2020-2021 Catalog Addendum - Academic Affairs Friday, July 10, 2020 - MSU Denver

 
2020-2021 Catalog Addendum - Academic Affairs Friday, July 10, 2020 - MSU Denver
2020-2021 Catalog Addendum

                                       Academic Affairs
                                      Friday, July 10, 2020
                                        Revised August 12, 2020
                                        Revised August 28, 2020

                         2020-2021 Undergraduate Catalog
                           2020-2021 Graduate Catalog

This catalog addendum contains new and revised academic programs and policies. Information in this addendum is
subject to change. For general University information, visit MSU Denver’s website, msudenver.edu.

The programs, policies, statements and procedures contained in this publication are subject to change or correction
by the University without prior notice. Metropolitan State University of Denver reserves the right to withdraw
courses; revise the academic calendar; or change curriculum, graduation procedures, requirements and policies
that apply to students at any time. Changes will become effective whenever the proper authorities so determine. This
publication is not intended to be a contract between the student and Metropolitan State University of Denver.
However, students are bound by the policies, procedures, standards and requirements stated herein, as long as they
are in effect.
Table of Contents
Administrators ............................................................................................................................................ 5
   Board of Trustees ...................................................................................................................................... 5
   Office of the President .............................................................................................................................. 5
Faculty........................................................................................................................................................ 10
   Emeritus .................................................................................................................................................. 10
   Undergraduate ......................................................................................................................................... 10
   Graduate .................................................................................................................................................. 16
COVID-19 Impacts and Responses ......................................................................................................... 17
   Special Rules for Spring 2020 Grades .................................................................................................... 17
   Special Rules for Certificates for Spring 2020 ....................................................................................... 18
   Change in Withdrawal Deadline ............................................................................................................. 19
   International Baccalaureate from Spring 2020 ....................................................................................... 19
   State and Federal Resources Relating to COVID-19 .............................................................................. 20
Open Educational Resources ................................................................................................................... 20
Registration and Records ......................................................................................................................... 20
   Transfer Credit Evaluation ...................................................................................................................... 20
College of Business .................................................................................................................................... 21
   Master of Business Administration ......................................................................................................... 21
College of Professional Studies ................................................................................................................ 25
Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology ................................................................................ 25
   Cybersecurity Major, B.S. ...................................................................................................................... 25
Department of Elementary Education and Literacy ............................................................................. 27
   Elementary Education Major, B.A.......................................................................................................... 27
Department of English.............................................................................................................................. 32
   Film and Media Studies Minor ............................................................................................................... 32
Department of Human Performance and Sport..................................................................................... 33
   Athletic Training Major, B.S. ................................................................................................................. 34
   Dance Major, B.A. .................................................................................................................................. 38
   Human Performance and Sport Minor .................................................................................................... 42
Department of Human Services and Counseling ................................................................................... 44
   Master of Science in Clinical Behavioral Health, Emphasis in Addictions Counseling......................... 45
Department of Music ................................................................................................................................ 51
Department of Nursing ............................................................................................................................. 52
   Nursing Major - Accelerated Nursing Option, B.S. ................................................................................ 52
Nursing Major - Traditional Nursing Option, B.S. ................................................................................. 53
Department of Secondary, K-12 and Educational Technology ............................................................ 55
   Secondary Education Minor (Non-Licensure) ........................................................................................ 55
Department of Theatre and Dance .......................................................................................................... 56
   Dance Major, B.A. .................................................................................................................................. 56
   Dance Minor ........................................................................................................................................... 60
Course Descriptions (Graduate) .............................................................................................................. 61
   Master of Science in Clinical Behavioral Health, Emphasis in Addictions Counseling......................... 62
   Master of Business Administration ......................................................................................................... 65
   Master of Professional Accountancy ...................................................................................................... 66
Course Descriptions (Undergraduate) .................................................................................................... 66
   Department of Aviation and Aerospace Science .................................................................................... 66
   Advanced Manufacturing Sciences Institute........................................................................................... 67
   Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry .......................................................................................... 67
   Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology .................................................................................. 67
   Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences .................................................................................... 68
   Department of Economics....................................................................................................................... 68
   Department of Elementary Education and Literacy ................................................................................ 68
   Department of Engineering and Engineering Technology...................................................................... 69
   Department of English ............................................................................................................................ 70
   Gender Institute for Teaching and Advocacy ......................................................................................... 70
   Department of History ............................................................................................................................ 71
   Honors Program ...................................................................................................................................... 72
   Department of Human Performance and Sport ....................................................................................... 72
   Department of Human Services and Counseling .................................................................................... 78
   Department of Journalism and Media Production .................................................................................. 79
   Department of Mathematical and Computer Science ............................................................................. 79
   Department of Music .............................................................................................................................. 79
   Department of Philosophy ...................................................................................................................... 81
   Department of Physics ............................................................................................................................ 81
   Department of Political Science.............................................................................................................. 82
   Department of Secondary, K-12 and Educational Technology .............................................................. 82
   Department of Social Work .................................................................................................................... 83
   Department of Sociology and Anthropology .......................................................................................... 83
   Department of Speech, Language, Hearing Sciences ............................................................................. 84
Department of Theatre and Dance .......................................................................................................... 84
Administrators
     Board of Trustees                                Date of First          Present
                                                      Appointment            Term Expires
0B

Adetilewa Awosanya, Student Trustee                   2019                   2020

Barbara Barnes Grogan, Vice Chair                     2015                   2022

Albus Brooks, M.B.A.                                  2019                   2023

Mario Carrera, B.A.                                   2019                   2023

Bethany Fleck Dillen, Ph.D., Faculty Trustee          2020                   2021

Emily Renwick Garnett, J.D.                           2020                   2023

Christopher Harder, Ph.D., Faculty Trustee            2018                   2020

Kristin Hultquist, M.P.P.                             2019                   2023

Michael Johnston, J.D.                                2019                   2023

Marissa Molina, B.A.                                  2019                   2022

James Mulligan, J.D.                                  2017                   2020

Russell Noles, M.B.A., Vice Chair                     2019                   2022

Joe Rice, M.P.A., Alumni Representative               2018                   2020

Alaura Ward, Student Trustee                          2020                   2021

1B   Office of the President
President                                                             Janine Davidson, Ph.D.

Vice President for Administration/Chief Operating Officer             Larry Sampler, M.A.

