MASARYK UNIVERSITY Teaching and Motivating EFL Students Through Technology: Nearpod and Google Classroom - FACULTY OF EDUCATION - Masarykova ...

 
MASARYK UNIVERSITY Teaching and Motivating EFL Students Through Technology: Nearpod and Google Classroom - FACULTY OF EDUCATION - Masarykova ...
MASARYK UNIVERSITY
                FACULTY OF EDUCATION
            Department of English Language and Literature

    Teaching and Motivating EFL Students
            Through Technology:
       Nearpod and Google Classroom

                          Bachelor thesis

                              Brno 2018

Supervisor: Mgr. Tereza Talavašková            Author: Petr Chamula
MASARYK UNIVERSITY Teaching and Motivating EFL Students Through Technology: Nearpod and Google Classroom - FACULTY OF EDUCATION - Masarykova ...
Abstrakt
Bakalářská práce „Teaching and Motivating EFL Students Through Technology:
Nearpod and Google Classroom“ se zabývá výukou EFL (English as a Foreign Language)
studentů skrze aplikace Nearpod a Google Classroom. Jejím cílem je vytvoření
jednosemestrálního kurzu anglického jazyka v úrovni A2 (podle Common European
Framework) za pomoci zmíněných aplikací, použití tohoto kurzu ve výuce a určení, zda
a jak tento způsob výuky ovlivňuje motivaci z pohledu studenta. Teoretická část práce
seznamuje čtenáře s pojmem „EFL student“, teoriemi motivace a uvádí do problematiky
výuky skrze technologie. Praktická část zjišťuje klady a zápory zmíněných aplikací
na základě kvalitativního strukturovaného rozhovoru s absolventy jednosemestrálního
kurzu v jazykové škole a zkoumá vliv těchto aplikací na motivaci studentů ke studiu
anglického jazyka.

Abstract
The bachelor thesis “Teaching and Motivating EFL Students Through Technology:
Nearpod and Google Classroom” deals with EFL (English as a foreign language) learning
through the applications Nearpod and Google Classroom. The research aims to create an
English course at the A2 level according to the Common European Framework based on
the internet applications Nearpod and Google Classroom, put the course into practice, and
determine if and how the use of an internet-based application affects students’ motivation.
The theoretical part presents the term “EFL student” and theories of motivation and
introduces the problems of teaching/learning through technology. The practical part
defines the positive and negative aspects of the aforementioned applications based on
qualitative structured interviews with the students who attended a one-semester language
school course and examines the influence of the applications on students’ motivation.

Klíčová slova
Nearpod, Google Classroom, technologie, aplikace, motivace, CALL, EFL, A2

Keywords
Nearpod, Google Classroom, technology, application, motivation, CALL, EFL, A2
Prohlášení

Prohlašuji, že jsem závěrečnou práci bakalářskou vypracoval samostatně, s využitím
pouze citovaných pramenů, dalších informací a zdrojů v souladu s Disciplinárním řádem
pro studenty Pedagogické fakulty Masarykovy univerzity a se zákonem č. 121/2000 Sb.,
o právu autorském, o právech souvisejících s právem autorským a o změně některých
zákonů (autorský zákon), ve znění pozdějších předpisů.

V Brně dne 28. listopadu 2018                                   Petr Chamula
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................... 6

1    THEORETICAL PART ....................................................................................................... 8
    1.1        NON-FORMAL EDUCATION .......................................................................................... 8
       1.1.1       Language School ..................................................................................................... 8
       1.1.2       The EFL Student ...................................................................................................... 9
    1.2        TEACHING TRENDS OF THE 21ST CENTURY ............................................................... 10
       1.2.1       The Role of a Teacher ........................................................................................... 10
       1.2.2       Distance Learning ................................................................................................. 11
       1.2.3       E-Learning ............................................................................................................ 12
    1.3        COMPUTER-ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING........................................................... 16
       1.3.1       Definition of CALL ................................................................................................ 16
       1.3.2       History of CALL .................................................................................................... 16
       1.3.3       Benefits and Drawbacks of CALL ......................................................................... 18
       1.3.4       Application of CALL.............................................................................................. 19
    1.4        MOTIVATION AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS ................................................................. 25
    1.5        THEORY OF MOTIVATION .......................................................................................... 26
       1.5.1       Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation ........................................................................ 26
       1.5.2       Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs ............................................................................... 27
       1.5.3       Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory ........................................................................... 28
       1.5.4       Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory............................................................................. 28
    1.6        MOTIVATING STUDENTS ............................................................................................ 29
       1.6.1       Motivation in Using CALL Teaching Tools........................................................... 30

2    PRACTICAL PART ........................................................................................................... 34
    2.1        NEARPOD COURSE DESCRIPTION............................................................................... 34
    2.2        RESEARCH .................................................................................................................. 35
       2.2.1       Aim of the Research............................................................................................... 35
       2.2.2       Research Methods ................................................................................................. 35
       2.2.3       Interview and Data Analysis ................................................................................. 36
       2.2.4       Participants ........................................................................................................... 37
    2.3        SUMMARY AND EVALUATION OF THE RESEARCH ..................................................... 38
       2.3.1       Primary Motivation ............................................................................................... 38
       2.3.2       Technology as an Enticement ................................................................................ 39
       2.3.3       Nearpod – Benefits, Drawbacks and Influence on In-Class Motivation ............... 40
       2.3.4       Motivation to Complete Homework ...................................................................... 43
2.3.5       Nearpod vs. the Textbook ...................................................................................... 45
       2.3.6       The Merit of Nearpod ............................................................................................ 46
       2.3.7       The Role of the Teacher......................................................................................... 47

