2018 Insights and Interpretations - Andreas Schleicher - OECD

 
2018 Insights and Interpretations - Andreas Schleicher - OECD
2018
Insights and Interpretations
        Andreas Schleicher
2018 Insights and Interpretations - Andreas Schleicher - OECD
PISA 2018: Insights and Interpretations

“
Equipping citizens with the knowledge and
skills necessary to achieve their full potential,
to contribute to an increasingly interconnected
world, and to convert better skills into better lives
needs to become a more central preoccupation
of policy makers around the world. Fairness,
integrity and inclusiveness in public policy thus
all hinge on the skills of citizens. In working to
                                                                                                         About PISA
achieve these goals, more and more countries are          Up to the end of the 1990s, the OECD’s comparisons          might remember enough to follow in our footsteps;
                                                          of education outcomes were mainly based on                  but if they learn how to learn, and are able to think
looking beyond their own borders for evidence             measures of years of schooling, which are not reliable      for themselves, and work with others, they can go
                                                          indicators of what people actually know and can do.         anywhere they want.
of the most successful and efficient education            The Programme for International Student Assessment
                                                          (PISA) changed this. The idea behind PISA lay in            Some people argued that the PISA tests are unfair,
policies and practices.                                   testing the knowledge and skills of students directly,      because they may confront students with problems they
                                                          through a metric that was internationally agreed upon;      have not encountered in school. But then life is unfair,
                                                          linking that with data from students, teachers, schools     because the real test in life is not whether we can
                                                          and systems to understand performance differences;          remember what we learned at school, but whether we
PISA is not only the world’s most comprehensive                                                                       will be able to solve problems that we can’t possibly
                                                          and then harnessing the power of collaboration to
                                                          act on the data, both by creating shared points of          anticipate today.
and reliable indicator of students’ capabilities, it is
                                                          reference and by leveraging peer pressure.                  But the greatest strength of PISA lies in its working
also a powerful tool that countries and economies         The aim with PISA was not to create another layer           methods. Most assessments are centrally planned and
                                                          of top-down accountability, but to help schools and         then contracted to engineers who build them. That’s
can use to fine-tune their education policies…That        policy makers shift from looking upward within the          how tests are created that are owned by a company
                                                          education system towards looking outward to the next        – but not by the people who are needed to change
is why the OECD produces this triennial report on         teacher, the next school, the next country. In essence,     education. PISA turned that on its head. The idea of
                                                          PISA counts what counts, and makes that information         PISA attracted the world’s best thinkers and mobilised
the state of education around the globe: to share         available to educators and policy makers so they can        hundreds of experts, educators and scientists from the
                                                          make more informed decisions.                               participating countries to build a global assessment.
                                                                                                                      Today, we would call that crowdsourcing; but
evidence of the best policies and practices, and
                                                          The OECD countries that initiated PISA tried to             whatever we call it, it created the ownership that was
                                                          make PISA different from traditional assessments in         critical for success.
to offer our timely and targeted support to help          other ways too. In a world that rewards individuals
                                                          increasingly not just for what they know, but for what      In a nutshell, PISA owes its success to a collaborative
countries provide the best education possible for         they can do with what they know, PISA goes beyond           effort between the participating countries, the national

                   “
                                                          assessing whether students can reproduce what they          and international experts and institutions working within
all of their students.                                    have learned in school. To do well in PISA, students        the framework of the PISA Consortium, and the OECD.
                                                          have to be able to extrapolate from what they               Subject-matter experts, practitioners and policy makers
                                                          know, think across the boundaries of subject-matter         from the participating countries worked tirelessly to
                                                          disciplines, apply their knowledge creatively in novel      build agreement on which learning outcomes are
                                        Angel Gurría      situations and demonstrate effective learning strategies.   important to measure and how to measure them best;
                              OECD Secretary-General      If all we do is teach our children what we know, they       to design and validate assessment tasks that can reflect

                                                                                                                                                            © OECD 2019            3
2018 Insights and Interpretations - Andreas Schleicher - OECD
PISA 2018: Insights and Interpretations

“
Equipping citizens with the knowledge and
skills necessary to achieve their full potential,
to contribute to an increasingly interconnected
world, and to convert better skills into better lives
needs to become a more central preoccupation
of policy makers around the world. Fairness,
integrity and inclusiveness in public policy thus
all hinge on the skills of citizens. In working to
                                                                                                         About PISA
achieve these goals, more and more countries are          Up to the end of the 1990s, the OECD’s comparisons          might remember enough to follow in our footsteps;
                                                          of education outcomes were mainly based on                  but if they learn how to learn, and are able to think
looking beyond their own borders for evidence             measures of years of schooling, which are not reliable      for themselves, and work with others, they can go
                                                          indicators of what people actually know and can do.         anywhere they want.
of the most successful and efficient education            The Programme for International Student Assessment
                                                          (PISA) changed this. The idea behind PISA lay in            Some people argued that the PISA tests are unfair,
policies and practices.                                   testing the knowledge and skills of students directly,      because they may confront students with problems they
                                                          through a metric that was internationally agreed upon;      have not encountered in school. But then life is unfair,
                                                          linking that with data from students, teachers, schools     because the real test in life is not whether we can
                                                          and systems to understand performance differences;          remember what we learned at school, but whether we
PISA is not only the world’s most comprehensive                                                                       will be able to solve problems that we can’t possibly
                                                          and then harnessing the power of collaboration to
                                                          act on the data, both by creating shared points of          anticipate today.
and reliable indicator of students’ capabilities, it is
                                                          reference and by leveraging peer pressure.                  But the greatest strength of PISA lies in its working
also a powerful tool that countries and economies         The aim with PISA was not to create another layer           methods. Most assessments are centrally planned and
                                                          of top-down accountability, but to help schools and         then contracted to engineers who build them. That’s
can use to fine-tune their education policies…That        policy makers shift from looking upward within the          how tests are created that are owned by a company
                                                          education system towards looking outward to the next        – but not by the people who are needed to change
is why the OECD produces this triennial report on         teacher, the next school, the next country. In essence,     education. PISA turned that on its head. The idea of
                                                          PISA counts what counts, and makes that information         PISA attracted the world’s best thinkers and mobilised
the state of education around the globe: to share         available to educators and policy makers so they can        hundreds of experts, educators and scientists from the
                                                          make more informed decisions.                               participating countries to build a global assessment.
                                                                                                                      Today, we would call that crowdsourcing; but
evidence of the best policies and practices, and
                                                          The OECD countries that initiated PISA tried to             whatever we call it, it created the ownership that was
                                                          make PISA different from traditional assessments in         critical for success.
to offer our timely and targeted support to help          other ways too. In a world that rewards individuals
                                                          increasingly not just for what they know, but for what      In a nutshell, PISA owes its success to a collaborative
countries provide the best education possible for         they can do with what they know, PISA goes beyond           effort between the participating countries, the national

                   “
                                                          assessing whether students can reproduce what they          and international experts and institutions working within
all of their students.                                    have learned in school. To do well in PISA, students        the framework of the PISA Consortium, and the OECD.
                                                          have to be able to extrapolate from what they               Subject-matter experts, practitioners and policy makers
                                                          know, think across the boundaries of subject-matter         from the participating countries worked tirelessly to
                                                          disciplines, apply their knowledge creatively in novel      build agreement on which learning outcomes are
                                        Angel Gurría      situations and demonstrate effective learning strategies.   important to measure and how to measure them best;
                              OECD Secretary-General      If all we do is teach our children what we know, they       to design and validate assessment tasks that can reflect

