Research for Civil Security 2012 2017 - DEAS

Research for Civil Security 2012 2017 - DEAS
                                                      INNOVAT ON
                                                      PROSPER TY
                                                      The High-Tech Strategy for Germany

      Research for Civil Security
      2012 – 2017
      Framework programme of the Federal Government

Research for Civil Security 2012 2017 - DEAS
                                                      INNOVAT ON
                                                      PROSPER TY
                                                      The High-Tech Strategy for Germany

      Research for Civil Security
      2012 – 2017
      Framework programme of the Federal Government

Research for Civil Security 2012 2017 - DEAS

                                                               We have made security issues a focal point of “High-
                                                            Tech Strategy 2020”, our national innovation strategy.
                                                            Civil security research contributes to prevention and
                                                            also to the management of acute crisis situations.
                                                            Scientists, engineers, and specialists from the social
                                                            sciences and humanities are working together with end
                                                            users and industry in projects to carry out research into
                                                            innovative security solutions that will protect citizens
                                                            and, at the same, fit in with our open society’s percep-
                                                            tion of itself. Right from the start, the project partners
                                                            are including societal aspects such as ethics and data
                                                            protection in their work.

                                                               By building on the achievements of the first pro-
                                                            gramme and establishing new focal points, the Federal
                                                            Government is responding to these challenges with its
                                                            new “Research for Civil Security 2012 – 2017” frame-
Security is the most important prerequisite for our         work programme, with the BMBF coordinating the
ability to move around freely in our open society. How-     Federal Government’s activities here. We expect that
ever, the risks in our changing, globalised world are       the practically oriented security solutions will deliver
becoming increasingly diverse. The internationalisa-        forward-looking ideas on how we can continue to
tion of both trade and travel combined with increased       guarantee civil security for the benefit of the citizens of
digitalisation has many benefits, but also leads to new     this country under changed framework conditions.
risks arising from organised crime and globally active
terrorism, which now exist alongside other risks such
as extreme weather conditions and major accidents.

    The challenge here is to continue to protect critical
infrastructures for utilities, transport, information and   Federal Minister of Education and Research
conurbations to the greatest extent possible. We expect
that this research will deliver solutions that increase
civil security and, in doing so, maintain the balance be-
tween the highest possible level of security and a high
degree of freedom. A central question here is the identi-
fication of a security culture that is compatible with
our liberal and open society. Answering this question
will require an ongoing discourse about the potentials
and risks associated with security measures.
Research for Civil Security 2012 2017 - DEAS
Research for Civil Security 2012 2017 - DEAS


SUMMARY                                                                                               2

1 SECURITY AS A FOUNDATION FOR LIVING A FREE LIFE                                                     4

2 RESEARCH TOPICS                                                                                      8

  2.1   Societal aspects of civil security                                                             8
  2.2   Urban security                                                                                13
  2.3   Security of infrastructures and the economy                                                   16
  2.4   Protection and rescue of people                                                               22
  2.5   Protection against hazardous substances, epidemics and pandemics                              25
  2.6   Information on the BMBF‘s activities in the area of IT security research                      27

3 FUNDING INSTRUMENTS AND MEASURES                                                                    30

  3.1   Joint development of innovative solutions for concrete challenges                             30
  3.2   Supporting innovation transfer                                                                33
  3.3   Broadening the scientific foundations and supporting the further development of competences   39
  3.4   Strengthening international cooperation                                                       39

4 CONNECTING PROGRAMMES                                                                               42

  4.1   The Federal Government‘s framework programmes                                                 42
  4.2   Departmental research and institutional funding                                               45

5 GLOSSARY                                                                                            49
Research for Civil Security 2012 2017 - DEAS
2                                                                                                               SUMMARY

Globalisation is opening up a wide range of opportuni-            The framework programme is targeting its research
ties for the future for Germany as a modern industrial         funding at addressing the global challenges of civil
and knowledge society. However, there are also chal-           security:
lenges associated with globalisation in society, business
and politics that we have to face up to. The internation-      ■■ Security of critical infrastructures: Germany’s secu-
alisation of both trade and travel, the omnipresence              rity architecture is changing. In order to maintain
of the Internet and the threats presented by extreme              and expand the high level of security in Germany in
weather events and globally active terrorism have led             the future, we will be targeting research at the earli-
to new vulnerabilities. We have to protect ourselves              est possible detection of new vulnerabilities and at
with regard to these vulnerabilities in our society that          the ongoing improvement of the robustness of criti-
is open to the outside world and highly technologically           cal infrastructures through innovation.
advanced in equal measures.
                                                               ■■ Security of the economy: Companies from Ger-
    Security is the foundation for living a free life and is      many are subject to risks to an increasing extent in a
an important factor in Germany’s economic prosperity.             modern industrial society and in a global competi-
If we wish to continue to protect individual freedom,             tive environment. With research and innovation, we
the physical integrity of all citizens, and vital state and       aim in particular to put medium-sized companies
economic infrastructures in an effective manner, we               and operators of critical infrastructures in a position
will have to search for new approaches and solutions.             where they can better protect their core technologi-
Building on the achievements of the first national “Re-           cal competences and their expertise against natural
search for Civil Security” programme, the aim here is to          risks and organised economic crime.
harness the strengths of civil security research for the
development of innovative solutions and to contribute          ■■ Security in cyberspace: The security of critical infor-
to the maintenance of an adequate balance between                 mation infrastructures and the guaranteeing of the
freedom and security.                                             permanent availability of cyberspace represent one
                                                                  of the biggest common challenges facing the state,
   The focus here is on solutions which guarantee the             business and society in the 21st century. Research
protection of the population and of critical infrastruc-          is focused on solutions that continuously improve
tures against threats arising from terrorism, sabotage,           the protection of cyberspace against serious attacks
organised crime, piracy or the consequences of natural            while upholding the protection of personal data and
disasters and major accidents, and which contribute to            privacy.
the protection of our liberal way of life.
                                                               ■■ Security of the citizens: Security research is targeted
   With its “Research for Civil Security” framework               at societal issues that affect citizens in their imme-
programme, the Federal Government is investing in                 diate living environments. With targeted research,
tomorrow’s security. The framework programme thus                 we aim to contribute to protecting the population
implements the goals of the “High-Tech Strategy 2020              and securing the population’s natural resources
for Germany”, which includes security as one of five de-          and also wish to stimulate a broad debate in society
mand fields that are guiding the Federal Government’s             about civil security in Germany.
innovation policy activities.
                                                                  The “Research for Civil Security” framework pro-
                                                               gramme is following a holistic and integrated research
                                                               approach that considers the entire innovation chain
                                                               from research right through to applications. We are
                                                               guided here by the needs of end users, particularly of
                                                               authorities and organisations with responsibility for
                                                               security and also of the operators of critical infrastruc-
                                                               tures. Working across the boundaries between various
Research for Civil Security 2012 2017 - DEAS
RESEARCH FOR CIVIL SECURITY 2012 - 2017 – FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT                                           3

