MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS IN SCCL (SINGARENI COLLIERIES CO. LTD.)
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Bookman International Journal of Accounts, Economics & Business Management, Vol. 1 No. 2, October-November-December 2012 / 51 ISSN No. 2319-426X © Bookman International Journals : www.bookmanjournals.com RESEARCH ARTICLE MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS IN SCCL (SINGARENI COLLIERIES CO. LTD.) 1Sardar Gugloth* and 2Nalla Bala Kalyan Kumar 1Associate Professor, 2Research Scholar, 1,2Department of Management Studies, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA. *Corresponding Author : email@example.com ABSTRACT Management Development Programmes (MDPs) have been playing an imperative role for the last three decades in India. The current study analyzes the performance of SCCL. The article highlights and evaluates the performance of MDPs and their efficiency in bringing out the effective managers so as to ensure the organization development. The Singareni Collieries Company occupies a crucial position in the economic development of the entire south and particularly the state of Andhra Pradesh. The management of Singareni, its organizational set-up, financial position, employment status, wages and service conditions of its workers, their working and living conditions and the set- up of the personal department will greatly influence directly or indirectly the industrial relations climate in it. Keywords : Coal Industry, Development, Management, Programmes, SCCL. 1. INTRODUCTION development and under development. Despite the fact of Management Development Programmes (MDPs) have been viewing human resource as an asset, there is a gloomy side playing a vital role for the last three decades in India, to this issue. An element, which has surfaced in the because these have been widely accepted as critical input warning signal of the World Bank, as related to India is that for improving managerial performance and organizational by the turn of this century, India will have abundance of effectiveness. Management development involves making human resources, the brain trust of a nation and on the other exercises in managerial manpower flows, future inventories side, we are in a state of emergency to convert the human of human skills, abilities, resources to match demands of resources as asset. This is possible only through continuous expanding, diversifying operations of the organization; recycling of human resources through formal, informal and forecast of human resources balance sheets, and non-formal education involving training and retraining. programmes of manpower surpluses and deficits, etc. Most of the Public Enterprises have taken up HRD in a big way, however, in private sector it is less continuous but Definition of Management Development : Management more enterprise focused and need based. It is also a fact that development is any part of the process by which a manager in private sector formal assessment of training needs and grows in his job and becomes more promotable. Under this strategies of fulfilling them are absent. It is often viewed as broad definition, chance could be equally as effective as a retreat for reflection and recruitment. But things are directed activity. It would be fatuous to say that chance changing under the new economic policy and globalization does not play a significant part in the development of most of operations. Increasingly private sector industrial houses managers. There are some men who have an amazing are setting up training centers and planning to establish proclivity for being in the right place at the right time under even private universities. the right leadership. The assumption is that this will happen to every young manager. Importance of MDPs in coal industry : In the present information age, a large number of organizations , whether “Management development” means any planned, guided, engaged in manufacturing or services or whether public or or directed activity undertaken by a manager to help private sectors, are laying emphasis on the development himself become more competent in his present position or which is an outcome of the pressure of change in global to prepare him for heavier responsibilities to come. Implicit scenario, which requires competent personnel to cope with in this concept is a fundamental belief that no man can changes. Globalization waves have created considerable develop another. In the final analysis, the only one capable ripples in the all-important area of human resources their way of developing any manger is himself. interaction is the corporate world. Today’s competitive environment necessitates gradation of knowledge and skills Training and Development Movement in India : India is in the existing employees, procurement of skilled/trained passing through convulsive changes due to advancement in employee’s and re-training them on a continuous basis. science and technology but at the same time, 1000million Broadening of skill base of employees and overcoming people of this country are caught in the twilight zone of human resources obsolescence is the need of the hour. One
Sardar Guglothand Nalla Bala Kalyan Kumar BKMNIJAEBM, Vol. I (II), 2012 / 52 of the main challenges faced by organization, especially the Management Training : Some institutions cater to the coalmines industries, is the need to develop human specific training needs of the in-service people as well as resources capable of handling in operation; in other words, prepare newly recruited personnel for the jobs. They to optimize human resources, organizations have to be provide job-oriented training and claim to improve job receptive about designing and implementing MDPs. In the related knowledge, skill and attitude of the managerial liberalized and competitive areas, the world is striving for a personnel of business organizations. These programmes change amidst pressures of soft skills and technological usually concentrate on the formation of improvement of development. The employees need to acquire a considerable managerial skills. Such training programmes are highly amount of training development skills in training specialized, practical, job specific, short ranged, of assessment, designing and choosing effective methods in immediate relevance to learners and progress of which can improving the management