Report of Contributions - Advanced Nuclear Science and Technology Techniques (ANSTT3) Workshop - iThemba Labs Conferencing (Indico)

 
Advanced Nuclear Science and
  Technology Techniques
    (ANSTT3) Workshop

 Report of Contributions

       https://indico.tlabs.ac.za/e/92
Advanced Nuclea … / Report of Contributions                     The Significance of a Protocol in X- …

Contribution ID: 1                                                       Type: not specified

 The Significance of a Protocol in X-ray Radiography:
               Influential Parameters
                                                 Tuesday, 14 September 2021 09:30 (30 minutes)

  Background Information and Aims: X-ray imaging is one of the classical human health diag-
  nostic procedures. The aim of this work was to explore and analyze the X-ray exposure parameters
  and their significance in a given protocol in relation to image quality.
  Materials and Methods: Exposures were delivered on meaty cow ribs, which served as a human
  equivalent phantom with tissue heterogeneities. Six different protocols corresponding to the foot,
  wrist, ankle, forearm, chest, and hand were used in exposing the phantom with a Shimadzu RAD
  speed MC unit. The resultant images were analyzed with Image J software for relative intensities
  so as to index image quality per protocol.
  Results and Discussions: There were variations in the relative intensities read at selected image
  pixels protocol by protocol. This showed that the relative intensities can be used to make predic-
  tions of image quality and associated dose.
  Conclusions: It is crucial to use the appropriate protocol for any given X-ray imaging procedure
  to minimize the dose delivered to tissue without compromising image quality. Relative intensity
  and thus optical density can be used as a measure of image quality and radiation dose by protocol.

Primary authors: Dr MDZINISO, Nhlakanipho (University of Eswatini, Department of Physics); Mr
KUNENE, Fanele (University of Eswatini, Department of Physics)

Presenter: Dr MDZINISO, Nhlakanipho (University of Eswatini, Department of Physics)
Session Classification: Metrology and Applications

February 11, 2021                                                                                Page 1
Advanced Nuclea … / Report of Contributions                       Measurements of concrete compos …

Contribution ID: 2                                                         Type: not specified

      Measurements of concrete composition via fast
          neutron transmission spectrometry
                                                   Tuesday, 14 September 2021 16:15 (20 minutes)

  Within all nuclear installations concrete is a key material both for structural integrity and for the
  shielding of radiation. Concrete is typically a mixture of cement, sand, large aggregate and water,
  although various additives may also be introduced. Developing methods to independently verify
  the composition of shielding materials, such as concrete, is of high priority for the regulation
  of existing and future nuclear installations. Of particular importance to the neutron shielding
  properties of concrete is the water content, which has further significance as nuclear installations
  age.

  We report on the development of radiation-based methods to non-destructively measure the com-
  position of concrete and other materials. Measurements of the energy spectra of neutrons trans-
  mitted through well-characterised samples were made at the n-lab (Department of Physics, Univer-
  sity of Cape Town) with beams of 14 MeV neutrons from a D-T sealed tube neutron generator and
  neutrons produced from an AmBe radioisotopic source. Modern methods of spectrum unfolding
  allow energy spectra to be determined without the need for ns-pulsed neutron beams. The mea-
  surements were supported by radiation transport calculations using FLUKA. We present analyses
  of measured neutron energy spectra, and FLUKA calculations, which offer new opportunities to
  non-destructively determine the composition of concrete samples of unknown origin.

Primary author: HUTTON, Tanya (MeASURe, Department of Physics, University of Cape Town)

Co-authors: BUFFLER, Andy (MeASURe, Department of Physics, University of Cape Town); LEAD-
BEATER, Thomas (MeASURe, Department of Physics, University of Cape Town); Mr DONDOLO, Mbulelo
(MeASURe, Department of Physics, University of Cape Town); Prof. ALEXANDER, Mark (CoMSIRU,
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Cape Town); Dr DLAMINI, Sanele (Centre for Nuclear
Safety and Security, National Nuclear Regulator)

Presenter: HUTTON, Tanya (MeASURe, Department of Physics, University of Cape Town)
Session Classification: Neutron Physics and Applications

Track Classification: Neutron Physics and Applications

February 11, 2021                                                                                  Page 2
Advanced Nuclea … / Report of Contributions                     Radioisotope tracer techniques for …

Contribution ID: 3                                                       Type: not specified

      Radioisotope tracer techniques for the study of
                    multiphase flows
                                                 Tuesday, 14 September 2021 10:00 (20 minutes)

  At iThemba LABS Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) is used to study dynamic physical
  processes and multiphase flow phenomena. Studies of these often turbulent systems contribute
  to understanding of fundamental flow behaviour and are of increasing interest in the current cli-
  mate of reducing industrial wastes, improving process efficiencies, and developing design lead
  approaches to industrial systems. PEPT results are critical for the evaluation of computational
  models of such phenomena.

  In the spirit of the previous ANSTT meetings we will update on recent research produced by the
  PEPT Cape Town laboratory, including aspects of our four key themes: instrumentation & de-
  tector development, radioisotope tracer techniques (physical and chemical), data acquisition &
  processing, and the applications of such measurements. Noting that such Advanced Nuclear Sci-
  ence, Technology, Techniques, and ultimately their applications, are large scale multidisciplinary
  endeavours there will be a strong focus on our role in personnel development and training involv-
  ing researchers from a diverse range of backgrounds. We will offer thoughts into collaboration
  building around these techniques, particularly in the application phase space.

Primary author: LEADBEATER, Thomas (University of Cape Town)
Co-authors: BUFFLER, Andy (UCT); VAN HEERDEN, Michael (University of Cape Town); Dr
COLE, Katie (Dept. Physics, University of Cape Town )

Presenter: LEADBEATER, Thomas (University of Cape Town)
Session Classification: Metrology and Applications

Track Classification: Metrology and Applications

February 11, 2021                                                                                Page 3
Advanced Nuclea … / Report of Contributions                       Assessment of Radiological hazard …

Contribution ID: 5                                                         Type: not specified

     Assessment of Radiological hazards for Latrite
     Mining Field in Ilorin South LGA, North-central
                          Nigeria
                                               Wednesday, 15 September 2021 16:15 (45 minutes)

  Assessment of activity concentrations of 40K, 238U, 232Th and gamma dose rate (DR) was carried
  out over a latrite mining field using a well calibrated Super-Spec (RS-125) gamma spectrometer,
  along Ajese-Ipko road, Ilorin-south, Kwara state, Nigeria. The results of the radioactivity measure-
  ments were used to assess the radiological hazards associated with the latrite mining field and
  it’s suitability as building material. Fifty (50) measurements of the activity concentration of the
  radionuclides were obtained at about 1 meter above the topsoil to cover a large area. For each of
  these 50 sample points, measurements were taken four (4) times for better accuracy. The mean
  activity concentrations of 238U and 232Th are higher than their corresponding global average of
  32.00 Bqkg-1 and 30.00 Bqkg-1 respectively provided by UNSCEAR. This is a cause for worry as
  significant enhancement in the concentration of 238U and 232Th will increase the level of the back-
  ground radiation and possibly render the soil unfit for use in building and construction purposes.
  The results of the radiological impact parameters (RIP) such as the mean values of the indoor radi-
  ation dose rate (Din). indoor Annual Effective Dose (EADindoor) and Annual Gonadal Equivalent
  Dose (AGED) are above the recommended limits provided by UNSCEAR. Since other hazard pa-
  rameters are close or could possibly be approximated to the permissible limit, this implies that the
  lateritic soil from this mine field may not be too suitable for building and construction purposes
  (either as raw material or finished product).