CONCLUSION.......................................................................................................................... 49

REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................... 52

APPENDICES ........................................................................................................................... 57
   APPENDIX 1 ............................................................................................................................. 57
   APPENDIX 2 ............................................................................................................................. 58
   APPENDIX 3 ............................................................................................................................. 59
INTRODUCTION

       Today’s world is full of technologies. They are being implemented in every part
of our lives in order to make tasks easier and allow us to do things more quickly. An
ordinary person rises in the morning, uses an electric toothbrush, commutes to work in
an electric car, reads the news on an e-reader, works on a computer and orders lunch over
the internet. After work, many people attend language schools to improve their English
and it is as if the time has stopped. Students sit down, receive an old textbook and spend
1 hour and 30 minutes watching a teacher write something with a chalk on a board.

       Non-formal education is the most common form of education for an adult learner
today. It is not easy for adults to return to the learning process, and motivating them
appears to be a crucial element that determines the results of their studies. For this reason,
the author decided to create a one semester language course for English as a foreign
language (EFL) students based on the applications Nearpod and Google Classroom.
The objectives were to create the course, teach it, observe it and determine how students
evaluate its merit and impact on their motivation. In order to achieve this, the author
attempted to determine the answers to the following questions: What are the positives and
negatives of Nearpod? How does it motivate students to study in and out of the
classroom? From students’ perspective, can Nearpod replace the textbook? What role
does the teacher play in Nearpod-based lessons compared to textbook-based lessons?

       The theoretical part of the thesis addresses the typical EFL language student,
describes language school as a specific place of study and their characteristics.
It describes current teaching trends and presents Computer-Assisted Language Learning
(CALL) and its development and puts it in relation to computer-based technology.
This chapter also describes Nearpod and Google Classroom and their possible use.
The last section of the theoretical part is devoted to motivation. It outlines main theories,
such as Maslow’s pyramid of needs, Skinner’s reinforcement theory and Herzberg’s two-
factor theory.

       The practical part of this thesis briefly describes the course and is devoted
to research. It familiarises the reader with the methodology used and attempts to explain
how Nearpod and Google Classroom can influence students’ motivation before, during
and after their language course. This section also describes the positives and negatives of

                                          6
these technologies and whether students prefer them to textbooks and addresses the role
of the teacher. It aims to enrich the theory of motivation in relation to learning English
through technology, namely Nearpod and Google Classroom, and analyses its
contribution from the students’ point of view.

                                        7
1     THEORETICAL PART

1.1 Non-Formal Education

        Palán (1997) states that non-formal learning creates broader prospects for
refinement of personality based on one’s interests and satisfies needs for education that
are in favour of one’s personal aims. It completes personality and its values and enables
self-realization in one’s free time (p. 135). A learner in modern society has many
opportunities to join the non-formal education system. An important factor for this type
of education is voluntariness, which is often connected with a need for self-education and
enhancement of one’s own capabilities. For this reason, a high degree of intrinsic
motivation in adult language learners is present (Palán, 1997, p. 135).

        Non-formal education could be described as “any organized, systematic, and
programmatic educational activity, external to formal education frameworks and
providing target subgroups with selected types of learning.” (Romi & Schmida, 2009,
p. 259), and therefore it is not very regulated. One of many reasons why students engage
in non-formal education is that people interpret information differently, hence a
structured curriculum may not allow all learners to understand the information presented.
Non-formal education is less controlled than in the average classroom setting in formal
education, which is why non-formal education can be so powerful. Nonetheless, it should
not be a substitute for formal learning but rather a supplement to it (Callanan, Cervantes
& Loomis, 2011, pp. 645-655).

1.1.1 Language School

        A typical example of an institution in the non-formal education system is a
language school. Language schools have become an inseparable part of the education
system and work as supporting institutions that supplement the formal educational
institutions.

        A language school is a place where one studies a foreign language. According to
Odbor statistik rozvoje společnosti (2016), students typically differ in the highest level of
education achieved, age, and working experience (p. 24). Students can usually choose a
specific course such as grammar, conversation, or a specialised course. At the beginning

                                          8
of the course, there is a placement test or interview that determines the student's level.
Students are either taught by foreign-language teachers or by native speakers, who are
not obliged to hold a university degree. However, some language schools might require
qualification. The courses are designed for groups, individual students, or companies.
Once the course is finished, students receive certificates that prove they have completed
the course. The requirements for receiving the certificate can differ from no set conditions
or attendance to a final comprehension test. Students who attend these courses are usually
learning English as a foreign language.

1.1.2 The EFL Student

         A typical student in a language school is the English as a Foreign Language (EFL)
student. Cambridge website dictionary (n.d) describes EFL as “the teaching of English to
students whose first language is not English”. EFL learners are a specific category of
student that does not have a unifying explanation. These learners possess skills, needs
and motivations that are unique in each country, and therefore the approach taken towards
them must be different. To fully understand the meaning of the term, a comparison to
English as a Second Language (ESL) students is required. Fernandez claims that "The
methods and approaches of teaching English as a second language and foreign language
do differ greatly" (as cited in Nordquist, 2017, para. 7). According to Bell (2013), students
of ESL can be found in a country where English is the main language. They are often
immigrants or visitors that are part of the English-speaking culture. They are exposed to
an English-speaking environment on a daily basis. In comparison, EFL students live in a
country where English is not the dominant language and they come into contact with the
English language and culture only in their classes (para. 2-3). As a result, EFL students
may need to practise English in and out of class and be motivated by their teacher to study
English more, as they are not exposed to English culture naturally on a daily basis (Bell,
2013).