disciplines, all the important stakeholders from science,                Broadening the scientific foundations and
business and the state are working on concrete issues                    ­supporting the development of competences
in the research focal areas and are cooperating on the
development of innovative and competitive products                       As an internationally recognised location for science
and services. The emphasis here is always on the issue                   and innovation, Germany must face up to the chal-
of how research and the use of new security solutions                    lenges of global competition in the area of research,
can help to increase civil security for people without                   education and training. We wish to strengthen cooper-
having a negative impact on the protection of basic                      ation in civil security research between disciplines and
civil rights such as freedom and self-determination.                     institutions and to support the further development
The aim of the framework programme is to harness                         of interdisciplinary academic training structures and
the economic opportunities offered by civil security                     programmes.
research and to establish Germany as a leading supplier
of security technologies.                                                    Dealing with risks and concrete hazard situations in
                                                                         the right manner is not necessarily a simple matter. In-
                                                                         stead, it demands comprehensive skills along with the
Supporting innovation transfer                                           ability to implement acquired knowledge both quickly
                                                                         and effectively in everyday situations, in working life or
Innovative security solutions can only be successfully                   in voluntary activities. We aim to promote the im-
implemented in practice if they prove themselves in                      provement of the technical and organisational skills of
society, in everyday use and also in the market. For this                security and rescue workers as well as of company staff.
reason, we will link security research and innovation                    Moreover, our goal is to support the development of
transfer measures in a systematic manner with the goal                   individual security skills amongst the population.
of expanding the leading international position of Ger-
man suppliers of civil security products and technolo-
gies in the long term.                                                   Strengthening international cooperation

                                                                         Germany is aiming to take on an active role in the area
                                                                         of civil security research so that it can play its part in
                                                                         shaping the development of solution approaches for
                                                                         global challenges. We will expand the existing research
                                                                         alliances with strong international technology partners
                                                                         in order to make use of available knowledge and ex-
                                                                         pertise in our national programme. In addition, we are
                                                                         also aiming for targeted bilateral research cooperation
                                                                         projects with countries that will develop important
                                                                         growth markets for civil security.

Research into new security solutions is determined to help increase
civil security for people without affecting basic civil rights such as
freedom and self-determination.
Research for Civil Security 2012 2017 - DEAS
4                                                                      SECURITY AS A FOUNDATION FOR LIVING A FREE LIFE

1 Security as a foundation for living a free life
The security challenges faced by a modern industrial          innovation chain from research right through to ap-
and knowledge society have changed fundamentally.             plications. This requires linked-up thought and action
New opportunities are opening up for Germany as a re-         where the various stakeholders from science, business
sult of the ongoing globalisation of society, commerce        and the state will cooperate across discipline bounda-
and politics. As a society that is open to the world and      ries to develop solutions for concrete threat scenarios.
as an export-oriented economy, we are benefiting to a
major extent from the increasing internationalisation
of trade, travel and knowledge.                               Security is an interdisciplinary issue

   However, this also results in new vulnerabilities.         Technologies that have been developed as part of civil
These vulnerabilities could affect the external and           security research can also contribute to the develop-
internal security of Germany just as they could impact        ment of solutions in other areas such as plant safety.
on the individual freedom and physical integrity of the       The exchange of knowledge between various areas is
country‘s citizens.                                           to be supported here, with the aim of achieving high
                                                              efficiency in research. Differentiation emerges, where
                                                              research is being targeted at concrete applications.
Security as an opportunity for the future

Security is an important factor for business and for the      Building on past achievements
country as a location for business. We benefit from our
high level of security in areas such as supply chains,        We initiated a national research programme on civil
energy supply, and information and transport infra-           security for the first time in early 2007. Since then, civil
structures.                                                   security research has established itself in Germany as
                                                              a research area in its own right with a well-networked
   Powerful high-tech solutions and innovative ser-           community of participants and stakeholders. This
vices will help to maintain this high level of security. At   strengthens the position of German stakeholders in the
the same time, they also create an opportunity to make        international competitive environment and opens up
Germany a leading market for security solutions.              a wide range of opportunities for fostering cooperation

Research for civil security

We must search for new approaches in order to protect
our freedom and the rule of law. Security and freedom
are not incompatible here, but there is a trade-off
between these two factors. Too little security threat-
ens our free way of life, while too much security can
endanger our personal freedom and our right to self-
determination with respect to information. Security re-
search, as we understand it, always takes this trade-off
into consideration. This research will help to maintain
an adequate balance between freedom and security.