Primary author: Dr USIKALU, Mojisola (Covenant University)
Co-author: Mr OROSUN, Muyiwa (University of Ilorin)
Presenters:     Dr USIKALU, Mojisola (Covenant University); Mr OROSUN, Muyiwa (University of
Ilorin)

Session Classification: Environmental Measurements

Track Classification: Environmental Measurements

February 11, 2021                                                                                Page 4
Advanced Nuclea … / Report of Contributions                        Development of a digital data acqu …

Contribution ID: 6                                                           Type: not specified

 Development of a digital data acquisition system for
                neutron metrology
                                                   Monday, 13 September 2021 14:15 (15 minutes)

  Fast neutron fields are found in a wide variety of contexts, for example at accelerator and medical
  radiation facilities, around nuclear power plants, in airplanes in flight and space stations. These
  fields often vary widely with respect to both energy and intensity which complicates measure-
  ments of energy dependent fluence. Bonner sphere systems remain widely in use, although sys-
  tems based on scintillator detectors offer distinct advantages including improved energy resolu-
  tion on the fast neutron energy range (above 1 MeV). Since scintillators are typically sensitive to all
  types of radiation, including gamma rays, it is necessary to select neutron-only events, and pulse
  shape discrimination capabilities of selected scintillators is typically used for this purpose. Digital
  pulse processing electronics offer several distinct advantages over analogue systems, including be-
  ing more cost effective and compact, but most importantly the flexibility of analyzing raw pulses
  in list mode.

  Within the neutron metrology and spectrometry community digital pulse processing systems are
  being developed for a variety of purposes. New digital data acquisition systems need to be bench-
  marked against the current metrology standards, typically based on analogue systems. We present
  a comparison between the IRSN fast neutron metrology analogue acquisition system to an off-the-
  shelf CAEN desktop digitizer. Measurements were made using a BC-501A scintillator detector
  at IRSN AMANDE accelerator based facility. Uncertainty budgets for measurements of neutron
  energy dependent fluence distributions are compared for the analogue and digital acquisition sys-
  tems. The broader aim of this project is to further the development of a digital data acquisition
  system for fast neutron metrology using advanced scintillator technology for use in neutron fields
  where time-of-flight may or may not be available.

Primary author: Ms SOLE, Chloé (UCT )
Co-authors: BUFFLER, Andy (UCT); BABUT, Richard (IRSN); HUTTON, Tanya (University of Cape
Town); LEADBEATER, Thomas (University of Cape Town); GRESSIER, Vincent (IRSN)

Presenter: Ms SOLE, Chloé (UCT )
Session Classification: The MeASURe experience

Track Classification: Metrology and Applications

February 11, 2021                                                                                   Page 5
Advanced Nuclea … / Report of Contributions                     F-18 activity mesurements at NMISA

Contribution ID: 7                                                      Type: not specified

                F-18 activity mesurements at NMISA
                                                Tuesday, 14 September 2021 11:30 (30 minutes)

  F-18 is an important radionuclide in PET imaging and is produced at iThemba LABS. Therefore,
  iThemba LABS and other producers and users of F-18 require traceability from a metrology insti-
  tute. At NMISA the absolute activity of F-18 was determined through a primary measurement
  using 4πβ-γ liquid scintillation coincidence counting. Conventional beta-efficiency extrapolation
  was employed. Subsequently, a factor for the NMISA ionization chamber was determined and used
  during a SIRTI comparison. A non-extrapolation method based on a detection efficiency analysis
  was also employed to analyse the data, using an adaptation of the double-phototube coincidence
  efficiency for a threshold above the second monopeak. Results and uncertainty budgets for the
  two methods are presented and discussed. Dissemination of F-18 traceability to iThemba LABS is
  also presented.

Primary author: VAN ROOY, Milton (NMISA)
Co-authors: Mr VAN STADEN, Martin (NMISA); Mrs LUBBE, Joline (NMISA); Dr SIMPSON, Bruce
(NMISA)

Presenters: VAN ROOY, Milton (NMISA); Mr VAN STADEN, Martin (NMISA); Mrs LUBBE, Joline
(NMISA); Dr SIMPSON, Bruce (NMISA)

Session Classification: Metrology and Applications

Track Classification: Metrology and Applications

February 11, 2021                                                                               Page 6
Advanced Nuclea … / Report of Contributions                      The investigation of natural radio …

Contribution ID: 8                                                        Type: not specified

 The investigation of natural radionuclides as tracers
         for monitoring sediment processes
                                              Wednesday, 15 September 2021 12:00 (20 minutes)

  In situ and sampling measurements of naturally occurring radionuclides were investigated in ter-
  restrial sediment in various environments. These environments include beaches, wetlands, river
  basins, and deserts that are within Southern Africa. The distribution patterns of the natural ra-
  dionuclides were extracted and characteristics were compared and investigated. These character-
  istics were used to develop a method that can radio fingerprint types of sediment. The fingerprint-
  ing can then be used as a tracer to track sediment movement in aquatic systems when artificial
  disturbances, like dredging, occur.

Primary author: BEZUIDENHOUT, Jacques
Presenter: BEZUIDENHOUT, Jacques
Session Classification: Environmental Measurements

Track Classification: Environmental Measurements

February 11, 2021                                                                               Page 7
Advanced Nuclea … / Report of Contributions                        The VIDEO project

Contribution ID: 9                                                          Type: not specified

                                  The VIDEO project
                                               Wednesday, 15 September 2021 12:20 (20 minutes)

  The aim of the VIDEO project is the development of a device enabling the detection and location
  of gamma radiation from hidden sources. The intended application of the device is finding dirty
  bombs, preventing terrorist attacks with radioactive material. Thus ultimate detection sensitivity
  and capability of tracking moving gamma sources is required. The project is running since 2011 at
  GSI in close contact with German security forces. It relies on gamma detection methods developed
  at GSI for the detection of rare gamma quanta in nuclear reactions investigated in basic research.
  These methods were adopted to the needs of VIDEO. A hand-held device, VIDEO-2 has been built
  to demonstrate the basic functionality. The detector unit includes six scintillator detectors (read-
  out by SiPM arrays) enabling full 2D and limited 3D direction determination of a single source. For
  optimal performance in terms of isotope identification and rate capability, CeBr3(Tl) crystals with
  their good energy resolution and fast signal are chosen. A detection sensitivity of >2500 cts/s at 1
  µSv/h and a direction sensitivity of 2 degree has been reached. The detector is scalable to further
  increase sensitivity, for instance for vehicle based systems for remote sensing of radioactive sources
  over very large distances. Other applications are possible, notably remote monitoring systems for
  environmental surveillance and nuclear installation control.