                                                                      Bill Henry, Ph.D.Vicki L.
Interim Provost and Executive Vice President of Academic Affairs
                                                                      Golich, Ph.D.

Vice President for Diversity and Inclusion                            Michael Benitez, Ph.D.

Vice President of Strategy/Chief of Staff                             Catherine B. Lucas, B.A., APR

Vice President for of Student Affairs                                 Will Simpkins, Ed.D.
Vice President of University Advancement and Executive Director of    Christine Márquez-Hudson,
the MSU Denver Foundation                                             M.N.M.

General Counsel and Secretary to the Board of Trustees                David Fine, Esq.

Deputy General Counsel                                                Nicholas Stancil, Esq.

Executive Director, Equal Opportunity and Title IX Coordinator        Raúl M. Sánchez, J.D.

Executive Director of HSI Initiatives and Inclusion                   Manuel Del Real, Ph.D.

                                                                      Todd Thurman, M.Ed. John
Interim Director of Athletics
                                                                      Kietzmann, M.S.

President, Student Government Assembly                                Braedan Weart

2B   Office of the Provost and Executive Vice President of Academic Affairs
                                                                   Bill Henry, Ph.D. Vicki L. Golich,
Interim Provost and Executive Vice President of Academic Affairs
                                                                   Ph.D.

President, Council of Chairs and Directors                         Andrew Bonham, Ph.D.

President, Faculty Senate                                          Katia Campbell, Ph.D.

Faculty Affairs                                                      Bill Henry, Ph.D
Vice Provost for Faculty Affairs

Undergraduate Studies

Associate Vice President of Undergraduate Studies                  Elizabeth Parmelee, Ph.D.

Director of Advising Systems                                       Stephanie Allen, M.A.

Director of the Center for Individualized Learning                 Kim VanHoosier-Carey, Ph.D.

Director of the Honors Program                                     Megan Hughes, Ph.D.

Executive Director of the Office of International Studies          Akbarali Thobhani, Ph.D.

Director of the One World, One Water Center                        Tom Cech, M.S.

Director of the Writing Center                                     Elizabeth Kleinfeld, Ph.D.
Academic Administrators

College of Business

Dean                                                         Ann B. Murphy, Ph.D.

Associate Dean                                               Chittibabu Govindarajulu, Ph.D.

Associate Dean                                               Bill D. Herman, Ph.D.

Chair, Accounting                                            Gregory Clifton, J.D.

Chair, Computer Information Systems and Business Analytics   Abel Moreno, Ph.D.

Chair, Economics                                             Arthur Fleisher III, Ph.D.

Chair, Finance                                               Paul Camp, Ph.D.

Chair, Management                                            Debora Gilliard, Ph.D.

Chair, Marketing                                             Nicole Vowles, Ph.D.

College of Letters, Arts and Sciences

Interim Dean                                                 Arlene Sgoutas, Ph.D.

Associate Dean                                               Ibon Izurieta, Ph.D.

Associate Dean                                               Jason Janke, Ph.D.

Associate Dean                                               Sharon Twigg, Ph.D.

Associate Dean                                               Marina Pereira, M.S.W.

Chair, Africana Studies                                      Douglas Mpondi, Ph.D.

Chair, Art                                                   Deanne Pytlinksi, Ph.D.

                                                             Ford Lux, Ph.D. Sheryl Zajdowicz,
Chair, Biology                                               Ph.D.

Chair, Chemistry and Biochemistry                            Andrew Bonham, Ph.D.

Chair, Chicano Studies                                       Adriana Nieto, Ph.D.

Chair, Communication Arts and Sciences                       Daniel Lair, Ph.D.
James Harris, Ph.D. Ford Lux,
Department Head Chair, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences       Ph.D.

Chair, English                                              Rebecca Gorman O'Neill, M.F.A

                                                            James Drake, Ph.D. Matthew
Interim Chair, History                                      Makley, Ph.D.

Chair, Mathematical and Computer Sciences                   Elizabeth McClellan Ribble, Ph.D.

Chair, Modern Languages                                     Maria Akrabova, Ph.D.

Chair, Music                                                Peter Schimpf, Ph.D.

Chair, Philosophy                                           Brian Hutchinson, Ph.D.

Chair, Physics                                              Grant Denn, Ph.D.

Chair, Political Science                                    Robert Preuhs, Ph.D.

Chair, Psychological Sciences                               Layton Curl, Ph.D.

Chair, Sociology and Anthropology                           Melissa Monson, Ph.D.

Chair, Theatre                                              Scott Lubinski, M.F.A.

Interim Director of the Gender Institute for Teaching and
Advocacy                                                    Kat Martinez, Ph.D.

Director of the Center for Advanced STEM Education          Hsiu-Ping Liu, Ph.D.

Director of the Mathematics Peer Study Program              Elena Foster, M.A.

Director of the First Year Writing                          Jessica Parker, Ph.D.

Director of the Family Literacy Program                     Adriann Wycoff, Ph.D.

Director of the Writing Center                              Elizabeth Kleinfeld, Ph.D.

College of Professional Studies

                                                            Jennifer Capps, Ph.D. Rebecca
Interim Dean                                                Trammell, Ph.D.

Associate Dean                                              AnnJanette Alejano-Steele, Ph.D.

Associate Dean                                              Rebecca Trammell, Ph.D.

Interim Associate Dean                                      Hope Szypulski, DNP
Director, Institute for Advanced Manufacturing Sciences      Robert Park, Ph.D. Vacant

Chair, Aviation and Aerospace Science                        Jeffrey Forrest, Ph.D.

Chair, Criminal Justice and Criminology                      Henry Jackson, Jr., Ph.D.

Chair, Engineering and Engineering Technology                Fred Barlow, Ph.D.

Interim Director of the Health Institute                     Emily Matuszewicz, D.C.

Interim Chair, Health Professions                            Kevin Zeiler, J.D.

Interim Chair, Human Performance and Sport                   Chad Harris, Ph.D.

Chair, Human Services and Counseling                         Annie Butler, M.A.

Chair, Industrial Design                                     Ted Shin, M.F.A.

Interim Chair, Journalism and Media Production               Christopher Jennings, Ph.D.

Chair, Nursing                                               Terry Buxton, Ph.D.

                                                             Kathy Heyl, M.S. Rachael Sinley,
Chair, Nutrition                                             Ph.D.