                                                                                                                                                            © OECD 2019            3
2018 Insights and Interpretations - Andreas Schleicher - OECD
PISA 2018: Insights and Interpretations                                                                                                                                                                PISA 2018: Insights and Interpretations

    those measures adequately and accurately across            Since 2000, PISA has shown that education systems
    countries and cultures; and to find ways to compare        can provide both high-quality instruction and equitable
    the results meaningfully and reliably. The OECD            learning opportunities for all, and that they can
    co-ordinated this effort and worked with countries to      support academic excellence in an environment that
    make sense of the results and compile the reports.         also nurtures students’ well-being. PISA shows what
                                                               countries are doing to support their students and
    PISA 2018 was the seventh round of the international       provides an opportunity for countries to learn from
    assessment since the programme was launched in             each other. This brochure summarises some of the initial
    2000. Every PISA test assesses students’ knowledge         findings from PISA 2018 and puts them into context.
    and skills in reading, mathematics and science;            The full set of initial results can be found in PISA 2018
    each assessment focuses on one of these subjects           Results (Volume I): What Students Know and Can Do;
    and provides a summary assessment of the other             PISA 2018 Results (Volume II): Where All Students Can
    two. In 2018, the focus was on reading in a digital        Succeed; and PISA 2018 Results (Volume III): What
    environment; but the design of the assessment also         School Life Means for Students’ Lives. Three additional
    made it possible to measure trends in reading literacy     volumes of PISA 2018 Results – Are Students Smart
    over the past two decades. PISA 2018 defined               about Money?; Effective Policies, Successful Schools;
    reading literacy as understanding, using, evaluating,      and Are Students Ready to Thrive in Global Societies?
    reflecting on and engaging with texts in order to          – will be published in 2020.
    achieve one’s goals, to develop one’s knowledge and
    potential, and to participate in society. PISA 2018 also
                                                                                                                                                                Improving education
    collected extensive data on students’ attitudes and
    well-being.
                                                                                                                           Over ten million students represented by PISA in            average student in OECD countries, and performed on
    PISA 2018 assessed the cumulative outcomes of                                                                          2018 were not able to complete even the most basic          a par with the 10% most advantaged students in some
    education and learning at a point at which most                                                                        reading tasks – and these were 15-year-olds living          of them (Figure 4). True, these four provinces in eastern
    children are still enrolled in formal education: the                                                                   in the 79 high- and middle-income countries that            China are far from representing China as a whole, but
    age of 15. The 15-year-olds in the PISA sample must                                                                    participated in the test. In many countries, the quality    the size of each compares to that of a typical OECD
    also have been enrolled in an educational institution                                                                  of the education a student acquires can still best be       country, and their combined populations amount
    at grade 7 or higher. All such students were eligible                                                                  predicted by the student’s or his or her school’s socio-    to over 180 million. What makes their achievement
    to sit the PISA assessment, regardless of the type of                                                                  economic background. In fact, the 10% most socio-           even more remarkable is that the level of income of
    educational establishment in which they were enrolled                                                                  economically advantaged students outperformed               these four Chinese regions is well below the OECD
    and whether they were enrolled in full-time or part-time                                                               their 10% most disadvantaged counterparts in reading        average. At the same time, they have a long way to go
    education. Not all of the students who were eligible                                                                   by 141 score points, on average across OECD                 when it comes to improving the social and emotional
    to sit the PISA assessment were actually assessed.                                                                     countries. This adds up to the equivalent of over three     outcomes, and other aspects of students’ well-being
    A two-stage sampling procedure first selected                                                                          years of schooling in the countries which were able         that were measured by PISA 2018, areas where other
    a representative sample of at least 150 schools,                                                                       to estimate learning progress across school grades,         countries excel (more on that later).
    taking into account factors such as location (state                                                                    and this gap has essentially remained unchanged over
                                                                                                                           the past decade. Moreover, there has also been no           It is also noteworthy that some of today’s highest-performing
    or province; but also whether the school is located
                                                                                                                           real overall improvement in the learning outcomes of        education systems have only recently attained their
    in a rural area, town or city) and level of education.
                                                                                                                           students in OECD countries, even though expenditure         top positions. Less than 17% of 55-65 year-old
    Then, in the second stage, roughly 42 15-year-old
                                                                                                                           on schooling rose by more than 15% over the past            Singaporeans scored at level 3 or higher in literacy
    students were randomly selected from each school to
                                                                                                                           decade alone.                                               in the Survey of Adult Skills (a product of the OECD
    sit the assessment. Most countries assessed between
                                                                                                                                                                                       Programme for the International Assessment of Adult
    4 000 and 8 000 students. Students selected to sit the
                                                                                                                           It might be tempting to drop this report, and any further   Competencies, a kind of PISA for adults) – one of the
    PISA assessment received sampling weights so as to
                                                                                                                           thought about improving education, right about now.         smallest proportions amongst participating countries
    represent the entire PISA-eligible cohort.
                                                                                                                           Impossible to change anything as big, complex and           – while 63% of 16-24 year-olds did so, one of the
    Over the past two decades, PISA has become the                                                                         entrenched in vested interests as education.                largest proportions. And, as noted before, in PISA
    world’s premier yardstick for comparing quality, equity                                                                                                                            2018, 15-year-old Singaporeans scored not statistically
                                                                                                                           But keep reading. Why? Because 15-year-old                  differently from the four provinces/municipalities of China
    and efficiency in learning outcomes across countries,
                                                                                                                           students in four provinces/municipalities of China          in reading. Amongst OECD countries, Estonia has
    and an influential force for education reform. It has
                                                                                                                           – Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang –                 advanced steadily to the top, despite the fact that its
    helped policy makers lower the cost of political action
                                                                                                                           outperformed their peers in all of the other 78             expenditure per student remains about 30% lower than
    by backing difficult decisions with evidence – but
                                                                                                                           participating education systems – in mathematics            the OECD average (Figures 5 and 6).
    it has also raised the political cost of inaction by
                                                                                                                           and science by a wide margin, and in reading, only
    exposing areas where policy and practice have been
                                                                                                                           Singapore came close (Figures 1, 2 and 3). In fact,         Portugal advanced to the OECD average level
    unsatisfactory.
                                                                                                                           the 10% most disadvantaged students in these four           despite being severely hit by the financial crisis.
                                                                                                                           provinces showed better reading skills than those of the    Some countries that still perform well below the

4      © OECD 2019                                                                                                                                                                                                             © OECD 2019             5
PISA 2018: Insights and Interpretations                                                                                                                                                                PISA 2018: Insights and Interpretations

    those measures adequately and accurately across            Since 2000, PISA has shown that education systems
    countries and cultures; and to find ways to compare        can provide both high-quality instruction and equitable
    the results meaningfully and reliably. The OECD            learning opportunities for all, and that they can
    co-ordinated this effort and worked with countries to      support academic excellence in an environment that
    make sense of the results and compile the reports.         also nurtures students’ well-being. PISA shows what
                                                               countries are doing to support their students and
    PISA 2018 was the seventh round of the international       provides an opportunity for countries to learn from
    assessment since the programme was launched in             each other. This brochure summarises some of the initial
    2000. Every PISA test assesses students’ knowledge         findings from PISA 2018 and puts them into context.
    and skills in reading, mathematics and science;            The full set of initial results can be found in PISA 2018
    each assessment focuses on one of these subjects           Results (Volume I): What Students Know and Can Do;
    and provides a summary assessment of the other             PISA 2018 Results (Volume II): Where All Students Can
    two. In 2018, the focus was on reading in a digital        Succeed; and PISA 2018 Results (Volume III): What
    environment; but the design of the assessment also         School Life Means for Students’ Lives. Three additional
    made it possible to measure trends in reading literacy     volumes of PISA 2018 Results – Are Students Smart
    over the past two decades. PISA 2018 defined               about Money?; Effective Policies, Successful Schools;
    reading literacy as understanding, using, evaluating,      and Are Students Ready to Thrive in Global Societies?
    reflecting on and engaging with texts in order to          – will be published in 2020.
    achieve one’s goals, to develop one’s knowledge and
    potential, and to participate in society. PISA 2018 also
                                                                                                                                                                Improving education
    collected extensive data on students’ attitudes and
    well-being.
                                                                                                                           Over ten million students represented by PISA in            average student in OECD countries, and performed on
    PISA 2018 assessed the cumulative outcomes of                                                                          2018 were not able to complete even the most basic          a par with the 10% most advantaged students in some
    education and learning at a point at which most                                                                        reading tasks – and these were 15-year-olds living          of them (Figure 4). True, these four provinces in eastern
    children are still enrolled in formal education: the                                                                   in the 79 high- and middle-income countries that            China are far from representing China as a whole, but
    age of 15. The 15-year-olds in the PISA sample must                                                                    participated in the test. In many countries, the quality    the size of each compares to that of a typical OECD
    also have been enrolled in an educational institution                                                                  of the education a student acquires can still best be       country, and their combined populations amount
    at grade 7 or higher. All such students were eligible                                                                  predicted by the student’s or his or her school’s socio-    to over 180 million. What makes their achievement
    to sit the PISA assessment, regardless of the type of                                                                  economic background. In fact, the 10% most socio-           even more remarkable is that the level of income of
    educational establishment in which they were enrolled                                                                  economically advantaged students outperformed               these four Chinese regions is well below the OECD
    and whether they were enrolled in full-time or part-time                                                               their 10% most disadvantaged counterparts in reading        average. At the same time, they have a long way to go
    education. Not all of the students who were eligible                                                                   by 141 score points, on average across OECD                 when it comes to improving the social and emotional
    to sit the PISA assessment were actually assessed.                                                                     countries. This adds up to the equivalent of over three     outcomes, and other aspects of students’ well-being
    A two-stage sampling procedure first selected                                                                          years of schooling in the countries which were able         that were measured by PISA 2018, areas where other
    a representative sample of at least 150 schools,                                                                       to estimate learning progress across school grades,         countries excel (more on that later).
    taking into account factors such as location (state                                                                    and this gap has essentially remained unchanged over
                                                                                                                           the past decade. Moreover, there has also been no           It is also noteworthy that some of today’s highest-performing
    or province; but also whether the school is located
                                                                                                                           real overall improvement in the learning outcomes of        education systems have only recently attained their
    in a rural area, town or city) and level of education.
                                                                                                                           students in OECD countries, even though expenditure         top positions. Less than 17% of 55-65 year-old
    Then, in the second stage, roughly 42 15-year-old
                                                                                                                           on schooling rose by more than 15% over the past            Singaporeans scored at level 3 or higher in literacy
    students were randomly selected from each school to
                                                                                                                           decade alone.                                               in the Survey of Adult Skills (a product of the OECD
    sit the assessment. Most countries assessed between
                                                                                                                                                                                       Programme for the International Assessment of Adult
    4 000 and 8 000 students. Students selected to sit the
                                                                                                                           It might be tempting to drop this report, and any further   Competencies, a kind of PISA for adults) – one of the
    PISA assessment received sampling weights so as to
                                                                                                                           thought about improving education, right about now.         smallest proportions amongst participating countries
    represent the entire PISA-eligible cohort.
                                                                                                                           Impossible to change anything as big, complex and           – while 63% of 16-24 year-olds did so, one of the
    Over the past two decades, PISA has become the                                                                         entrenched in vested interests as education.                largest proportions. And, as noted before, in PISA
    world’s premier yardstick for comparing quality, equity                                                                                                                            2018, 15-year-old Singaporeans scored not statistically
                                                                                                                           But keep reading. Why? Because 15-year-old                  differently from the four provinces/municipalities of China
    and efficiency in learning outcomes across countries,
                                                                                                                           students in four provinces/municipalities of China          in reading. Amongst OECD countries, Estonia has
    and an influential force for education reform. It has
                                                                                                                           – Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang –                 advanced steadily to the top, despite the fact that its
    helped policy makers lower the cost of political action
                                                                                                                           outperformed their peers in all of the other 78             expenditure per student remains about 30% lower than
    by backing difficult decisions with evidence – but
                                                                                                                           participating education systems – in mathematics            the OECD average (Figures 5 and 6).
    it has also raised the political cost of inaction by
                                                                                                                           and science by a wide margin, and in reading, only
    exposing areas where policy and practice have been
                                                                                                                           Singapore came close (Figures 1, 2 and 3). In fact,         Portugal advanced to the OECD average level
    unsatisfactory.
                                                                                                                           the 10% most disadvantaged students in these four           despite being severely hit by the financial crisis.
                                                                                                                           provinces showed better reading skills than those of the    Some countries that still perform well below the