         A common issue that is encountered is maintaining the attention of EFL students.
The learner has usually already had a hard day at work and has a lot of duties related to
his or her family awaiting them at home. An EFL student in a language school, usually
an adult, often struggles with doubts about failure, which becomes a demotivating factor.
Their ego is fully formed and they wish to prevent it from being harmed
(Mohammadi & Akbari, 2017, pp. 86–87). It appears to be necessary for a teacher to

                                          9
attempt to connect the theoretical outcomes in a lesson with practice in real life. By doing
so, the teacher may positively influence the learner’s motivation.

1.2 Teaching Trends of the 21st Century

       A symbol of the 21st century is productivity. People can do many things in the
shortest time possible. Rapid changes can be noticed in every field of life, and therefore,
it is probably inevitable that education follows this trend as well. Nowadays, we live in
the so-called post-method era that allows teachers to adapt their approach according to
the place and context they are in to maximise learning opportunities and to promote
learner autonomy (Kumaravadivelu, 1994). It means that there is no one method, but
teachers can practise a method that is in accord with the unique circumstances around
them (Kumaravadivelu, 1994; Prabhu, 1990).

       One may, therefore, argue that if the large cities of the developed Western
civilisation we live in overflow with technology, educators may follow this trend and
create an education model that is in favour of our lifestyle. Such an alternative method
might make use of the varieties of technological advancement and, apart from face-to-
face learning, allow the teacher to teach students remotely, changing learning models by
not being bound to the classroom as a site for contact with the teacher.

1.2.1 The Role of a Teacher

       Teaching through computers and other similar technologies may be challenging
for many teachers. The majority of today’s teachers grew up in a non-digital environment
and adapting to quick technological changes may be difficult for them. In 2014, the Czech
government put forward a bill that addresses the digitisation of the Czech education
system. The authors of this bill admit that teachers are important initiators in the process
of implementing digital technologies into the education system through which they can
realise the potential of technologies in practice. Nonetheless, the authors of the bill are
also concerned about the ability of using new digital technology in class as the Czech
teachers appear to be computer-illiterate, and therefore feel uncertain when working with
technologies. The Ministry of Education assumes that Czech teachers are capable of
preparing school materials digitally at home, but they cannot make use of digital
technology in their classes. This lack of digital technology knowledge diverges with

                                         10
students’ interests, which may result in students’ demotivation to study (“Strategie
digitálního vzdělávání do roku 2020,” 2014, pp. 7–9).

       It may appear that a teacher is not needed in a classroom where digital technology
is used. However, in truth, the reverse is the case. It can be argued that the internet is
overflowing with resources, which allow students to choose what suits them best.
However, this abundance of information has the opposite effect and students become
unable to choose due to the seemingly infinite number of possibilities (Schwartz, 2005).
In terms of education, this inability is emphasised by the fact that students do not know
what material is appropriate for them. With the advent of computers, the role of the
teacher has, therefore, changed. This does not necessarily lie in the ability to teach well,
"instead, they [teachers] can provide an environment and resources that tease out your
natural ability to learn on your own" (Shocken, 2012). In other words, with the use of
technology, the role of the teacher is changing from leader to facilitator (Ghasemi,
Hashemi & Bardine, 2011).

1.2.2 Distance Learning

       A trend that has experienced increased demand by students is distance learning.
Midgley (2015) states that it “is a way of learning remotely without being in regular face-
to-face contact with a teacher in the classroom” (para. 1). A student may communicate
through interactive computer programs, internet, and other means, depending on the
school equipment.

       Distance learning began to spread during the late 20th century as a response to
increased   use    of   the   internet.   The   high   potential   of   distance    learning
comes from a society that emphasises the individuality and flexibility of every member.
Another component in favour of distance learning is the possibility of adjusting education
to one’s own needs (Zlámalová, 2008, p. 14). This means that students have freedom of
choice in terms of place of study, the pace that is set, and the forms of study they are
engaged in, all of which promote the learner’s autonomy. This method, therefore, stands
in contrast to the traditional method of education, where the teacher is the principal, vital
element that sets the conditions for studying and provides all teaching materials
(Zlámalová, 2008, pp. 10–14). Nonetheless, the importance of teachers remains
significant. In distance learning, the entire study program still must be created,

                                          11
coordinated, and conducted by the teacher. The competencies for assessing students,
answering questions, explaining content, and leading classes still lie with the teacher and
these responsibilities cannot be fulfilled by anyone or anything else. It can be assumed
that compared to learning from a textbook, the competencies for educators alter from a
leader to a facilitator (Osman, 2014, para. 1). Nevertheless, the teacher still plays an
important role.

        Distance learning has developed into one of the bases of the learning process,
extending and completing it to create a more complex learning support system for the
student. For that reason, the recent changes in pedagogy are significantly related to the
opportunity of studying from home. The tool for achieving distance learning is e-learning.
The concept of today’s distance learning promotes the connection with information and
communicative technologies.

1.2.3 E-Learning

        E-learning is a result of technological development. As technological progress has
infiltrated many aspects of modern life, it is inevitable that it has also had an effect on the
process of education. There is no unified definition of e-learning in either the Czech
interpretation or in the English one. One of many definitions is that offered by Wagner
(2004) which states that we take e-learning as a multimedia education process support
with the use of modern information and communicative technologies that are realised by
networks. Its main purpose is unlimited access to education in time and place. However,
one problem can be seen in the application of technology and e-learning. The Czech
education system is enormous, and the reactions to these quick changes are prolonged.
As a result, in the era of e-readers and tablets, school systems continue to use textbooks
and write with chalk on a chalkboard (Zlámalová, 2006, pp. 23–24). The process of
change is long-term and difficult, but necessary to satisfy the future tendencies in
education.