Chair, Social Work                                           Jessica Retrum, Ph.D.

Director of the One World One Water Center for Urban Water
Education and Stewardship                                    Tom Cech, M.S.

ROTC Office                                                  Captain Anthony Valenzano

School of Education

Dean                                                         Elizabeth Hinde, Ph.D.

Interim Associate Dean                                       Lisa Altemueller, Ed.D.

Chair, Elementary Education and Literacy                     Deborah Horan, Ph.D.

Chair, Secondary, K-12, and Educational Technology           Hsin-Te Yeh, Ph.D.

Chair, Special Education, Early Childhood and
Culturally/Linguistically Diverse Education                  Kathy Whitmore, Ph.D.

School of Hospitality

Dean                                                         Christian Hardigree, J.D.
Chair, Rita and Navin Dimond Department of Hotel Management         Vacant

Faculty
R- Remove       A- Add           M – Modify

Emeritus
(A) Flemon, Wilton, Ph.D.,
Professor Emeritus-Chemistry
(A) Golich, Vicki, Ph.D.,
Administrator Emeritus-Provost
(A) Gordon, Aaron, Ph.D.,
Professor Emeritus-Mathematical and Computer Sciences
(A) Hazan, Robert, Ph.D.,
Professor Emeritus-Political Science
(A) Kottenstette, David,
Professor Emeritus-Communication Studies
(A) Lang-Peralta, Linda, Ph.D.,
Professor Emeritus-English
(A) Marangia, Linda, Ph.D.,
Professor Emeritus-Sociology and Anthropology
(A) McInerney, Thomas, Ph.D.,
Professor Emeritus-History
(A) Quinn, Carol, Ph.D.,
Professor Emeritus-Philosophy

Undergraduate
 (M) Adibifar, Karam
Assistant Associate Professor-Sociology
B.S., Metropolitan State University of Denver; M.A., University of Northern Colorado; M.S., University
of Colorado-Denver; Ph.D., South Dakota State University
(M) Aguilar, Carla Elise
Associate Professor-Music
B.S., Ball State University; M.M.E., Ph.D., Indiana University
(A) Ambre, Shailesh
Assistant Professor-Chemistry
B.S., Sadar Patel University; M.S., Maharaja Sayajiro University of Baroda; Ph.D., University of Georgia
(M) Baalbaki-Yassine, Sally
Associate Professor-Marketing
B.B.A., American University of Beirut; M.B.A., University of North Alabama; Ph.D., University of
North Texas
(M) Bachelder, Tyler Jon
Assistant Associate Professor-Aviation & Aerospace Science
B.S., M.S., University of North Dakota
(M) Bachik, Alexis Karris
Associate Professor-Psychology
B.A., Brown University; M.A., Ph.D., University of Colorado-Boulder
(M) Baum, Michelle C.
Assistant Associate Professor-Journalism & Media Production
B.A., University of Iowa; M.A., Regis University
Bernhardt, Philip E.
Associate Professor-Secondary Education, K-12 Education & Educational Technology
B.A., University of North Carolina; M.A., Boston University School of Education; Ed.D., George
Washington University
(A) Bonanno, Sandra Leu
Assistant Professor-Elementary Education & Literacy
B.A., Michigan State University: M.Ed., University of California-San Diego, Ph.D., University of Utah

(M) Borrego, Andrea Rae
Assistant Associate Professor-Criminal Justice & Criminology
B.A., University of Notre Dame; M.S., Ph.D., Arizona State University
(M) Brower, Emily
Assistant Associate Professor-Nursing
B.S., Colorado University, Beth-El School of Nursing; M.S., Grand Canyon University
(A) Brown, Christopher
Associate Professor-Human Performance and Sport
B.S., M.Ed., University of Georgia; Ph.D., University of Nevada
(M) Buxton, Theresa G.
Chair and Associate Professor-Nursing
B.SA.N., Texas Woman's University; M.S.N., Ph.D., Gonzaga University, Spokane-Washington
(A) Castle, Jeremiah J.
Assistant Professor-Political Science
B.A., Hanover College; M.A., Ph.D., University of Notre Dame
(M) Chávez, Lorretta
Associate Professor-Special Education, Early Childhood, & Culturally & Linguistically Diverse
Education
B.A., M.A., University of Northern Colorado; Ph.D., University of Colorado-Boulder
(A) Chorley, Sarah K
Assistant Professor-Communication Studies
A.A. Tulsa Community College; B.A., University of Oklahoma; M.A. University of Arkansas; Ph.D.,
University of Colorado

