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Plagiarism Checker X Originality Report Similarity Found: 8% Date: Tuesday, July 14, 2020 Statistics: 2185 words Plagiarized / 26908 Total words Remarks: Low Plagiarism Detected - Your Document needs Optional Improvement. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Learning Media: The Development and Its Utilization UU No 28 tahun 2014 tentang Hak Cipta Fungsi dan sifat hak cipta Pasal 4 Hak Cipta sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 3 huruf a merupakan hak eksklusif yang terdiri atas hak moral dan hak ekonomi. Pembatasan Pelindungan Pasal 26 Ketentuan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 23, Pasal 24, dan Pasal 25 tidak berlaku terhadap: i. penggunaan kutipan singkat Ciptaan dan/atau produk Hak Terkait untuk pelaporan peristiwa aktual yang ditujukan hanya untuk keperluan penyediaan informasi aktual; ii. Penggandaan Ciptaan dan/atau produk Hak Terkait hanya untuk kepentingan penelitian ilmu pengetahuan; iii. Penggandaan Ciptaan dan/atau produk Hak Terkait hanya untuk keperluan pengajaran, kecuali pertunjukan dan Fonogram yang telah dilakukan Pengumuman sebagai bahan ajar; dan iv. penggunaan untuk kepentingan pendidikan dan pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan yang memungkinkan suatu Ciptaan dan/atau produk Hak Terkait dapat digunakan tanpa izin Pelaku Pertunjukan, Produser Fonogram, atau Lembaga Penyiaran. Sanksi Pelanggaran Pasal 113 1. Setiap Orang yang dengan tanpa hak melakukan pelanggaran hak ekonomi sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 9 ayat (1) huruf i untuk Penggunaan Secara Komersial dipidana dengan pidana penjara paling lama 1 (satu) tahun dan/atau pidana denda paling banyak Rp100.000.000 (seratus juta rupiah). 2. Setiap Orang yang dengan tanpa hak dan/atau tanpa izin Pencipta atau pemegang Hak Cipta melakukan pelanggaran hak ekonomi Pencipta sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 9 ayat (1) huruf c, huruf d, huruf f, dan/atau huruf h untuk Penggunaan Secara Komersial dipidana dengan pidana penjara paling lama 3 (tiga) tahun dan/atau pidana denda paling banyak Rp500.000.000,00 (lima ratus juta rupiah).
iii Learning Media: The Development and Its Utilization I Ketut Sudarsana Ni Wayan Arini Gusti Nyoman Mastini Ni Made Sukerni Luh Dewi Pusparini Yayasan Ahmar Cendekia Indonesia Learning Media: The Development and Its Utilization Penulis : I Ketut Sudarsana, Ni Wayan Arini, Gusti Nyoman Mastini, Ni Made Sukerni, Luh Dewi Pusparini Cetakan Pertama : Juni 2020 Cover : Canva Tata Letak : Sutte Hak Cipta 2020, pada Penulis. Diterbitkan pertama kali oleh: Yayasan Ahmar Cendekia Indonesia Jaarae Bontomannuo. 5ra, Boddialongbkla Sulawesi Selatan, 92254 Website : www.ahmarcendekia.or.id E-mail : email@example.com Anggota IKAPI No. 025/SSL/2019 Copyright © 2020 by Yayasan Ahmar Cendekia Indonesia All Right Reserved Hak cipta dilindungi undang-undang Dilarang memperbanyak, menerjemahkan, memfotokopi/mencetak, atau menerbitkan sebagian atau seluruh isi buku ini tanpa izin tertulis dari Penerbit. - Cet. I Takalar: Yayasan Ahmar Cendekia Indonesia, 2020 viii + 82; 15.5x23 cm ISBN : 978-623-93060-8-3 Editor : Ni Komang Sutriyanti v PREFACE Our gratitude goes to Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa because of Asung Kerta Wara Nugraha, we are still given health so we can finish compiling the book in the middle of the Covid-19 pandemic. Whether we realize it or not, Covid-19 has changed the various settings of the life of the world community, and humans are adopting different adaptation patterns to survive during a pandemic that swept the world. One sector of life that is suffering from the impact of an epidemic is the education sector, with the issuance of policies for work, study, and worship at home, automatically changing learning activities usually carried out at school into "home-only" learning patterns. Learning that was initially centered on school shifted to learning at home, accompanied by reasonably dominant school interventions. Professional learning is even more reliant on online resources or services, with varying levels of school and family readiness. This book is a historical record because it provides an overview of the journey of the Education sector in providing learning services with diverse resources in each school and region. It is considering that Indonesia is an archipelago with an uneven level of development and regional development. So that learning service innovation during a pandemic in each of them is also diverse, adjusting to the conditions of the school and the carrying capacity of each environment. Therefore, this book is intentionally published during the Indonesian Nation's struggle against the Covid-19 pandemic, to be used as a source of reference and alternative sources of information in organizing learning during an epidemic.