        In 2006, Sak & Saková conducted research in which they examined the possible
use of the internet by people of different age groups in the Czech Republic. Relevant data
can be found in the columns related to education. Out of 763 respondents, a considerable
number of people (57%), perceived the internet as a place with good potential for
education (see Figure 1). Nonetheless, only 4% of individuals actually used this potential

                                           12
– for them the internet served them as a tool for regular learning - 29% use educational
internet functions sometimes (see Figure 2).

Figure 1. Co vám dává používání internetu? (Sak & Saková, 2006, p. 26)

                                                The use of different internet functions
                             100        2         2       2             2    2       2          4             4
                                        7
 Number of respondents [%]

                              90                 20
                                       10                 23        24
                              80                                             37
                                       11                                            45        47         48
                              70                 17
                                                          24        18
                              60
                                       32                                    21
                              50                                    18
                                                 29                                  18
                              40                          20                                   22         14
                              30                                    17       19      16                   14
                              20                 24       15
                                       38                                                      15
                                                                             13       9                   10
                              10                          16        21                          8
                                                  8                           8      10         4         10
                               0

                                   Regularly   Often   Sometimes    Seldom   Never   I don't know/No answer

Figure 2. Využívání jednotlivých možností internetu (Sak & Saková, 2006, p. 22)

                                                                   13
Jašková (2014) conducted a similar research aimed at language learning in
particular. She concluded that, out of 118 respondents, 39.8% of them preferred the
classic way (written texts, books, etc.) and 27.1% used PC for language learning
(see Figure 3). It does not show a big change in the use of the internet in the Czech
Republic.

                                     Do you learn languages through computer?
                          50
                          45
                                                                     47
  Number of respondents

                          40
                                                                                             41
                          35
                          30
                                            32
                          25
                          20
                          15
                          10
                           5
                           0
                                  Yes, I enjoy it.
                                  No, I prefer the classic way (written text).
                                  I would like to, but I have not come across any suitable program.

Figure 3. Učíš se jazyky pomocí PC? (Jašková, 2014, p. 53)

                          In addition, the research further discovers that 33.1 percent of respondents are
willing to study languages electronically but they have not found the right source and 78
percent are sure that there are excellent platforms but they have not come across them so
far. Only 15% think that they are currently using a good program for learning. The
researcher, therefore, concludes that “there exists some good sources but so far they [the
students] have not discovered them” (Jašková, 2014, p. 54).

                                                              14
Do you think there are good language learning platforms?

                         100                                           94
                          90
 Number of respondents

                          80
                          70
                          60
                          50
                          40
                          30
                          20
                                          18
                          10
                                                                                                    8
                           0
                               Yes, the ones I am using.   Probably yes, but I haven't   No, they have a lot of
                                                            come across any so far.         imperfections.

Figure 4. Myslíš si, že existují dobré jazykové portály? (Jašková, 2014, p. 54)

                           The comparison of the researches shows that the number of people using internet
for education is not increasing as fast as one may believe. People in the Czech Republic
consider the internet to be an excellent platform for their education, but they do not use
its potential to serve this purpose. The reasons behind it might be different, for instance,
difficult accessibility of education, paid platforms, or insufficient awareness of good
platforms offering internet education among students (Wagner, 2004, point 1–6).

                           The internet network is currently widespread and its contents continue to grow.
The availability of e-learning is one of the most significant advantages of the internet.
Among other benefits, e-learning boasts the possibility of individual approaches for each
learner, lower costs for education, higher effectiveness and increased motivation. The last
advantage is precisely the one which should be taken into account by teachers. Teaching
through technologies has extraordinary potential for motivating students.

                                                              15
1.3 Computer-Assisted Language Learning

1.3.1 Definition of CALL

       Hubbard (2018) assumes that CALL is a broad term considered to include
computer-related technologies, such as desktop computers, laptops, tablets, mobile
phones, etc (“An Invitation to CALL”, para. 1). Over recent decades, the term has
diverged into many other acronyms attempting to specify a particular issue (e.g., MALL
- Mobile-Assisted Language Learning). For this work, the CALL interpretation is used as
the primary term, while other terms are considered to be only sub-terms and are
subsidiary.

       It should be noted that there are no special names relating technology to subjects
such as history or music. For example, there is no “computer-assisted history learning”,
leading to the question of why digital language learning is given a special name. Levy
and Hubbard (2005) clarify that “Almost every human being will learn a language, and
millions will learn a second or third language, either as children or as adults” (p. 145).
This is why using a language is a unique skill that characterises and differentiates humans
from other species, and therefore deserves deeper and more complex attention than any
other subject.

1.3.2 History of CALL

       With the advent of technology in people’s lives, new methods for use have been
continuously invented. The main function of technology was and still is to simplify
procedures and processes in various fields, and it was only a question of time before
technology connected to education. Technology and computing in particular have
foundations close to subjects such as mathematics and physics, which is why “Computer-
assisted instruction was first used in the 1950s for other purposes than language teaching”
(Tafazoli, D. & Golshan, N., 2014, p. 32). Nonetheless, other subjects soon started to use
the approach of using technology in the teaching/learning process.