   With its “Research for Civil Security” framework
programme, the Federal Government is investing in to-
morrow’s security. In accordance with the “High-Tech          Various rescue organisations such as the German Red Cross and the
Strategy 2020 for Germany”, we are taking a holistic,         fire brigade are cooperating closely in the national security research
integrated research approach that considers the entire
Research for Civil Security 2012 2017 - DEAS

 Research for Civil Security 2007-2011                       ciplinary technologies with a focus on applications.
                                                             Innovative systems using existing technologies are
                                                             being combined with new research approaches in
                                                             39 technology project groups in the focal areas of
                                                             “Detection of hazardous substances”, “Integrated pro-
                                                             tection systems for emergency and security forces”,
                                                             “Pattern recognition” and “Biometrics”. These new
                                                             approaches include technology solutions for quick
              Forschung für die zivile Sicherheit
              Programm der Bundesregierung
                                                             mobile detection of hazardous substances, improved
                                                             training for emergency and security forces, and
                                                             automatic detection of dangerous objects as part of
                                                             luggage inspection.

                                                                 In particular, small and medium-sized enterprises
                                                             (SMEs) are leading the way in terms of technological
                                                             progress in many areas. However, the risks of carry-
                                                             ing out top-level research are often difficult for SMEs
                                                             to bear. Within the framework of its security research
                                                             programme, the BMBF is supporting high-risk
                                                             research projects with its “KMU-innovativ” funding
                                                             initiative with the aim of strengthening the innova-
                                                             tion capacity of small and medium sized enterprises
 As part of its “Research for Civil Security” pro-           in Germany (SMEs, or “KMU” in German). The per-
 gramme, the Federal Ministry of Education and               centage of SMEs in the security research programme
 Research (BMBF) has made around 279 million euros           is around 26 percent. The first security research
 available between 2007 and February 2012 with the           programme was also conceived not as a pure tech-
 aim of improving the civil security of citizens. In         nology programme. Technological and societal issues
 addition, industry has contributed approximately            are being treated in an integrated manner in all of the
 79 million euros of own resources.                          funded projects. The fact that central interdiscipli-
                                                             nary and fundamental issues are being addressed by
     The BMBF has provided funding for 122 joint             the separate “Social dimensions of security research”
 projects in a total of 16 announcements based on            line of funding is a significant factor in the success of
 subject area. Research is being carried out on solu-        the programme. 15 interdisciplinary research projects
 tions for complex security scenarios in 48 projects in      are investigating topics such as civil security culture
 the focal areas of “Protection of transport infrastruc-     and architecture, security organisation and security
 tures”, “Rescue and protection of people”, “Protec-         technology.
 tion against the failure of utility infrastructures”
 and “Securing supply chains”. The most important               The issues involved in civil security are not solely
 research goals in these areas include the optimisation      national challenges. In a total of 9 bilateral coop-
 of measures for emergency care of injured persons,          eration projects, German participants are working
 research into effective security measures for public        together with researchers from countries such as the
 transport, the restoration of the power supply in cas-      USA, France and Israel with the aim of learning from
 es of disaster, and research into security strategies for   each other and improving security for their popula-
 the protection of vital supply and goods chains. The        tions with jointly developed solutions.
 technology-oriented civil security research projects
 have concentrated on the development of interdis-           Further information is available at:
Research for Civil Security 2012 2017 - DEAS
6                                                               SECURITY AS A FOUNDATION FOR LIVING A FREE LIFE

within the framework of the European Union and for
promoting the expansion of international research alli-    Commission on Civil Protection
ances with selected partners.

   We aim to build upon achievements so far with the       The Commission on Civil Protection of the Federal
continuation of the research programme. The research       Ministry of the Interior (Commission on civil
focuses will be targeted at future challenges in civil     protection) advises the Federal Government and
security.                                                  the conference of interior ministers of the federal
                                                           states in a voluntary capacity on scientific and
                                                           scientific-technical issues relating to protection of
Targeting challenges                                       the population. The legal basis for this is provided
                                                           by the Federal Civil Protection and Disaster Assis-
As part of the scope of civil security research, future    tance Act (§ 19 ZSKG).
risks for our society will be analysed in a systematic
manner and innovative, competitive products and                The Commission on civil protection deals
services will be developed. The focus here is on solu-     mainly with issues relating to the prevention of
tions which guarantee the protection of the population     and response to major disasters such as those
and of critical infrastructures against threats arising    caused by natural disasters, international ter-
from terrorism, sabotage, organised crime, piracy or the   rorism, the vulnerability and interconnection of
consequences of natural disasters and major accidents.     critical infrastructures, or pandemics. Specific
                                                           issues are identified in the “Risk reports” published
   Our research funding addresses the global chal-         every three years and in the “Annual position
lenges in civil security:                                  papers”. The Commission on civil protection cur-
                                                           rently consists of 33 members and two honorary
■■ Security of critical infrastructures: Germany’s         members. At present, the Commission is divided
   security architecture is changing. Since the rise of    into the specialist areas of Medicine, Natural
   internationally networked terrorism in particular,      and Engineering Sciences, and Social and Legal
   Germany has had to adapt to a changed security en-      Sciences. Renowned scientists are working in an
   vironment. At the same time, the increasingly close     interdisciplinary manner on issues relating to the
   links between various infrastructures now mean          protection of the population and its livelihood;
   that even small disturbances in one area can lead to    these issues are assigned to the Commission by the
   far-reaching failures in other infrastructures.         Federal Ministry of the Interior or are suggested by
                                                           the Commission itself. The Commission on civil
    Our task is to continuously increase the security      protection also advises the Federal Ministry of the
    and robustness of critical infrastructures through     Interior on the preparation and ongoing devel-
    research and innovation.                               opment of the research framework plan for civil
                                                           protection research (departmental research) of
■■ Security of the economy: Companies from Ger-            the Federal Office of Civil Protection and Disaster
   many are subject to risks to an increasing extent in    Assistance, and also on the implementation of
   a modern industrial society based on the division       research results in line with the current status of
   of labour and in a global competitive environment.      research internationally.
   These risks apply not only to industrial plants and
   humans, but also affect all company processes –         Further information on the Commission on Civil
   from the supply of raw materials and production,        Protection is available in German at
   right through to sales and distribution.      
   The protection of knowledge as a production factor
   is becoming more important all the time. Inter-
   national links and interdependencies in business
RESEARCH FOR CIVIL SECURITY 2012 - 2017 – FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT                                           7

   and information mean that attacks on data and
   industrial espionage are already causing significant
   economic losses today, particularly in medium-
   sized companies.

