ROLE OF NCB INTERPOL-INDONESIA IN COMBATING TERRORISM

ROLE OF NCB INTERPOL-INDONESIA IN COMBATING TERRORISM

ROLE OF NCB INTERPOL-INDONESIA IN COMBATING TERRORISM

ROYAL THAI POLICE COLLEGE ROLE OF NCB INTERPOL- INDONESIA IN COMBATING TERRORISM by: Albert Barita Sihombing / 144 Command Course Advance 38th BANGKOK, APRIL 2014

ROLE OF NCB INTERPOL-INDONESIA IN COMBATING TERRORISM

; ABSTRACT “If information like a light, sharing information is the brightness of light” (Albert Sihombing) Operationally, the front guard of law enforcement counter-terrorism is carried out by the Special Detachment 88 Anti-Terrorism Indonesia National Police assisted by other related elements. In terms of foreign affairs, Detachment 88 is supported by the NCB-Interpol Indonesia which is defined as the main gateway to deal with foreign relations and cooperation between police to police and international organizations in the context of trans-national crime prevention.

The main role of NCB Interpol-Indonesia in combating trans-national crime (especially terrorism) is providing assistance in facilitating, investigating and coordinating cooperation between police to police and international organizations. This working paper is presented in the form of administrative writing containing information about the implementation of job descriptions base on my experience in NCB Interpol, especially as a Head Certain Economic Subsection Department of International Crime in charge of matters related with terrorism.

As a tool to analyze and find the logical thinking, SWOT and Rational Planning Theory are presented as references in order to obtain the academic significance that can be accounted for as an objective and measurable scientific paper. Hopefully this paper can be utilized as a means of communication that are both informative and corrective purposes, particularly the effectiveness of the objective achievement. Finally, if information like a light, sharing information is the brightness of light, then, to enhance sharing information, posting INP personnel in Interpol and UNO headquarter is strongly recommended after deepen this paper work.

Albert Barita Sihombing

ROLE OF NCB INTERPOL-INDONESIA IN COMBATING TERRORISM

CONTENTS ABSTACT CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION . . CHAPTER II: SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS TOPIC, MANAGEMENT, AND TERMINOLOGY… 1. The Significant of Paper … … 2. The Management of Writing … … 3. Terminology … . CHAPTER III: ROLE OF NCB INTERPOL-INDONESIA IN COMBATING TERRORISM….. 4. Legal Basis in Combating Terrorism . . 5. Task of NCB-Interpol Indonesia in Handling Terrorism . . 6. Profile of NCB Interpol Indonesia . . 7. Organization Structure … . 8. Job Description of Head of Sub-section of Certain Economic Crime … . 9. Problems in Implementing the Task/Duty . .

CHAPTER IV: THEORY SWOT AND THE RATIONAL PLANNING MODEL . . 10. Theory SWOT … … 11. The Rational Planning Model . . CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION . . 12. Solution … … 13. Recommendation . . APPENDIX . . 1. Law Foundation in Combating Terrorism . . a. International Law … … b. National Law … … 2. Guidance Books as an Attitude Reference … … 3. List of Tables as Guidance in Conducting Cooperation … . a. Table 1: List of Countries that had Bilateral Agreement with INP . . b. Table 2: List of Countries that had Extradition Agreement with INP … . c. Table 3: List of Countries that had Agreement in Mutual Legal Assistance ………… 4. Case Example in Handing Over (Pratheepan Thavarajah . .

5. Reference . . 6. Curriculum Vitae … . i 1 2 2 2 3 5 5 7 7 13 15 19 20 20 22 25 25 26 27 27 27 27 28 29 29 29 30 30 32 33

Page 1 of 33 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Terror action in 2000-2014 happened in Indonesia due to the interpretation of religion that still exists until now. The mentioned interpretation has motivated some people in Indonesia to commit terror in the name of God, as a reflection of faith and form of solidarity to defend Muslims around the world. The trigger of terror actions are strongly related with terror chain which initially took place at the global level that shifted to a regional one. The war history of Palestinian- Israeli, the development of Middle East conflict and the dominance of western world power maps often conflict with the Islamic world issues that strengthen Muslim Brotherhood to join together in fight against America and its allies. While regional influence occurs in the form of open access to make contact and cooperation based on the spirit of the Muslim Brotherhood.