Primary author: GERL, Jürgen (GSI/FAIR)
Co-authors: LÖHER, Bastian (GSI); ENGERT, Tobias (GSI); EISENHAUER, Kilian (GSI)
Presenters: GERL, Jürgen (GSI/FAIR); LÖHER, Bastian (GSI)
Session Classification: Environmental Measurements

Track Classification: Environmental Measurements

February 11, 2021                                                                                  Page 8
Advanced Nuclea … / Report of Contributions                       Design and construction of a …

Contribution ID: 10                                                        Type: not specified

      Design and construction of a gamma-ray
  spectrometer with water shielding for low-level
natural occurring radioactive material measurement
                                                  Tuesday, 14 September 2021 10:20 (20 minutes)

  Gamma-ray spectrometer with a single HPGe or NaI:Tl detector shielded with lead is often used
  to measure the activity concentration of radionuclides in soil samples. A passive water shield to
  reduce background radiation reaching the detectors was designed using GEANT4 Monte Carlo
  simulations and then constructed. IAEA-375 soil and beach sand each placed in Marinelli beaker
  were measured for 48 hours using two LaBr3:Ce detectors placed inside the constructed water
  shield. The samples were also measured for 24 hours using a NaI:Tl detector inside the constructed
  water shield and HPGe shielded with lead and copper to compare and validate the results from
  measurements with the LaBr3:Ce detectors. Both the simulated and measured results show that
  the water shield attenuates the 2614.5 keV gamma rays by over 90 % and energies lower than
  the 2614.5 keV by far above 90 %. The activity concentration of K-40 radionuclide in IAEA-375
  soil and beach sand measured using the LaBr3:Ce detectors was below the minimum detectable
  activity (MDA) due to the internal activity of the detector. The measured activity concentrations of
  U-238 and Th-232 series and K-40 radionuclides in IAEA-375 soil were comparable with certified
  values to within measurement uncertainties. The activity concentrations of U-238 and Th-232
  series radionuclides in beach sand were determined using all the measurement geometries and
  consistent to within 1σ to 2σ level.

Primary authors: Ms BASHIR, M. (Stellenbosch University/ iThemba LABS); Prof. NEWMAN, R.T.
(Stellenbosch University); Dr JONES, P. (iThemba LABS)

Presenter: Ms BASHIR, M. (Stellenbosch University/ iThemba LABS)
Session Classification: Metrology and Applications

Track Classification: Environmental Measurements

February 11, 2021                                                                                 Page 9
Advanced Nuclea … / Report of Contributions                         Magnetized dense neutron matter

Contribution ID: 12                                                          Type: not specified

                    Magnetized dense neutron matter
                                                   Tuesday, 14 September 2021 15:30 (45 minutes)

  A neutron star is one of the possible end states of a massive star. It is compressed by gravity and
  stabilized by the nuclear degeneracy pressure. Despite its name, the composition of these objects
  are not exactly known. However, from the inferred densities, neutrons will most likely compose a
  significant fraction of the star’s interior. While all neutron stars are expected to have a magnetic
  field, some neutron stars (”magnetars”) are much more highly magnetized than others: the inferred
  magnetar surface magnetic field is between 1014 to 1015 gauss.
  Neutron stars are the densest stable states of matter that can currently be directly observed. Some
  neutron stars (”pulsars”) emit strongly in the radio part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Obser-
  vation of this radiation is one of the major observational targets of what will the world’s largest
  radio telescope, the Square Kilometre Array.
  While neutron stars are macroscopic objects, due to the extreme value of the stars’ energy, pressure,
  and magnetic field the physics of the microscopic scale can be imprinted on the star’s large scale
  behaviour. Thus the study of these objects are a combination of various fields of physics ranging
  from Quantum Mechanics to General Relativity. One of the main inputs to any calculation of
  neutron star properties is the equation of state of the matter that comprises the interior of the star.

  This talk will focus on describing the thermodynamics of magnetized dense neutron matter, its
  equation of state, and how the equation of state is applied to study neutron stars.

Primary author:        DIENER, Jacobus (Botswana International University of Science and Technol-
ogy)

Presenter: DIENER, Jacobus (Botswana International University of Science and Technology)
Session Classification: Neutron Physics and Applications

Track Classification: Neutron Physics and Applications

February 11, 2021                                                                                  Page 10
Advanced Nuclea … / Report of Contributions                       The central role of metrology in a …

Contribution ID: 13                                                        Type: not specified

     The central role of metrology in applied nuclear
                     physics research
                                                  Monday, 13 September 2021 14:00 (15 minutes)

  The art and act of measurement lie at the very heart of the enterprise of Science. Measurement
  mediates between the complexity of the real universe in which we live and the idealised order of
  physical theory. Careful observation of nature thus plays a powerful role in the creation of all sci-
  entific knowledge, and the subsequent development of technologies. Unambiguous understanding
  of the quality of data from experiment, whether from the detectors located within the caverns of
  the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, or from a handheld radiation counter, is critical for the effec-
  tive use of the data. I will argue why radiation metrology is a critical component of all applied
  nuclear physics research and make the case for measurement to be placed at the forefront of our
  laboratory-based teaching programmes.

Primary author: BUFFLER, Andy (UCT)
Presenter: BUFFLER, Andy (UCT)
Session Classification: The MeASURe experience

February 11, 2021                                                                                Page 11
Advanced Nuclea … / Report of Contributions                          New calculated reaction rates for t …

Contribution ID: 14                                                           Type: not specified

  New calculated reaction rates for the astrophysical
 rp-process reactions 34S(p,γ)35Cl and 34g,mCl(p,γ)35Ar
                                                   Thursday, 16 September 2021 15:30 (20 minutes)

  The two rp-reactions 34 S(p,γ)35 Cl and 34g,m Cl(p,γ)35 Ar were studied via a shell-model approach.
  At energies in the resonance region near the proton-emission threshold many negative parity
  states appear. We present results of calculations in a full (0+1)ℏω model space which addresses
  this problem. Energies, spectroscopic factors and proton-decay widths are calculated for input into
  the reaction rates as well as to assess the impact on the predicted 32 S/34 S isotopic ratio for pre-
  solar nova grains. Uncertainties were estimated using a Monte-Carlo method. The implications of
  these rates and their uncertainties on sulfur isotopic nova yields were investigated using a post-
  processing nucleosynthesis code. Comparisons are also made with a recent experimental determi-
  nation of the reaction rate for the 34 S(3 He,d)35 Cl reaction. The thermonuclear 34g,m Cl(p,γ)35 Ar
  reaction rates are unknown because of a lack of experimental data. The rates for transitions from
  the ground state of 34 Cl as well as from the isomeric first excited state of 34 Cl are explicitly calcu-
  lated taking into account the relative populations of the two states. The shell-model calculations
  alone are sufficient to constrain the variation of the 32 S/34 S ratios to within about 30%.