The book about learning media is expected to provide benefits to understand the dynamics of learning that is happening. So that education practitioners can appropriately adapt as a response to various issues that occur in society. More than that, this book shows that Education throughout Indonesia is still ongoing so that the hope of realizing the golden generation of Indonesia in 2045 becomes a necessity amid various issues that are dividing the unity and integrity of the nation. To all parties who have given their attention, assistance, vi and input as well as to the Publishers who have published this book, their highest gratitude, and appreciation. Hopefully, this book will benefit all readers. Denpasar, June, 2020 Author vii TABLE OF CONTENS INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................... 1 INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ...... 7 ONLINE GAME ......................................................................................... 11 DIGITAL LIBRARY ................................................................................... 20 ONLINE MEDIA ........................................................................................ 27 GOOGLE FORM ........................................................................................ 31 WHATSAPP APPLICATION ................................................................... 34 AUDIO-VISUAL BASED LEARNING MEDIA................................. 38 EDMODO E-LEARNING APPLICATION ......................................... 45 RUANGGURU AS ONLINE EDUCATION PLATFORM .............. 52 ONLINE GROUP DISCUSSION ........................................................... 58 KAHOOT APPLICATION ........................................................................ 63 FILM AND VIDEO MEDIA .................................................................... 69 EXAMVIEW APPLICATION................................................................. 73 CONCLUSIONS .......................................................................................... 76 BIBLIOGRAPHY ........................................................................................ 77 1 INTRODUCTION The rapid development of technological advances along with the development of a country's situation in the welfare of people's lives, where the technology used by humans in accordance with the reasoning ability to make it easier to present the best quality for certain activities. Distance access with technology can be done to make it easier to convey information, in which the technology that commonly used among the public is the telephone, mobile phone, TV, radio, laptop, computer, LCD projector, or WhatsApp, Email, Telegram, Google Classroom, and other types according to the type of need to run effectively and efficiently. Advances in science and technology have enormous influence in various fields of human life.
Education is an inseparable part of the human maturity process that has a big contribution to the development of science and technology, but on the other hand, education also needs to utilizing science and technology to achieve its objectives effectively and efficiently (Muhson, 2010). Entering the 21st century, the world is increasingly related to information technology (IT). The internet and other various online facilities make the relationship between the world's business centers more smoothly (Setyawan & Kuswati, 2006). In the education world these days, the role of technology is greatly utilized in the education field which helps to simplify and accelerate the advancement process of education. As it is known, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) plays an important role in nation-building. What needs to be emphasized is the widespread use of information and communication technology itself is not the ultimate goal, because information and communication technology remains as a tool to prosper Indonesian society (Ridwan & Krisnadi, 2011). The existence of technology is a new tool as a support in the latest learning media that makes a person does not need to waste a lot of time to go through cer like the f that sning technology is a theory and practice in the design, development, utilization, management, and 2 evaluation ocess rour orlear(Seelsand ichey, Technology is also a source for obtaining knowledge in accordance with the field to be sought which is already available hence it can be done anytime and anywhere through mobile phones and computers by just staring at the monitor without doing face to face. Looking for book sources by spending a lot of time hence the educators, students, and the general public not only obtain information through face to face or books, but they must spend time searching for literacy or have not enough time to go to the library. Technology as a device in managing, searching, displaying, processing, and conveying learning resources, in this case as one of the learning and education organizers that follows the global cultural currents in accordance with technological developments that occur. However, advances in communication technology are not necessarily beneficial in all aspects. Besides benefits, there are also many negative impacts. Unappropriate things to be seen by children for example, the number of immoral cases and other negative actions due to the impact of accessing the internet that cannot be held its influences. (Nurudin, 2007). Learning is an activity that involves a person to obtain knowledge, skills, and positive values by utilizing various sources for learning. Learning can involve two parties, namely
students as learners and teachers as facilitators, the most important thing in learning activities is the learning process (Rohani, 2019). Lning condition or a sdo ning ft media can be understood as something that can convey or deliver messages from the sce” (Ryhar 2012) . Based on the understanding above, the learning media as a source of learning information in conditioning a person to learn to change their mindsets in developing creativity or various types of resources that can be used in the learning process. From the learning resources, the learning media is part of learning resources that emphasize on obtaining knowledge. Advance in communication technology is not only affecting children but also affects society such as adolescents, adults, and parents, hence it impacts extraordinary changes for human culture (Setiawan, 2018). Twor“media” fom Lwhich plurfm “ medium ”, ally intermediarorintroduction. Assfor Education and Communication Technology (AECT) defines media as all forms 3 and channels used to process information. The National Education Association (NEA) defines media as anything that can be manipulated, seen, heard, read, or discussed along with the instruments used for these activities (Nurseto, 2011). Media does not only change the