Contact and cooperation between JI (Jemaah Islamiyah) and al-Qaeda, for example, occurred at the time of Afghanistan conflict in the form of sending JI volunteers to Afghanistan to fight against the Soviet Union. On the other hand, Al- Qaeda trained the volunteers to make bombs and sent funds to the volunteers when they returned to Indonesia to get involved in terror action with the targets: U.S. interests, the West and Christian symbols. There are international connections, terrorist networking and the agenda of international terrorist group that influence terror action in Indonesia. If it is not supported by the international cooperation, the involvement of the terrorist international group actors would not be revealed. Thus, to handle terrorism as extraordinary crime, sharing information is needed as part of investigation to reveal terrorist networking more comprehensively.

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the roles and the problems of NCB Interpol-Indonesia in combating terrorism case especially in the perspective of the Writer in conducting duty as an investigator, facilitator, and coordinator of the “project of sharing information”.

Page 2 of 33 CHAPTER 2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS TOPIC, MANAGEMENT, AND TERMINOLOGY 1. The significances of this paper are: a. informing and explaining the job description, role and task of NCB Interpol- Indonesia in combating terrorism especially in sharing information between Police to Police and International Organization about the international activities of terrorist suspect; b. acquiring mastery of relevant theories in explaining more actual topic; c. achieving deeper understanding about the topic more comprehensively, clearly, and sharply; d. enhancing the ability of making significant recommendations. 2. The management of writing consists of five chapters as follows: a. Chapter I: Introduction The first chapter is defining situation to introduce the topic and the purpose of writing.

b. Chapter II: Significance of this Topic and Management The second chapter is the goals of writing to explain the significance of the topic in the form of an administrative writing based on job description and the experience of the Writer in conducting task and duty as a staff of NCB Interpol-Indonesia. c. Chapter III: Role of NCB Interpol-Indonesia in Combating Terrorism The third chapter is searching for alternatives to achieve the goals of writing by getting relevant information related to the legal basic and task of NCB Interpol-Indonesia in combating terrorism. Then to get comprehensive understanding, the profile of NCB Interpol-Indonesia would provided with the structure of organization as well as role of International crime department at

Page 3 of 33 NCB-Interpol Indonesia, job descriptions of Certain Economic Crime Section (that handles terrorist case) and the problem that may occur while conducting task and duty. d. Chapter IV: SWOT Analysis and Rational Planning Model The fourth chapter is choosing the best alternatives to achieve the specific goals of this writing related to the performance of conducting job description and the procedure of making decision by getting relevant information about SWOT analysis and Rational Planning Model. In this chapter, the Writer would give some personal implemented experiences to deepen the understanding about the topic.

e. Chapter V: Conclusion. The fifth chapter is the conclusion. In this chapter the Writer would provide some logical suggestions based on analytical thinking about the discussed topics. Hoping those produced suggestions would be useful for enhancing the contribution of NCB Interpol-Indonesia in combating terrorism case. f. Appendix. Enriching the content, any related Law and documentation are provided as an integral part of this paper work, so that readers can evaluate and use them as references in knowing the performance of job description of Certain Economic Crime Section, at International Crime Department of NCB Interpol- Indonesia in combating terrorism. Then, as a complementary, case example of handing over, book’s reference and curriculum vitae of Writer would be added as useful information as well.

3. Terminology 1. Terrorist1 1 Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, definitions of terrorism. See: Sihombing, Albert Barita, 2013. The Radicalization of Terrorist (A Criminological Study on The Motives of Terrorism in Indonesia), Thesis Foreign Affairs Police. Central Police University ROC Taiwan. Page 2.