■■ Security in cyberspace: The availability of cyber-
   space and the integrity, authenticity and confidenti-
   ality of the data it contains have become one of the
   crucial concerns of the 21st century. The state, criti-
   cal infrastructures, business and the population in
   Germany are all dependent on the reliable function-
   ing of information and communication technology
   and of the Internet.
                                                             Civil security research is oriented towards the needs of end users
   Faulty IT products and components, the failure            such as authorities and organisations with responsibility for security
                                                             and the operators of critical infrastructures.
   of information infrastructures or serious attacks
   in cyberspace can have significant adverse conse-
   quences. Guaranteeing security in cyberspace is thus
   a central common challenge for the state, business        ■■ We will target civil security research at current and
   and society.                                                 future challenges and promote the development of
                                                                innovative solutions for the protection of the popu-
■■ Security of the citizens: Security research is tar-          lation and of critical infrastructures
   geted at societal issues that affect citizens in their
   immediate living environments. This includes              ■■ We will focus security research on the entire re-
   improved protection against criminal attacks in              silience cycle (crisis prevention, precautions, crisis
   public transport as well as preventative measures to         reaction, recovery and evaluation)
   strengthen the population‘s capacity to help itself in
   cases of disaster.                                        ■■ We will be guided by the needs of end users, i.e. of
                                                                authorities and organisations with responsibility
   The emphasis here is always on the issue of how              for security and of the operators of critical infra-
   research and the use of new security solutions can           structures, and we will include the entire innovation
   help to increase civil security for people without           chain from research and industry right through to
   having a negative impact on the protection of basic          end users
   civil rights such as freedom and self-determination.
                                                             ■■ We aim to harness the economic opportunities and
                                                                establish Germany as a leading supplier of security
Objectives of the framework programme                           technologies

With security research, we will help to protect our free     ■■ We will coordinate security research and innovation
way of life                                                     transfer measures in a systematic manner

■■ We will consider data protection issues and pro-          ■■ We wish to support the acquisition of individual
   mote the development of solutions with good data             security skills in society as a whole and broaden the
   protection performance                                       scientific basis

■■ We aim to stimulate a broad debate in society about       ■■ We will expand international research cooperation
   the shaping of civil security in Germany                     projects and participate in structuring the develop-
                                                                ment of solution approaches for global challenges
8                                                                                                      RESEARCH TOPICS

2 Research topics
2.1     Societal aspects of civil security                     they preserve the fundamental privacy rights of citi-
                                                               zens and reduce threats? Are we prepared to tolerate
Civil security is a foundation for the individual and          some insecurities? These questions represent a major
social life of all citizens. It has become a central value     challenge for security research. The risks themselves
in contemporary society, particularly in the light of the      and modern security solutions are often complex, and
vulnerabilities associated with modern life, and it is an      can even be difficult to comprehend in certain cases.
important factor in Germany’s economic prosperity.             The objective security situation and our subjective
Civil security is a public asset that is closely associ-       perception of security often do not match each other. It
ated with societal transformation processes and with a         should also be taken into account here that even those
changed understanding of freedom where public space            security solutions that are accepted by a majority of the
is regarded as an arena where individual freedom, free-        population might not be justifiable from ethical view-
dom of communication and social freedom apply. This            points – for example, if these solutions discriminate
has an impact on the subjective perception of security         against minorities. A debate in society on these issues
among the population as well as on the transforma-             will help to structure security solutions in such a way
tion of institutional structures and regulations for the       that they take into account the needs, concerns and
protection of security. Civil security is understood           expectations of the citizens.
here as part of an expanded concept of security. In this
regard, the protection of Germany‘s internal security is           Civil security research can make a successful con-
shaped to an increasing extent by global challenges and        tribution to shaping the transformation in society‘s
the transformation in precautionary measures that are          security cultures and in institutional security architec-
assumed by the state.                                          tures. What is being sought here are not just the best
                                                               solutions from a scientific and technical viewpoint,
  How do we imagine a secure society in the future?            but innovative security solutions that are compatible
How should security measures be structured so that             with the practice of individual organisations and with

    Agenda process for continuation of the                     ground of long-term societal and global develop-
    ­security research programme                               ments.

                                                                   Experts from research and business as well as end
    Research for civil security is a task for society as a     users from the private sector and authorities have
    whole and is investigating the integration of diverse      identified strategically important topics and research
    solution approaches and concepts from the fields of        issues as part of the three agenda workshops on the
    technology as well as social sciences.                     action areas of “Companies and business”, “State
                                                               precautionary security measures” and “Citizens and
       As was done at the preliminary stage of the first       community”. Researchers from almost all disciplines
    programme phase, the Federal Ministry of Education         and representatives from companies, authorities and
    and Research (BMBF) has initiated a comprehensive          non-governmental organisations also identified their
    interdisciplinary agenda process for the continua-         research needs as input for this discussion.
    tion of the security research programme together
    with national stakeholders in the area of civil security      In addition, numerous stakeholders such as re-
    research.                                                  search organisations, authorities, interest groups and
                                                               trade associations took the opportunity to present
       The goal here was to enter into open dialogue           future research requirements in their own subject
    with all societal stakeholder groups and to discuss        papers.
    future challenges in civil security against the back-
RESEARCH FOR CIVIL SECURITY 2012 - 2017 – FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT                                           9

                                                                        society. For this reason, all stakeholders will be involved
                                                                        in the research from the beginning and technical and
                                                                        societal issues will be linked. Only in this way is it pos-
                                                                        sible to support the development of ethically responsi-
                                                                        ble security technologies in a proactive manner while
                                                                        taking into account legal, social and economic aspects.