(M) Deakin, Kathleen
Associate Professor-English
B.S., Northern Arizona University; M.A., Ph.D., Arizona State University
(A) Dhoot, Sonny
Assistant Professor-Gender, Women and Sexualities Studies
B.A., University of Lethbridge; M.A., Queen's University; Ph.D., University of Toronto
(A) Duran, Kristy
Professor-Biology & Director for Undergraduate Research
B.S., University of New Mexico; M.S., Colorado State University; Ph.D., University of Colorado,
Boulder
(M) Ethier, John T.
Associate Professor-Mathematics & Computer Science
B.S., M.S., University of Nevada; Ph.D., Penn State University
(A) Farrell, David E.
Assistant Professor-Music
B.A., University of Illinois; M.M., D.M., Indiana University
(A) Foust, Christina
Associate Professor-Communication Studies
B.S., Kansas State University; M.A., University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Ph.D. University of North
Carolina, Chapel Hill
(M) Fry, Brendan C.
Assistant Associate Professor-Mathematics & Computer Science
B.S., M.S., Ph.D., University of Arizona-Tucson
(A) Geinitz, Steven
Assistant Professor-Computer Sciences
B.S., Metropolitan State University of Denver; M.S., University of Colorado; Ph.D. University of Zurich
(M) Graves, Adam J.
Associate Professor-Philosophy
B.A., Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania
(M) Griswold, Patrick
Assistant Associate Professor-Human Services and Counseling
M.Ed., University of Massachusetts-Boston; M.S., University of Massachusetts-Worcester
(M) Hammar, Tara K.
Assistant Associate Professor-Human Services and Counseling
B.S., M.S., East Carolina University; Ph.D., University of Connecticut
(R) Helton, Jeffrey R.
Associate Professor-Health Care Management
B.B.A., Eastern Kentucky University; M.S., University of Alabama-Birmingham; Ph.D., University of
Texas School of Public Health
(A) Herman, Bill D.
Assistant Professor-Marketing
B.A., M.A., Colorado State University; Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania
(M) Hernandez, Jovan O.
Assistant Associate Professor-Psychology
B.S., Minnesota State University; Ph.D., University of Iowa
(M) Huang, Lin
Associate Professor-Electrical Engineering Technology
M.S., Ph.D., Florida Atlantic University
(M) Ignizio, Graham Stefan
Associate Professor-Modern Languages
B.A., North Carolina State University; M.A., Middlebury College; Ph.D., University of North Carolina-
Chapel Hill
(M) Jackowski, Michael
Associate Professor-Marketing
B.S., State University of New York-Buffalo; M.S., University of Massachusetts; Ed.D., University of
Northern Colorado
(M) Jackson Jr., Henry
Chair and Associate Professor-Criminal Justice & Criminology
B.S., Wichita State University; M.P.A., University of Kansas; Ph.D., Kansas State University
(M) Jiang, Ting
Associate Professor-Sociology
B.A., Zhejiang University; M.A., Texas Tech University; M.A., Ph.D., University of California-Irvine
(M) Kern, Amy L.
Assistant Associate Professor-Industrial Design
B.A., University of California; M.S., Pratt Institute of Design
(M) Krizman, Steven Alan
Assistant Associate Professor-Journalism & Media Production
B.S., University of Colorado-Boulder; M.A., Regis University
(M) Lair, Daniel J.
Chair and Associate Professor-Communication Studies
B.A., Carroll College; M.A., University of Montana; Ph.D., University of Utah
(A) Lee, Yishi
Lecturer-Engineering
B.S., M.S. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University; Ph.D., University of Denver
(A) Mallett, Seth
Assistant Professor-Engineering and Engineering Technology
B.S., M.S., Ph.D., Georgia Institute of Technology
(M) Meek, Shawn C.
Assistant Associate Professor-Art
B.F.A., M.F.A., Texas State University-San Marcos
(M) Melvin, Vida S.
Assistant Associate Professor-Biology
B.A., University of Colorado-Boulder; Ph.D., University of Colorado-Denver
(M) Monico, Kelly
Associate Professor-Art
B.A., University of Minnesota; M.F.A., University of Denver
(M) Morgan, Troy P.
Assistant Associate Professor-Human Performance & Sport
B.S., University of Kansas; M.S., Kansas State University; Ph.D., University of New Mexico
(M) Mowder, Denise
Associate Professor-Criminal Justice & Criminology
B.A., University of Colorado-Denver; J.D., Willamette University College of Law; M.A., Ph.D.,
Washington State University
(M) Mpondi, Douglas
Chair and Associate Professor-Africana Studies
B.A., M.A., University of Zimbabwe; M.A., Ph.D., Ohio University
(M) Nemec, Rebbecca L.
Assistant Associate Professor-Nursing
B.S.N., University of Arkansas; M.S.N., University of Colorado-Colorado Springs
(M) Ondracek-Peterson, Emily J.
Assistant Associate Professor-Music
B.M., M.M., The Juilliard School; M.Ed., Ed.D., Teachers College, Columbia University-New York
(M) Padilla, Alexandre
Associate Professor-Economics
B.S., M.A., Ph.D., Université d'Aix-Marseille III-France
(M) Pak, Jooeun
Assistant Associate Professor-Music
B.M., University of Puget Sound; M.M., D.M.A., Indiana University Jacobs School of Music
(M) Pantos, Andrew J.
Associate Professor-English
B.A., M.A., Ph.D., Rice University; J.D., University of Texas School of Law
(M) Parker, Jessica L.
Associate Professor-English, Director of First Year Writing
B.A., Baylor University; M.A., Ph.D., University of Denver
(M) Ray, Ella Maria
Associate Professor-Africana Studies
B.A., Colorado College; M.A., Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University
(A) Rief, John
Assistant Professor-Communication Studies
B.A., Regis University; M.A., Ph.D, University of Pittsburgh
(M) Rissman, Steven M.
Associate Professor-Health Professions/Integrative Therapeutic Practices
B.S., Eastern Illinois University; D.Na., Bastyr University
(M) Ropp, Anna
Associate Professor-Psychology
B.A., Texas State University-San Marcos; M.S., Ph.D., University of California-Santa Cruz
(M) Russo Garrido, Anahi
Assistant Associate Professor-Gender Institute for Teaching and Advocacy
M.A., Concordia University; Ph.D., Rutgers University
(A) Santos, Stephanie Dimatulac
Assistant Professor-Gender, Women and Sexualities Studies
B.A., University of the Philippines; M.A., New York University; Ph.D., University of California, Los
Angeles
(M) Sinley, Rachel C.
Assistant Associate Professor-Nutrition
B.S., Ph.D., University of Nebraska-Lincoln; M.P.H., University of Minnesota-Minneapolis
(A) Stock, Michala K.
Assistant Professor-Sociology and Anthropology
B.A., Northwestern University; M.A., New York University; Ph.d., University of Florida
(M) Suter, Lisa K.
Assistant Associate Professor-English
B.A., M.A., Wright State University; Ph.D., Miami University
(M) Svonkin, Craig A.
Associate Professor-English
B.A., University of Southern California; M.A., California State University-Los Angeles; Ph.D.,
University of California-Riverside
(A) Thareja, Garvita
Assistant Professor-Health Professions
Ph.D., Middle Tennessee State University; M.S., Middle Tennessee State University; M.B.A., Sharda
University; B.S., Delhi University
(M) Weiden, David L.
Associate Professor-Political Science
B.A., University of Colorado-Boulder; M.F.A., Institute of American Indian Arts; J.D., University of
Denver Sturm College of Law; Ph.D., University of Texas-Austin
(A)Yee, David
Assistant Professor-History
B.A., Temple University; M.A., City College of New York; Ph.D., State University of New York at
Stony Brook
(M) Yokley, Todd Raymond
Associate Professor-Anthropology
B.S., University of Tennessee; M.A., Northern Illinois University; Ph.D., Duke University
(A) You, Xiaohui
Assistant Professor-Health Professions
B.A., Shandong University; B.A., University of North Carolina; M.S. University of North Carolina;
M.A., University of Memphis; Ph.D., University of Memphis