Page 4 of 33 In 2004, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1566 condemned terrorist acts as: “criminal acts, including against civilians, committed with the intent to cause death or serious bodily injury, or taking of hostages, with the purpose to provoke a state of terror in the general public or in a group of persons or particular persons, intimidate a population or compel a government or an international organization to do or to abstain from doing any act, which constitute offences within the scope of and as defined in the international conventions and protocols relating to terrorism, are under no circumstances justifiable by considerations of a political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious or other similar nature." Regarding to Article 6 No. 15/2003 of Indonesian Law on Anti Terrorism Crime, Terrorism is defined as intentional act using violence or threats of violence that leads to an atmosphere of terror or a widespread fears or causing mass casualties, by robbing the independence or eliminating life and property of others or causing damage to and destruction of vital strategic objects or environment or public facilities or international facilities. 2. Terrorism2 In a psychological perspective, terrorism is a purposeful human activity. In a strictly political context, terrorism has become an emotive expression, a pejorative label designed to produce a particular impact upon the person to whom it is addressed and a certain impression about the person with reference to whom it is used. Terrorism is a bad word and when conduct is characterized in this way it is intended to reflect adversely, in the socio-political scheme of things, upon the actor. Terrorism has come to mean something bad that is done to people by other people, whether by individual acting alone or in concert, or by governments.

3. Clandestine Groups3 A clandestine group, also known as a secret society, is a network of individuals operating in secrecy in order to maintain the integrity of the group and to conceal their plans, activities, and missions from those who are not part of the group. 2 Cooper, H.H.A. “What Is A Terrorist: A Psychological Perspective” Legal Medical Quarterly. 1977. Vol. 1 No. 1. See: Sihombing, Albert Barita, 2013. The Radicalization of Terrorist (A Criminological Study on The Motives of Terrorism in Indonesia), Thesis Foreign Affairs Police. Central Police University ROC Taiwan. Page 16.

3 Erickson, Bonnie H. “Secret Societies and Social Structure.” Social Forces. 1981. vol. 60, 1, p 189.

Page 5 of 33 CHAPTER 3 ROLE OF NCB INTERPOL-INDONESIA IN COMBATING TERRORISM 4. Legal Basis in Combating Terrorism The handling of terrorism cases in Indonesia is a series of action in the achievements of the objectives that is conducted by the following basis: 1. The Philosophical Foundation Philosophical foundation in handling terrorism is Pancasila (Five Principles), as the official philosophical foundation of the Indonesian state. In term of philosophical, Indonesia has independent people based on (1) Belief in the divinity of God, (2) Just and civilized humanity, (3) The unity of Indonesia, (4) Democracy guided by the inner wisdom in the unanimity arising out of deliberations amongst representatives, (5) Social justice for all of the people of Indonesia. Then any conflicting to basic state is considered against the ideals of the nation.

2. The Law Foundation Legally, the conception of counter-terrorism is equal distance concept that is the eradication of terrorism that aims at: 1) protecting the sovereignty of the unitary State of the Republic Indonesia; 2) protecting human right of the citizens of Republic Indonesia, both domestic and inhabitant who live in abroad; 3) also protecting human right of the suspect of terror criminal offense as the universal human right that should not be ignored.4 3. The Sociological Foundation Sociologically, terrorism is defined as severe human right violations, and considered as the big enemy for the country. Terrorist crime is regarded as a serious threat to the survival of the nation sustainability. This phenomenon is 4 Atmasasmita Romli, Masalah Pengaturan Terorisme dan Perspektif Indonesia, Jakarta, Badan Pembinaan Hukum Nasional Departemen Kehakiman dan HAM RI, 2002, page 2.