                                                                           In order to address these challenges, we are target-
                                                                        ing research at the following focuses:

                                                                        Risk management and quantifiability of security

                                                                        The risks for the state, business and society have be-
                                                                        come more diverse and more unpredictable. State and
                                                                        private security stakeholders are faced with a growing
                                                                        spectrum of tasks. The basis for effective protection
Civil security research can make a successful contribution to shaping   of the population and of critical infrastructures is the
the transformation in society's security cultures.                      early identification and evaluation of societal and tech-

  Barometer for security in Germany                                     concerned with individual perceptions, attitudes and
                                                                        behaviours; the level of structures is concerned with
                                                                        objectivised data and institutional rules for large
  Security means freedom from fear and a feeling                        areas such as the Federal Government, states and dis-
  of comfort, safety and trust, among other things.                     tricts; the level of communication is concerned with
  Security is thus a basic, elementary human need and                   societal security communications.
  a central guiding principle for society. The wide spec-
  trum covered by the term “security” results in broad,                    The study is based on the combination of basic
  complex issues regarding objective securities, percep-                data collection, method development and applica-
  tions, sensitivities, conditions and expectations.                    tion-oriented evaluation in a social scientific joint
                                                                        project. The design, methodology and results of this
      Various dimensions of the topic of security are                   study will serve as the basis and orientation reference
  being dealt with and a monitoring study on objec-                     for the implementation of subsequent studies. In the
  tivised and subjective securities in Germany is being                 long term, the new research design with the innova-
  conducted as part of the “Security, perceptions,                      tive research methods that have been tried out will
  reports, conditions and expectations – Monitoring                     make it possible to record development profiles (e.g.
  Security in Germany” (BaSiD) joint project, which is                  by means of follow-up studies). The security barom-
  being coordinated by the Max Planck Institute for                     eter will serve as an instrument for future security
  Foreign and International Criminal Law in Freiburg.                   monitoring for determining long-term trends with
  The security barometer to be created is focussed on                   the aim of providing an aid for criminal policy
  perceptions, expectations and feelings with regard to                 decision-making.
  security in the areas of criminality, terrorism, natural
  disasters and major accidents. Security is consid-                       BaSiD is running from early summer in 2010 to
  ered on the three levels of: the individual, structures               early summer in 2013. Further information is avail-
  and communication. The level of the individual is                     able in German at:
10                                                                                                 RESEARCH TOPICS

nical risks along with the quantitative description of
security, taking into account social and economic costs.    Centre for Criminology

The research topics include:
                                                            The Centre for Criminology (KrimZ) founded in
■■ Development of concepts and methods for risk             1981 as a joint body of the federal and state minis-
   analysis, evaluation and prioritisation, including the   tries of justice and was based in Wiesbaden. Since
   evaluation of residual risks                             1986, it has been dealing with important issues in
                                                            common areas in justice, policing, criminal policy
■■ Investigation of risk awareness among the popula-        and interior security with its activities in research,
   tion                                                     documentation, information distribution and
                                                            advice. Its scientific personnel are interdisciplinary
■■ Methodology for quantifying security and evaluat-        in focus. Cooperations are conducted with other
   ing technical and organisational security measures       bodies – such as the Federal Criminal Police Office
                                                            or university institutes – on an area-specific basis.

Security perception and criminality                             On a number of occasions, the Centre for
                                                            Criminology evaluated the application and effec-
The development of security perception and the way          tiveness of legal regulations that are of particular
that fear, concerns and insecurities are dealt with are     importance to the public interest. The investigation
factors that affect citizens in their personal living       of persons held in preventive detention who are
environments and shape society and its value system.        to be released after the end of the ten-year period
This applies to the transformation in security culture      is not yet complete. In cooperation with the Ruhr
values as well as to changes in personal perceptions        University of Bochum, the KrimZ is preparing an
of security that can be triggered by the use of modern      analysis of the possible impacts of Germany's act
security technology. Results available so far show that     of 30/7/2009 relating to prosecution for prepara-
the subjective security perception of the population        tion for serious acts of violence that endanger the
does not always correspond to the actual risks and          state (GVVG). The evaluation of this act will also
threats – for example, those presented by various forms     consider the issue of whether the legal regulations
of criminality.                                             are appropriate for reducing the risks presented by
                                                            international terrorism. Studies on the following
The research topics include:                                topics have already been completed: the “criminal
                                                            careers” of dangerous sexual offenders; smuggling
■■ Ongoing development of methods for control-              and trafficking of humans; aspects of extremist,
   ling and preventing criminality, and research on         politically motivated criminality.
                                                                Parliaments and ministers also commission the
■■ Investigations of the changes in and influencing         KrimZ's criminologists to act in various ways in a
   ­factors for security perception and risk perception     consultative capacity on a range of current issues in
                                                            public security. Noteworthy here is the participation
■■ Role and influence of the security perception of citi-   in terms of both organisation and content in the Fed-
   zens as part of national crisis management concepts,     eral Government's two security reports of 2001 and
   taking into account a changing social structure          2006. The Federal Government and the states each
                                                            provide 50 percent of the funding for the KrimZ.
■■ Establishment of better fundamental knowledge
   in the areas of research into unreported crime and       Further information is available in German at:
   recidivism prediction                          

■■ Dynamic analysis of future threat developments                 The research topics include:
   and profiles of criminals, particularly in the area of
   organised crime and Internet crime                             ■■ Strategies and concepts for efficient and interoper-
                                                                     able communication structures within and between
                                                                     authorities and organisations with responsibility for
Communication                                                        security