Primary authors: Prof. RICHTER, Werner (Stellenbosch University. iThemba LABS); Prof. BROWN,
Alex (Michigan State University); Prof. WREDE, Chris (Michigan State University); Prof. LONG-
LAND, Richard (North Carolina State University); Prof. DENISSENKOV, Pavel (University of Victoria,
Victoria, Canada); Prof. HERWIG, Falk (University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada); Prof. KURTULGIL,
Deniz (Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany); Prof. PIGNATARI, Marco (University of Hull,
U.K.); Prof. REIFARTH, Rene (Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany)

Presenter: Prof. RICHTER, Werner (Stellenbosch University. iThemba LABS)
Session Classification: Nuclear Structure Studies

Track Classification: Nuclear Structure Studies

February 11, 2021                                                                                    Page 12
Advanced Nuclea … / Report of Contributions                         Assessment of radon concentratio …

Contribution ID: 15                                                           Type: not specified

   Assessment of radon concentration levels in some
              dwellings in Serule area.
                                                Wednesday, 15 September 2021 10:00 (20 minutes)

  A discovery of huge uranium deposits in the Serule area in Botswana leading to the prospects of
  mining explorations has since opened up various studies to be undertaken in the area. This study
  assesses the indoor radon concentration levels in Serule area and the radiological risk associated
  with it. 222 Rn is of interest since it is a daughter radionuclide of 226 Ra from the 238 U decay series
  and can cause adverse health problems such as lung cancer when inhaled. The radon concentration
  in the sampled houses was measured using special detectors called Electret Passive Environmental
  Radon Monitors (E-PERMs). The weighted mean average indoor radon concentration found to be
  23.4 ± 2.1 Bq/m3 . Soil samples from the vicinity of the sampled houses were collected and gamma-
  ray counted using a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector at iThemba LABS. This was done to
  determine the activity concentration of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K. Higher activity concentrations of 238 U
  were found in areas within the mining area. The activity concentrations of 232 Th were generally
  low and higher activity concentrations of 40 K were found in areas outside the mining area. The
  highest radium equivalent (Raeq ) value calculated was from an area within the mining area but
  all the calculated Raeq values were well below the 370 Bq.kg−1 limit set by IAEA. Heavy metal
  concentrations in the soil samples were determined using the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass
  Spectrometry (ICP-MS) from the Central Analytical Facilities in Stellenbosch University. Nickel
  and cadmium concentrations from a dwelling outside the mining area were found to have values
  higher than the maximum allowable limit according to WHO/FAO guidelines. Ni and Cd were
  found to have concentration values of 109.282 mg/kg and 158.213 mg/kg respectively.

Primary author: Ms SETSO, Refilwe (Botswana International University of Science and Technology
(BIUST))

Co-authors: KUREBA, Chamunorwa Oscar (Botswana International University of Science and Tech-
nology); MALEKA, Peane (iThemba LABS)

Presenter: Ms SETSO, Refilwe (Botswana International University of Science and Technology (BIUST))

Session Classification: Environmental Measurements

Track Classification: Environmental Measurements

February 11, 2021                                                                                   Page 13
Advanced Nuclea … / Report of Contributions                          Environmental radiation measure …

Contribution ID: 16                                                           Type: not specified

    Environmental radiation measurements enabling
     comparison of efficiency calibrations of HPGe
               detector with GEANT4
                                                 Wednesday, 15 September 2021 10:40 (20 minutes)

  A low background Hyper Pure Germanium detector was used to determine the radioactivity levels
  in soil samples collected from Southern area of Chad in Central Africa.
  The calculated activity concentrations were determined for the following radionuclides: 226 Ra,
  238
      U and 232 Th as well as 40 K and 137 Cs (anthropogenic).
  In order to validate our experimental result regarding efficiency calibration, GEANT4 Monte Carlo
  code was utilised to test the peak efficiency characterizations of 40 K, 22 Na, 137 Cs, 60 Co and 152 Eu.
  This comparison should show how the code agree with experimentally obtained efficiencies of our
  detector and in which part of the spectrum do the discrepancies appear.

Primary authors: Ms AJANI, Mistura Bolaji (University of the Witwatersrand/ iThemba LABS); Dr
MALEKA, Peane (iThemba LABS); Prof. USMAN, Iyabo (University of the Witwatersrand)

Presenter: Ms AJANI, Mistura Bolaji (University of the Witwatersrand/ iThemba LABS)
Session Classification: Environmental Measurements

Track Classification: Environmental Measurements

February 11, 2021                                                                                    Page 14
Advanced Nuclea … / Report of Contributions                       Application of nuclear interactions …

Contribution ID: 18                                                        Type: not specified

    Application of nuclear interactions for material
    analysis: A case study of determination of metal
       contaminants from industrial effluents in
       North-West Nigeria using NAA technique
                                               Wednesday, 15 September 2021 09:30 (30 minutes)

  Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), a non-destructive nuclear analytical technique that meets the
  criteria of experimental simplicity, analytical accuracy and flexibility has been applied to investi-
  gate the metal contents of industrial effluents collected at several sites in North-Western part of
  Nigeria. Ten elements (Cr, Co, Ca, Na, Eu, Hf, Th, Dy, Sb and Cs) were determined from 10 samples
  from the leather, textile and petrochemical industries. The enrichment factors were determined by
  comparison of the elemental concentration with that of a typical soil from an uninhabited, unculti-
  vated, non-industrial area within the same locality of the survey. The analytical result shows that
  some of the industrial effluents have high elevated concentration for chromium, calcium, cobalt,
  sodium, antimony, and dysprosium. The most distinct being chromium from the tanneries due to
  the chemical processing stage of leather products involving tanning with chrome. Certified refer-
  ence material was used during the analyses as quality control to assure the analytical quality of the
  results. The successful application of this nuclear analytical technique during this study confirms
  its suitability to environmental studies and the applicability of the k0-NAA method in the Nigeria
  Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) laboratories.