(M) Young, Kathryn S.
Associate Professor-Secondary Education, K-12 Education & Educational Technology
B.A., University of North Carolina; M.A., North Carolina Central University; Ph.D., University of
California-Berkeley
(M) Zhu, Weiying
Associate Professor-Mathematics & Computer Science
B.S., Xi'an Jiaotong University; M.S., Huazhong University of Science and Technology; Ph.D., Old
Dominion University

Graduate
(M) Dr. Philip Bernhardt, Associate Professor of Secondary Education, K-12 Education & Educational
Technology
B.A., University of North Carolina; M.A., Boston University School of Education; Ed.D., George
Washington University
(M) Dr. Lorretta Chavez, Associate Professor of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Education
B.A., M.A., University of Northern Colorado; Ph.D., University of Colorado, Boulder
(R) Dr. Jeff Helton, Associate Professor of Health Care Management and Master of Health
Administration
BBA, Health Care Administration, Eastern Kentucky University; MS, Hospital and Health
Administration; University of Alabama at Birmingham; PhD, Health Care Management, The University
of Texas School of Public Health
(A) Dr. Theresa DiPonio Hilliard, Associate Professor of Accounting
B.A. Western State University of Colorado; MS Walsh College of Accountancy and Business; Ph.D.
Georgia State University
(M) Dr. Denise Mowder, Associate Professor of Criminal Justice and Criminology
B.A., University of Colorado-Denver; J.D., Willamette University College of Law; M.A., Ph.D.,
Washington State University
(M) Dr. Alexandre Padilla, Associate Professor of Economics
BS, Universite de Droit, d'Economie, et des Sciences d'Aix-Marseille III; MA., Universite de Droit,
d'Economie, et des Sciences d'Aix-Marseille III; PhD, Universite de Droit, d'Economie, et des Sciences
d'Aix-Marseille III
(A) Dr. Prabhdeep Sandha, Assistant Professor of Nutrition
B.S., Punjab Agricultural University; Ph.D., The University of Mississippi
(M) Dr. Rachel Sinley, Assistant Associate Professor of Nutrition
B.S., Ph.D., University of Nebraska-Lincoln; M.P.H., University of Minnesota-Minneapolis
(M) Dr. Wieying Zhu, Associate Professor of Mathematics & Computer Science
B.S., Xi'an Jiaotong University; M.S., Huazhong University of Science and Technology; Ph.D., Old
Dominion University

COVID-19 Impacts and Responses
A global pandemic struck during the 2019-2020 period. This massive outbreak necessitated
extraordinary steps to be taken worldwide. This included stay-at-home orders, bans on public
gathering, and a shutdown of many industries in an effort to blunt the impact of a respiratory
illness that was incurable and spread by incidental contact.

Institutions of higher education were not immune to these changes. Universities, colleges and
schools globally and locally ceased providing face-to-face teaching and learning and moved to
strictly remote teaching through online applications. These changes in the middle of the Spring
2020 semester created a myriad of challenges and significant anxiety across the MSU Denver
community. In response to these elements, special rules were designed to ensure continued
university operation. Those rules have been captured here for future reference.

Table of Contents:

Pass/Fail Grading Option
Special Rules for Certificates for Spring 2020
Change in Withdrawal Deadline
International Baccalaureate from Spring 2020
State and Federal Resources Relating to COVID-19

Special Rules for Spring 2020 Grades

In light of the global pandemic that struck the United States during the Spring 2020 semester,
Metropolitan State University of Denver and other institutions of higher education across the
country created special rules related to grading and notations for the Spring 2020 semester only.
Colleges and universities moving all courses online in an attempt to lessen the impacts of the
Novel Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) created anxiety for students. In an effort to lessen that
impact, MSU Denver and others passed special rules that allowed students a one-time
opportunity to convert letter grades to a Pass/Fail notation up to one week after grades posted at
the end of the Spring 2020 semester. This rule only applied to coursework attempted during that
semester.

During the Spring 2020 semester, professors at MSU Denver graded normally at the end of the
term using the ABCDF grade mode. Then, depending on the student's program and the grade
received, the ABCDF grade could have been translated into the Pass/Fail mode and receive a P
(Pass) or F (No credit/Fail) notation on the student's transcript. For undergraduate students, the P
notation covered every grade from an A to a C-, with the F reserved for D and F grades. For
graduate students, the P notation covered every grade from an A to a B-. The F notation covered
all CDF grades for graduate students.

Rules limiting the use of P/F notations for the Spring 2020 semester were relaxed as well. P
notations elected during the Spring 2020 semester do not count toward the maximum allowed in
a degree/program/school/college. Also, P notations for this term awarded at other institutions of
higher education will be accepted on transfer credit, but students and academic advisers should
take care to ensure that the P will still satisfy all school/college/program requirements. This
relaxation of rules allows for, but does not require, any relaxation in school/college/program
requirements.

The special rules detailed in this note are applicable for Spring 2020 grades only. The notation
on this special rule will appear in all iterations of the MSU Denver graduate and undergraduate
catalogs through the 2023-2024 editions and may be referenced by future students who attended
any institution of higher education during the Spring 2020 semester or any semester that
commenced during the period from January 1, 2020, through May 15, 2020.

Additional information on these special rules and circumstances can be found in the letter from
the MSU Denver Provost's Office on March 26, 2020, which follows this notice.

Provost Letter

MSU Denver President's Letter Announcing Pass/Fail Option

Special Rules for Certificates for Spring 2020

During the Spring 2020 semester, Pass/Fail or Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory notations for a course
will be acceptable in certificate programs. This is to recognize the unique nature of the Spring
2020 semester and the rush to all online course delivery by universities around the world. The
anxieties created by the global pandemic created a number of special rules to ease student
concerns. With the widespread use of "P" and "S" or "SP" notations, the university suspended the
requirements for letter grades in each course in a certificate program for the Spring 2020
semester only.

If you have additional questions, please contact the Curriculum and Policy Development office
in Academic Affairs.
Change in Withdrawal Deadline

In light of the global pandemic that struck the United States during the Spring 2020 semester,
Metropolitan State University of Denver has moved the withdrawal date for full-semester classes
from Friday, April 3,2020 to Friday, May 15, 2020.

Students can work with their faculty or advisors to determine if withdrawal from a course is the
best option for them.