4      © OECD 2019                                                                                                                                                                                                             © OECD 2019             5
S.D.*                   Mean score                                                                                                              S.D.*                   Mean score

                                                                              L. 4
         B-S-J-Z (China)           87                      555                                                                                           B-S-J-Z (China)           80                      591

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Level 4
               Singapore           109                     549                                                                                                 Singapore           94                      569

         Macao (China)             92                      525
                                                                                        Figure 1                                                         Macao (China)             81                      558
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Figure 2
    Hong Kong (China)1                                                                                                                              Hong Kong (China)¹             94                      551

                                                                                        Reading
                                   99                      524

                    Estonia
                  Canada
                   Finland
                                   93
                                   100
                                   100
                                                           523
                                                           520
                                                           520                          Comparing countries’ and economies’
                                                                                                                                                          Chinese Taipei
                                                                                                                                                                      Japan
                                                                                                                                                                      Korea
                                                                                                                                                                                   100
                                                                                                                                                                                   86
                                                                                                                                                                                   100
                                                                                                                                                                                                           531
                                                                                                                                                                                                           527
                                                                                                                                                                                                           526
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Mathematics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Comparing countries’ and economies’
                    Ireland        91                      518
                                                                                        performance in reading                                                      Estonia        82                      523
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              performance in mathematics
                      Korea        102                     514                                                                                              Netherlands¹           93                      519

                    Poland         97                      512                                                                                                      Poland         90                      516

                  Sweden           108                     506                                                                                               Switzerland           94                      515

           New Zealand             106                     506                                                                                                    Canada           92                      512

           United States¹          108                     505                                                                                                   Denmark           82                      509

        United Kingdom             100                     504                                                                                                   Slovenia          89                      509

                                                                              Level 3
                      Japan        97                      504                                                                                                     Belgium         95                      508

                 Australia         109                     503                                                                                                     Finland         82                      507

          Chinese Taipei           102                     503                                                                                                    Sweden           91                      502

                                                                                                                                                        United Kingdom             93                      502

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Level 3
                 Denmark           92                      501

                  Norway           106                     499                                                                                                    Norway           90                      501

                 Germany           106                     498                                                                                                   Germany           95                      500

                 Slovenia          94                      495                                                                                                      Ireland        78                      500

                   Belgium         103                     493                                                                                           Czech Republic            93                      499

                     France        101                     493                                                                                                      Austria        93                      499

                 Portugal¹         96                      492                                                                                                        Latvia       80                      496

         Czech Republic            97                      490                                                                                                       France        93                      495

            Netherlands¹           105                     485                                                                                                     Iceland         90                      495

                    Austria        99                      484                                                                                             New Zealand             93                      494

              Switzerland          103                     484                                                                                                   Portugal¹         96                      492

                   Croatia         89                      479                                                                                                   Australia         92                      491

                      Latvia       90                      479                                                                                                        Russia       86                      488

                                                                                                                                                                         Italy     94                      487
                      Russia       93                      479
                                                                                                                                                         Slovak Republic           100                     486
                         Italy     97                      476
                                                                                                                                                             Luxembourg            98                      483
                 Hungary           98                      476
                                                                                                                                                                      Spain        88                      481
                 Lithuania         94                      476
                                                                                                                                                                 Lithuania         91                      481
                   Iceland         105                     474
                                                                                                                                                                 Hungary           91                      481
                   Belarus         89                      474
                                                                                                                                                           United States¹          92                      478
                       Israel      124                     470
                                                                                                                                                                   Belarus         93                      472
             Luxembourg            108                     470
                                                                                                                                                                      Malta        102                     472
                   Ukraine         93                      466
                                                                                                                                                                   Croatia         87                      464
                     Turkey        88                      466
                                                                                                                                                                       Israel      108                     463
         Slovak Republic           100                     458
                                                                                                                                                                     Turkey        88                      454
                   Greece          97                      457
                                                                                                                                                                   Ukraine         94                      453
                       Chile       92                      452

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Level 2
                                                                              Level 2

                                                                                                                                                                   Greece          89                      451
                      Malta        113                     448
                                                                                                                                                                    Cyprus         95                      451
                     Serbia        96                      439
                                                                                                                                                                     Serbia        97                      448
   United Arab Emirates            113                     432
                                                                                                                                                                 Malaysia          83                      440
                 Romania           98                      428
                                                                                                                                                                   Albania         83                      437
                 Uruguay           96                      427
                                                                                                                                                                  Bulgaria         97                      436
                                                                                        *S.D. = standard deviation                                                                                                                            *S.D. = standard deviation
               Costa Rica          81                      426
                                                                                                                                                   United Arab Emirates            106                     435
                    Cyprus         98                      424                          1. Did not meet response-rate standards; further                                                                                                      1. Data did not meet the PISA technical standards but
                                                                                        analyses could exclude a large bias in the published          Brunei Darussalam            91                      430
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              were accepted as largely comparable (see Annexes
                 Moldova           93                      424
                                                                                                                                                                 Romania           94                      430
                                                                                        results due to non-response (see Annexes A2 and A4                                                                                                    A2 and A4 in OECD (2019), PISA 2018 Results
             Montenegro            86                      421
                                                                                        in OECD (2019), PISA 2018 Results (Volume I): What                   Montenegro            83                      430                                (Volume I): What Students Know and Can Do, PISA,
                   Mexico          84                      420                          Students Know and Can Do, PISA, OECD Publishing,                      Kazakhstan           87                      423                                OECD Publishing, Paris;
                  Bulgaria         101                     420                          Paris; https://doi.org/10.1787/5f07c754-en).                                                                                                          https://doi.org/10.1787/5f07c754-en.
                                                                                                                                                                 Moldova           94                      421
                    Jordan         87                      419
                                                                                        Source : OECD, PISA 2018                                      Baku (Azerbaijan)            89                      420                                Source : OECD, PISA 2018
                 Malaysia          85                      415                          Database, Table I.B1.4; Figure I.4.1.                                     Thailand         88                      419                                Database, Table I.B1.5; Figure I.4.2.
                       Brazil      100                     413
                                                                                                                                                                 Uruguay           85                      418
                Colombia           89                      412
                                                                                                                                                                       Chile       85                      417
      Brunei Darussalam            97                      408
                                                                                                   Level 6 Above 698.32 score points                                  Qatar        98                      414                                           Level 6 Above 669.30 score points
                      Qatar        110                     407
                                                                                                                                                                   Mexico          78                      409
                                                                                                             From 625.61                                                                                                                                           From 606.99
                   Albania         80                      405                                     Level 5                                      Bosnia and Herzegovina             82                      406                                           Level 5
                                                                                                             to less than 698.32 score points                                                                                                                      to less than 669.30 score points
Bosnia and Herzegovina             79                      403
                                                                                                                                                               Costa Rica          75                      402
                                                                                                             From 552.89                                                                                                                                           From 544.68
                Argentina          98                      402                                     Level 4                                                              Peru       84                      400                                           Level 4
                                                                                                             to less than 625.61 score points                                                                                                                      to less than 606.99 score points