Primary author: Dr ADELEYE, Michael (Bingham University)
Presenter: Dr ADELEYE, Michael (Bingham University)
Session Classification: Environmental Measurements

Track Classification: Environmental Measurements

February 11, 2021                                                                                Page 15
Advanced Nuclea … / Report of Contributions                        Cross section measurement of ligh …

Contribution ID: 19                                                          Type: not specified

 Cross section measurement of light ions production
                using (p,xp) reactions.
                                                  Thursday, 16 September 2021 10:20 (20 minutes)

  Neutron-rich beams are being developed at iThemba LABS to study nuclear structure away from
  stability. This is also the opportunity of deepening our understanding of astrophysical origin of
  elements. The interest of using (p,xp) reactions in the production of exotic nuclei, lies in the fact
  that proton beams have a large penetrating power and can be produced with high intensity. Some
  measurements have been performed at iThemba LABS using, 7Li, 9Be and natB targets with proton
  projectiles of energy 50 MeV and 66 MeV. The detection setup included two electron spectrome-
  ters composed of a 5mm thick plastic scintillator, for energy loss measurement, and a thin window
  Germanium detector (LEPS) for residual energy measurement. The E- ∆E technique with this
  combination of detectors allows particle identification and high-resolution measurement simulta-
  neously. Some results will be presented. Beryllium and Boron are chosen here because they can be
  used in oxide, carbide or nitride form that can sustain large temperature amplitudes and therefore
  can be used in place as Uranium carbide in the current design of the ISOL source of iThemba LABS.
  This is important as there is no significant cost or resources implications. In addition, light targets
  produce a lot less species which makes debugging easier. The results of this investigation will be
  used to evaluate the feasibility of light neutron rich beams at iThemba LABS.

Primary author: KENFACK JIOTSA, Doris Carole (iThemba LABS / Stellenbosch University)
Co-authors: Prof. PAPKA, Paul (iThemba LABS / Stellenbosch University); JONES, Pete (iThemba
LABS)

Presenter: KENFACK JIOTSA, Doris Carole (iThemba LABS / Stellenbosch University)
Session Classification: Nuclear Structure Studies

Track Classification: Nuclear Structure Studies

February 11, 2021                                                                                  Page 16
Advanced Nuclea … / Report of Contributions                       Studies of the Isoscalar Giant Qua …

Contribution ID: 20                                                        Type: not specified

Studies of the Isoscalar Giant Quadrupole Resonance
      in stable even-even neodymium isotopes
                                                 Thursday, 16 September 2021 11:30 (30 minutes)

  Fine structure has been studied on the region of the Isoscalar Giant Quadrupole Resonance (IS-
  GQR), for stable even-even nuclei of neodymium isotopes. The 200 MeV proton beams were de-
  livered by the Separated Sector Cyclotron (SSC) facility of iThemba LABS. Measurements were
  made using the state-of-the-art K600 magnetic spectrometer, where unique high energy-resolution
  (∆E ≈ 42 - 48 keV FWHM) proton inelastic scattering results were obtained on spherical to
  deformed 142 Nd, 144 Nd, 146 Nd, 148 Nd and 150 Nd target nuclei. In order to emphasize the ISGQR in
  the measured excitation energy spectra, a Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) background subtrac-
  tion was carried out. A comparison of the resonance widths extracted shows a systematic broaden-
  ing of the ISGQR (Γ = 3.220 MeV to 5.100 MeV), moving from spherical 142 Nd to highly deformed
  150
      Nd nuclei. Theoretical microscopic Quasiparticle-Phonon Model (QPM) calculations were per-
  formed for the ISGQR predictions. Characteristic energy scales, extracted using the Continuous
  Wavelet Transform (CWT) technique, allowed a comparison to be made between the experimental
  data and theoretical predictions in order to determine the dominant damping mechanisms.

Primary author: KUREBA, Chamunorwa Oscar (Botswana International University of Science and
Technology)

Co-authors: CARTER, John (School of Physics, Wits University); VON NEUMANN-COSEL, Peter
(Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt); NEVELING, Retief (iThemba LABS); Prof.
USMAN, Iyabo (University of the Witwatersrand); PONOMAREV, Vladimir (Institut für Kernphysik,
TU-Darmstadt); JINGO, MAXWELL (UNIVERSITY OF THE WITWATERSRAND, JOHANNESBURG); BUTHELEZI,
Zinhle (iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation (ZA)); BUTHELEZI, zinhle (iThemba LABS); SMIT,
Ricky (iThemba LABS); PAPKA, Paul (Stellenbosch University); MIRA, Joele Paulus (iThemba LABS); SIDERAS-HAD-
DAD, ELIAS (WITS UNIVERSITY); FEARICK, Roger (University of Cape Town); FORTSCH, Siegfried
(iThemba LABS)

Presenter: KUREBA, Chamunorwa Oscar (Botswana International University of Science and Tech-
nology)

Session Classification: Nuclear Structure Studies

Track Classification: Nuclear Structure Studies

February 11, 2021                                                                                 Page 17
Advanced Nuclea … / Report of Contributions                         Spectroscopy of 50Ti through …

Contribution ID: 21                                                           Type: not specified

          Spectroscopy of 50Ti through internal-pair
                         formation
                                                   Thursday, 16 September 2021 12:40 (20 minutes)

  Spectroscopy of 50 Ti through internal-pair formation
  The excited states of atomic nuclei predominantly de-excite via electromagnetic transitions, e.g.
  gamma-ray transitions or electric monopole (E0) transition in an event that the former is forbidden.
  E0 transitions proceed via conversion electrons and electron-positron pairs (for transition energies
  greater than 1022 keV). In comparison to gamma-ray transitions that are predominantly studied
  across the nuclear chart, a great deal of E0 transitions and their associated excited 0+ states are
  still not firmly characterized.
  Apart from being the only alternative means of unambiguously assigning spin and parity of 0+
  states, E0 transitions also offer a reliable tool to explore shape coexistence in nuclei, as the E0
  transition strength (ρ2 (E0)) is related to changes in the mean-square charge radius and can be
  used to calculate the mixing parameters for shapes suspected to be coexisting. Measurements of
  E0 transitions also helps to elucidate phenomena relating to nuclear compressibility and isotope
  or isomer shift, as well as provide sensitive tests on various models of nuclear structure [1,2,3,4].
  A new facility, namely the internal conversion (IC) and internal-pair formation (IPF) spectrometer,
  for measuring E0 transitions, was recently commissioned at iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator
  Based Sciences ( iThemba LABS). The current work is aimed at giving the equipment new capability
  by coupling a segmented germanium (LEPS) detector to the magnetic lens in order for it to be
  used to measure e− -e+ pairs, including those of higher (> 3 MeV) energies. The LEPS detector is
  opted for owing to the fact that it offers very good resolution and also because of the scarcity (or
  exorbitant prices if found) of thick segmented Si(Li) detectors around the globe. The refurbishment
  is being aided by Geant4 simulations with magnetic field mapped out of the solenoid magnetic
  lens using OPERA-3D software. The transmission, efficiency, momentum resolution and other
  parameters of the spectrometer, obtained using Geant4 simulations, will be presented. On-going
  work to assemble the equipment, carry out off-line test measurements using radioactive sources
  (e.g. 90 Y or 13 C(α, n) radioactive sources), calibration, transmission optimisation, etc, in readiness
                                                        ′
  for the upcoming in-beam experiment (50 Ti(α, α ) and 48 Ca(α, 2n) reactions) in April 2020, will
  also be discussed.
  Once the facility is fully operational, the physics case will involve measuring E0 transitions in
  50
     Ti through internal-pair decay, which will provide information that will subsequently be used
  to investigate the previously suspected existence of admixtures of 0+ excited states with 2+ , 3+
  and 4+ states [5,6,7].