The definition for a withdrawal can be found here

Students may also view other relevant dates and deadlines within the Academic Calendar

International Baccalaureate from Spring 2020

The pandemic necessitated the canceling of all International Baccalaureate (IB) testing in the
United States for Spring 2020. Previously, the university accepted any IB test score of 4 or
higher for university credit.

In the absence of testing, the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) prepared scores for
students graduating in Spring 2020 based on evaluations of students performed earlier in the IB
program predicted grading, third party evaluation and historical trends. The Colorado
Department of Higher Education (CDHE) directed institutions of higher education to treat these
assigned scores the same as exam test scores.

The CDHE exercised its ability to make this decision based on state law that requires the
awarding of transferable credit (GT Pathways) for an IB exam score of 4 or above. Additionally,
state law (§23-1-113.2(2), C.R.S.) requires an award of at least 24 college credit hours for
successful completion of an IB diploma (with individual content exam scores of 4 and above).

The process of awarding a score, according to IBO:

   •   At a subject level, students will be awarded a grade on the normal IB 1-7 scale
   •   Theory of Knowledge (TOK), the Extended Essay and the Career-Related Programme
   •   Reflective Project will be awarded a grade on the normal IB A-E scale
   •   The DP core will be awarded on the normal IB 0-3 scale
   •   A total points score will be awarded for the Diploma, out of 45 as normal

If the student scored a 4 or higher in the IBO evaluation that will be reflected on the transcript
and we will be awarding the student credit as usual. Transcripts from IBO with the score should
have been available as of July 5, 2020.

CDHE Guidance

IBO Guidance
State and Federal Resources Relating to COVID-19

State of Colorado COVID-19 Website

Governor Declaration of State of Emergency

Federal Government COVID-19 Website

Presidential Major Disaster Declaration for Colorado (ENGLISH)

Presidential Major Disaster Declaration for Colorado (SPANISH)

Presidential COVID-19 Emergency Declaration

Open Educational Resources
Open Educational Resources (OER) are teaching and learning materials in the public domain or
licensed to give everyone free and ongoing permission to retain, reuse, revise, remix, and redistribute the
materials. Open textbooks are a type of OER and a large selection of open textbooks can be found at
https://open.umn.edu/opentextbooks. Many MSU Denver faculty are exploring using open textbooks
and other OER in courses to enhance the student experience and decrease course material costs. Course
with no materials cost (for textbooks, online homework systems, etc.) are starting to be marked with a no-
cost for materials designation in the course schedule. Full implementation of this course marking system
will be in Fall 2021.

Registration and Records
Transfer Credit Evaluation
Transfer credits are accepted under the following guidelines:
    •   Credit must have been earned at an institution of higher education holding full regional
        accreditation unless there is a current Articulation Agreement or Memorandum of Understanding
        (MOU) between that institution and MSU Denver on file with the Office of Academic Affairs.
    •   MSU Denver accepts up to 64 semester hours from two-year institutions and up to 90 semester
        hours from four-year institutions or a combination of two-year and four-year institutions. For
        students in the RN to BSN program, MSU Denver accepts up to 80 semester hours from two-year
        institutions (see Department of Nursing advisor).
    •   Grades earned must be a "C-" or better. Courses with "D," "F" or similar grades are not
        transferable. Also, courses graded with C.E.U.s (Continuing Education Units) will not be
        accepted. A summary of transfer credit from each institution is indicated on the MSU Denver
        academic record. Neither transfer course grades nor previous grade point averages are indicated
        or affect the MSU Denver grade point average.
    •   Course content must be similar to that of MSU Denver courses.
    •   No preparatory, remedial, or developmental courses are applicable toward an MSU Denver
        degree.
    •   Students who have earned an A.A. or A.S. degree from a Colorado community college will
        receive junior standing at MSU Denver, provided all courses included in the degree carry a grade
of "C-" or better and, based on the course-by-course evaluation, otherwise meet minimum MSU
        Denver transfer credit standards. Students may need to complete additional MSU Denver lower-
        division requirements.
    •   Applicants having completed the Colorado community college core curriculum, as certified on
        their community college transcripts, are considered to have satisfied MSU Denver's minimum
        General Studies requirements. However, additional specific lower-division courses may be
        required for certain degree program. Please check with a departmental advisor and/or the Office
        of the Registrar for more information.
    •   MSU Denver will accept all applicable credits earned within ten years of transfer. Credits earned
        more than ten years earlier will be evaluated on a course-by-course basis.
    •   Once transfer credits are evaluated, the total number of these credits applicable to a degree will
        not be reduced unless the student repeats already-awarded transfer credit at MSU Denver or
        interrupts MSU Denver enrollment for three or more consecutive semesters and readmits to the
        University under more restrictive transfer credit evaluation policies.
    •   If a student repeats a course, including transferred courses, the credit for only one of the course
        attempts counts towards degree requirements, with the exception of repeatable courses.
    •   In accordance with policies established by the Colorado Commission on Higher Education
        regarding students transferring between Colorado public institutions, MSU Denver has instituted
        procedures for resolving transfer credit disputes. Questions regarding these procedures may be
        directed to the Transfer Services at 303-556-3774.