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Level 1
                        Peru       92                      401
                                                                                                             From 480.18                                            Jordan         85                      400
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   From 482.38
            Saudi Arabia           84                      399                                     Level 3                                                                                                                                               Level 3
                                                                                                             to less than 552.89 score points                     Georgia          88                      398                                                     to less than 544.68 score points
                  Thailand         79                      393
                                                                                                             From 407.47                              North Macedonia              93                      394
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   From 420.07
      North Macedonia              94                      393                                     Level 2                                                                                                                                               Level 2
                                                                                                             to less than 480.18 score points                    Lebanon           106                     393                                                     to less than 482.38 score points
      Baku (Azerbaijan)            74                      389
                                                                                                             From 334.75                                        Colombia           81                      391                                                     From 357.77
                                                                                                 Level 1a                                                                                                                                                Level 1
              Kazakhstan           77                      387                                               to less than 407.47 score points                                                                                                                      to less than 420.07 score points
                                                                              Level 1

                                                                                                                                                                       Brazil      88                      384
                  Georgia          84                      380                                               From 262.04                                        Argentina          84                      379
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Below level 1 Below 357.77 score points
                                                                                                 Level 1b
                  Panama           88                      377                                               to less than 334.75 score points                   Indonesia          79                      379

                Indonesia          75                      371
                                                                                                  Level 1c
                                                                                                             From 189.33                                    Saudi Arabia           79                      373

                 Morocco           75                      359                                               to less than 262.04 score points                    Morocco           76                      368

                 Lebanon           113                     353
                                                                                           Below level 1c Less than 189.33 score points                            Kosovo          77                      366

                   Kosovo          68                      353                                                                                                    Panama           77                      353

    Dominican Republic             82                      342                                                                                                 Philippines

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Below Level 1
                                                                                                                                                                                   78                      353

               Philippines         80                      340                                                                                      Dominican Republic             71                      325

                                 300      400              500          600                                                                                                      300      400              500          600
                                                OECD average 487 (99)                                                                                                                           OECD average 489 (91)
S.D.*                   Mean score                                                                                                              S.D.*                   Mean score

                                                                              L. 4
         B-S-J-Z (China)           87                      555                                                                                           B-S-J-Z (China)           80                      591

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Level 4
               Singapore           109                     549                                                                                                 Singapore           94                      569

         Macao (China)             92                      525
                                                                                        Figure 1                                                         Macao (China)             81                      558
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Figure 2
    Hong Kong (China)1                                                                                                                              Hong Kong (China)¹             94                      551

                                                                                        Reading
                                   99                      524

                    Estonia
                  Canada
                   Finland
                                   93
                                   100
                                   100
                                                           523
                                                           520
                                                           520                          Comparing countries’ and economies’
                                                                                                                                                          Chinese Taipei
                                                                                                                                                                      Japan
                                                                                                                                                                      Korea
                                                                                                                                                                                   100
                                                                                                                                                                                   86
                                                                                                                                                                                   100
                                                                                                                                                                                                           531
                                                                                                                                                                                                           527
                                                                                                                                                                                                           526
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Mathematics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Comparing countries’ and economies’
                    Ireland        91                      518
                                                                                        performance in reading                                                      Estonia        82                      523
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              performance in mathematics
                      Korea        102                     514                                                                                              Netherlands¹           93                      519

                    Poland         97                      512                                                                                                      Poland         90                      516

                  Sweden           108                     506                                                                                               Switzerland           94                      515

           New Zealand             106                     506                                                                                                    Canada           92                      512

           United States¹          108                     505                                                                                                   Denmark           82                      509

        United Kingdom             100                     504                                                                                                   Slovenia          89                      509

                                                                              Level 3
                      Japan        97                      504                                                                                                     Belgium         95                      508

                 Australia         109                     503                                                                                                     Finland         82                      507

          Chinese Taipei           102                     503                                                                                                    Sweden           91                      502

                                                                                                                                                        United Kingdom             93                      502

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Level 3
                 Denmark           92                      501

                  Norway           106                     499                                                                                                    Norway           90                      501

                 Germany           106                     498                                                                                                   Germany           95                      500

                 Slovenia          94                      495                                                                                                      Ireland        78                      500

                   Belgium         103                     493                                                                                           Czech Republic            93                      499

                     France        101                     493                                                                                                      Austria        93                      499

                 Portugal¹         96                      492                                                                                                        Latvia       80                      496

         Czech Republic            97                      490                                                                                                       France        93                      495

            Netherlands¹           105                     485                                                                                                     Iceland         90                      495

                    Austria        99                      484                                                                                             New Zealand             93                      494

              Switzerland          103                     484                                                                                                   Portugal¹         96                      492

                   Croatia         89                      479                                                                                                   Australia         92                      491

                      Latvia       90                      479                                                                                                        Russia       86                      488

                                                                                                                                                                         Italy     94                      487
                      Russia       93                      479
                                                                                                                                                         Slovak Republic           100                     486
                         Italy     97                      476
                                                                                                                                                             Luxembourg            98                      483
                 Hungary           98                      476
                                                                                                                                                                      Spain        88                      481
                 Lithuania         94                      476
                                                                                                                                                                 Lithuania         91                      481
                   Iceland         105                     474
                                                                                                                                                                 Hungary           91                      481
                   Belarus         89                      474
                                                                                                                                                           United States¹          92                      478
                       Israel      124                     470
                                                                                                                                                                   Belarus         93                      472
             Luxembourg            108                     470
                                                                                                                                                                      Malta        102                     472
                   Ukraine         93                      466
                                                                                                                                                                   Croatia         87                      464
                     Turkey        88                      466
                                                                                                                                                                       Israel      108                     463
         Slovak Republic           100                     458
                                                                                                                                                                     Turkey        88                      454
                   Greece          97                      457
                                                                                                                                                                   Ukraine         94                      453
                       Chile       92                      452

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Level 2
                                                                              Level 2

                                                                                                                                                                   Greece          89                      451
                      Malta        113                     448
                                                                                                                                                                    Cyprus         95                      451
                     Serbia        96                      439
                                                                                                                                                                     Serbia        97                      448
   United Arab Emirates            113                     432
                                                                                                                                                                 Malaysia          83                      440
                 Romania           98                      428
                                                                                                                                                                   Albania         83                      437
                 Uruguay           96                      427
                                                                                                                                                                  Bulgaria         97                      436
                                                                                        *S.D. = standard deviation                                                                                                                            *S.D. = standard deviation
               Costa Rica          81                      426
                                                                                                                                                   United Arab Emirates            106                     435
                    Cyprus         98                      424                          1. Did not meet response-rate standards; further                                                                                                      1. Data did not meet the PISA technical standards but
                                                                                        analyses could exclude a large bias in the published          Brunei Darussalam            91                      430
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              were accepted as largely comparable (see Annexes
                 Moldova           93                      424
                                                                                                                                                                 Romania           94                      430
                                                                                        results due to non-response (see Annexes A2 and A4                                                                                                    A2 and A4 in OECD (2019), PISA 2018 Results
             Montenegro            86                      421
                                                                                        in OECD (2019), PISA 2018 Results (Volume I): What                   Montenegro            83                      430                                (Volume I): What Students Know and Can Do, PISA,
                   Mexico          84                      420                          Students Know and Can Do, PISA, OECD Publishing,                      Kazakhstan           87                      423                                OECD Publishing, Paris;
                  Bulgaria         101                     420                          Paris; https://doi.org/10.1787/5f07c754-en).                                                                                                          https://doi.org/10.1787/5f07c754-en.
                                                                                                                                                                 Moldova           94                      421
                    Jordan         87                      419
                                                                                        Source : OECD, PISA 2018                                      Baku (Azerbaijan)            89                      420                                Source : OECD, PISA 2018
                 Malaysia          85                      415                          Database, Table I.B1.4; Figure I.4.1.                                     Thailand         88                      419                                Database, Table I.B1.5; Figure I.4.2.
                       Brazil      100                     413
                                                                                                                                                                 Uruguay           85                      418
                Colombia           89                      412
                                                                                                                                                                       Chile       85                      417
      Brunei Darussalam            97                      408
                                                                                                   Level 6 Above 698.32 score points                                  Qatar        98                      414                                           Level 6 Above 669.30 score points
                      Qatar        110                     407
                                                                                                                                                                   Mexico          78                      409
                                                                                                             From 625.61                                                                                                                                           From 606.99
                   Albania         80                      405                                     Level 5                                      Bosnia and Herzegovina             82                      406                                           Level 5
                                                                                                             to less than 698.32 score points                                                                                                                      to less than 669.30 score points
Bosnia and Herzegovina             79                      403
                                                                                                                                                               Costa Rica          75                      402
                                                                                                             From 552.89                                                                                                                                           From 544.68
                Argentina          98                      402                                     Level 4                                                              Peru       84                      400                                           Level 4
                                                                                                             to less than 625.61 score points                                                                                                                      to less than 606.99 score points