Page 6 of 33 the driving force factor of issued anti-terrorism Law as a lex specialist law product. The seriousness in combating terrorism crime is also proved by the establishment of a special unit in terms of law enforcement against terrorism, namely Special Detachment 88 Anti Terror Indonesia National Police (Densus 88 Anti-Teror). Furthermore, to better synergize and sharpen the concept of the role of military intelligence and police with the other relevant agencies in prevention, de-radicalization, 5 prosecution, and preparation of national preparedness, in 2010 BNPT6 (National Agency for Combating Terrorism) was formed as an institution that has task to coordinate all anti-terror activities among ministries/institutions.

4. Operational Foundation Operationally, the front guard of law enforcement counter-terrorism is carried out by the Special Detachment 88 Anti-Terrorism (Densus 88 AT) Indonesia National Police7 assisted by other related elements. In terms of 5 The term radicalism comes from the word radical, which means root or base. As a noun of person, radical means a person who holds or follows strong convictions or extreme principles. Radicalism means, the holding or following of radical or extreme views or principles. De-Radicalism means, to reduce radicalism. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/radicalism?s=b. See: Sihombing, Albert Barita, 2013. The Radicalization of Terrorist (A Criminological Study on The Motives of Terrorism in Indonesia), Thesis Foreign Affairs Police. Central Police University ROC Taiwan. Page 1 6 BNPT (National Agency for Combating Terrorism) is led by an officer whose rank is equal to 3 star-General with these following main tasks: a. formulating policies, strategies, and national programs in the field of counter-terrorism; b. coordinating the relevant government agencies/institutions in the implementation of and implementing policies in the field of counter-terrorism; c. implementing policies in the field of counter-terrorism by forming a task force consisting of the elements of relevant government agencies/institutions in accordance with their own duties, functions, and authorities. Field jobs of counter-terrorism covers prevention, protection, de-radicalization, prosecution, and preparation for national preparedness.

7 Detachment 88/AT is a special unit under the Indonesian National Police (formed on June 30, 2003) in charge of conducting investigations and criminal investigations of terrorism in the context of law enforcement related to: a. the existence and activities of every person / element / group / community / organization believed to be a network or potential to be used as a terrorist network; b. the crime with a nature of terror is any act which meets the elements of criminal offense in accordance with the provisions in the law of eradication of terrorism; c. Criminal act or other law violation that probably has terrorism motif, especially in cases with political nuances and cross country.

Page 7 of 33 foreign affairs, Detachment 88 is supported by the NCB-Interpol Indonesia (Divhubinter Polri) defined as the main gateway to deal with foreign relations and cooperation between police to police and international organizations in the context of trans-national crime prevention. 5. Task of NCB-Interpol Indonesia in Handling Terrorism In order to support counter-terrorism, the main tasks of NCB-Interpol Indonesia are: 1) overseeing traffic as well as detecting the possibility of terrorists in obtaining the explosives and weapons from abroad; 2) terminating the terrorist relationships with other criminal syndicates that exist in foreign countries; 3) increasing the security of Indonesian international interests; 4) expanding the implementation of cooperation in investigation, prosecution and extradition; 5) deploying power of the police in the bordering region to anticipate and eliminate cross-border crime, among others by adding and strengthening the Police Force and the existing checkpoints border or increasing water patrols in an integrated system.

6. Profile of NCB Interpol Indonesia a. History at Glance Juridically, the establishment of National Central Bureau (NCB) in a country is in accordance with chapter 22 of the ICPO-Interpol Constitution which maintains that every member country must assign a body to function as the National Central Bureau for assuring relationships between internal as well as with the Secretary General of ICPO-Interpol. In 1954, Indonesia was officially accepted as the member of ICPO- Interpol. By the end 1954, by the issuance of the Decree of Prime Minister of the Republic of Indonesia No. 245/PM/195 dated October 5, 1954, the