way of learning and teaching but also able to change the way educators and teachers think critically about teaching and learning. Media and technology play a role that has the potential to be very creative, but at the same time also has the potential for abuse with the existence of technology in the education world, and the learning process does not fully support that learning will take place well only with learning media. Media is determined by its great strong function to increase the learning outcomes level. Some media functions, namely capturing an object, an important event, or a rare object that can be captured either by photos, films or recorded through the radio. Then, the event can be conveyed and used when the teacher or lecturer can help in explaining the learning process of manipulating circumstances. According to Rohani (2019) in general, media selection can be done by considering the following factors: 1. Development and learning barriers which include funding factors, facilities, and available equipment and time (teaching time and development of material and media), available resources (human and material). 2. Requirements for contents, assignments, and types of learning. The content of the lesson varies from the tasks students want to do, for example, memorization, application of skills, understanding relationships, or higher-level
reasoning and thinking. Each learning category requires different behaviors, thus it will require different presentation techniques and media. 3. Barriers from the student side by considering initial abilities and skills, such as reading, typing, and using computers, and other student characteristics. 4. Other considerations are the level of pleasure (preference of institutions, teachers, and students) and cost-effectiveness. 5. Media selection should also consider some points, namely: 4 a. The ability to accommodate the presentation of the right stimulus (visual or audio) b. The ability to accommodate appropriate student responses (written, audio, or physical activity) c. The ability to accommodate feedback from students. Primary and secondary media selection for the presentation of information or stimuli, and for practice and tests (practice and tests should use the same media). For example, for learning purposes that involve memorization. 6. Secondary media must receive attention because successful learning uses a variety of media. With the use of diverse media, students have the opportunity to connect and interact with their individual learning needs. Availability, quality, technical, cost, flexibility, and ability of people who use it and available time allocation. The opportunities for learning to become free of curiosity increase, for example using various media such as audio, video, sound slides, and so on, making it possible for everyone at every opportunity to learn anywhere and anytime easily. Teaching is more systematic based on the material to be delivered by using the teaching and learning process media and will be better planned because the media are considered as an integral part of the teaching and learning system. Therefore before the implementation, the teacher or lecturer is faced with a necessity to identify the characteristics of students concerning using media that makes it easy for an object to be displayed as an example to be brought to the classroom, clear up small objects to be seen, such as grain cells blood/bacterial molecules and so on. The use of media in teaching and learning as a tool in accelerating the movement process is too slow hence it can be seen in a relatively fast time. Concerning the use of teaching and learning media, Nurseto (2011) emphasizes some following points: 1. As a means of helping to create more effective learning situations. 2. As one component that is interconnected with other components to create the expected learning situation. 3. Speed up the learning process. 5 4. Improving the quality of teaching and learning process. 5. Concretifying the abstract hence it can reduce the occurrence of verbalism.
Slowing down a process of movement that is too fast by simplifying complex objects and clear up the sounds that too weak hence it can be captured by the ear. Make it easy for students to understand certain skills in learning patterns by using media, providing different and various experiences hence able to arouse students' interest and motivation to learn. The media can foster certain attitudes and skills in using technology and interested in operating a particular media. Media as one of the materials that can measure the ability of educators and students to use and choose the use of media. By using media, it can provide or change an atmosphere that can not be forgotten for students and improve the learning quality to make it easier to be understood and accepted. As for some other benefits of learning media, namely: 1. The media can overcome the limitations of the knowledge possessed. 2. The media can overcome classroom boundaries. 3. It can enable direct interaction between participants and the environment. 4. The media can produce uniform observations. 5. The media can instill the basic concepts either true, real, or right. 6. The media can arouse motivation and stimulate participants to learn well. 7. The media can arouse new desires and interests. 8. The media can control the participants learning speed. 9. The media can provide a whole experience from concrete to abstract things. The importance of using media in learning refers to the experience that abilities are important for educators who must have critical abilities in using learning media technology and the possibility of cause and effect as well as the consequences of the impact of increasingly developing learning media technology. Learning media are never separated from the role of media in learning as a creative and systematic effort in student learning experiences. Gerlach and Erly (1971) argue that there three characteristics of media that indicate why media are used in education: 6 1. Fixative Characteristics A fixative characteristic describes the ability of the media to record, store, preserve, and reconstruct an event or object. An event or object can be sorted and rearranged with objects that have been captured (recorded) with a camera and can be produced whenever needed. 2. Manipulative characteristics A manipulative characteristic is an event that takes days and can be presented to students in two or three minutes with a time-lapse recording technique 3. Distributive Characteristics Distributive characteristic is a characteristic where the possibility of an object to be transformed through space, and simultaneously. It was