       Barson and Debski state that the constant development of technology and the
theory of CALL can be understood in three main phases: behaviouristic CALL,
communicative              CALL               and            integrative            CALL

                                         16
(as cited in Tafazoli & Golshan, 2014, p. 33). Each phase occurred in a specific time
period and has typical characteristics in terms of pedagogical and technological
advancement.

1.3.2.1 Behaviouristic CALL

       As its title suggests, the first phase of CALL was based on the theory of
behaviourism that began in the 1950s and persisted until the 1970s. In this phase, the
computer was used as a tool for presenting instructions to students. Taylor stated that in
this phase, the role of the computer was almost identical to that of a tutor, and the
materials delivered were repetitive language drills, vocabulary, grammar and translation
tests (as cited in Tafazoli & Golshan, 2014, p. 33). The most popular learning tool was
Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations (PLATO) which was based on
the behaviouristic approach (Tafazoli & Golshan, 2014, p. 33).

1.3.2.2 Communicative CALL

       In the 1970s and 1980s, an approach focused on communicative skills appeared.
Chapelle (2001) states that “words and texts that are part of a program, texts implemented
by the teacher, or writings constructed by the student can be attributed to this approach.
These aspects could be included in tasks such as writing, conversation and critical
thinking” (p. 10). Language is meant to be learnt rather implicitly, therefore focus moved
from analysing grammatical structure to actual language use. Programmers came with
new improvements in various programs which enabled the student to find the definition
for a vocabulary element independently, e.g., by clicking on a certain unit within a text.
From this time forward, the teacher ceased to be the only resource the student had in the
search for proper translation or contextual support.

1.3.2.3 Integrative CALL

       With the quick development of technology in the field of multimedia, the role of
the computer in language learning changed as well. The invention of the CD-ROM
opened doors for IT developers and teachers to begin creating teaching materials that
went beyond rather uninteresting drills and language analyses. It allowed educators to

                                         17
engage the social aspect in the process of learning. Mitsikopoulou (2014) states that “they
[educators] placed more emphasis on language use in authentic social context” (p. 2).
This phase can be further divided into two basic tools through which the learning process
can occur:

       Multimedia CALL creates a more authentic learning environment using different
media where students’ language skills (reading, writing, listening and speaking) are easily
integrated. Students have a high degree of control over their learning through hypermedia
(combination of hypertext and multimedia). It also facilitates a principle focus on content
without sacrificing a secondary focus on language form (Mitsikopoulou, 2014, p. 4).
Mitsikopoulou (2014) also describes Web-Based CALL:

       Students can search through millions of files around the world within minutes to
       locate and access authentic materials. Students can use the internet to publish
       their own texts or multimedia materials to share with partner classes or with the
       general public. Language learners can communicate directly, inexpensively and
       conveniently with other learners or speakers of the target language from school,
       home, work, etc. (pp. 8-9)

1.3.3 Benefits and Drawbacks of CALL

       The trend of increasing interest in CALL is undeniable. There are many authors
who list the benefits and drawbacks of CALL, but their conclusions are more or less
identical. According to Warschauer and Healey, the benefits of CALL are (as cited in
Tafazoli & Golshan, 2014, p. 34):

   1) Multimodal practice with feedback
   2) Individualization in a large class
   3) Pair or small group work on projects
   4) The “fun” factor
   5) Variety in the resources available and learning styles used
   6) Exploratory learning with large quantities of language data
   7) Real life skill building in computer use

       As a result of the benefits of CALL, teachers are able to include sounds, pictures
and colours in interactive exercises along with a variety of elements adjusted to the needs
of every individual learner. Doing this helps involve more senses compared to the original

                                           18
textbook method. In addition, teachers may provide students with supplementary
exercises (within URL links) to reinforce material without being restricted by the limited
space of a book. These aspects change the style of a lesson from teacher-centred to
student-centred (Kim, 2008, pp. 241-259).

         When beginning to use a new approach in practice, there are always some
obstacles that emerge. Indrawati (2009) outlines three main disadvantages that arise as
part of CALL:

   1) Lack of trained teachers  Teaching through technologies fundamentally
         changes the role of the teacher. It is necessary that the teacher’s computer literacy
         is above average.
   2) Imperfect current CALL programs  Teacher’s effectivity in the classroom is
         dependent on learning program developers. It is difficult to find a well-
         programmed application that is easy to work with.
   3) Inability to manage unexpected situations  When teachers leave their
         textbooks at home, they still have a lesson plan and should be able to give the
         lesson. When teachers forget their computers however, they have no materials and
         are unable to teach.

1.3.4 Application of CALL

         When utilising CALL in a real lesson there are a few problems that arise that must
be solved. At present, there is a variety of computer and mobile applications, each of
which is focused on training a different skill. The majority of programs are not centred
on language learning as such, and therefore require adjustment and creative application
to serve the purpose needed. Teachers may struggle with finding the best applications to
use with their students, as it is almost impossible to test all of these applications in
advance. For this reason, Carrington (2017) created already the 5th update of the wheel
of commonly used applications in teaching and learning, represented in the graphic
below.

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1.3.4.1 The Padagogy Wheel

       Today, there are an enormous number of applications with high education
potential. The Padagogy Wheel (see Appendix 1), produced by Allan Carrington, is a
supportive tool for teachers which organises applications into a clear system. Dr Matt
Harris (2017) describes Padagogy Wheel:

       [It is] an at-hand reference that ties apps to specific learning outcomes directly
       connected to modern pedagogies and theories. They [teachers] can easily sit with
       the wheel during lesson planning time to find tools that will best aid their students
       or use it during class time to extend or deepen learning towards a specific 21st
       century skill or content area. (para. 3)

       The wheel is free and downloadable in PDF version. Once users download the
material, they are able to click on a particular application that links them to the download
button on the provider’s website. Such a tool may function as an excellent teaching aid
for CALL. It allows the teacher to avoid lengthy searches for applications with
educational potential. Moreover, it divides applications into groups according to their
possible uses.