Page 8 of 33 government of the Republic of Indonesia assigned the State Police Bureau as NCB Interpol-Indonesia to represent Indonesian government in ICPO-Interpol organization. At that time, the Chief of State Police was assigned as the Head of NCB Indonesia to follow up on the Decree of Prime Minister of the Republic of Indonesia. b. Validation Organization of NCB Interpol Indonesia to be International Relations Division (Divhubinter Polri) International Relations Division is a sub organization under the Indonesia National Police (INP). It is established based on Chief of INP Decree No. 21, 2010 on Structural Organization and framework at the INP Headquarters level. This organization is the result of validation carried out within INP organization which previously was known as a Secretariat of NCB- Interpol Indonesia. International Relations Division has been formally made effective since September 2010 as an assistant chief of the INP in controlling police international relations.

Position of Divhubinter Polri is an element of supervisor and a co-leader in the field of international relations under the Chief of Indonesian National Police. Divhubinter Polri is in charge of conducting tasks of National Central Bureau (NCB)-INTERPOL in international cooperation to fight against international/transnational crime, carrying out tasks of the international mission in peace and humanitarian missions, development of human resources (capacity building), as well as assisting legal protection for Indonesian citizens in abroad.

c. Function of International Relations Division This Division has functions as follows: 1) planning and developing personnel and logistic administrations, clerk and internal affairs, financial service, and providing strategic review and analysis on the implementation of police international cooperation;

Page 9 of 33 2) preparing overseas travelling administration for INP personnel, and providing protocol coordination on the activities of official visit abroad and representatives’ visit from international organizations; 3) undertaking inter-agency cooperation in the course of combating international and transnational crime, exchanging information on criminal intelligence, conducting international public services, giving technical assistance and investigation tactics related to Extradition and Mutual Legal Assistance (MLA); 4) exchanging information on international/transnational crime and other information related to international events and international cooperation through communication networking system of Interpol, ASEANAPOL, DPKO (Department of Peacekeeping Operations) and other information technology system; 5) providing coordination with other related institutions and facilitating prepared police personnel, prior to their deploying in the peace keeping and humanitarian missions; 6) providing coordination with other related institutions, especially police forces and international organization (UN, ICPO-Interpol) and other formal international institutions in the course of improving capacity building of INP; 7) undertaking the placement of and supervising Indonesian Police Attaches/Senior Liaison Officers (SLO) and Police Technical Staff/ Liaison Officer (LO) as well as the INP personnel on duty in overseas, in international organization and at police offices in accredited country; 8) providing coordination with other police Attaché or Law Enforcement LO of other countries in Indonesia, and also providing coordination and communication with related institutions in the course of maintaining security and law enforcement in border areas;

Page 10 of 33 9) providing relation for international cooperation in abroad including cooperation in police matters, maintaining law enforcement and giving protection for Indonesian citizens abroad. d. Function of Secretariat of NCB-Interpol Indonesia The International Relations Division of INP consists of two bureaus: Secretariat of NCB-Interpol Indonesia and International Mission Bureau. The Secretariat of NCB-Interpol Indonesia has function to set up international products, address common crimes related to other countries, address the special economic crime and terrorism associated with other countries, and provide international legal assistance related to extradition, MLA, and the search for the fugitive/the issuance of notice.

Secretariat of NCB-Interpol Indonesia has 4 departments as follows: 1) International Communication Department;8 2) International Convention Department;9 3) Liaison Officer (LO) and Border Department; 10 and 4) International Crime Department. International Crime Department has function to conduct cooperation between members of ICPO Interpol in preventing and combating international/transnational crime by giving assistance on investigation and implementation of international law. In undertaking the task, International Crime Department conducts these following functions: 8 Function of International Communication Department is managing and developing information exchange system in preventing and combating international/transnational crime through communication networking facility of INTERPOL, ASEANAPOL and other means of communication. Moreover this department also collect information and data processing, publication and documentation of activities undertaken by International Relations Division.