presented to a large number of students by stimulating relatively long experiences of this event. As one component of learning, the media cannot be separated from the discussion of the whole learning system. The use of media should be a part that gets the learners' attention in every learning activity. But in fact, this part is still often overlooked for various reasons. The reasons that often arise include, the limited time to make teaching preparations, the difficulty of finding the right media, unavailability of costs, and others (Falahudin, 2014). The use of media with all the conveniences presented is an intrinsic characteristic of learning media. The role of technology as a means of media in learning can help to improve the learning quality and the ability of an institution to produce quality graduates. 7 INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY The development of information and communication technology continues to increase along with the increasing human needs, without exception in education ield. he to e s“ e ” isinterpr as electronic, has begun to emerge and it is applied in almost all fields. For example, e-education, e-government, e-learning, and so on. The role of the teacher in applying the use of information and communication technology precisely which is required to give a better illustration to the younger generation about the use of technology precisely and useful. The rapid advancement of technology is undeniable that is increasingly spoiling humans, for example in terms of communication. Interactions that occur with the help of technology become easier and more diverse. The intended technology is the current technology and even becomes a phenomenon, namely websites, blogs, microblogging sites, electronic mail (email), Yahoo Messenger (YM), Google Talk (Gtalk), as well as the prominent one in society is a social network (Husain, 2014). Changes in learning patterns are required to make updates in a conventional learning system that is considered to be outdated and irrelevant with the dynamics of the development of an increasingly rapid and intensive era that was triggered by the development of science and technology. Information and communication technology in the learning process functions as a link in the implementation of knowledge transfer without completely omitting the initial model of learning that takes place face-to-face in the classroom. Utilization of information and communication technology in learning is carried out to improve effectiveness in the learning process implementation which is expected to
improve student learning outcomes and the individual quality of students in using technology more precisely and useful (Husain, 2014). Media means intermediary and media can also be interpreted as a communication tool that carries information from the source to the recipient. This understanding refers to the understanding of special media. Media can also be interpreted as a tool contains information that allows people or students to interact with the message directly. The intended media is a media specifically designed to achieve certain learning objectives, such as learning modules, audio 8 cassette programs, television/video learning programs, computer programs, and so on. The understanding of media above is only a small part of existing media understandings. However, in broad outline, the understanding between one with another has the same in its purpose, namely the process of delivering information effectively, hence the information (in this case the subject matter) can be understood and accepted by students easily. If you pay close attention, what happens in the classroom is a communication that takes place between the educator and students, or students and other students. In a communication, the information often conveyed by the communicator cannot be well received by the communicant. This happens because at the time communication takes place, the disruption or noise occurs that causes the information conveyed cannot be well received by the communicant. The same thing often happens in classrooms. Educators often provide good information but at the end of learning, when students are asked questions about the material presented, most students just stay quiet and do not understand the questions being asked to them, especially to find the answers. However, the cause is very simple. Educators do not use the right media when teaching. The first and main objective in using media is the information can be understood easily by students. Other objectives in the use of learning media can also be obtained from the capabilities of the media itself. Information and communication technology (ICT) as a learning media, for example, computer media that has advantages as multimedia functions (sound, visual, color, writing, or symbols of other information). On the other hand, the use of ICT as a learning media is not only beneficial for students, but also educators as designers, developers, and implementers in the learning process. Therefore, the presence of ICT as a learning media helps educators in many ways, namely: 1. Increase interaction. 2. Learning becomes more interesting. 3. Improve the
learning quality. 4. The learning process can be done anywhere and anytime. 5. Lead to positive attitudes of students towards the learning process. 9 Information and communication technology (ICT) for most users is better known as a medium that provides answers to the information needs of all fields and disciplines, various existing information services are considered unable to meet the information needs that required. In the education world, especially learning, its presence is responded to with various thoughts, starting from those who respond positively and those who respond negatively. There is nothing wrong if you think about it. If you want to learn from various countries that have used it appropriately in improving the learning quality. When used as a medium in learning, its use can still be regulated, thus its function can optimize the learning process. What if used as a learning resource. There are at least three main functions that can be benefited from the presence of ICT as a learning resource, namely: 1. Answering information needs. 2. Providing cheap and fast services. 3. Provides the latest information. The presence of ICT is undeniable in response to information needs. You can get almost all the information through the use of ICT. Technologically, your computer network is connected to the internet and it is automatically connected to network systems around the world. A technology that can receive as much information as desired. How to use and utilize this ICT thus it truly functions and can make a positive contribution to learning. Several ways can be used as educators in utilizing ICT as a learning resource, namely: 1. The recommended main. 2. Complete guide. 3. Learning resources. In the current era of the learning is an era of learning based on various sources, it should release the habit of using certain learning resources. Besides, the learning process is not effective and the distribution of learning resources (textbooks) seems not fast and not cheap. Because there is a possibility of a limited amount and relatively large shipping costs compared to sending an email. Consideration of the use of information services that are fast and cheap should already be a consideration at this time. Dare to open yourself to the entry of ICT in the current profession. 10 One thing that cannot be replaced with other technologies is the superiority of ICT in providing the latest information or learning resources. This is encouraging ICT to be used as a learning resource. The information displayed, at the same time can be accessed through the internet network. Unlike the previous one, new information (the