The way that risks are dealt with and quick and suc-              ■■ Investigations of the intended and non-intended
cessful crisis management are dependent on the avail-                consequences of communication contents
ability of information and the efficiency of communi-
cation processes. Suitable communication strategies               ■■ The potential and role of new interactive media
include all relevant stakeholders such as crisis manage-             (e.g. Internet and social media) for risk and crisis
ment groups, security and emergency forces, event or-                communication with the population
ganisers and the public. Risk and crisis communication
that is tailored for stakeholders and target groups uses
the potential of new media and be responsive to chang-            Strengthening resilience
ing media behaviour. It will create an awareness among
the population for perceiving risks and dangers at an             Civil security can only be guaranteed in the long term
early stage. It will also communicate possible methods            if the resilience of society is strengthened. For example,
for self-help and prevention. At the same time, the               this would include improving the robustness and secu-
communication processes and cultures of authorities               rity of critical infrastructures and increasing the ability
and organisations with responsibility for security must           of the population to overcome crisis situations.
be structured in such a way that cooperation between
security and emergency forces, municipal officials and               The research goal is to employ a systematic ap-
state and federal authorities is optimised.                       proach to increase Germany‘s resilience and thus
                                                                  also to improve the protection of every single citizen
                                                                  against security risks and threats.

                                                                  The research topics include:

                                                                  ■■ Development of concepts and analytical methods to
                                                                     increase society‘s resilience

                                                                  ■■ Analysis of needs and improved awareness, in-
                                                                     formation and training concepts, also taking into
                                                                     account the potential of new media

                                                                  ■■ Concepts for providing training in skills in deal-
                                                                     ing with disasters and increasing the population‘s
                                                                     capacity for self-help

                                                                  The security economy

                                                                  The market for security products and services had a
A quick and successful crisis response is dependent on the fast   global volume of approximately 100 billion euros in
­availability of information and on an efficient communication    2008 and, according to the Organisation for Economic
                                                                  Co-operation and Development (OECD), is growing by
12                                                                                                        RESEARCH TOPICS

five to seven percent each year. The European Econom-       Social and technical change
ic Area is responsible for around 30 percent of the total
volume. With its innovations, civil security research       Social change processes with profound consequences
will contribute to the further development of the mar-      and the increasing degree of interconnection of techni-
ket for security technologies and services, meaning that    cal systems and infrastructures are presenting a major
innovative German companies and research institu-           challenge to civil security.
tions will be able to benefit from this booming market.
                                                               The research goal is to contribute to the shaping of
   Even though around 80 percent of critical infra-         the development and transformation of civil security
structures are now in private sector ownership, the         solutions in a proactive manner while taking into ac-
market is also characterised by demand from the public      count legal, social and economic aspects.
sector. Changed security requirements are increasing
the need for the introduction of innovative security        The research topics include:
technologies and services, even despite the increas-
ingly limited resources of public budgets. This will        ■■ Investigations of demographic and social change
have effects on future financing of security services          and its effects on civil security – for example, with
and, ultimately, will also lead to increased expansion of      regard to the changes in society‘s security needs
security partnerships.                                         and in the organisation of security and training of
                                                               security stakeholders
   The research goal is to investigate the economic
consequences and effects of security culture change         ■■ Contributions to research into causes of political ex-
processes and security measures in particular and to           tremism, terrorism and radical tendencies in society,
contribute to the development of new business models.          and the development of preventative measures and
                                                               of potential national and social countermeasures
The research topics include:

■■ Financial analyses of security scenarios and technol-
   ogies, particularly from overall economic viewpoints

■■ Investigations of the importance of international
   dependencies with regard to access to key technolo-
   gies and raw materials for the guaranteeing of civil

■■ Investigations of the economic costs and benefits of
   security measures

■■ Investigations of the framework conditions for
   cross-institutional cooperation and business models
   for security partnerships

■■ Analyses of the organisational and legal impacts
   of the transfer of official state tasks and of struc-
   tural changes in security architecture, including
   investigations of the transferability of international
   concepts                                                 People buried under rubble can be located more quickly using the
                                                            portable detection system from the I-LOV project. Further informa-
                                                            tion is available in German at:

■■ Investigations of the effects of processes of in-          Protection against criminality
   creased technology use on members of authorities
   and organisations with responsibility for security         Criminality and fear of criminality can significantly
   and on the staff of private security service providers.    reduce the quality of life in cities and other municipal
   The focus here is on changes in training require-          areas. New organisational and technical prevention
   ments and standards that are common to various             methods can be researched and crime prevention
   organisations                                              measures can be developed and refined on the basis of
                                                              regional analyses of risks and needs.
■■ Investigations and analyses of legal and societal
   requirements and of the security-related framework
   conditions for the development of technologies
   that respect data protection, taking into account the        Cooperative security policy in the city
   “privacy by design” principle

■■ Investigations and concepts relating to the shaping
   of interfaces between humans and technology and
   to the effects of human-technology interactions in
   security technology systems

2.2   Urban security

People want to feel safe all the time in their immedi-
ate living environments, on the way to work or when
attending a major event. The terrorist attacks in Madrid
(2004) and London (2005) and criminal attacks in un-
derground and other suburban train services and sta-
tions in various major cities in Germany have focused           Since the early 1990s, cooperations between the
the attention of politicians, the public and the media          police and municipal authorities and charitable
on the issue of urban security. Cities and other commu-         organisations, educational institutions, civil society
nities are facing the challenge of ensuring that citizens       organisations and other participants have been
will continue to be protected in the future.                    an important factor in crime prevention and the
                                                                development of intervention strategies. However,
    Civil security research will contribute to detecting        not all of the partners involved are always satisfied
risks at an early stage, reducing instances of lacks of         with the scope and procedures of this coopera-
security, and anchoring security as an integral preven-         tion. The aim of the “Cooperative Security Policy
tative component of modern urban planning, without              in the City” (Kooperative Sicherheitspolitik in der
limiting the diversity and freedom of city life or curtail-     Stadt, KoSiPol) project is to obtain an insight into
ing people‘s right to self-determination with respect           the composition of committees, the processes of
to information. The potentials of security technologies         opinion-forming and decision-making, and imple-
and services are to be researched here and, in addition,        mentation strategies for local cooperation projects
the social and economic impacts of these technologies           on civil security. On the basis of this analysis, the
and services are to be investigated.                            project is developing concepts for the improvement
                                                                of local security partnerships.
   In order to address these challenges, we are target-
ing research at the following focuses:                          Further information is available in German at:
14                                                                                                    RESEARCH TOPICS