  [1] M. Taylor, et al., Nature, 405, 430-433 (2000).
  [2] JL. Wood, et al., Phys. Rep. 215(3-4), 101-201 (1992).
  [3] T. Kibedi and R. Spear, Atomic Data & Nuc. Data Tables 89(1), 77-100 (2005).
  [4] JL. Wood, et al., Nuc. Phys. A 651(4), 323-368 (1999).
  [5] DS. Oakley, et al., Phys. Rev. C 35(4), 1392 (1987).
  [6] JG. Pronko, et al., Phys. Rev. C 10(4), 1345 (1974).
  [7] HP. Morsch, Phys. Lett. B 47(1), 21-23 (1973).

Primary author: Mr CHISAPI, Maluba Vernon (iThemba LABS/Stellenbosch University)

February 11, 2021                                                                                   Page 18
Advanced Nuclea … / Report of Contributions                    Spectroscopy of 50Ti through …

Co-authors: Dr JONES, Pete (iThemba LABS); Prof. NEWMAN, Richard (Stellenbosch Univer-
sity); Prof. KIBEDI, Tibor (Department of Nuclear Physics, Australian National Laboratory); Mr AVAA,
Abraham (iThemba/Wits); Mr MSEBI, Lumkile (UWC); Mr ZIKHALI, Bonginkosi (University of the
Western Cape)

Presenter: Mr CHISAPI, Maluba Vernon (iThemba LABS/Stellenbosch University)
Session Classification: Nuclear Structure Studies

Track Classification: Nuclear Structure Studies

February 11, 2021                                                                           Page 19
Advanced Nuclea … / Report of Contributions                     Gamma-ray spectroscopy and its a …

Contribution ID: 22                                                      Type: not specified

     Gamma-ray spectroscopy and its associated
radiological risk of beach sand and soil samples from
       Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania
                                              Wednesday, 15 September 2021 11:30 (30 minutes)

  In this study, the activity concentration of natural radionuclides (K-40, and Th-232 and U-238 de-
  cay products) in beach sand and soil samples from Zanzibar were measured using a combination
  of in-situ and ex-situ gamma-ray spectroscopy. The in-situ gamma-ray survey was conducted us-
  ing the Multi Element Detector for Underwater Sediment Activity (MEDUSA) detector. Activity
  concentrations of the natural radionuclides (K-40, and Th-232 and U-238 decay products) were ex-
  tracted from the MEDUSA spectra using the Full Spectrum Analysis (FSA) procedure; and spatial
  distribution maps for K-40, Th-232 and U-238) were plotted. The collected beach sands and soil
  samples were analysed ex-situ using a Hyper-Purity Germanium detector (HPGe).
  The activity concentration of K-40, and Th-232 and U-238 decay products in beach sands were
  found to have enhanced radioactivity levels due to the presence of heavy minerals. The spatial
  distribution maps for K-40, Th-232 and U-238 show large variation in xoil samples for the two
  relatively small islands, Unguja and Pemba.

  The average outdoor absorbed gamma dose rate in air and annual effective dose equivalent were
  also calculated in this study. The highest abzorbed dose rates in xoil xamples and beach sand are
  respectively 5 and 38 times higher than the average world level of 57 nGy/h for terrestrial doses.
  The annual effective dose equivalent in most soil samples were higher than the world average value
  of 0.07 mSv/y; and low in most beach sands with an exception of black sand samples collected from
  Kukuu beach. From radiological point of view, there is no significant radiollgical risk for humans
  using Zanzibar beaches for various activities.

Primary authors: Mr MOHAMED, Gharib (The State University of Zanzibar); Prof. LINDSAY,
Robert (University of the Western Cape); Dr MALEKA, Peane (iThemba LABS)

Presenter: Mr MOHAMED, Gharib (The State University of Zanzibar)
Session Classification: Environmental Measurements

Track Classification: Environmental Measurements

February 11, 2021                                                                               Page 20
Advanced Nuclea … / Report of Contributions                         Search for E0 transitions in even- …

Contribution ID: 23                                                           Type: not specified

     Search for E0 transitions in even-even 54Cr and
                  odd-odd 54Mn nuclei
                                                   Thursday, 16 September 2021 12:20 (20 minutes)

  A. A. Avaa1,2, P. Jones2, T. Kibédi3, J. T. H. Dowie3, I. T. Usman1, A. E. Stuchbery3,
  M.V. Chisapi2,4, A. Akber3, L. J. Bignell3, B. J. Coombes3, M. S. M. Gerathy3, T. J. Gray3, G. J. Lane3,
  B. P. McCormick3, A. J. Mitchell3, H.T. Hoang5, E. Ideguchi5,
  M. Kumar Raju5, and B. P. E. Tee3
  1 School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
  2 iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences, Cape Town, South Africa
  3 Department of Physics, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
  4 Department of Nuclear Physics, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
  5 Research centre for Nuclear Physics, University of Osaka, Osaka, Japan
  Between 40Ca and 56Ni, the most dominant physical feature emerging is super-deformation [1]
  and the open question that is yet to be answered with experimental evidence is, does the super-
  deformation follow through to 56Ni. There are also strong evidence from theoretical predictions
  that shape coexistence exist along the chain of N = 28 isotones, amid 56Ni and 48Ca [2, 3] as it
  is believed to exist throughout the nuclear chart [4]. Nevertheless, there is no experimental data
  available on E0 transitions in 50Ti and in neighbouring 52Ti, 54Cr, and 54Mn. In this study, the E0
  strength which carry vital information about the nuclear structure have been determined in the
  and transitions of 54Mn for the first time, utilising pair and conversion-electron spectroscopy.