latest book) published abroad is the fastest to arrive between four to seven months. Even with expensive prices. If you want to get a very good learning competency then there are no other steps that are considered good, other than giving real experience to students. Through learning that has been happened, students can meet directly with the substance learned. Things like this are only obtained through utilization in the learning environment as a learning media. One thing that must be remembered is that each media has its characteristics. It means that a media will be effective to achieve certain competencies, but not necessarily effective for other competencies. Thus, targets that must be possessed by students must arrive at the ability to apply the knowledge, skills, attitudes acquired through learning activities into various aspects of daily life or specific work. As a media and ICT learning resource, it must be optimally utilized to help students gain learning competencies. The utilization of ICT is intended to help the learning activities to be more effective and efficient. ICT has advantages and disadvantages. However, on the other hand, a variety of negative effects also always accompany it. Because as educators, they cannot pay attention and supervise students every time, especially if students use facilities outside of the school environment. One step that can be used to minimize negative impacts is by providing structured and measurable tasks. Thus, students do not have time to look for unimportant things. One thing that must be remembered that the use of ICT in the learning process must pay attention to the suitability of the material with the characteristics of ICT as a learning media and ICT as learning resources in the learning process. Errors in organizing the use of ICT in learning will result in the achievement of learning competencies. 11 ONLINE GAME In daily life, humans cannot escape from the changes that occur in the surrounding society or on themselves. In discussing technological development, it cannot be separated from the development of society itself. Technology is an important part of a child's life, in which technological advances will have an impact on the child's growth process. Based or not, all parents at this time are preparing their children to face an increasingly advanced world when they begin to use technology, then at that time as parents must supervise what their child does. Every year from a child's life, information about technology will increasingly explode, equipment will be more practical, faster, better, and will be cheaper. Children will more
easily to access just by using a smartphone. Smartphones are no longer a foreign object in today's society. It because the information obtained can be accessed more easily just by searching it on an internet site. According to Ariantoro (2016), the rampant development of the internet world will bring a lot of influence on students. One of them is the presence of online games. This game can interfere with learning achievement. Because online games have addictive characteristics. As a result, children who are familiar with online games will tend to be affected, both directly and indirectly. School children are one group that easily influenced by the impact of online games. Free time should be used for resting or playing, but children tend to use it to sit in front of the computer and play an online game. Although it seems just sitting, it has a long-term impact of play games that spend more than 30 hours per week, play games can drain energy and require concentration and children are curious to pursue high scores even children forget the time to pause. This dependence can trigger negative behaviors, such as stealing money to buy new games, skipping school, lazy to do homework, or feeling uneasy when unable to play games. If children play games with a high level of dependence and the wrong sitting position during playing games, it is feared that children will suffer joint pain among children. Besides, almost every person in the world has a smartphone of various types of brands and types. It makes the majority of people of various ages use 12 smartphones, besides communicating or working, they also tend to use them to play games. Playing games is not one of those games that considered to have no benefits. Games that are considered negative by most people, can make a positive contribution to Indonesia's progress. The rapid development of technology in today's era causes the emergence of various technological advances that can be obtained easily. Along with the times and the rapid development of technology, communication between humans can be done with various tools or means, one of the means for refreshing is online games. Online games are growing rapidly lately, in which the more often you play online games, the more fun these online games to be played, either in terms of the game graphics, image resolution, or so on. Online games are interesting to play because it has various types of games, such as wars, adventures, strategies, fights, and so on. Online games are very popular among children, starting from kindergarten, elementary,
