                                                                  FIGURE 54
              not developmentally on track, by sex                                                       developmentally on track, by area
                                                                                                                                                                                              Findings

        NOT                                                                                        NOT                                                                                        • More boys than girls are not
  ATTENDING                 56%                             44%                              ATTENDING                   60%                           40%                                       attending ECE and are not on
        ECE                                                                                        ECE
                                                                                                                                                                                                 track on the ECDI.

                                                                                                                                                                                              • More rural children are not on track
     NOT ON                 56%                             44%                                 NOT ON             43%                            57%                                            on the ECDI but urban children
      TRACK                                                                                      TRACK
                                                                                                                                                                                                 are the majority among those not
                                                                                                                                                                                                 attending ECE.
             0%         20%         40%          60%         80%           100%                        0%          20%           40%        60%         80%          100%
                                                                                                                                                                                              • Socioeconomic background affects
                                                             Male      Female                                                                             Urban      Rural                       the ECDI: a large per centage
                                                                                                                                                                                                 of children not developmentally
                                                                                                                                                                                                 on track (56 per cent) belong
                                                                                                                                                                                                 to the poorest two-fifths of
 FIGURE 55    Profile of young children aged 3–4 not attending ECE or not developmentally on track, by wealth quintile
                                                                                                                                                                                                 the population.

                                                                                                                                                                                              • Among children who are not
                                                                                                                                                                  Lowest
        NOT                                                                                                                                                                                      attending ECE, 60 per cent are
  ATTENDING                                                                                                                                                       Second
        ECE
                        20%                      16%                            27%                             22%                       15%                                                    in South Tarawa, followed by
                                                                                                                                                                  Middle
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Southern Gilbert. South Tarawa also
                                                                                                                                                                  Fourth
                                                                                                                                                                                                 has the majority of children not
                                                                                                                                                                  Highest
                                                                                                                                                                                                 on track on the ECDI followed by
     NOT ON
      TRACK                       34%                                      22%                       20%                     14%               10%                                               the Northern and Southern Gilbert
                                                                                                                                                                                                 island groups.

             0%          10%           20%          30%             40%           50%         60%           70%          80%           90%           100%

 FIGURE 56    Profile of young children aged 3–4 not attending ECE or not developmentally on track, by island group

                                                                                                                                                                  South Tarawa
        NOT
  ATTENDING                                        60%                                               12%           6%            16%             7%               Northern Gilbert
        ECE                                                                                                                                                       Central Gilbert
                                                                                                                                                                  Southern Gilbert
                                                                                                                                                                  Line and Phoenix
     NOT ON
      TRACK
                                        43%                                        18%               8%               18%                   13%

             0%          10 %          20 %          30 %           40 %          50 %        60 %          70 %          80 %          90 %         10 0%

                                                                                                                                                                                     Topic 5: Early Childhood Attendance and Development   31
TABLE 4. EARLY CHILDHOOD
      ATTENDANCE AND DEVELOPMENT                                                Rate of children aged 3–4 (%)                          Headcount of children
      Rates & headcounts by various
      socioeconomic characteristics                               Not on track on ECDI             Not attending ECE   Not on track on ECDI           Not attending ECE

                                                   TOTAL                      20%                         28%                  1,144                           1,580

                                Male                                          22%                         31%                  635                             884
               Sex
                                Female                                        18%                         25%                  509                             696

                                Urban                                         17%                         32%                  492                             946
               Area
                                Rural                                         24%                         23%                  652                             633

                                Lowest                                        30%                         24%                  391                             309

                                Second                                        22%                         23%                  252                             258

        Wealth quintile         Middle                                        18%                         34%                  231                             428

                                Fourth                                        16%                         34%                  159                             345

                                Highest                                       11%                         24%                  112                             241

                                South Tarawa                                  17%                         32%                  492                             946

                                Northern Gilbert                              20%                         18%                  207                             186

          Island group          Central Gilbert                               28%                         27%                   96                              92

                                Southern Gilbert                              24%                         28%                  203                             246

                                Line and Phoenix                              28%                         21%                  146                             108

     * Headcounts based on population data from UNSD.