9 Function of International Convention Department is preparing upon the implementation of international agreements or treaties and organizing international forums whether in the country or in abroad related to combating international/transnational crime and improving capacity building of human resources and institution facilities. 10 Function of Liaison Officer (LO) and Border Department is maintaining Police Attaché/SLO and Police Technical Staff/LO duties in abroad, as well as undertaking law enforcement cooperation at the boundaries area.

Page 11 of 33 a. providing international product such as dissemination of international DPO and warning related to various modus of operandi as well as the making of country paper; a. handling general crime, terrorism and certain economic crime related to other countries; b. giving international legal assistance (extradition, MLA and fugitive search / publishing Notices); Then, in managing the tasks, International Crime Section has several sub-sections as follows: a. Sub-section of General Crime11 b. Sub-section of International Criminal Products12 c. Sub-section of International Legal Assistance13 and d. Sub-section of Certain Economic Crime Sub-section of Certain Economic Crime serves to: 1) facilitate and coordinate counter-terrorism and certain economic crime related to other countries; 2) implement correspondence through NCB-Interpol, ASEANAPOL network system related to terrorism and certain economic crime; 3) conduct coordination with territorial unit on issues requested by both fellow member of NCB-INTERPOL countries and territorial unit related to certain economic crime; 4) conduct coordination with the Special Detachment 88 on terrorism issue.

11 Sub-section of General Crime serves to: a. facilitating and coordinating the general crime prevention related to other countries; b. carrying out correspondence through INTERPOL and ASEANAPOL network system; c. conducting coordination with the territorial unit on the problems that both requested by fellow member of the NCB - INTERPOL countries and territorial unit. 12 Sub-section of International Crime Product serves to: a. preparing international products, such as the making of country papers, dissemination of international actual news about piracy, narcotics and others; b. implementing internal police meeting with relevant ministries in the preparation of RI delegates position paper; c. carrying out an assessment and providing recommendations for Head of International Crime Section. 13 Sub-section of International Legal Assistance serves to: a. facilitating and coordinating the implementation of Extradition tasks and MLA; b. facilitating the issuance of the search list/wanted list (red notice); c. conducting searching for fugitives at the request of fellow member of NCB- INTERPOL Countries.

Page 12 of 33 e. Vision and Mission 1) The visions of the International Relations Division is: a) realizing police cooperation, law enforcement and international missions in combating transnational crime; b) Providing protection and services for Indonesians/foreigners in the country and abroad. 2) Mission To achieve the visions, there are missions to be carried out: a) implementing international cooperation with other governmental and non-governmental organizations both in bilateral and multilateral; b) carrying out cooperation with the police forces of the member of ICPO-INTERPOL and ASEANAPOL countries in an effort to monitor, prevent and combat transnational and international crime; c) assisting and cooperating with the representatives of the Republic of Indonesia and relevant institutions in overseas to provide protection and services to the Indonesian citizens; d) carrying out international cooperation to participate in keeping world peace; e) implementing capacity building both human resources and infrastructure/facilities; f) implementing cooperation and coordination of security of border area with the bordering country indirectly; g) implementing the protocol and administration of official travel to abroad; h) carrying out international communication and information exchange through utilization of the network of Interpol, ASEANAPOL and other communication networks; i) conducting international meeting and agreement both bilateral and multilateral.