       The majority of applications are oriented towards a very specific field of interest.
Their focus varies from writing, listening and verbal communication, to arithmetic. Their
quality also varies as well. They help a teacher make the lesson more “colourful” and
entertaining, but this requires significant preparation prior class. If the teacher fails to
prepare a lesson, it may become a very frustrating and time-consuming experience and
both the teacher and students suffer. If e.g. switching between applications is required,
this may spur students to procrastinate as they are forced to travel from application to
application through a menu that contains other “lures” of content that is not of
pedagogical interest. For this reason, a single application that somehow unifies multiple
educational programs is necessary. In searching for such an application, it becomes clear
that most existing platforms aim at a particular field – presentations, flash cards, gap-
filling, drawing, web browsing, quizzes etc. – but almost none of them attempts to include
all pedagogical applications within a closed system that allows for teacher control.

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1.3.4.2 Nearpod

       Nearpod is an educational application that works within various operating systems
on mobile and desktop devices. Nick Acton (2015) summarises Nearpod by stating that,
“The app’s concept is simple. A teacher can create presentations that can contain quizzes,
polls, videos, images, drawing-boards, web content and so on”. Its main purpose is to
provide teachers with the ability to create new teaching material without having to leave
the environment of one application. The same idea can be applied to the process of
teaching and learning in the classroom. It is the teacher who controls what content is on
students’ tablets, mobile phones or computers. Acton (2015), Primary Apple Specialist
Trainer and Apple Curriculum Coordinator, outlines options in the use of Nearpod further
complemented by comments of the author of the thesis:

Simple Presentation Delivery
       At its most basic, Nearpod works as a simple presentation platform. However, its
features are quite limited and they do not reach the qualities of commonly used
presentation tools, such as Microsoft PowerPoint. Despite this, teachers are still able to
enhance their lessons with some convenient aids, such as asking a live test question.
The importance of the black/white board thus vanishes.

Personalised Provision
       As it is teachers who create lessons, they are able to design (and adjust) these to
fit their students’ preferences. For example, when teaching countries and nationalities,
the teacher has the possibility to present neighbouring countries in their specific region,
and are not restricted to teaching countries presented in a textbook written by an
Englishman that may give preference to English neighbours.

Distributing Resources

       Acton states the following:

       You could fill your presentation with images or worksheets and ask the children
       to save the resources by taking screen shots. This will automatically save the shots
       to the iPad’s camera roll. The children can then use the images within other apps
       or simply keep them at hand as teaching and learning references.
       (Nick Acton, 2018, point 3)

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Live and Formative Assessment
          Customised quizzes can be included in lessons. After the quiz is complete, the
student can see their results immediately, which has a positive impact on their motivation.
The resulting data can be read continuously, meaning that the teacher is able to monitor
how successful their students are. This is very important for the flow of the lesson, as the
teacher can react to a problem during the quiz immediately and is not only a passive
element in the quiz.

Ongoing Assessment
          Nearpod can function as a continuous assessment tool during the term if needed.
Furthermore, the teacher is able to create a quiz to check student’s comprehension during
the class. Once a student has finished the quiz, it creates a report that could be downloaded
as a PDF file and shared with the student either immediately in the class or at home via
e-mail or Google Classroom.

Self-Assessment
          This option is related to the function “Poll”. A poll could be included in the lesson
to check students’ confidence and motivation, or to gain feedback about a teacher’s
lesson.

Open-Ended Tasks
          Options, such as open-ended question, allow students to give longer answers or
to give more thorough feedback about a teacher’s lesson with notes for improvement. The
“Draw it” function could also be used for open ended tasks to let students show their
creativity as it is less directed by the teacher.

Setting Homework
          Nearpod also allows teachers to create homework (e.g., gap-filling tasks) on a
slide and provide students with the code that is needed for entering the lesson out of the
class. This code can be shared easily through Google Classroom, so that they have
everything they have learnt on one place. As a result, the necessity of recalling homework
page numbers vanishes. Students can access the entire lesson at home later.

Modelling
          Teachers can transform every slide of their presentation into a board on which
students can draw. When teaching adults, this could be used for crossing out incorrect
words or underlining phrases teachers want students to identify. When teaching younger

                                            22
learners, this function can be used to allow students to draw a picture of what they have
just learnt.

Sharing and Using Pre-made Resources
        Acton (2015) describes the accessibility of various resources:

        Tapping on the ‘Explore’ button within the main landing page of the app will take
        you through to a library of pre-made Nearpod Presentations. An entire network of
        teachers have been sharing their resources on this platform for years now.
        (Acton, 2015, point 10)

        The list above was compiled in 2015. Nevertheless, Nearpod developers have
continued to work on the application and have created some new features, which include:

Collaborate
        This function is a wall where students (and their teacher) can pin small notes in
real time. This feature could be used for brainstorming activities involving vocabulary
concerning the target topic.

Virtual Field Trip
        Field Trip enables the teacher to take students to a certain location. This function
appears to be a geography learning tool, but it can be used to teach English as well.
Students hold their tablets, and as they turn around the room the image on the screen
moves with them, allowing them to explore the virtual space. In some cases, this might
become the only possibility of taking pupils out of the classroom. They can be taken on
a sightseeing tour in America or to a hotel room to brainstorm hotel vocabulary.