skills. In many organizations, be measured. This may be called as management skill especially in coal industries, management training is training programs, which are not very popular in India. considered as an integral part of organizational planning. Systematic and planned development of managers provides Management Education-cum-Training : Most of the direction and purpose to effective development of institutions conduct training programmes based on the employees. For effective functioning of existing managerial knowledge inputs of management discipline. These personnel for future, MDPs need to be analyzed programmes are more of the nature of management periodically and reoriented to cope with the changing education and meet the training requirements of the in- requirements. service people in a general way. They may have direct or indirect bearing on the management skill formation or up gradation depending on individual’s initiative and ability 2. NATURE OF MANAGEMENT since they are not designed for specific target population. DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES Such programmes may be of shorter or longer duration These institutions provide a host of management depending on the choice of programmes designed by development programmes attempting to inculcate concepts, training institutions. These programmes are very common principles, theories and techniques of general and functional in India and work on the proposition of universality of management in job seekers of high positions and in-service management knowledge. executives so as to acquire and upgrade their professional competence in dealing with growing complexities of work, Induction and Orientation Training : Some of the people and organizational management leading to national institutions or training departments conduct induction and development. Broadly speaking, most of the management orientation training programmes. The former usually is development programmes conducted by these institutions meant for the people who have been selected fresh to one or may be classified into several categories depending on the the other organization of government departments. Under nature of Management Development Programmes discuss this, newly selected personnel are prepared first of the jobs below in figure 1. and thereafter placed in their respective job positions. Such programmes impart job and organization related knowledge and skills. The latter is arranged for in-serve people to update their knowledge and skill or meet new challenges brought in by environmental changes. Research and Consultancy : Some of these institutions conduct management research and offer management consultancy services in addition to education and training. These research and consultancy services help organizations improve their effectiveness by identifying deep rooted problems and resorting to appropriate solutions. Fig. 1 : Nature of Management Development 3. PERFORMANCE OF SCCL Programmes Coal is a major mineral-mine in the country. It is a major source of energy for most of the Indian industries as nearly Management Education : Any of the institutions 80 per cent of the energy requirements are met by the coal especially universities and management institutes impart and therefore, it is one of the chief contributors of economic management education and confer degree or diploma in the development of the country. The Indian industries are by management discipline. These programmes are highly and large coal based. The importance of coal is also academic, general in nature and longer in duration. These realized by the recovery of a number of by-products like institutions prepare younger generations for management tar, benzol, sulphur, calcium carbide, methane, etc. Coal profession by providing more knowledge inputs. claims an increasing importance in our national economy as the crude oil prices are rising throughout the globe. The fast
Sardar Guglothand Nalla Bala Kalyan Kumar BKMNIJAEBM, Vol. I (II), 2012 / 53 changing industrial map of Andhra Pradesh owes much to The Primary Phase (1889-1927) : The first Coal Mine was the state participation in the economic activity through the opened in 1989 at Yellandu and Coal-Mining continued in philosophy of public sector. The Singareni Collieries Co. this area till 1927. In the inaugural year 18, 89, 59,671 tons Ltd., is the oldest industry in the public sector in Andhra of coal was produced. Pradesh. It is located in the economically backward and tribal areas of three districts in Andhra Pradesh, namely Initial Expansion (1928-1960) : During this period, SCCL Khammam, Karimnagar and Adilabad, and plays a crucial commenced Coal-Mining operations in Bellampalli and role in the economic development of these districts. The Kothagudem areas. Singareni grew from a production level large quantities of its coal product are utilized by the of 0.70 mt in 1928 to 2.49 mt in 1960. thermal power plants and cement industry. Andhra Pradesh has large deposits of coal (8,583 million tonnes) of non- Pre-Nationalization Era (1961-73) : This period witnessed coking type which would last for several hundreds of years. a steep growth in coal production as the Government of India also participated in investment in SCCL from 1960. The coal fields in Andhra Pradesh which provides Coal-Mining activities were extended to other areas like employment to nearly 88,000 workers cater to the market Mandamarri & Ramagundam (1961) and Ramakrishnapur needs of the entire South. The industrial progress of the (1963). south, in general and the state of Andhra Pradesh in particular depends to a considerable extent on the ability of Post-Nationalization Era (197-92) : In the year 1973 the Singareni to supply the coal at reasonable rate. The coalmines in other parts of India were nationalized to meet power houses, industries and railways are the major the increasing energy requirements of the country. Large consumers of coal produced by Singareni and the Scale expansion/modernization of mines were taken up consumption accounts to 52.28%, 36.94% and 10.78% between 1973-1992. Opencast mining commenced in SCCL respectively during the year 1982-83. in 1975 with the opening of Opencast –I mine in Godavarikhani area. The Singareni is the largest contributor to the public exchequers by way of royalties and taxes. In 1973-74 its Liberalization Era 1992-2003 : Even though the