32 Kiribati Education Fact Sheets 2021 I Analyses for learning and equity using MICS data
Per centages and headcounts, by various socioeconomic characteristics

These charts show the trade-off between per centages and population size, where the height of the bubble on the Y-axis represents the per centage of children who are not on track on the ECDI (top) and who are not attending ECE (bottom),
meaning that, the higher the bubble, the larger the per centage. Population size is represented by the size of the bubble.

FIGURE 57     Per centage and headcount of children who are not on track on the ECDI
                                                                                                                                                                                         Findings
35%
                                                                                                                                                                                         Children not on track on the ECDI:
                                                                                                                                                                                         • The per centage for children from the
30%                                                        30%
                                                                                                                                         28%                    28%
                                                                                                                                                                                            Central Gilbert and Line and Phoenix
                                                                                                                                                                                            island groups is higher than that
25%
                                               24%                                                                                                  24%                                     for other island groups. However,
              22%                                                     22%                                                                                                                   the headcount of children not on
20%                                                                                                                           20%                                          TOTAL
                                                                                                                                                                                            track on the ECDI is the largest for
                         18%                                                     18%
                                    17%
                                                                                            16%
                                                                                                                   17%                                                                      South Tarawa, followed by Northern
15%
                                                                                                                                                                                            Gilbert and Southern Gilbert. One
                                                                                                                                                                                            explanation for this is the larger
                                                                                                        11%
10%
                                                                                                                                                                                            population of children aged three to
                                                                                                                                                                                            four in these island groups, which
 5%
                                                                                                                                                                                            results in lower per centages being
             Male       Female     Urban       Rural      Lowest     Second     Middle      Fourth     Highest     South     Northern    Central   Southern    Line and
                                                                                                                  Tarawa      Gilbert    Gilbert    Gilbert    Phoenix                      translated to higher headcounts.
 0%
                                                                                                                                                                                         • The children in the two poorest
                                                                                                                                                                                            wealth quintiles are at least twice
                                                                                                                                                                                            as likely not to be on track on the
 FIGURE 58    Per centage and headcount of children who are not attending ECE                                                                                                               ECDI compared with children in
                                                                                                                                                                                            the highest wealth quintile. On
                                                                                                                                                                                            the ECDI, higher per centages of
40%
                                                                                                                                                                                            comparatively poorer children are not
                                                                                                                                                                                            developmentally on track whereas
35%                                                                                                                                                                                         in ECE attendance higher per
                                                                                 34%        34%
                                                                                                                                                                                            centages of children from the middle
                                    32%                                                                            32%
              31%                                                                                                                                                                           and fourth wealth quintiles are not
30%

                                                                                                                                                                           TOTAL            attending ECE.
                                                                                                                                                     28%
                                                                                                                                         27%
                                                                                                                                                                                         Children not attending ECE:
25%                      25%
                                                           24%                                          24%                                                                              • For children who are not attending
                                               23%                    23%
                                                                                                                                                                21%                         ECE, South Tarawa has both the
20%
                                                                                                                                                                                            highest per centage of children
                                                                                                                              18%
                                                                                                                                                                                            not attending ECE and the largest
15%                                                                                                                                                                                         headcount. Central Gilbert and
                                                                                                                                                                                            Southern Gilbert have similar per
10%
                                                                                                                                                                                            centages of children not attending
                                                                                                                                                                                            ECE, but the headcount in Southern
                                                                                                                                                                                            Gilbert is larger.
 5%          Male       Female     Urban       Rural      Lowest     Second     Middle      Fourth     Highest     South     Northern    Central   Southern    Line and
                                                                                                                  Tarawa      Gilbert    Gilbert    Gilbert    Phoenix

 0%

                                                                                                                                                                                Topic 5: Early Childhood Attendance and Development            33
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