        All the functions mentioned above (except for Homework) look like they are
regarded to a classroom teaching and learning. However, one of the most powerful
features of Nearpod is the fact that all these functionalities can be used in distance
learning. There are quite advanced tools applicable to distance learning, but they usually
have a limited scale of functions. Some of them are focused on quizzes, others on videos
or writing. Nearpod gathers many of these functions which makes it to be a complex tool
that can work across time and space, which might remove another important barrier for
EFL learners have and motivate them to begin studying a new language.

        Motivation has been described as one of the significant problems in EFL non-
formal education. Formal education has the advantage of connecting with students on a
daily basis. For the non-formal learning system, there is a question of how to motivate

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students that usually attend classes only once a week. Related to this, Nearpod is
developing another important functionality – connectivity with other applications. Once
the lesson is finished, a Nearpod lesson can be shared on Google Classroom and the class
can continue for the rest of the week.

1.3.4.3 Google Classroom

       Google created a platform suitable for CALL that includes the distant support of
the educator. Catapano (2018) emphasizes this platform, Google Classroom, as providing
“easy access for students and teachers to one another’s work, and reduce[ing] many of
the steps previously necessary for sharing information” (para. 2). It might make studying
out of the class a little bit more comfortable. Google Classroom does not have a high
number of functions, but it has some core functions that are potential connectors between
students and the teacher at the time they cannot see each other in person.

The Wall
       This is similar to the well-known Facebook wall, and it creates a friendly
environment for class that prompts communication among students. The tutor can create
a note that looks like an ordinary, informal status update, which includes the elements of
a topic they have recently covered in class. Students receive a notification on their phones
and have the opportunity to respond to the update, sometimes without even realising that
they are employing knowledge recently acquired in their class.

Assignments
       While Nearpod is an excellent platform for running an in-class lesson, Google
Classroom works best when homework is set. Students may be given the task to write a
short essay and submit it via the platform. The teacher receives a notification upon the
assignment’s completion and is able to correct, assess, and return it immediately,
strengthening the student’s motivation.

1.3.4.4 Quizlet

       To make the learning process complete, Nearpod might be complemented by an
application devoted to vocabulary learning and testing. To some extent, the options
already available in Nearpod allow the educator to teach vocabulary. However, there are
other platforms that are far more advanced concerning this aspect and may offer more

                                          24
effective learning as a result of motivational elements when implemented in Nearpod.
There are many applications focused on vocabulary teaching, such as Vocabulary.com or
Duolingo. Nonetheless, for the purposes of this work, Quizlet has been chosen for its
simplicity, possibility of adding pictures, English-Czech translations, and connectivity
with Google Classroom. Other applications may serve vocabulary purposes as well.

1.4 Motivation and Its Characteristics

        Imagine a situation where students are given the task to choose from 1 of 10
English textbooks piled on a teacher’s table and determine how to construct a sentence in
the present perfect tense. One student rushes to the table to choose the best textbook,
while another simply takes his mobile phone out of his pocket and gives up on the activity.
The task is the same, but the students’ determination to complete it differs. In addition,
one student may find this task to be challenging, another may feel enthusiastic about it,
while yet other considers it completely uninteresting.

        The aim of this section is not to examine the topic of motivation exhaustively, but
rather to pinpoint significant theories about motivation that are related to the topic of this
thesis. As this work is of pedagogical focus, some psychological terminology should be
clarified here.

        Motivation is a term generally pertaining to personality psychology, but
psychology is not the only field where motivation plays a significant role; it is also
extremely important in pedagogy. Motivation is a very abstract term and therefore has a
variety of facets and definitions. Below, the principal concepts of motivation important
for a further analysis of motivation in the area of CALL are elaborated.

        Motivation is a complicated internal process that attracts, maintains and focuses
one’s behaviour (Nakonečný, 1997, p. 148). Particular behaviours are provoked by
particular motivations. The word “motivation” derives from the Latin movere meaning to
move. Ultimately, motivation is a sum of moving factors that lead an individual executing
an action, in other words, it is an engine to do something that will lead to one’s satisfaction
(Crabb, 1995, p. 77). Motivation is variable in its degree, i.e., that the level of motivation
for engaging in different actions may be different (Ryan & Deci, 2000, pp. 54-55). Ryan
& Deci (2000) further add that “Orientation of motivation concerns the underlying
attitudes and goals that give rise to action - that is, it concerns the why of actions” (p. 54).

                                           25
A student might study school material out of sheer curiosity and hunger for information,
or because of the resulting mark he or she receives in class and the later appreciation of
parents and teacher. Thus, while the level of motivation may not vary the orientation
behind this motivation does.

1.5 Theory of Motivation

       The concept of motivation is vital as it enables understanding psychological
reasons for human behaviour so that it can be controlled and changed (Nakonečný, 1997,
p. 148). The opinion on methodology in psychology of motivation differs as do scholars’
opinions on motivational theories. Therefore, the difference between extrinsic and
intrinsic motivation and other three important theories were chosen to familiarise the
reader with the foundations of human motivation. These theories are: Maslow’s pyramid
of needs, Skinner’s theory of reinforcement and Herzberg’s two-factor theory.

1.5.1 Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation

       People have different goals and reasons for engaging in an action, which are
engendered or undermined by different types of motivation based on self-determination
theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985). Motivations belong either to extrinsic motivation or intrinsic
motivation.