country contributions towards the State and Central revenues were adopted economic reforms in the early 1990’s, it was not Rs.150.5 lakhs and Rs.149.7 lakhs respectively. They were until 1996 that the coal industry felt liberalization through increased to Rs.1783.44 lakhs to State and Rs.687.34 lakhs deregulation of pricing and distribution of higher grades of to the Central exchequers during 1982-83. This shows coal. During this period the company witnessed a nearly a record of twelve fold and fivefold increase in these remarkable turnaround due to structural reforms initiated in contributions to the State and Central revenues respectively, 1997 with significant increase in production, productivity and it once again highlights the company’s prominence in and profitability. the economy. As a consequence of the crucial position it occupies in the economy and of any disturbance in its 4. REVIEW OF LITERATURE production activity owing to disturbed industrial peace or failure or breakdown of plant and machinery, the normal Anuradha R. Dr (2003) explained the importance of functioning of the power houses, cement industries, aligning the energies of various layers inside the railways and other industries in the area would come to a organization to achieve the common objective and she standstill. concluded that the organization effectiveness and goal depended upon the individual effectiveness and Phases of the Growth of Coal Production : The growth of responsibility. coal production since the company’s inception can be classified into five phases, which are presented in figure 2. Apparao C and Guptha A.P (2003) highlighted on how training has been systematically planned and implemented at RINL (Rastriya Ispat Nigam Ltd. Public Sector Steel Plant Vishakapatnam) how the top management involved in HRD and how the training function was interwoven in the hierarchical web of the organization, bringing out commitment at all levels. Deshpande and Viswesvaran (1992) indicated that effective selection procedure for the expatriates and their training were the important factors in the matter of realizing the full potential of the expatriates. In their meta-analysis, they found a positive relationship and psychological well being; scowl skills with host country nationals, the ability to Fig. 2 : Phases of the Growth of Coal Production adjust, and the development of accurate perception of the
Sardar Guglothand Nalla Bala Kalyan Kumar BKMNIJAEBM, Vol. I (II), 2012 / 54 host culture and its people. They also found that most Area. The sub-objectives of study are as follows : studies indicate a positive relationship between cross- To examine the policy, procedures and process of cultural training and performance. MDPs of the SCCL. To analyse the effective implementation of MDPs in Dwivedi R. S (1997) describe that the training was SCCL. prerequisite to improved performance and preparing human To evaluate the performance of MDPs and their resources for new jobs, transfers, promotions, and change efficiency in bringing out the effective managers so as over modern technology and equipment. In addition to to ensure the organization development. training of new entrants, manpower at all levels requires To offer the suggestion to improve the effective refresher training from time to time to avoid personal implementation of MDPs at various functionary levels obsolescence and improving its competence to hold higher based on the findings and thereupon conclusion in positions. drawn. Hashim (2001) surveyed 262 training institutions in Malaysia to identify the practices of training providers for 7. HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY evaluating training programs. He found that training Keeping in view of the above objectives, the following providers used different evaluation methods that included hypotheses have been formulated: trainees feedback, observations, interviews, performance There is no significant difference between before and analysis, and training reactions forms and concluded that after the MDPs in updating the knowledge and skills of the most used method was the training reactions form as the Managers at the different management levels. clients require them. The Management Development programs in SCCL have been perfectly implemented to improve the 5. NEED FOR THE STUDY performance of the employees as per the Manager’s In the era of Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization opinion. (LPG), the manager’s job is challenging and cyclical in nature, so that the job of management development is a 8. SCOPE OF THE STUDY continuing and repetitive activity. A new era in the coal The scope of present study is confined to the SCCL, industry in India has ushered in necessitating the coal to Kothagudem area at corporate level. A dedicated discussion respond effectively to the continuing and rapid changes in on each criterion has been given to the extent disclosed by the socio-economic scenario in the country. The the undertaking. The present study covers the entire expectations from coal and demands made on them which company in overall manner. However for the purpose of are increasing both in volume and complexity have made detailed examination unit level practices were taken from the role of coal as more challenging, requiring empathy and Kothagudem Area. new types of skills and expertise on the part of coal mine employees. In view of the recent and ongoing economic reforms Indian corporate class has decided to improve 9. METHODOLOGY Management Development Programmes and its competitive The methodology adopted in the present study included edge. No organization can get better over night. Every selection of sample, period of study, data source, analysis organization has to start it and success depends on the and interpretation of data. The present study is based on willingness of management to abandon the traditional primary as well as secondary data. Primary data was approach for a new better way. Competitiveness is a reality collected through structured questionnaires and personal to stay ahead of the best of the competitor’s strategy. discussions with the officials of the SCCL, and secondary Growth not only helps access to the market but also brings data from the annual reports of the SCCL, other published a positive image to the organization. A modern problem reports, official records and documents relating to which begins as a result of shift from the craft man is management training and development programs, libraries operation of goods to mass production. Moreover MDP is a of institutes and universities and reports of the committee dynamic concept which changes overtime, needs and on public undertaking, public enterprises management expectations of organization, which is striving untiringly to board, Hyderabad. While presenting the data, charts and inform MDPs in to its work environment. Therefore, the graphs were used at relevant places apart from the table. present study makes a modern attempt to evaluate the Abbreviations were used for the term, which were repeated Management Development Programmes in SCCL unit of over a number of times. Kothagudem Area. Sample Design : In order to evaluate the effectiveness of MDP in SCCL, the Kothagudem unit was chosen. SCCL is 6. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY a leading coal industry with 47 mines, among them 11 are The basic objective of present study is to evaluate the open cast and remaining 36 under mines. The sample of Management Development Programmes (MDP) in Coal managers at various functioning levels tentatively fixed 180 Industry with Special Reference to SCCL, Kothagudem which included all Managers cadres. Among them 100
Sardar Guglothand Nalla Bala Kalyan Kumar BKMNIJAEBM, Vol. I (II), 2012 / 55 members were chosen from junior Managers cadre, 60 The survey of general facilities in the MDP conducted members from middle level Managers cadre and the showed that everybody found the facilities to be good while remaining 20 members from the senior level Managers a significant portion of around 25% found it very good and cadre at the selected unit. it was rated very poor by a negligible quarter of trainees from various cadres. Tools of Analysis : The data, thus, collected were be processed, analyzed by applying appropriate techniques like The evaluation of MDP at the end of the training program chi-square test using SPSS package and were percentages, was evaluated primarily through written test for all the averages and growth rates. There upon conclusions were levels of managers. 87% of corporate managers were drawn and suggestions were offered. evaluated through interviews while 75% of junior level managers were merited based on trainers report. End of course reviews, descriptions and questionnaires were also 10.LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY used as subordinating tools for evaluation Secondary data was collected from more than one source, which in turn lacked uniformity, consistency The calculated values show that the correlation between JL and regularity. Information taken from internal records & ML and ML & TL were negatively correlated, whereas suffered from non-availability (irregularity). the correlation between JL & TL was positively correlated The questionnaires used for the purpose of collecting when compared with others. That there was a very good the primary data from the respondents also suffered correlation between JL & TL. Since they were positively due to different level of perception interpretation and correlated. behaviour of sample respondents. Different Opinions about Management Development The calculated values and the table use point out that Programmes were also not gathered since they were correlation between the JL and ML was a good correlation widely spread over. Hence the study reflects the view because they were positively correlated compared to the of selected category of organization members only. other i.e. between JL & TL, TL & ML. They were all Since Management Development Programme involves negatively correlated, only the rank correlation between JL all levels, all departments, all functions, all areas, all and ML were positively correlated. Since they were activities and all processes, there can be studied from positively rejected were formed to be JL & ML positive, various angles. and good. The benefits gained by JL & ML were positively While calculating the averages and percentages correlated. approximation was to be made for the values up to two decimal digits. 12.SUGGESTIONS The study has shown that the training programs for all 11.FINDINGS levels have yielded fruits to the organization, but during the It was found that the employees who were undergoing study there was a suggestion invited from the sample training programs mostly fell between the ages 25-45 years respondents saying that the frequency of training programs and these were 25% of employees who were below 35 years was increased and the MDP involvement of junior level at junior level. When we see the trend with the mid level employees also increased. employees they were in the age group of 35–45 years who were interested in management development programs. The There should be proper utilization of the budgets that are top level was also equally in MDP programs. So age wise allocated. the distribution of employees towards MDP was spread and acknowledged for all age groups. The training methodology adopted should be according to the level and skill of employees rather than the decided In the, use of training at work it was found that 42% of level. junior level employees, 27% of mid level employees and 22% of top level people had high correlation to their Senior managers need a good overview of all managerial training practices and practical implications. It was found aspects of designing and operating a mechanized mine. This may be gained by a number of in-depth visits to 1 or 2 that overall training found most of supporters across all the mines only, with opportunity to discuss plans and levels of the organization. performance with senior mine management. Junior On the survey on MDP methods for all levels, lecture managers require detailed knowledge and experience of day method was preferred by junior level and mid level to day operational management. Middle managers need to employees while brain storming was preferred by top level steer a mid course between these two extremes. managers. Group discussion was the next most preferred method for junior level managers while it was seminar Training “projects” should be defined within the overall progamme. Each project should have specific objectives method for mid level managers and role play for top level clearly justified in the context of the industry’s needs. Any managers.