  Foundation of the German Forum for Crime                   The core message of the “Conditions for the success
  Prevention                                                 of prevention of interpersonal violence in childhood
                                                             and youth” expert report published by the foundation
                                                             in 2008 is that long-term prevention for the young is
  The German Forum for Crime Prevention (DFK) was            best implemented by means of coordinated measures
  founded in Bonn in 2001 as a non-profit foundation         and programmes. Accordingly, the foundation is also
  under German civil law. The Federal Government,            working on coordinating and embedding preven-
  federal states, numerous companies, associations,          tion programmes that have proven to be effective. In
  trade unions, religious communities and local gov-         this context, the DFK is supporting the evaluation of
  ernment associations are represented on the board of       the implementation of effective prevention services
  the foundation.                                            in municipal and institutional practice as a sample
                                                             project. The focus here is on successfully meeting the
     Promoting crime prevention in all its aspects is        challenges of implementation processes – particu-
  the task of this foundation, which has the remit of        larly the improvement of cooperation between the
  serving society as a whole. These aspects include:         participating stakeholders – and on the investigation
  knowledge transfer and the networking of numer-            of applicability to comparable issues.
  ous countrywide prevention stakeholders; support
  for and initiation of concrete prevention projects;            The foundation communicates through its
  research and development of systematic long-term           quarterly “forum kriminalprävention” magazine and
  prevention strategies.                                     its website, which also includes a German-language
                                                             portal under “Prävention im Überblick" (Overview of
      As part of its violence prevention focus, the foun-    prevention) with important prevention stakeholders,
  dation has successfully established and developed the      including the state prevention committees.
  main action requirements for violence prevention as
  part of a cumulative process in cooperation with oth-      Further information is available at:
  er relevant bodies such as the German Youth Institute.

The research topics include:                                 structures and transport hubs. Even if the best possible
                                                             precautions are taken, it will still not be possible to
■■ Investigations of the causes of “zones of fear” in        protect citizens in urban areas against all conceivable
   residential or inner city districts                       and unforeseen crisis events.

■■ The influence of societal trends – such as demo-              The research goal here is to increase the resilience of
   graphic change – on future developments in crimi-         urban living environments. Integrated urban planning
   nality in urban living environments                       and protection concepts make cities more resilient in
                                                             disaster or crisis situations. Comprehensive risk and
■■ The development of improved forms of cooperation          emergency management systems help to better esti-
   between various security stakeholders, particularly       mate potential threats and their impacts. These systems
   in public-private security partnerships                   network and coordinate all private-sector and national
                                                             security stakeholders in an efficient manner in crisis
                                                             situations. In this way, it becomes possible to restore
“The resilient city”                                         the ability of urban infrastructures to act and function
                                                             as quickly as possible.
Towns, cities and metropolises are particularly vulnera-
ble because of their high densities of vital supply infra-

                                                        Security in public facilities
 Networking transport companies, emergency
 services, event organisers and passengers              Unhindered access to public facilities to such as mu-
                                                        nicipal offices and libraries is taken for granted as a part
                                                        of modern urban living. Vandalism, violence at schools
                                                        and restrictions to public life caused by anonymous
                                                        bomb threats can have serious – even tragic – con-
                                                        sequences. These consequences affect the security
                                                        perception among citizens.

                                                            Against this background, holistic prevention ap-
                                                        proaches and protection measures must be developed
                                                        that promote the expansion of security expertise and
                                                        facilitate improved risk and crisis communication. The
                                                        goal is to deliver practically oriented research results
                                                        in a form that can be used to improve intervention
                                                        methods – for example, in situations with conflict or
 The increasing numbers attending major events          violence in schools.
 are presenting new challenges for municipalities
 and for public transport. The aim of the “Network-
 ing of Local Passenger Transport Companies, Relief     Security in the residential environment
 Personnel, Organisers and Passengers” (VeRSiert)
 project is to provide the greatest possible security   The fear of criminality and a feeling that an area is not
 for those attending major events, particularly         safe can significantly reduce the quality of life in urban
 when travelling to and from the event by bus, tram     environments – particularly for older people. A desire
 or train. VeRSiert, which is being headed by Nah-      to avoid risk can even lead to people withdrawing and
 verkehr Rheinland GmbH, is employing innovative        staying in their homes to an increased extent. At the
 technologies and organisational concepts here.         same time, urban communities will face new social
                                                        challenges in the future due to the increased life expec-
    The project is developing an information and        tancy of the population, the increase in the number of
 cooperation portal that can be used to optimise        single-person households and the coexistence of vari-
 cross-organisation networking in the planning          ous ethnic milieus.
 and holding of major events and in the post-event
 phase. The project is also generating short-term          With the aid of research, new cooperation strate-
 predictions to quantify movements of people            gies and protection concepts in crime prevention can
 attending events based on new video analysis           be developed and civic security partnerships in urban
 procedures and simulations. It is also developing      environments can be supported.
 applications for mobile end devices to provide
 information to those attending events so that they
 can avoid critical congestion points and reduce        Security in public transport
 waiting times when travelling to the event.
                                                        Public transport is one of the most important social and
 Further information is available in German at:         economic lifelines of urban areas. The dense rail and road                                networks and transport-related facilities such as bridges,
                                                        tunnels, railway stations and bus and tram stops are neu-
                                                        ralgic nodes. Vandalism, criminal attacks on passengers
                                                        and staff, or terrorist attacks can affect the security and
                                                        reliability of public transport to a serious extent.
16                                                                                                            RESEARCH TOPICS