middle, and high school. This can be seen from every element of the child these days. According to Adams and Rollings (Pratama, 2017), online games are games that can be accessed by many players, where the machines used by players are connected by the internet network. Online games have an appeal that can make students prefer to play than study. Playing online games has become a daily routine. Besides interesting games, online games can also be addictive because when you are losing, you will play it again until you can win the games. In the sociological perspective, if students are addicted to online games, it tends to have an egocentric nature and will prioritize their individualistic nature. Students will naturally stay away from their surrounding environment and will assume that the social environment is a place to play games and their life is in cyberspace. Online games have a positive impact not only improves physical skills but also on intellectual abilities and students' fantasy. The negative impact of online games for students is the neglect of activities or homework, using free time to play games, and decreased learning motivation. Online games are electronic and visual-based games. Online games are played by utilizing electronic visual media which usually causes radiation to the eyes, thus it will eyestrain and headaches (Angela, 2013). 13 According to Surbakti (2017), an online game is a video game played in some form of computer networks, such as using a personal computer or video game console. These networks usually the internet or equivalent technology, but games are always played whatever the current technology is, such as using a modem before the internet, and wired terminal before a modem. The expansion of online games has reflected the overall expansion of computer networks from small local networks to the internet and the growth of internet access itself. Online games can range from simple text-based environments to complex combining graphic games and cyberspace inhabited by many players simultaneously. Many online games are related to online communities, which form a social activity outside of single-player games. Online gaming is a technology rather than a genre, in which a mechanism for connecting players together rather than a specific pattern of gameplay. Online games are played in some form of computer network, usually on the internet. Online games have some advantages. The first advantage of online games is the ability to connect to multiplayer games, although single-player online games are also quite common. The second advantage of online games is a large percentage of games do not require
only considered to be an entertainment of boredom but can also make an achievement. Playing games is one of the activities that effectively to fill leisure time. People are happy to play games, not only children, adults, or even the elderly. A game can be dangerous if it is played without parental control and supervision. Though the game is an application created to reduce the level of stress and anxiety due to routine activities carried out by humans. When something is overused, it will have a bad effect, just like using a game. Positive impacts that arise, namely the game players can improve the ability to think and analyze a 15 particular case, have a good focus compared to others. It can relieve the stress and fatigue of children from school activities (Fauziah, 2013). According to Nisrinafatin (2020), playing games does not always have a negative impact. There is some positive impact of playing online games, namely: 1. Increase in concentration. A gamer while playing online games requires a high concentration. The more difficult the game is played, the higher the concentration needed. By increasing concentration while playing games, it will also increase concentration in other aspects. 2. Develop the ability to think or reason. By playing online games, a gamer will develop problem-solving skills, situation analysis, and mathematics. Also trained to make decisions quickly. 3. Improve English language skills. Online games usually use English. Indirectly, it will train gamers in speaking English because they are accustomed to seeing and using English when playing online games. 4. Entertaining, distracting, and reducing stress. Online games are the same as other types of games that made for entertaining and as a refreshing media. 5. Make new friends. In playing online games, we will meet with many gamers from various regions or countries. Sometimes, some gamers get to know each other and make an agreement to play again next time. While one perspective maintains that playing games make people lazy. The process of playing online games intensively will encourage the creation of a stimulus slowly towards children or adolescents. The process leads children or adolescents to pour the desired character into the game being played or otherwise the characters in the game are absorbed into the behaviors of the children or adolescents (Fasya, Yasin, Hafid & Amelia, 2017). Playing games is very beneficial for life in various circles of society. There are four benefits of playing a game, namely: 1. Improve brain work. Games that
have difficulty level sometimes make most people will find solutions to complete the mission in each game. 2. Relieve stress. Like undergoing activities in another world, playing games can also help to forget about problems in the real world. 16 3. Practice foreign language skills. All games must have a variety of language usage such as the use of English, which will practice speaking English well. 4. Increase positive spirit. In playing the game, there will be those who lose and win. When you win a game, you will feel happy and proud, but when you lose you will try again and think that you can win in the next game. In some perspectives, playing games becomes an alternative to sharpening one's brain, mental, and motor skills. At a professional level, play as a professional gamer or become a game streamer. Thus, we should not judge a game only on one side, but also see the benefits that can be obtained from playing games. When a child does not lead a normal life, the child's character growth will be disrupted such as being addicted to playing games. They will not pay attention to education whether formal or non-formal, this causes these children will not get an education in their social environment. If this continues to be accustomed, the case of children who experience psychiatric disorders due to addiction to playing games cannot be denied. According to Nisrinafatin (2020), there are negative impacts of playing online games, namely: 1. Becomes addicted and forget about everything. In playing online games, a gamer can become addicted because they are required to play continuously so as not to be left behind. When gamers are addicted to online games, it will take up their time. 2. Reducing body fitness. During playing online games, a gamer does not move his body so that it will lack activity. 3. Difficult to concentrate during the learning process. During the learning process, a gamer who is addicted will think more about the game, thus the concentration in learning will be disrupted. 4. Decreased learning motivation. A gamer will be lazy to study or do homework. 5. Damaging the eyes and nerves. Playing games excessively will cause the weakening of the eyes lens. 6. Lack of socializing. A gamer who is addicted to playing games will become oblivious to the surrounding environment, thus he will be less sociable with the surrounding environment. 17 A child will miss some character education because of playing games too often which causes a shift in character. If related to Lickona's opinion (2012), there are several character education, namely: 1.