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Level 1
                        Peru       92                      401
                                                                                                             From 480.18                                            Jordan         85                      400
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   From 482.38
            Saudi Arabia           84                      399                                     Level 3                                                                                                                                               Level 3
                                                                                                             to less than 552.89 score points                     Georgia          88                      398                                                     to less than 544.68 score points
                  Thailand         79                      393
                                                                                                             From 407.47                              North Macedonia              93                      394
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   From 420.07
      North Macedonia              94                      393                                     Level 2                                                                                                                                               Level 2
                                                                                                             to less than 480.18 score points                    Lebanon           106                     393                                                     to less than 482.38 score points
      Baku (Azerbaijan)            74                      389
                                                                                                             From 334.75                                        Colombia           81                      391                                                     From 357.77
                                                                                                 Level 1a                                                                                                                                                Level 1
              Kazakhstan           77                      387                                               to less than 407.47 score points                                                                                                                      to less than 420.07 score points
                                                                              Level 1

                                                                                                                                                                       Brazil      88                      384
                  Georgia          84                      380                                               From 262.04                                        Argentina          84                      379
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Below level 1 Below 357.77 score points
                                                                                                 Level 1b
                  Panama           88                      377                                               to less than 334.75 score points                   Indonesia          79                      379

                Indonesia          75                      371
                                                                                                  Level 1c
                                                                                                             From 189.33                                    Saudi Arabia           79                      373

                 Morocco           75                      359                                               to less than 262.04 score points                    Morocco           76                      368

                 Lebanon           113                     353
                                                                                           Below level 1c Less than 189.33 score points                            Kosovo          77                      366

                   Kosovo          68                      353                                                                                                    Panama           77                      353

    Dominican Republic             82                      342                                                                                                 Philippines

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Below Level 1
                                                                                                                                                                                   78                      353

               Philippines         80                      340                                                                                      Dominican Republic             71                      325

                                 300      400              500          600                                                                                                      300      400              500          600
                                                OECD average 487 (99)                                                                                                                           OECD average 489 (91)
S.D.*                   Mean score

                                                                              L. 4
         B-S-J-Z (China)           83                      590

               Singapore           97                      551
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PISA 2018: Insights and Interpretations
         Macao (China)             83                      544
                                                                                        Figure 3
                    Estonia        88                      530

                                                                                        Science
                                                                                                                                                Figure 4•Mean performance in reading, by international decile of socio-economic status
                      Japan        92                      529

                   Finland         96                      522

                      Korea        98                      519                          Comparing countries’ and economies’                       Country / Economy
                  Canada           96                      518
                                                                                        performance in science                                    Kosovo                                                                                                                                                       Top decile
    Hong Kong (China)1             86                      517                                                                                    Dominican Republic
                                                                                                                                                  Lebanon                                                                                                                                                      Second decile
          Chinese Taipei           99                      516
                                                                                                                                                  Qatar                                                                                                                                                        Ninth decile
                    Poland         92                      511
                                                                                                                                                  Philippines
           New Zealand             102                     508                                                                                    Morocco                                                                                                                                                      Bottom decile
                 Slovenia          88                      507                                                                                    Georgia
                                                                                                                                                  Panama                                                                                                                                                       Middle decile
        United Kingdom             99                      505
                                                                                                                                                  North Macedonia

                                                                              Level 3
            Netherlands1           104                     503                                                                                    Kazakhstan
                 Germany           103                     503                                                                                    Indonesia
                                                                                                                                                  Baku (Azerbaijan)
                 Australia         101                     503                                                                                    United Arab Emirates
           United States1          99                      502                                                                                    Saudi Arabia
                                                                                                                                                  Brunei Darussalam
                  Sweden           98                      499
                                                                                                                                                  Bosnia and Herzegovina
                   Belgium         99                      499                                                                                    Montenegro
         Czech Republic            94                      497                                                                                    Albania
                                                                                                                                                  Bulgaria
                    Ireland        88                      496
                                                                                                                                                  Thailand
             Switzerland           97                      495                                                                                    Argentina
                     France        96                      493                                                                                    Peru
                                                                                                                                                  Malaysia
                 Denmark           91                      493
                                                                                                                                                  Colombia
                 Portugal1         92                      492                                                                                    Jordan
                                                                                                                                                  Brazil
                  Norway           98                      490
                                                                                                                                                  Romania
                    Austria        96                      490                                                                                    Costa Rica
                      Latvia       84                      487                                                                                    Iceland
                                                                                                                                                  Mexico
                      Spain        89                      483
                                                                                                                                                  Israel
                 Lithuania         90                      482                                                                                    Serbia
                 Hungary           94                      481                                                                                    Moldova
                                                                                                                                                  Malta
                      Russia       84                      478
                                                                                                                                                  Uruguay
             Luxembourg            98                      477                                                                                    Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                  Greece
                   Iceland         91                      475
                                                                                                                                                  Slovak Republic
                   Croatia         90                      472                                                                                    Chile
                   Belarus         85                      471                                                                                    Lithuania
                                                                                                                                                  Netherlands
                   Ukraine         91                      469
                                                                                                                                                  Russia
                     Turkey        84                      468                                                                                    Latvia
                         Italy     90                      468                                                                                    Belarus
                                                                                                                                                  Ukraine
         Slovak Republic           96                      464
                                                                                                                                                  Denmark
                       Israel      111                     462                                                                                    Hungary
                                                                                                                                                  Croatia
                      Malta        107                     457
                                                                                                                                                  Norway
                   Greece          86                      452                                                                                    OECD average
                       Chile       83                      444                                                                                    Switzerland
                                                                                                                                                  Slovenia
                                                                              Level 2

                     Serbia        92                      440
                                                                                                                                                  Belgium
                    Cyprus         93                      439                                                                                    Italy
                 Malaysia          77                      438                                                                                    Turkey
                                                                                                                                                  Sweden
   United Arab Emirates            103                     434
                                                                                                                                                  France
      Brunei Darussalam            96                      431                                                                                    Australia
                    Jordan         88                      429                          *S.D. = standard deviation                                Austria
                                                                                                                                                  New Zealand
                 Moldova           89                      428
                                                                                        1. Data did not meet the PISA technical standards but     Czech Republic
                  Thailand         82                      426
                                                                                        were accepted as largely comparable (see Annexes          United States
                                                                                                                                                  Portugal
                 Uruguay           87                      426                          A2 and A4 in OECD (2019), PISA 2018 Results               United Kingdom
                 Romania           90                      426                          (Volume I): What Students Know and Can Do, PISA,          Korea
                  Bulgaria         95                      424                          OECD Publishing, Paris;                                   Canada
                                                                                        https://doi.org/10.1787/5f07c754-en.                      Finland
                   Mexico          74                      419
                                                                                                                                                  Poland
                      Qatar        103                     419                          Source : OECD, PISA 2018                                  Japan
                   Albania         74                      417                          Database, Table I.B1.6; Figure I.4.3.                     Germany
                                                                                                                                                  Chinese Taipei
               Costa Rica          73                      416
                                                                                                                                                  Ireland
             Montenegro            81                      415                                                                                    Estonia
                                                                                                   Level 6 Above 707.93 score points              Macao (China)
                Colombia           82                      413
                                                                                                                                                  Hong Kong (China)
      North Macedonia              92                      413
                                                                                                             From 633.33                          Singapore
                        Peru       80                      404                                     Level 5                                        B-S-J-Z (China)
                                                                                                             to less than 707.93 score points
                Argentina          90                      404
                                                                                                             From 558.73                                                                      300            350           400           450           500           550           600        650
                                                                                                   Level 4
                       Brazil      90                      404                                               to less than 633.33 score points
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Mean score
Bosnia and Herzegovina             77                      398
                                                                                                             From 484.14
                                                                                                   Level 3
      Baku (Azerbaijan)            74                      398                                               to less than 558.73 score points   Note: Bottom, second, ninth and top deciles correspond to the average performance of students who are in the corresponding deciles of the distribution of the PISA index of economic,
              Kazakhstan           76                      397                                               From 409.54                        social and cultural status across all countries and economies; the middle decile corresponds to students whose socio-economic status ranges from the 45th to the 55th percentile of this
                                                                                                   Level 2
                Indonesia          69                      396                                               to less than 484.14 score points   distribution.
            Saudi Arabia           79                      386                                               From 334.94                        Only results of countries and economies with at least 3% of students in each international decile are shown.
                                                                                                 Level 1a
                                                                              Level 1