College of Business
Master of Business Administration
The College of Business at MSU Denver offers a Master of Business Administration (MBA) with three
concentrations to choose from: Strategic Business, Business Analytics, and Accounting.
Mission of the MSU Denver MBA Program
We transform students into effective business professionals. We do this by providing an accessible,
flexible, and high quality MBA education made possible through excellence in teaching, individualized
attention, and hands-on experiences, all at an exceptional value.
MBA Program Goals
The goals of the MSU Denver MBA Program support the missions of the University and the College of
Business.
Graduates of the MSU Denver MBA Program will develop and demonstrate competence in written, oral,
and collaborative communication skills (LG 1 ). MSU Denver MBA graduates will be effective problem
solvers with a practical, real-world focused perspective supported by familiarity with decision making
models and analytical tools (LG2). Finally, MSU Denver MBA graduates will possess both functional
and cross-functional business knowledge reinforced with an appreciation of the ethical and global issues
that so profoundly affect contemporary business practice.
Accreditation
In addition to the distinction of being the value leader in the Denver metro area the MSU Denver MBA
program is accredited as part of the MSU Denver College of Business's AACSB accreditation. AACSB is
world-recognized as the leading accreditor of colleges and schools of business. Less than 5% of all
business programs worldwide have earned the prestige of AACSB accreditation.
MBA Program Admission
Admission Criteria
Applicants who hold a bachelor's degree from a regionally accredited college or university in any
discipline may apply. Admission to the program is based on evaluation of the following materials:
    1. One of the following:
    • GMAT score
    • Earned graduate degree from a regionally accredited college or university
    • Portfolio documenting at least five years of significant business and management experience
    2. Transcripts from all colleges and universities attended
    3. Essay
    4. Resume
    5. Completed application form
    6. Application fee
All admission decisions will be made by an MBA admissions committee. Most students are advised to
gain two or more years of work experience before enrolling in the MBA program given that a key part of
the experience comes from learning from and networking with fellow students.
Leveling Requirements
Applicants who do not have either an undergraduate business degree or graduate business degree and
have less than eight years of significant business and management experience will be required to
successfully complete online leveling modules prior to beginning MBA coursework.
International Applicants
Additional documentation is required. Please visit the International Student Admissions webpage:
msudenver.edu/admissions/apply/internationalstudents/
Non-degree Seeking Students
Non-degree seeking students have the option to take up to 9 credit hours of MBA coursework on a space
available basis. Non-degree seeking students eligible to enroll in MBA courses include:
    •  Students with a bachelor's degree (or higher) and from a regionally accredited college or
       university with a GPA ≥ 3.0;
   • Students with a bachelor's degree and approved professional examination or licensure; and
   • Students currently admitted to a graduate business program at another regionally accredited
       college or university.
Non-degree seeking students in the above categories must submit the following:
   • Completed graduate application
   • Application fee
   • Official transcripts from all colleges and universities previously attended
   • If applicable, official proof of successful completion of the professional exam or licensure
   • If applicable, proof of admission to a graduate business program at another regionally accredited
       college or university.
Students currently admitted to another graduate program at Metropolitan State University of Denver may
take a limited number of MBA courses to fulfill their degree requirements. Applicants in this category
must submit a letter from their dean or academic advisor stating that they are in good academic standing
and that the requested business courses will be accepted for their graduate degree program.
If a non-degree seeking student would like to become degree-seeking, the student must apply to become
degree-seeking and must have earned an average GPA of 3.0 or above in the MBA program courses they
have completed.
Advancement to Candidacy
All students accepted into the Master of Business Administration program must adhere with the following
MBA Program academic policies:
    •Students in the MBA program must complete the degree with a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or higher.
     No more than two (2) grades of C-, C, or C+ will count toward the degree requirements, and no
     grade lower than a C- will count toward the degree. All grade records remain on the master's
     transcript and count toward the cumulative GPA. A student who receives three (3) grades of less
     than a B- will be dismissed from the program.
  • Students must complete the MBA Capstone (MBA 6500) with a minimum grade of B-.
  • Students may enroll in no more than fifteen (15) credit hours per semester. Students who wish to
     take over 15 credits are required to seek approval. For more information, please contact the
     Associate Dean or MBA Advisor at 303-615-1117 or mba@msudenver.edu.
  • Master's students are considered full-time if they are registered for six (6) credit hours, half-time
     if registered for three (3) credit hours, and less than half-time if registered for two (2) or fewer
     credit hours.
  • Students must complete the master's degree within six (6) calendar years from the semester of
     initial enrollment.
  • Students not enrolled for three (3) consecutive semesters (including summer) must submit a re-
     admission application. Students requesting re-admission must be in good academic standing and
     must submit their application for re-admission to the master's program in which they have been
     enrolled.
  • The Student Code of Conduct will apply to all MSU Denver students, regardless of level. Access
     the Student Code of Conduct.
  • Students must adhere to MSU Denver's residency requirement for graduate students.
MBA Program Requirements
Students will complete 27 hours of required MBA Core courses, and a 9 credit hour area of concentration.
An MBA concentration is comprised of at least 9 credit hours in a particular discipline, allowing students
to develop more in-depth expertise. The overall MBA program requires a minimum total requirement of
36 credit hours.
MBA Core (27 credit hours)
All MBA students complete course work in each of the major functional areas of business. The MBA core
develops and reinforces the functional and cross-functional knowledge component of the MBA program.
Once all MBA Core coursework is successfully completed, students take an integrative capstone course
that reinforces cross-functional thinking and problem solving.
    •   MBA 5105 - Accounting Concepts Credits: 3
•  MBA 5205 - Information Systems Strategy Planning Credits: 3
    •  MBA 5305 - Managerial Economics Credits: 3
    •  MBA 5405 - Corporate Finance Credits: 3
    •  MBA 5505 - Legal Analysis and Sustainability Credits: 3
    •  MBA 5510 - Operations and Supply Chain Management Credits: 3
    •  MBA 5520 - Global Enterprise Management Credits: 3 (or approved study abroad)
    •  MBA 5605 - Marketing Analysis and Planning Credits: 3
    •  MBA 6500 - Integrative and Strategic Perspectives of Organizations Credits: 3 (prerequisite:
       completion of MBA Core)
Subtotal for MBA Core: 27 credit hours
MBA Area of Concentration (9 credit hours)
The MBA area of concentration allows students to develop more in-depth expertise based on their
interests and career aspirations.
Strategic Business Concentration
Select three of the following courses:
    •   MBA 5140 - Strategic Cost Management Credits: 3
    •   MBA 5480 - Strategic Finance Credits: 3
    •   MBA 5580 - Transforming Organizations through Leadership Credits: 3
    •   MBA 5680 - Advanced Strategic Marketing and Analysis Credits: 3
Subtotal for Strategic Business Concentration: 9 credits
Business Analytics Concentration
    •   MBA 5210 - Knowledge Discovery using Business Analytics Credits: 3
    •   MBA 5220 - Practical Business Analytics Credits: 3
    •   MBA 5230 - Data Mining for Business Intelligence Credits: 3
Subtotal for Business Analytics Concentration: 9 credits
Accounting Concentration
Select three of the following courses. Note that some of these courses may have pre-requisites that must
be satisfied prior to enrollment.
    •   ACCM 5090 - Tax Research Credits: 3
    •   ACCM 5520 - Business Combinations Credits: 3
    •   ACCM 5600 - Fraud Examination Awareness Seminar Credits: 3
    •   ACCM 5800 - Applied Internal Auditing Credits: 3
    •   ACCM 6580 - Financial Statement Analysis and Quantitative Methods Credits: 3
    •   MBA 5140 - Strategic Cost Management Credits: 3
Subtotal for Accounting Concentration: 9 credits
General Concentration
Students take any three courses from any of the other MBA concentrations.
Subtotal for General Concentration
Total for MBA Program: 36 credits