Moral Knowing (Moral Knowledge) Moral knowledge is related to how an individual knows an abstract value that described in 6 sub-components, namely, moral awareness, moral values knowledge, understanding the point of view, moral reasoning, making decisions, and self-knowledge. 2. Moral Feeling (Moral Attitude) Moral attitude is a stage of behavior in the character component described in 6 subs, namely conscience, self-esteem, empathy, love kindness, self- control, and humility. 3. Moral Action (Moral Behavior) Moral behavior is built on 3 subs, namely competence, desires, and habits. Based on the various moral education above, when a child forgets his moral education because since childhood used to focus on playing games, you can imagine how the child's behavior or how the child's character responds to his life. Therefore, parents play an important role in building a child's character from an early age. In line with the explanations above, Ariantoro (2016) explained that online games are like a coin that has two different surfaces. It means that online games have contradictory effects depending on its use. 1. The Positive Impact of Online Games a. Each game has a different difficulty level. Generally, the game is equipped with different weapons, ammunition, characters, and game maps. A strategy is needed in playing games to complete levels or defeat enemies efficiently. Online games will train players to be able to win games quickly, efficiently, and earn more points. b. Increase in concentration. The concentration ability of online game players will increase because they have to complete several tasks, find ways to be passed, and monitor the game. The more difficult a game, the higher level of concentration is required. 18 c. Improve hand and eye coordination. People who play games can improve coordination or cooperation between their eyes and hands. d. Improve reading skills. It is very unreasonable that online games are a type of game that decreases children's reading interest. In this case, online games can increase gamers' reading interest. e. Improve English language skills Online games mostly use English in their operation, which causes the players to know English vocabulary. f. Increase knowledge about computers. To be able to play games comfortably and with good picture quality, gamers will try to find information about computer specifications and a good internet connection that can be used to play the game. g. Improve typing skills. Typing ability is improved because they use the keyboard and mouse to control the game. 2. The Negative Impact of
Online Games a. Causes strong addiction. Most of the games currently exist are designed to make the players addicted. The more a person is addicted to a game, the more profitable for the game makers. However, these profits cause a bad impact on the psychological health of gamers. b. Encourage doing negative things. Although not too much, but we quite often find cases of online game players who try to steal the ID of other players in various ways. Then, take their money in it or steal the expensive equipment. c. Talk abusive and dirty words. Whether this happens all over the world or just Indonesia, online game players often say dirty and abusive words when playing at an internet cafe or game center. 19 d. Neglecting activities in the real world Too focused to solve challenges in the game and enjoy playing, it often makes a variety of activities neglected, namely worship time, homework, or work becomes neglected because of playing games or thinking about them. e. Changes in eating habits and rest. Changes in resting patterns and eating habits often occurred in online game players due to decreased self-control. Eating habits become disorganized and they often sleep late to get good internet access at a cheap price. f. Wasting money. They wasting money to pay rent for computers in internet cafes and buy points or characters, sometimes the price can reach millions of rupiah. Not to mention the internet connection at home. g. Cause health problems. Sitting too long in front of the computer for hours will give negative impacts on the body. Games are a tool to make happy when playing it. However, when becoming addicted to playing games, the original function of a game will be lost. Games will become a life goal when a child has thought that way. The development of the child's character will experience interference because of forgetting his social activities. 20 DIGITAL LIBRARY A library is a place used to develop the reading interest and reading habits. It is a place where we can get books for references or bibliography needed by users. As we know, books are a knowledge warehouse and reading as a key. It means that by reading books, we will get a source of knowledge that can increase the insight and knowledge if you have a reading interest and want to learn it. I, when you heard the worarhelves containing many types of books. Along with the current era, the library has developed which is balanced by technology. Every institution such as a library competes to implement information and communication technology systems. It aims to build and empower knowledge-based human resources hence they
can compete in the global era nowadays. Many people are competing to implement digital libraries in their management, but it is not as easy as imagined. Low human resources and limited funds are the powerlessness factors to realize a digital library. According to Sismanto (Subrata, 2009), a digital library is a system that has various information services that support access to information objects through digital devices. This service is expected to facilitate in looking for information in collections of information objects such as documents, images, and databases in digital format quickly and accurately. The digital library does not stand alone but it is linked to other sources and its information services are open to users throughout the world. Digital library collections are not only limited to electronic documents as a substitute for printed forms but the scope of its collections also in the form of digital artifacts that cannot be replaced in printed form. This collection emphasizes on information content, the types from traditional documents to search results. This library serves machines, information managers, and information users. All of these are to support collection management, storing, and information search assistance services (Subrata, 2009). Hasibuan s ‘digital arordigital arsis concept of using the internet and infar While Fahmi (2004) states that a digital library is a system consisting of hardware, software, electronic collections, management staff, users, organizations, work 21 mechanisms, and services by utilizing various types of information technology. Based on the explanations above, it can be concluded that a digital library is a library in which the entire contents of the collection and the service management process are datasets in digital form. The concept of a digital library is identical to the internet whether it uses a computer, laptop, mobile phone, etc, that can be connected to the internet. Besides, a digital library can be enjoyed anywhere and anytime according to the needs. Digital library as a system that has various services and information that supports information service objects through digital services. A digital library offers convenience for its users to access electronic information resources with fun tools at limited time and opportunities. Users are no longer physically bound to library service hours where users must be present or visit the library to get information. Thus, a digital library as a tool that can