                                                                                                             to less than 409.54 score points   Countries and economies are ranked in ascending order of the mean reading performance of students in the international middle decile of socio-economic status.
                 Lebanon           95                      384
                                                                                                             From 260.54                        Source: OECD, PISA 2018 Database, Table II.B1.2.2; Figure II.2.2.
                  Georgia          81                      383
                                                                                                 Level 1b
                 Morocco           67                      377                                               to less than 334.94 score points
                   Kosovo          65                      365                            Below level 1b Below 260.54 score points
                  Panama           85                      365

               Philippines         75                      357

    Dominican Republic             71                      336

                                 300      400              500          600
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            © OECD 2019                    9
                                                OECD agerage 489 (94)
S.D.*                   Mean score

                                                                              L. 4
         B-S-J-Z (China)           83                      590

               Singapore           97                      551
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PISA 2018: Insights and Interpretations
         Macao (China)             83                      544
                                                                                        Figure 3
                    Estonia        88                      530

                                                                                        Science
                                                                                                                                                Figure 4•Mean performance in reading, by international decile of socio-economic status
                      Japan        92                      529

                   Finland         96                      522

                      Korea        98                      519                          Comparing countries’ and economies’                       Country / Economy
                  Canada           96                      518
                                                                                        performance in science                                    Kosovo                                                                                                                                                       Top decile
    Hong Kong (China)1             86                      517                                                                                    Dominican Republic
                                                                                                                                                  Lebanon                                                                                                                                                      Second decile
          Chinese Taipei           99                      516
                                                                                                                                                  Qatar                                                                                                                                                        Ninth decile
                    Poland         92                      511
                                                                                                                                                  Philippines
           New Zealand             102                     508                                                                                    Morocco                                                                                                                                                      Bottom decile
                 Slovenia          88                      507                                                                                    Georgia
                                                                                                                                                  Panama                                                                                                                                                       Middle decile
        United Kingdom             99                      505
                                                                                                                                                  North Macedonia

                                                                              Level 3
            Netherlands1           104                     503                                                                                    Kazakhstan
                 Germany           103                     503                                                                                    Indonesia
                                                                                                                                                  Baku (Azerbaijan)
                 Australia         101                     503                                                                                    United Arab Emirates
           United States1          99                      502                                                                                    Saudi Arabia
                                                                                                                                                  Brunei Darussalam
                  Sweden           98                      499
                                                                                                                                                  Bosnia and Herzegovina
                   Belgium         99                      499                                                                                    Montenegro
         Czech Republic            94                      497                                                                                    Albania
                                                                                                                                                  Bulgaria
                    Ireland        88                      496
                                                                                                                                                  Thailand
             Switzerland           97                      495                                                                                    Argentina
                     France        96                      493                                                                                    Peru
                                                                                                                                                  Malaysia
                 Denmark           91                      493
                                                                                                                                                  Colombia
                 Portugal1         92                      492                                                                                    Jordan
                                                                                                                                                  Brazil
                  Norway           98                      490
                                                                                                                                                  Romania
                    Austria        96                      490                                                                                    Costa Rica
                      Latvia       84                      487                                                                                    Iceland
                                                                                                                                                  Mexico
                      Spain        89                      483
                                                                                                                                                  Israel
                 Lithuania         90                      482                                                                                    Serbia
                 Hungary           94                      481                                                                                    Moldova
                                                                                                                                                  Malta
                      Russia       84                      478
                                                                                                                                                  Uruguay
             Luxembourg            98                      477                                                                                    Luxembourg
                                                                                                                                                  Greece
                   Iceland         91                      475
                                                                                                                                                  Slovak Republic
                   Croatia         90                      472                                                                                    Chile
                   Belarus         85                      471                                                                                    Lithuania
                                                                                                                                                  Netherlands
                   Ukraine         91                      469
                                                                                                                                                  Russia
                     Turkey        84                      468                                                                                    Latvia
                         Italy     90                      468                                                                                    Belarus
                                                                                                                                                  Ukraine
         Slovak Republic           96                      464
                                                                                                                                                  Denmark
                       Israel      111                     462                                                                                    Hungary
                                                                                                                                                  Croatia
                      Malta        107                     457
                                                                                                                                                  Norway
                   Greece          86                      452                                                                                    OECD average
                       Chile       83                      444                                                                                    Switzerland
                                                                                                                                                  Slovenia
                                                                              Level 2

                     Serbia        92                      440
                                                                                                                                                  Belgium
                    Cyprus         93                      439                                                                                    Italy
                 Malaysia          77                      438                                                                                    Turkey
                                                                                                                                                  Sweden
   United Arab Emirates            103                     434
                                                                                                                                                  France
      Brunei Darussalam            96                      431                                                                                    Australia
                    Jordan         88                      429                          *S.D. = standard deviation                                Austria
                                                                                                                                                  New Zealand
                 Moldova           89                      428
                                                                                        1. Data did not meet the PISA technical standards but     Czech Republic
                  Thailand         82                      426
                                                                                        were accepted as largely comparable (see Annexes          United States
                                                                                                                                                  Portugal
                 Uruguay           87                      426                          A2 and A4 in OECD (2019), PISA 2018 Results               United Kingdom
                 Romania           90                      426                          (Volume I): What Students Know and Can Do, PISA,          Korea
                  Bulgaria         95                      424                          OECD Publishing, Paris;                                   Canada
                                                                                        https://doi.org/10.1787/5f07c754-en.                      Finland
                   Mexico          74                      419
                                                                                                                                                  Poland
                      Qatar        103                     419                          Source : OECD, PISA 2018                                  Japan
                   Albania         74                      417                          Database, Table I.B1.6; Figure I.4.3.                     Germany
                                                                                                                                                  Chinese Taipei
               Costa Rica          73                      416
                                                                                                                                                  Ireland
             Montenegro            81                      415                                                                                    Estonia
                                                                                                   Level 6 Above 707.93 score points              Macao (China)
                Colombia           82                      413
                                                                                                                                                  Hong Kong (China)
      North Macedonia              92                      413
                                                                                                             From 633.33                          Singapore
                        Peru       80                      404                                     Level 5                                        B-S-J-Z (China)
                                                                                                             to less than 707.93 score points
                Argentina          90                      404
                                                                                                             From 558.73                                                                      300            350           400           450           500           550           600        650
                                                                                                   Level 4
                       Brazil      90                      404                                               to less than 633.33 score points
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Mean score
Bosnia and Herzegovina             77                      398
                                                                                                             From 484.14
                                                                                                   Level 3
      Baku (Azerbaijan)            74                      398                                               to less than 558.73 score points   Note: Bottom, second, ninth and top deciles correspond to the average performance of students who are in the corresponding deciles of the distribution of the PISA index of economic,
              Kazakhstan           76                      397                                               From 409.54                        social and cultural status across all countries and economies; the middle decile corresponds to students whose socio-economic status ranges from the 45th to the 55th percentile of this
                                                                                                   Level 2
                Indonesia          69                      396                                               to less than 484.14 score points   distribution.
            Saudi Arabia           79                      386                                               From 334.94                        Only results of countries and economies with at least 3% of students in each international decile are shown.
                                                                                                 Level 1a
                                                                              Level 1

                                                                                                             to less than 409.54 score points   Countries and economies are ranked in ascending order of the mean reading performance of students in the international middle decile of socio-economic status.
                 Lebanon           95                      384
                                                                                                             From 260.54                        Source: OECD, PISA 2018 Database, Table II.B1.2.2; Figure II.2.2.
                  Georgia          81                      383
                                                                                                 Level 1b
                 Morocco           67                      377                                               to less than 334.94 score points
                   Kosovo          65                      365                            Below level 1b Below 260.54 score points
                  Panama           85                      365

               Philippines         75                      357

    Dominican Republic             71                      336

                                 300      400              500          600
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            © OECD 2019                    9
                                                OECD agerage 489 (94)
PISA 2018: Insights and Interpretations                                                                                                                                                                                                                               PISA 2018: Insights and Interpretations