       White defines intrinsic motivation “as the doing of an activity for its inherent
satisfactions rather than for some separable consequences” (as cited in Ryan & Deci,
2000, p. 56). This definition by White states that an intrinsically motivated person acts
from a place of curiosity, entertainment or challenge and what he or she does is taken for
granted. Intrinsic motivation is not the only type of motivation but one of the most
important ones. Ryan & LaGuardia consider intrinsic motivation to be “The inclinations
to take interest in novelty, to actively assimilate, and to creatively apply our skills” (as
cited in Ryan & Deci, 2000, p. 56). They also assert that it “is a significant feature of
human nature that affects performance, persistence, and well-being across life’s epochs”
(as cited in Ryan & Deci, 2000, p. 56).

       Although intrinsic motivation could be seen as the preferred type of motivation,
in a person’s life it is inevitable that the individual will also face the extrinsic type. In

                                          26
fact, “[At schools] intrinsic motivation becomes weaker with each advancing age” (Ryan
& Deci, 2000, p. 60). Intrinsic motivation prevails in childhood, but as a person grows
older, social roles and expectations from the outer world impose extrinsic motivational
factors on the person. Extrinsic motivation can be described as an action that is followed
by some consequence separable from joy or satisfaction (Nakonečný, 1996, p. 16).

1.5.2 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

       American psychologist Abraham Maslow (1943) outlined a hierarchy of needs
ordered by their urgency. Maslow assumes that satisfying one’s needs is a gradual
process, i.e., a higher need can be satisfied only if lower needs are fulfilled.

       At the bottom of the pyramid (the base) are physiological needs. These relate to
the existence of an individual. Provided that these needs are satisfied, safety needs
emerge. The next step is the need for love and belonging, to be accepted by other people,
to belong to a certain social group and to have friends and family. Once this is achieved
human beings crave esteem and self-esteem. When these needs are fulfilled, human
beings experience feelings of self-actualization, i.e., they are highly conscious of their
sense of self, and therefore perceive things around them and have a high sense of
aesthetics and harmony.

Figure 5. Pyramid of Needs (McLeod, 2018)

                                          27
Maslow’s theory has been questioned. Some psychologists assume that in extreme
conditions, for instance during war, the hierarchy may be altered. Specifically, this group
of psychologists argue that even when basic human needs are not met a person is still
capable of love (Critical evaluation section, para. 7–8). Despite proof that the hierarchy
could be reordered under specific conditions, Maslow’s theory remains greatly respected.

1.5.3 Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory

       The idea of reinforcement is based on the simple statement that consequences
regulate behaviour (Skinner, 1938). Skinner’s theory recognizes three rules of
consequences (McLeod, 2018, point 1–3):

          Reward for positive behaviour reinforces positive behaviour;
          Punishment for negative behaviour weakens negative behaviour;
          If there is no reward or punishment, behaviour is fading away.

       In practice, this theory states that if we intend to reinforce a behaviour (in terms
of its probability, frequency or intensity) we reward this behaviour. In addition, the
reward should preferably be immediate. On the contrary, if we want to weaken a
behaviour we should punish it. If the behaviour is unwanted, we make it fade away by
ignoring it (McLeod, 2018).

1.5.4 Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

       Another significant theory of motivation is Herzberg’s two-factor theory, which
is characterised by two prominent factors that Herzberg discovered as resulting in
satisfaction in the workplace: hygiene and motivation factors. Hygiene factors include
work benefits (a car, a mobile phone, etc.), working conditions, salary and relationships
with superior and junior colleagues. Motivation factors are success, job satisfaction,
esteem, respect, progress and personal growth (Kuijk, 2018, para. 2–5).

       Herzberg compared the two groups with regard to the impact of time and
concluded that hygiene factor satisfaction only evidences a short-term effect, while
fulfilling the motivation factors results in a relatively longer lasting satisfaction. For
example, consider the appreciation of finished work (a motivation factor) and salary (a

                                         28
hygiene factor). If employees are paid for their work, they will likely be very satisfied but
this will only last for a limited period of time. In contrast, if employees are praised for
work well done, their satisfaction is more likely to endure for longer, making them feel
relaxed and enabling them to be more productive (Kuijk, 2018). This theory is widely
used in managerial training that focuses on motivating employees.

       The issue of motivation is a very difficult and broad topic in psychology. From
the pedagogical point of view, it is the main element in the process of learning and its
impact determines the behaviour of an individual. There are a large number of motives
that influence human actions and it is crucial to know and consider them in the learning
process of a student. These motives stimulate student’s senses. Generally speaking, the
more senses included in the process of learning, the better the student feels in terms of
fulfilling their needs and, ultimately, this increases their motivation (Langr, 1984). For
this reason, it is vital to continue searching for teaching materials and tools that can
provide a more colourful learning process.

1.6 Motivating Students

       Gardner, Lalonde & Moorcroft (1985) consider motivation to be “the most
powerful factor in the learning process” (p. 211). That is, it should be the “first thing
considered by a teacher” when creating a lesson (Gardner, Lalonde, & Moorcroft, 1985,
p. 211).

       Glucksberg conducted research where he divided students into two groups meant
to complete the same task. The first group was told that their work would be analysed for
research purposes and they would get as much time as they wished, while the participants
in group two were told that their work would be timed. In addition, the students in the
second group were promised 5 dollars if they managed to place within the top 25% of the
fastest times. If they were the fastest, they were promised 20 dollars. The study found that
the students in the second group were three and a half minutes slower in task completion.
This research demonstrates that giving a student a material reward (extrinsic motivation)
does not always work, and therefore suggests that it is necessary to find ways to spark
intrinsic motivation in students (as cited in Pink, 2009, time 2:48–4:22).

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