      1. E. Ideguchi, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 (2001) 22
      2. K. Heyde and J.L. Wood. Rev. Med. Phys. 83 (2011) 1466-1478
      3. G. Saxena and M. Kaushik. Jour. of Maths. and Phys. 3 (2017) 356-359
      4. J.L. Wood et al., Nucl. Phys. A 651 (1999) 323-368

Primary authors: Mr AVAA, Abraham (Wits/iThemba); Dr JONES , Pete (iThemba)
Presenter: Mr AVAA, Abraham (Wits/iThemba)
Session Classification: Nuclear Structure Studies

Track Classification: Nuclear Structure Studies

February 11, 2021                                                                                   Page 21
Advanced Nuclea … / Report of Contributions                       The Role of Inter-Africa UK Collab …

Contribution ID: 24                                                        Type: not specified

    The Role of Inter-Africa UK Collaboration in
Improving Nuclear Instrumentation for Research and
              Development in Africa
                                                    Friday, 17 September 2021 08:45 (45 minutes)

  Over the last decade, the role and importance of nuclear science and technology cannot be overesti-
  mated. Humankind have benefited from many advantages of nuclear technology including power
  production, health benefits, food, and environmental safety, agricultural development as well as
  security. Such benefits are the results of continuous research efforts and knowledge expansion in
  nuclear physics. The success of such researches requires the development of research and develop-
  ment (R&D) nuclear instrumentation. Reliable instrumentation for nuclear measurements is vital
  for the safe and effective use of several nuclear techniques and technology. Nevertheless, most
  developing countries are far behind developed countries in terms of nuclear instrumentation. This
  causes either lack of reliable nuclear researches or difficult conditions of doing nuclear researches
  in these countries leading to failure to take full advantage of the available nuclear technology,
  which could hugely boost the economies of these countries. In order to ease the situation, research
  collaborations between the less developed, developing and developed countries have always been
  suggested so as to take advantage of the available nuclear instruments. This makes nuclear in-
  strumentation an important point of focus for collaborations between African countries and the
  United Kingdom (UK). This talk will highlight the importance of the inter-Africa and United King-
  dom (UK) collaborations in the development of nuclear instrumentation and nuclear technology
  in Africa.

Primary author: LUGENDO, Innocent Jimmy (University of Dar es Salaam)
Presenter: LUGENDO, Innocent Jimmy (University of Dar es Salaam)
Session Classification: Collaborations and Networking

Track Classification: Future Collaborations and Networking

February 11, 2021                                                                                  Page 22
Advanced Nuclea … / Report of Contributions                      Design of a national indoor radon …

Contribution ID: 25                                                       Type: not specified

  Design of a national indoor radon survey in South
  Africa: Radon measurements in homes and schools
                around Western Cape.
                                              Wednesday, 15 September 2021 10:20 (20 minutes)

  Radon is a radioactive gas that is present in public buildings and homes. It comes from the natural
  decay of uranium in soil, rock, and water and gets into the air we breathe. Radon gas is believed
  to cause thousands of preventable lung cancer deaths every year. In 2018 the Centre for Nuclear
  Safety and Security (CNSS) initiated a project to design a national indoor radon survey in South
  Africa. One way of developing a national radon survey is to use potential maps of radon to identify
  hotspots areas. Indoor radon measurements have been performed in different schools and homes,
  and this has been achieved through school outreach. Electrets ion chambers were deployed for a
  week in homes and schools in different locations of selected areas. Here we report the findings of
  the indoor radon measurements conducted across Cape Flats in Western Cape.

Primary author: MAHESO, Abbey Matimba (University of Stellenbosch)
Co-author: NEWMAN, Richard (Stellenbosch University)
Presenter: MAHESO, Abbey Matimba (University of Stellenbosch)
Session Classification: Environmental Measurements

Track Classification: Environmental Measurements

February 11, 2021                                                                               Page 23
Advanced Nuclea … / Report of Contributions                       DNA DSB repair pathways in mam …

Contribution ID: 26                                                        Type: not specified

     DNA DSB repair pathways in mammalian cells –
           measurements and simulations
                                                  Tuesday, 14 September 2021 12:40 (20 minutes)

  The GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit for radiobiology, GEANT4-DNA, developed earlier
  [Belov et al., 2015; 2017] is to be improved and extended. The stages of DNA double strand break
  (DSB) repair in mammalian cells will be verified by the reconstruction of the repair time courses
  of radiation induced foci, which are suited to specific repair processes.
  The model shows a possible mechanistic explanation of the basic regularities of DSB processing
  through the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination (HR), single-strand
  annealing (SSA) and two alternative end-joining pathways.
  New experimental data produced in the field will be incorporated during further development of
  the model. The new radiation modalities suggested for introduction into the model are protons,
  neutrons and alpha particles. The cells under investigation range from healthy fibroblast to cancer
  cells.
  The cell survival and repair mechanisms will be assessed, and results will be compared to those
  obtained from the extended GEANT4-DNA. Geant4-DNA will be applied for DSB repair in a wider
  range of human cell lines, ranging from healthy fibroblast to cancer cells. The cell culturing, radi-
  ation exposure, immunohistochemical staining of different DNA repair proteins and microscopic
  evaluation of the cells will be performed in the radiobiology laboratory at iThemba LABS using
  the Metafer automated microscope from Metasystems. The cells will be exposed to 222Rn as well
  as alpha particles, protons and neutrons. The dose accumulated due to 222Rn will be estimated by
  using a RAD7 detector from SU.
  The developed model would be a more comprehensive version that incorporates recent findings
  and reconstructs DSB repair outcomes, induced by different radiation modalities. The cell survival
  and repair process will be assessed in the radiobiology laboratory at iThemba LABS and results
  compared to those obtained by the model.
  The improved model will enhance our predictive capabilities and significantly contribute to the
  fields of medicine, radiation protection as well as space exploration

Primary authors: Ms BAILEY, Tarryn (Student); Prof. NEWMAN, Richard; Dr VANDEVOORDE,
Charlot; Dr BELOV , Oleg; Ms BELOCOPITOVA, Ksenia

Presenter: Ms BAILEY, Tarryn (Student)
Session Classification: Metrology and Applications

Track Classification: Metrology and Applications

February 11, 2021                                                                                 Page 24
Advanced Nuclea … / Report of Contributions                        Measurements and signal processi …

Contribution ID: 27                                                         Type: not specified

  Measurements and signal processing of energy and
   time signals of 22Na using LaBr3:Ce scintillation
                      detectors
                                                   Monday, 13 September 2021 14:40 (15 minutes)

  Positronium (Ps) is a system consisting of an electron and its anti-particle, a positron, bound to-
  gether into an exotic atom, specifically an onium. The system is unstable: the two particles anni-
  hilate each other to predominantly produce two or three gamma-rays, depending on the relative
  spin states. Even rarer decays (with branching ratios
Advanced Nuclea … / Report of Contributions                        Investigation of limit of detection …

Contribution ID: 28                                                         Type: not specified

    Investigation of limit of detection using standard
      radioactive sources with a LaBr3(Ce) detector
                                               Wednesday, 15 September 2021 12:40 (20 minutes)

  Investigation of limit of detection using standard radioactive sources with a LaBr3(Ce) detector
  F. van Niekerk1, S.R. Johnson2, P. Jones3
  1Department of Physics, University of Stellenbosch.
  2Department of Physics, University of Cape Town.
  3Department of Subatomic Physics, iThemba LABS.
  Keywords: LaBr3(Ce) detector; Background radiation; Gamma radiation
  Abstract
  Ambient background radiation has been measured using a LaBr3(Ce) detector. This background
  gamma-radiation is mainly a result of construction materials (such as concrete) and air. Radionu-
  clides that form part of the background have been identified after an energy calibration of the
  detector was performed using 22Na, 60Co and 152Eu radiation sources. These same sources have
  been measured at increasing distances from the detector. The study focussed mainly on the de-
  termination of the detection limits of each radiation source taking into account the presence of
  background radiation. Therefore, the change in the intensity measured for each source as a func-
  tion of increasing distance from the detector has been emphasised. This application is in relation to
  the solid angle between the points of the radiation source and the active detector volume. Further
  studies and application of all data available will focus on the relevant factors in order to calculate
  the limit of detection for a specific activity for each radiation source.