     OECD average saw remarkable improvements in                 the determination to build a first-class education           Figure 5•Curvilinear trajectories of average performance in reading across PISA assessments
     their students’ performance, most notably Albania,          system can achieve this even in adverse economic             Direction and trajectory of trend in mean performance
     the Republic of Moldova, Peru and Qatar. Turkey’s           circumstances, and their schools today will be their
     improvement between 2003 and 2018 may look                  economy and society tomorrow. So it can be done.                                                             Increasingly positive                                    Steadily positive                                 Positive, but flattening
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (less positive over more recent years)
     somewhat less impressive, but Turkey was able to
                                                                 And it must be done. Without the right education,

                                                                                                                              with a positive average trend
                                                                                                                                                                    PISA reading score                                    PISA reading score                                    PISA reading score
     double the coverage of the 15-year-olds who are
                                                                 people will languish on the margins of society,

                                                                                                                                 Countries/economies
     enrolled in school and covered by PISA from 36% to
     73% during that period. Five other countries – namely       countries will not be able to benefit from technological
     Albania, Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico and Uruguay              advances, and those advances will not translate into
     – also significantly increased enrolment rates in           social progress. It will not be possible to develop fair
     secondary education over their participation in PISA        and inclusive policies and engage all citizens if a lack
     and maintained or improved their mean reading,              of education prevents people from fully participating in
     mathematics and science performance. This shows that        society.                                                                                         2000     2003   2006     2009   2012   2015     2018   2000   2003    2006   2009   2012   2015   2018      2000     2003    2006   2009     2012   2015     2018
                                                                                                                                                                    Jordan (06)                                            Estonia (06)                                         Albania (01)          Montenegro (06)
     the quality of education does not have to be sacrificed     But change can be an uphill struggle. Young people                                                 Macao (China) (03)                                     Portugal (00)                                        Chile (01)            Peru (01)
                                                                                                                                                                    Russia (00)                                                                                                 Colombia (06)         Poland (00)
     when increasing access to schooling.                        are less likely to invest their time and energy in better                                                                                                                                                      Germany (00)          Qatar (06)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Israel (02)           Romania (06)
     Some countries were able to move to a more positive         education if that education seems irrelevant to the
     trajectory in recent years after a period of stagnation     demands of the “real” world. Businesses are less likely                                                                 U-shaped                                              Flat                                            Hump-shaped
                                                                                                                                                                         (more positive over more recent years)                                                                      (more negative over more recent years)
     or decline. Sweden showed an improving trend in all         to invest in their employees’ lifelong learning if those

                                                                                                                              with no significant average trend
                                                                                                                                                                    PISA reading score                                    PISA reading score                                    PISA reading score
     three subjects between 2012 and 2018, reversing             workers might move away for a better job. Policy makers
     earlier declines in mean performance. Argentina, the        often prioritise the urgent over the important – even if

                                                                                                                                    Countries/economies
     Czech Republic and Ireland saw recent improvements          the latter includes education, an investment in the future
     in reading; Denmark, Ireland, Jordan, Slovenia and          well-being of society.
     the United Kingdom in mathematics; and Jordan and
     Montenegro in science. In some countries, some
     of these trends can be related to changes in the                Read more about these issues in Chapters 4
                                                                                                                                                                  2000     2003   2006     2009   2012   2015     2018   2000   2003    2006   2009   2012   2015   2018      2000     2003    2006   2009     2012   2015     2018
     demographic composition of the student body; but in             and 9 in PISA 2018 Results (Volume I): What                                                    Argentina (01)                                         Austria (00)        Italy (00)                       OECD average-23 (00)         Latvia (00)
     no country do such demographic changes alter the                Students Know and Can Do.                                                                      Czech Republic (00)
                                                                                                                                                                    Ireland (00)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Bulgaria (01)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Canada (00)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Japan (00)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Mexico (00)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Belgium (00)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Greece (00)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Luxembourg (03)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Switzerland (00)
     picture dramatically.                                           https://doi.org/10.1787/5f07c754-en                                                            Slovenia (06)                                          Croatia (06)        Norway (00)                      Hong Kong (China) (02)       Chinese Taipei (06)
                                                                                                                                                                    Uruguay (03)                                           Denmark (00)        United States (00)               Hungary (00)                 Turkey (03)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           France (00)                                          Indonesia (01)
     PISA also shows that in most countries excellence               And in Chapter 2 in PISA 2018 Results
     in education is apparent amongst some of the most               (Volume II): Where All Students Can Succeed.                                                            Increasingly negative                                     Steadily negative                                Negative, but flattening
     disadvantaged students and schools. On average                  https://doi.org/ 10.1787/b5fd1b8f-en                                                                                                                                                                            (less negative over more recent years)

     across OECD countries, one in ten disadvantaged

                                                                                                                              with a negative average trend
                                                                                                                                                                    PISA reading score                                    PISA reading score                                    PISA reading score

     students was able to score in the top quarter of

                                                                                                                                  Countries/economies
     reading performance in his or her country, indicating
     that disadvantage is not destiny. In fact, in Australia,
     Canada, Estonia, Ireland and the United Kingdom, all
     of which scored above the OECD average, more than
     13% of disadvantaged students were academically
     resilient. Similarly, more than 30% of immigrant students                                                                                                    2000     2003   2006     2009   2012   2015     2018   2000   2003    2006   2009   2012   2015   2018      2000     2003    2006   2009     2012   2015     2018

     in Brunei Darussalam, Jordan, Panama, Qatar, Saudi                                                                                                             Korea (00)
                                                                                                                                                                    Netherlands (03)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Australia (00)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Finland (00)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Sweden (00)

     Arabia and the United Arab Emirates scored in the top                                                                                                          Thailand (01)                                         Iceland (00)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          New Zealand (00)
     quarter of reading performance. These successes do
     not come about by chance. Factors that PISA shows                                                                        Notes: Figures are for illustrative purposes only. Countries and economies are grouped according to the overall direction of their trend (the sign and significance of the average three-
     to be positively associated with academic resilience                                                                     year trend) and to the rate of change in the direction of their trend (the sign and significance of the curvature in the estimate of quadratic trends).
                                                                                                                              Only countries and economies with data from at least five PISA reading assessments are included. Not all countries and economies can compare their students’ performance over the
     include support from parents, a positive school climate                                                                  same period. For each country/economy, the base year, starting from which reading results can be compared, is indicated in parentheses next to the country’s/economy’s name (“00” =
     and having a growth mindset (see more on this later).                                                                    2000, “01” = 2001, etc.). Both the overall direction and the change in the direction may be affected by the period considered.
                                                                                                                              OECD average-23 refers to the average of all OECD countries with valid data in all seven assessments; Austria, Chile, Estonia, Israel, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the Slovak Republic,
                                                                                                                              Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States are not included in this average.
     In the same way as social disadvantage does not                                                                          Source: OECD, PISA 2018 Database, Table I.B1.10; Figure I.9.1.
     automatically lead to poor educational performance
     for students and schools, the world is no longer
     divided between rich and well-educated nations and
     poor and badly educated ones. When comparing
     countries that score similarly in PISA, their income
     levels vary widely. History shows that countries with

10       © OECD 2019                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 © OECD 2019                   11
PISA 2018: Insights and Interpretations                                                                                                                                                                                                                               PISA 2018: Insights and Interpretations

     OECD average saw remarkable improvements in                 the determination to build a first-class education           Figure 5•Curvilinear trajectories of average performance in reading across PISA assessments
     their students’ performance, most notably Albania,          system can achieve this even in adverse economic             Direction and trajectory of trend in mean performance
     the Republic of Moldova, Peru and Qatar. Turkey’s           circumstances, and their schools today will be their
     improvement between 2003 and 2018 may look                  economy and society tomorrow. So it can be done.                                                             Increasingly positive                                    Steadily positive                                 Positive, but flattening
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (less positive over more recent years)
     somewhat less impressive, but Turkey was able to
                                                                 And it must be done. Without the right education,

                                                                                                                              with a positive average trend
                                                                                                                                                                    PISA reading score                                    PISA reading score                                    PISA reading score
     double the coverage of the 15-year-olds who are
                                                                 people will languish on the margins of society,