facilitate and solve the problem of limited access (Saleh, 2014). According to Subrata (2009), several things that underlie ideas about the need to digitize libraries, namely: 1. The development of information technology on computers is increasingly provided new opportunities for the development of library information technology that cheap and easily implemented by libraries in Indonesia. Therefore, information technology has become a necessity for libraries in Indonesia, especially to deal with the demands of the needs of the Indonesian people, which is a knowledge-based society for information in the future. 2. The library as an educational, informative, preservative, and recreational institution that is defined as part of scientific activities, research sites, authentic data/information search places, places to store, conducting seminars and scientific discussions, educational recreation, and contemplatives for the wider community. It needs to be supported by the latest and future information technology systems according to the needs to accommodate these activities, thus information from all existing collections can be accessed by various parties who need them from within and outside the country. 22 3. By library digitizing facilities, existing collections can be read/utilized by the wider community either in Indonesia or internationally. 4. The volume of library work that will manage tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands or it can be millions of collections. With services including the school community (students, education staff, and the wider community), thus it needs to be supported by a futuristic automation system (has a range going forward) and it can always maintain excellent service. 5. Nowadays, there are already many libraries, especially in college with their abilities and initiatives that have pioneered the development of information technology by digitizing libraries (digital library) and digital automation libraries that currently able to create the National Digital Library Network (Indonesian Digital Library Network). 6. The existence of the digital library in Indonesia was an experiment of a group of people in the central library of the Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB). They initiated the Indonesian Digital Library Network in collaboration with the Computer Network Research Group (CNRG) and Knowledge Management Research Group (KMRG). The project is intended to improve the quality of higher education, foster a spirit of sharing knowledge between higher education and research institutions through the development of a national library network. Then, this small project received positive responses from various parties, thus it was rife. The library which is located at www.indonesiadln.org involves more than one hundred
institutions to become partners in disseminating knowledge in the form of digital file collections through the internet network. The members include National Institute of Health Research and Development, Muhammadiyah University of Malang (UMM), Master of Management (MM ITB), State Islamic Institute (IAIN), Cendrawasih University (Uncen), Papua, Tadulako University (Untan), Central Sulawesi, Yarsi University, and Jakarta, are actively exchanging data. Digital libraries are expected to be materials that facilitate looking for information in collections of information objects such as images, documents, and databases in digital format quickly, accurately, and effectively. Digital libraries are 23 the same as public libraries, but digital libraries use methods or procedures through computers and others that can be connected to the internet, namely the information sources in the form of digital. Internet information networks provide broad opportunities to access institutions that provide information. The application of information technology in libraries can function in various forms, including: 1. Used as a library management information system. Both in the fields of procurement, inventory, cataloging, circulation of library materials, member management, statistics, and so on. This function is often referred to as a form of library automation. 2. Used as a means of storing, obtaining, and disseminating knowledge with digital systems. The form of IT application in this library is often known as the Digital Library. Digital libraries play important roles in learning, namely as one of the learning resources center. The digital library aims to provide as wide access as possible. This digital library aims to open the widest access to information that has been published so that if every school has an internet connection in their classrooms, thus every student or teacher can use this digital library in the learning process. The learning process will be more effective and efficient because students and teachers can immediately find information about something related to learning. According to Saleh (2014), the advantages of digital libraries compared to conventional libraries are as follows. 1. Save space Because digital library collections are digital documents, thus storage will be efficient. Hard disk with a capacity of 30 gigabytes or abbreviated GB (now the standard size of the hard disk is 140 GB) can contain as many as 10,000 - 12,000 e-book titles (copies) with an average number of book pages 500-1000 pages. This amount is equal to the total number of book collections from small to medium-sized libraries. Meanwhile, conventional libraries whose collections in the form of books or printed documents
require a large space. For the same number of books, which is 12,000 titles (copies), hence a 50-100 square meters size room (only to place the physical book) is required. 2. Multiple access 24 The weakness of conventional libraries is single access to its collections. It means that if there is a book borrowed by a library member, the other members who will borrow it must wait until it is returned first. Unlike digital libraries. Each user can use the same digital book collections both for reading, downloading, or transferring to his personal computer (download). In conventional libraries, the concept ra isto the physout libry, hence libry ically esthe if omeone rowsit. Meanwhile, the concept of borrowing from a digital library is the user can download a copy of an electronic book, while the original electronic book remains on the library server. Teforthe arcan electrbooks collections in large quantities at the same time to digital library users simultaneously, even the librarian never knows the number of electronic books “borby us sby counterf, be overcome and librarians can count the number of digital library users who download their collections). 3. Not limited by space and time Digital libraries can be accessed anywhere and anytime as long as there is a computer network (computer internetworking), thus the server computer with the digital library can be connected to the user's computer (client). In addition to the network, there are other requirements such as electric current (power), thus each erthat be can k”. convention libraries can only be accessed if the person visits physically to the library when the library opens services. If the library user comes to the library at the wrong time, for example when the library has been closed, thus they cannot access and use the library collection. On the other hand, even though the library is open but for some reason (for example, a long-distance between the user and the library) that causes the user unable to come to the library, thus the user cannot access or use the library. 4. Collections can be in the form of multimedia Digital library collections are not just in the form of text or images. Digital library collections can be in the form of a combination of text, image, and sound. Even digital library collections can store documents like motion pictures and sound (films) that cannot be replaced with text. In some digital documents such 25 as the Encarta Encyclopedia presents a combination of text, images, and sound as well. The reader is offered a reading in the form of text that explains a problem. If the reader does not understand the explanation of the text or need the information that not
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