Sardar Guglothand Nalla Bala Kalyan Kumar BKMNIJAEBM, Vol. I (II), 2012 / 56 complementary inputs (e.g. consultants, equipment)  Chakraborty, S.K. “Managerial Effectiveness and Quality of required to achieve the objectives should be specified and Working Life: Indian Insights “, New Delhi: Tata McGraw used for training. Hill, 1987.  Dwivedi, R.S. “Managing Human Resources: Personnel Management in India Enterprises “, New Delhi: Galgotia 13.CONCLUSION Publishing Co., 1997. In the era of Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization  Dwivedi, R.S. “Managing Human Resources: Personnel Management in India Enterprises “, New Delhi: Galgotia (LPG), the manager’s job is challenging and cyclical in Publishing Co., 1997. nature, so that the job of management development is a  Kuldeepsingh T.V.Rao, “Excellence through Human continuing and repetitive activity. A new era in the coal Resource Development systems”, Tate McGraw hill, 1996. industry in India has ushered in necessitating the coal to  Managham, I. and Silver, M., “Management Training respond effectively to the continuing and rapid changes in Context and Practice”, Pilot Survey on Management Training the socio-economic scenario in the country. MDP is a sponsored by the Economic and Social Research Council and dynamic concept which changes overtime, needs and the Department of Trade and Industry, School of expectations of organization, which is striving untiringly to Management, University of Bath, Bath, 1986. inform MDPs into its work environment. Management  Nair, M.R.R.” Major HRD initiatives in SAIL “, in IGNOU’s Human Resource Development, 1990. development implies programme centered training for  R.S. Dwivedi “Human Relation &Organizational developing professional class of managers in modern Behaviouer”, Machillan India limited, 1995. techniques in making them acquire skill and insight in  Rao, T.V, “Human Resources Development: Experiences, decision making. This paper discussion was carried on the Interventions, Strategies”, New Delhi: Sage Publications history of coal industry and coal companies in India, India Pvt.Ltd. 1996. evolution of SCCL, phases of the growth of coal  Satesh pai, S. Ravisankar R.K. Mishra “Human Resource production, operational analysis, communications Managerial and Perspective for the New Millennium”, strategies, working performance and organizational Himalaya publisher, 1999. strengths of SCCL, welfare measures, safety and trainee  Virmani, B.R. and Premila Seth, “Evaluating Management and measures taken for enhancement of safety, Training and Development “, Vision Books, 1985.  www.sccl.com developments, other achievements and landmarks in the  www.hrd.com history of SCCL and organization structure of SCCL at  www.mdp.com mining level, area level and corporate level. The total  www.nwlink.com workforce employed in an organization at various levels, performing different types of jobs whether blue collar or white collar nature collectively complimented for the success and effectiveness of management of human resources. In the paper an attempt has been made to analyze and evaluate the performance of MDPs in SCCL with a structured questionnaire, according to age-wise, length of service, functional need, satisfaction of trading methods, annual budget for training and development, difficulties faced by the organization in implementing MDPs, identifying, selecting and improving training programmes to employees and procedures used at the end of the training programmes, etc. Training teams with diversified background having unprecedented excellence or mostly used and performance improvement was taken up based on the study. The organization is encouraging the global training programs in the fields of mining, management training and maintenance of equipments supplied to the company. 14.REFERENCES  A.K.Sharma “Management Development in Public Enterprises “Ajanta publication 1979.  Agarwal, R.D., “Dynamics of Personnel Management in India “, New Delhi, Tata McGraw –Hill Publishing Co., 1977.  Bala Krishnan, S., J.Rath and C.S.Venkat Rartnam. “Steel in Changes in HR/IR in Indian Industry “, New Delhi: Allied prulishers, 1993.
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