                                                                                                                                 Countries/economies
     enrolled in school and covered by PISA from 36% to
     73% during that period. Five other countries – namely       countries will not be able to benefit from technological
     Albania, Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico and Uruguay              advances, and those advances will not translate into
     – also significantly increased enrolment rates in           social progress. It will not be possible to develop fair
     secondary education over their participation in PISA        and inclusive policies and engage all citizens if a lack
     and maintained or improved their mean reading,              of education prevents people from fully participating in
     mathematics and science performance. This shows that        society.                                                                                         2000     2003   2006     2009   2012   2015     2018   2000   2003    2006   2009   2012   2015   2018      2000     2003    2006   2009     2012   2015     2018
                                                                                                                                                                    Jordan (06)                                            Estonia (06)                                         Albania (01)          Montenegro (06)
     the quality of education does not have to be sacrificed     But change can be an uphill struggle. Young people                                                 Macao (China) (03)                                     Portugal (00)                                        Chile (01)            Peru (01)
                                                                                                                                                                    Russia (00)                                                                                                 Colombia (06)         Poland (00)
     when increasing access to schooling.                        are less likely to invest their time and energy in better                                                                                                                                                      Germany (00)          Qatar (06)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Israel (02)           Romania (06)
     Some countries were able to move to a more positive         education if that education seems irrelevant to the
     trajectory in recent years after a period of stagnation     demands of the “real” world. Businesses are less likely                                                                 U-shaped                                              Flat                                            Hump-shaped
                                                                                                                                                                         (more positive over more recent years)                                                                      (more negative over more recent years)
     or decline. Sweden showed an improving trend in all         to invest in their employees’ lifelong learning if those

                                                                                                                              with no significant average trend
                                                                                                                                                                    PISA reading score                                    PISA reading score                                    PISA reading score
     three subjects between 2012 and 2018, reversing             workers might move away for a better job. Policy makers
     earlier declines in mean performance. Argentina, the        often prioritise the urgent over the important – even if

                                                                                                                                    Countries/economies
     Czech Republic and Ireland saw recent improvements          the latter includes education, an investment in the future
     in reading; Denmark, Ireland, Jordan, Slovenia and          well-being of society.
     the United Kingdom in mathematics; and Jordan and
     Montenegro in science. In some countries, some
     of these trends can be related to changes in the                Read more about these issues in Chapters 4
                                                                                                                                                                  2000     2003   2006     2009   2012   2015     2018   2000   2003    2006   2009   2012   2015   2018      2000     2003    2006   2009     2012   2015     2018
     demographic composition of the student body; but in             and 9 in PISA 2018 Results (Volume I): What                                                    Argentina (01)                                         Austria (00)        Italy (00)                       OECD average-23 (00)         Latvia (00)
     no country do such demographic changes alter the                Students Know and Can Do.                                                                      Czech Republic (00)
                                                                                                                                                                    Ireland (00)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Bulgaria (01)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Canada (00)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Japan (00)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Mexico (00)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Belgium (00)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Greece (00)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Luxembourg (03)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Switzerland (00)
     picture dramatically.                                           https://doi.org/10.1787/5f07c754-en                                                            Slovenia (06)                                          Croatia (06)        Norway (00)                      Hong Kong (China) (02)       Chinese Taipei (06)
                                                                                                                                                                    Uruguay (03)                                           Denmark (00)        United States (00)               Hungary (00)                 Turkey (03)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           France (00)                                          Indonesia (01)
     PISA also shows that in most countries excellence               And in Chapter 2 in PISA 2018 Results
     in education is apparent amongst some of the most               (Volume II): Where All Students Can Succeed.                                                            Increasingly negative                                     Steadily negative                                Negative, but flattening
     disadvantaged students and schools. On average                  https://doi.org/ 10.1787/b5fd1b8f-en                                                                                                                                                                            (less negative over more recent years)

     across OECD countries, one in ten disadvantaged

                                                                                                                              with a negative average trend
                                                                                                                                                                    PISA reading score                                    PISA reading score                                    PISA reading score

     students was able to score in the top quarter of

                                                                                                                                  Countries/economies
     reading performance in his or her country, indicating
     that disadvantage is not destiny. In fact, in Australia,
     Canada, Estonia, Ireland and the United Kingdom, all
     of which scored above the OECD average, more than
     13% of disadvantaged students were academically
     resilient. Similarly, more than 30% of immigrant students                                                                                                    2000     2003   2006     2009   2012   2015     2018   2000   2003    2006   2009   2012   2015   2018      2000     2003    2006   2009     2012   2015     2018

     in Brunei Darussalam, Jordan, Panama, Qatar, Saudi                                                                                                             Korea (00)
                                                                                                                                                                    Netherlands (03)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Australia (00)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Finland (00)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Sweden (00)

     Arabia and the United Arab Emirates scored in the top                                                                                                          Thailand (01)                                         Iceland (00)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          New Zealand (00)
     quarter of reading performance. These successes do
     not come about by chance. Factors that PISA shows                                                                        Notes: Figures are for illustrative purposes only. Countries and economies are grouped according to the overall direction of their trend (the sign and significance of the average three-
     to be positively associated with academic resilience                                                                     year trend) and to the rate of change in the direction of their trend (the sign and significance of the curvature in the estimate of quadratic trends).
                                                                                                                              Only countries and economies with data from at least five PISA reading assessments are included. Not all countries and economies can compare their students’ performance over the
     include support from parents, a positive school climate                                                                  same period. For each country/economy, the base year, starting from which reading results can be compared, is indicated in parentheses next to the country’s/economy’s name (“00” =
     and having a growth mindset (see more on this later).                                                                    2000, “01” = 2001, etc.). Both the overall direction and the change in the direction may be affected by the period considered.
                                                                                                                              OECD average-23 refers to the average of all OECD countries with valid data in all seven assessments; Austria, Chile, Estonia, Israel, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the Slovak Republic,
                                                                                                                              Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States are not included in this average.
     In the same way as social disadvantage does not                                                                          Source: OECD, PISA 2018 Database, Table I.B1.10; Figure I.9.1.
     automatically lead to poor educational performance
     for students and schools, the world is no longer
     divided between rich and well-educated nations and
     poor and badly educated ones. When comparing
     countries that score similarly in PISA, their income
     levels vary widely. History shows that countries with

10       © OECD 2019                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 © OECD 2019                   11
PISA 2018: Insights and Interpretations                                                                                    PISA 2018: Insights and Interpretations

                                                                    Getting ready for the digital world
                                               While people have different views on the role that           on weekend days. For young people, the digital world
                                               digital technology can and should play in schools, we        is becoming a sizeable part of the real world.
                                               cannot ignore how digital tools have so fundamentally
                                               transformed the world outside of school. Everywhere,         While improved access to new technologies provides
                                               digital technologies are offering firms new business         unprecedented opportunities, it also raises the bar
                                               models and opportunities to enter markets and                of what it means to be proficient in reading. Students
                                               transform their production processes. They can make          growing up with a great smartphone but a poor
                                               us live longer and healthier, help us with boring or         education will face real risks. The smartphone has
                                               dangerous tasks, and allow us to travel into virtual         transformed the ways in which people read and
                                               worlds. People who cannot navigate through the               exchange information; and digitalisation has resulted
                                               digital landscape can no longer participate fully in our     in the emergence of new forms of text, ranging
                                               social, economic and cultural life.                          from the concise (text messages; annotated search-
                                                                                                            engine results) to the lengthy and unwieldy (tabbed,
                                               PISA shows how access to new technologies has                multipage websites or complex archival material). In
                                               increased at a remarkable rate. In the 2009 PISA             the past, students could find clear and often singular
                                               assessment, about 15% of students in OECD countries,         answers to their questions in carefully curated and
                                               on average, reported that they did not have access           government-approved textbooks, and they could
                                               to the Internet at home. By 2018, that proportion had        generally trust those answers to be true. Today, they
                                               shrunk to less than 5%. The growth in access to online       will find hundreds of thousands of answers to their
                                               services is likely to be even steeper than suggested by      questions on line, and it is up to them to figure out
                                               these percentages, which hide the improvements in the        what is true and what is false, what is right and what is
                                               quality of Internet services and the explosion of mobile     wrong. While in many offline situations readers can
                                               Internet access over the past decade.                        assume that the author of the text they are reading
                                                                                                            is competent, well-informed and benevolent, when
                                               Furthermore, in all countries that distributed an optional   reading online blogs, forums or news sites readers
                                               questionnaire on students’ familiarity with these            must constantly assess the quality and reliability of the
                                               technologies as part of PISA 2018, the amount of time        information, based on implicit or explicit cues related
                                               that 15-year-old students in OECD countries spent            to the content, format or source of the text.
                                               on line outside of school increased between 2012
                                               and 2018 – by an average of more than 1 hour per             This is not exactly a new phenomenon, but the speed,
                                               day (on both weekdays and weekends). Students                volume and reach of information flows in the current
                                               now spend about 3 hours on line outside of school on         digital ecosystem have created the perfect conditions
                                               weekdays, on average, and almost 3.5 hours on line           for fake news to thrive, affecting public opinion and

12       © OECD 2019                                                                                                                             © OECD 2019              13
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