College of Professional Studies
Mission
The College of Professional Studies' (CPS) primary objective is student success. Through excellence in
learning, CPS prepares students for professional life and post-graduate degrees. CPS fosters an
atmosphere of respect among students, staff, and faculty. Graduates are culturally enriched as a result of
our focus on inclusive excellence.
Led by academically qualified faculty bolstered by real-world experience, CPS engages Colorado with
partnerships and interacts with the community as a living laboratory through meaningful internships and
field placements. CPS provides opportunities and resources for the life-long learning necessary for career
advancement in a global society.

Vision of the College of Professional Studies
The College of Professional Studies integrates academic excellence with real world experience for a
diverse student community, striving to be the pre-eminent source of professional education in Colorado.

Departments
Department of Aviation and Aerospace Science
Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology
Department of Engineering and Engineering Technology
Department of Health Professions
Rita and Navin Dimond Department of Hotel Management
Department of Human Performance and Sport
Department of Human Services and Counseling
Department of Industrial Design
Department of Journalism and Media Production
Department of Nursing
Department of Nutrition
Department of Social Work
Department of Speech, Language, Hearing Sciences
Centers, Programs, and Institutes
Advanced Manufacturing Sciences Institute
Air Force ROTC Program
Army ROTC Program
Health Institute
One World One Water Center for Urban Water Education and Stewardship

Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology
Cybersecurity Major, B.S.
The Bachelor of Sciences in Cybersecurity (CYB) is an interdisciplinary major jointly offered by the
Departments of Criminal Justice and Criminology, Computer Information Systems and Business
Analytics, and Mathematical and Computer Sciences. The B.S. in Cybersecurity is housed in and
administered by the Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology. The B.S. in Cybersecurity prepares
students with the knowledge and skills necessary to investigate computer crime, properly seize and
recover computer evidence, and prevent cybercrimes as well as prosecute and punish cyber criminals.
The B.S. in Cybersecurity is an extended major which does not require a minor. Each of the three
departments offer credit hours toward the major.

A minimum grade of "C" is required for a course to count toward the major.

General Studies Requirements:

Written Communication                                                                                   6

Oral Communication          COMM 1010 - Presentational Speaking Credits: 3                              3

Quantitative Literacy                                                                                   4

Arts and Humanities         PHI 3370 - Computers, Ethics, and Society Credits: 3                        6

Historical                                                                                              3

Natural and Physical
                                                                                                        6
Sciences

Social and Behavioral
                            CJC 1010 - Introduction to the Criminal Justice System Credits: 3           6
Sciences

                            This course may also fulfill Arts and Humanities, Historical, Natural and
Global Diversity                                                                                        3
                            Physical Sciences, or Social and Behavioral Sciences

                            Total General Studies (GS)                                                  37

Multicultural requirement: 3 credit hours

Cybersecurity Major Coursework Requirements

CYB Required Courses: (Total 18 12 Credit Hours)

    •   CYB 2001 - Cyber Laws and Regulations Credits: 3
    •   CYB 2500 - Criminal Investigation Credits: 3
    •   CYB 3980 - Internship in Cybersecurity Credits: 6
    •                                               [Senior Experience]
        CYB 4990 - Capstone Seminar in Cybersecurity Credits: 3
    •   CYB Elective (Choose from any CYB Elective) Credits: 3

CJC Required Courses: (Total 9 Credit Hours)

    •   CJC 3210 - White-Collar Crime Credits: 3
    •   CJC 3420 - Organized Crime Credits: 3
    •   CJC 3800 - Federal Law Enforcement Credits: 3

CIS Required Courses: (Total 18 Credit Hours)
•   CIS 2010 - Foundations of Information Systems Credits: 3
    •   CIS 2110 - Structured Problem Solving in Information Systems Credits: 3
    •   CIS 3230 - Telecommunication Systems and Networking Credits: 3
    •   CIS 3500 - Information Systems Security Credits: 3
    •   CIS 4500 - Information Systems Security Tools and Techniques Credits: 3
    •   CIS 4550 - Information Systems Security Management and Information Assurance Credits: 3

CS Required Courses: (Total 18 Credit Hours)

    •   CSS 2751 - Principles of Cybersecurity Credits: 3
    •   CSS 2752 - Information Assurance Credits: 3
    •   CSS 2753 - Network Security Credits: 3
    •   CSS 2754 - Host Security Credits: 3
    •   CSS 3751 - Application Security Credits: 3
    •   CSS 3752 - Computer Forensics Credits: 3

B.S. in Cybersecurity Major Total Required Credit Hours: 63 57

Department of Elementary Education and Literacy
Elementary Education Major, B.A.
The Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree in Elementary Education features best practices denoted in current
literature on teacher education as facilitating development of highly effective elementary teachers. The
program's clinical foundation provides teacher candidates authentic opportunities to learn and apply best
practices while collaborating with some of the most effective teachers and schools in the Denver
Metropolitan area. Students completing the Elementary Education Major complete coursework and
participate in supervised clinical experiences, including two residencies in the same school that support
development of the knowledge, understandings, and competencies required of successful elementary
teachers in widely diverse classrooms. The Bachelor of Arts degree in Elementary Education is an
extended major with increasingly rigorous courses that build upon foundational general studies and
introductory education courses for all Elementary Education majors. Teacher candidates graduate with
appropriate preparation for initial licensure in Elementary Education in Colorado. In addition, each
student selects from a concentration to specialize their knowledge and skills to meet specific needs of
elementary schools. Please visit the School of Education (SOE) website for information on admission to
this program.
Program Requirements
All candidates for a BA in Elementary Education must satisfy General Studies, Multicultural, Global
Diversity, and all Elementary Education program requirements. A grade of "C-" or better is required for
each course in the program to count toward the Bachelor's degree.
Please note: The majority of field experience hours and all clinical experience hours occur during the
elementary school day in university-designated classrooms supervised by licensed teachers.
Required General Studies
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