  This study forms part of a broader research project that entails the design, building and commis-
  sioning of a prototype mobile gamma-ray detection system equipped with a LaBr3(Ce) detector.
  The successful development of such a detector system will enable in situ measurements of radia-
  tion in various robust terrestrial environments with improved sensitivity and spectral resolution.

Primary authors: Mr VAN NIEKERK, Ferdie; Dr JONES, Pete; Mr JOHNSON, Storm
Presenter: Mr VAN NIEKERK, Ferdie
Session Classification: Environmental Measurements

Track Classification: Environmental Measurements

February 11, 2021                                                                                 Page 26
Advanced Nuclea … / Report of Contributions                     The AGATA Spectrometer: Precisi …

Contribution ID: 29                                                      Type: not specified

The AGATA Spectrometer: Precision Spectroscopy of
                 Exotic Nuclei
                                                  Friday, 17 September 2021 09:30 (30 minutes)

  The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) is a European project to develop and operate
  the next generation gamma-ray spectrometer. AGATA is based on the technique of gamma-ray
  energy tracking in electrically segmented high-purity germanium crystals. The spectrometer will
  have an unparalleled level of detection power for electromagnetic nuclear radiation. AGATA has
  been operated in a series of scientific campaigns at Legnaro National Laboratory in Italy and GSI
  in Germany and GANIL in France. The status of the project and an overview of the science results
  and programme will be presented.

Primary author: Prof. SIMPSON, John (UKRI-STFC Daresbury Laboratory)
Presenter: Prof. SIMPSON, John (UKRI-STFC Daresbury Laboratory)
Session Classification: Collaborations and Networking

Track Classification: Nuclear Structure Studies

February 11, 2021                                                                                Page 27
Advanced Nuclea … / Report of Contributions                   Radiobiological evaluation of seco …

Contribution ID: 30                                                    Type: not specified

   Radiobiological evaluation of secondary radiation
             produced in proton therapy
                                               Tuesday, 14 September 2021 12:00 (20 minutes)

  To be completed

Primary authors: VANDEVOORDE, Charlot (Radiation Biophysics Division, NRF iThemba LABS,
South Africa); Dr DE SAINT-HUBERT, Marijke (Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN), Bel-
gium); Mr BEUKES, Philip (NRF iThemba LABS, South Africa); Dr CHIRIOTTI, Sabina (Belgian Nuclear
Research Centre (SCK•CEN), Belgium); Mrs DEBROT, Emily (Centre for Medical Radiation Physics,
University of Wollongong, Australia); Mr DE KOCK, Evan (NRF iThemba LABS, South Africa); Mr
LACHLAN, C (Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Australia); Ms MILES,
Xanthene (NRF iThemba LABS, South Africa); Mr NIETO-CAMERO, Jaime (NRF iThemba LABS, South
Africa); Dr PARISI, Alessio (Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN), Belgium); Mr SYMONS,
Julyan (NRF iThemba LABS, South Africa); Dr ROSENFELD, Anatoly (Centre for Medical Radiation
Physics, University of Wollongong, Australia); Dr TRAN, Lihn (Centre for Medical Radiation Physics,
University of Wollongong, Australia); Dr VANHAVERE, Filip (Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN),
Belgium); Dr VAN HOEY, Olivier (Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN), Belgium)

Presenter:    VANDEVOORDE, Charlot (Radiation Biophysics Division, NRF iThemba LABS, South
Africa)

Session Classification: Metrology and Applications

Track Classification: Metrology and Applications

February 11, 2021                                                                              Page 28
Advanced Nuclea … / Report of Contributions                  Influence of dose rate on the cellul …

Contribution ID: 31                                                   Type: not specified

    Influence of dose rate on the cellular response to
     neutrons and its implications for manned space
                        missions
                                              Tuesday, 14 September 2021 12:20 (20 minutes)

  To be completed

Primary authors: Dr FISHER, Randall (Radiation Biophysics Division, NRF iThemba LABS, South
Africa); Dr VANDEVOORDE, Charlot (Radiation Biophysics Division, NRF iThemba LABS, South Africa); Dr
NAIR, Shankari (Department of Radiochemistry, South African Nuclear Energy Corporation, South
Africa); Mr VERMEERSCHEN, Randy (Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN), Belgium); Dr
BASSELET, Bjorn (Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN), Belgium); Dr MOREELS, Marjan (Bel-
gian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN), Belgium)

Presenter:    Dr FISHER, Randall (Radiation Biophysics Division, NRF iThemba LABS, South Africa)

Session Classification: Metrology and Applications

Track Classification: Metrology and Applications

February 11, 2021                                                                             Page 29
Advanced Nuclea … / Report of Contributions                      Dis-equilibrium in the 238U series …

Contribution ID: 32                                                       Type: not specified

              Dis-equilibrium in the 238U series and its
               significance to environmental analysis
                                              Wednesday, 15 September 2021 17:00 (20 minutes)

  Environmental analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides is an important analytical require-
  ment of a radio-analytical laboratory. This is true in South Africa, where mining is a huge part of
  the economic activity. Uranium-238 and its daughters contribute a large percentage in environ-
  mental assessments. A study was conducted on different naturally occurring radioactive material
  emissions to study the effect of dis-equilibrium in the 238U series and its impact on environmen-
  tal radio-analysis. Coal, fly-ash, uranium ore, gold mine tailings and acid mine drainage samples
  were analyzed using a HPGe detector. The results showed that in most of the samples analyzed,
  there was no secular equilibrium in the 238U series with the exception of uranium ore samples.
  Therefore, it was concluded that analysis of the different nuclides in the 238U series is necessary
  for accurate results and that the common assumption that 226Ra is in equilibrium with 238U is
  incorrect and leads to incorrect results. The study recommends the analysis based on three major
  sub-series which develop within the 238U series: 238U - 234U, 226Ra - 214Po and 210Pb - 210Po

Primary author: Prof. TSHIVHASE, Victor (North-West University)
Co-authors: Dr DLAMINI, Thulani (North-West University); Mr KGORINYANE, Koketso (North-West
University)

Presenter: Prof. TSHIVHASE, Victor (North-West University)
Session Classification: Environmental Measurements

Track Classification: Environmental Measurements

February 11, 2021                                                                               Page 30
You can also read