The research topics include:                                          stakeholders can also improve the supply of drinking
                                                                      water, food and medicine to the population in crisis
■■ Integrated prevention concepts and security                        situations.
   systems that apply to various modes of transport
   and ensure better protection for urban transport
   infrastructures by means of construction or other                  2.3   Security of infrastructures and the economy
   technical measures, for example
                                                                      As a modern, highly industrialised society, Germany is
■■ Optimised training and qualification concepts that                 dependent on a range of functioning infrastructures.
   enable staff to detect crisis situations at an early               These supply private households, companies and
   stage and to react in an appropriate manner                        public administration with electricity, water, goods and
                                                                      services. These critical infrastructures form a dense grid
■■ Improved communication concepts that increase                      and are dependent on one another to a high degree.
   the subjective sense of security of passengers and                 Even minor disruptions can cause domino effects that
   personnel                                                          can lead to temporary supply bottlenecks and signifi-
                                                                      cant losses for the economy. For example, an adequate
                                                                      supply of drinking water for the population could be
Security of supply to the population                                  endangered if the electricity supply is interrupted for a
                                                                      longer period.
The high population density in urban areas and the
strong degree of interconnection of supply infrastruc-                    State and private-sector infrastructure operators
tures present particular technical and organisational                 and companies are faced with the challenge of main-
challenges to emergency and rescue workers. Research                  taining and further improving the high level of security
can help to increase the resilience of urban infrastruc-              in Germany in the future. In particular, this includes
tures with the aid of preventative measures. Innovative               the protection of technological core competencies
risk and emergency management that involves various                   and business expertise of Germany as a location for
                                                                      business and knowledge against organised economic
                                                                      crime and industrial espionage. Civil security research
                                                                      will contribute to the early identification of new
                                                                      vulnerabilities in both stand-alone and interconnected
                                                                      infrastructures and the further development of existing
                                                                      crisis management and emergency supply concepts.

                                                                         In order to address these challenges, we are target-
                                                                      ing research at the following focuses:

                                                                      Security of critical infrastructures

                                                                      The protection of critical infrastructures is a chal-
                                                                      lenge for society as a whole. Alongside energy supply,
                                                                      the infrastructures involved here include the supply
                                                                      of drinking water and food, secure supply chains and
                                                                      health care, as well as transport, communication and
                                                                      administration infrastructures and critical industrial
Innovative risk and emergency management that takes into account      plants. Around 80 percent of critical infrastructures are
many participating bodies can help to ensure that a secure drinking   operated by the private sector. With its “National Strat-
water supply is available to the population.
                                                                      egy for Critical Infrastructure Protection”, Germany

will continue the successful approach taken so far of         Natural, technical and societal risks and the increas-
trust-based, constructive cooperation and will intensify   ing degree of interconnection within and between
and expand cooperation between relevant stakeholders       individual infrastructures have resulted in an increased
from the state and business sectors.                       level of vulnerability.

                                                           The research topics include:

  Simulation of cascade effects                            ■■ Risk-based resilience strategies that aim to improve
                                                              the resilience and restoration capacity of individual
                                                              critical infrastructures and of the overall system
                                                              of interconnected infrastructures as part of an ap-
                                                              proach that covers all risks

                                                           ■■ Simulations and prediction models that are com-
                                                              mon to a number of infrastructures and help to
                                                              ensure the robustness of critical infrastructures in
                                                              the long term and to facilitate the management of

                                                           ■■ Technical solutions and crisis management and
                                                              emergency supply concepts that allow for the
                                                              restoration of damaged infrastructures as quickly
  Infrastructures such as the electricity, gas, heat          as possible and guarantee a temporary emergency
  and water supplies are of prime importance for              supply of vital goods and services
  the everyday life of every single citizen and for the
  processes in entire industrial sectors.                  ■■ Technical solutions and measures which can be
                                                              used in an integrated, mobile or stand-alone man-
      The goal of the “Simulation of Inter-Sector Cas-        ner and which improve the protection of critical
  cade Effects in Failures of Supply Infrastructures”         infrastructures against the consequences of natural
  (SIMKAS-3D) project, which is being headed by the           disasters, terrorist attacks or risks from new tech-
  Center for Technology and Society at the Technis-           nology, including investigations of the impacts of
  che Universität Berlin, is to develop an integrated         electromagnetic pulses and geomagnetic storms
  perspective on the security of supply infrastruc-
  tures in disaster situations. The project also goes
  beyond consideration of the risks of individual          Security of tomorrow‘s infrastructures
  systems and focuses on interactions and poten-
  tial cascade effects. SIMKAS-3D analyses existing        New technological developments will mean that
  dependencies and generates cross-system threat           infrastructures will not only be more strongly inter-
  scenarios to help provide an overview of processes       connected in the future, but will also be organised in
  and procedures in emergencies. Thanks to the             a more decentralised manner. Examples include the
  development of 3D software and the improved              “Internet of Things”, the advent of smart-grid technol-
  organisation of action procedures, SIMKAS-3D             ogy in energy supply, the continuing expansion of
  facilitates better cooperation in crisis management      e-government, and the increased use of telemedical ap-
  and in risk and crisis communication.                    plications in health care. However, the associated gains
                                                           in terms of convenience, security and mobility are also
  Further information is available in German at:           accompanied by new vulnerabilities. For this reason, it                                 is necessary to develop integrated design and resilience
                                                           strategies at an early stage (“security by design”) that
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