Page 13 of 33 7. Organization Structure a. Structure of Indonesia National Police (INP) Source: http://www.polri.go.id/organisasi/op/sop/ (accessed: 10 February 2014) NOTES:  Kapolri = Chief of INP  Itwasum = General Inspector  Asrena = Assistant of Planning & Development  Asarpras = Assistant of Logistic  Divkum = Division of Law  Divhubinter = Division of International Relation  Sahli = Expert Staff  Baharkam = Guidance and Security Department  Korlantas = Police Traffic  Densus 88 AT = Special Detachment 88 Anti-Terror  Sespim = Staff and Command School  Akpol = Police Academy  Puskeu = Finance Centre  Pusjarah = History Centre  Diklatsus Jatrans (Special Training Trans-Crime Education)  Wakapolri = Vice Chief of INP  Kompolnas = National Police Commission  As Ops = Assistant of Operation  As SDM = Assistant of Human Resource  Div Propam = Division Profession & Security  Div Humas = Division of Public Relation  Div TI Pol = Division of Tech & Information  Baintelkam = Intelligence and Security Department  Bareskrim = Criminal Investigation Department  Korbrimob = Mobile Brigade  Lemdikpol = Education and Training Institution  STIK = Police Science High School  Puslitbang = Research and Development Centre  Pusdokkes = Health and Medical Centre  Setukpa = Police Officer School  Polda = Police Region (33 Police Region).

Page 14 of 33  b. Structure of International Relation Division INP INP SLO INP LO INP TECHNICAL STAFF DIRECTOR OF INTERNATIONAL RELATION DIVISION NCB-INTERPOL INDONESIA INTERNATIONAL CRIME ADMIN LEADER ELEMENT SUUPORTING LEADER ELEMENTS AND EXECUTIVE STAFF MAIN EXCECUTIVE ELEMENTS ADMIN INTER PRODUCT GENERAL CRIMES CERTAIN ECONOMIC CRIMES COMM TECHNOLOGY INFO & DATA INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION ADMIN DOCU- MENTATION INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION ADMIN AMERICA & EUROPE ASIA PASIFIC & AFRICA INTER ORG’S NTERNATIONAL MISSION BUREAU LIAISONOFFICER AND BORDER ADMIN INTER AGREEMENT LO BORDER ACTIVITIES PLANNING PEACE KEEPING ADMIN TRAINNING LOGISTIC CAPACITY BUILDING ADMIN MONITORING & EVALUATION ABROAD STUDY SUPPORTING EDUCATION & TRAINNING ADMIN& PLANNINGDEPT HUMAN RESOURCES FUNCTION DEVELOPMENT ADMIN PLANNING POLICEATTACHE PROTOCOL DEPT SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL QUEST ADMIN SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL DUTY FINANCE ADMINISTRATION INTER LEGAL ASSISTANCE ADMIN Notes: http://www.interpol.go.id/en/about-us/organizational-structure (accessed 2/2/2014) c. Structure of International Crime of NCB-Interpol Indonesia Notes: Data processed.

INTERNATIONAL CRIME INTERNATIONAL PRODUCT GENERAL CRIME CERTAIN ECOMONIC CRIME & TERRORISM INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE NCB-INTERPOL INDONESIA

Page 15 of 33 8. Job Description of Head of Sub Section of Certain Economic Crime a. The characteristic of Tasks 1) Planning: a) assisting the Leader in preparing Work Plan/Activity; b) assisting the Leader in setting goal achievement steps. 2) Organizing: a) divide tasks and direct personnel’s to achieve the expected level of performance; b) oversee the implementation of tasks and the discipline of personnel in Sub-section Certain Crime. 3) Actuating: a) facilitator (facilitating cooperation among police to police and international organization in handling cross jurisdictional in handing over, fugitive deportation, extradition, and technical assistance such as laboratory DNA, computer forensic, INAFIS (fingerprints), and crime scene kit); b) coordinator (managing joint investigation and procedure of Mutual Legal Assistance with the foreign countries); c) investigator (assisting transnational investigation of terrorism especially with the foreign countries having bilateral agreement); d) dynamist (organizing and enhancing production material and spreading Interpol notice and relevant information. 4) Controlling: a) making analysis and evaluation of the implementations of the tasks in the form of intelligence writings; b) assisting the Leader in evaluating the members working performance. b. The elaborations of the Tasks of Head of Certain Economic Crime 1) Collecting criminal and intelligent data to be processed and analyzed to become an official script to be submitted to the Secretariat of ICPO-

Page 16 of 33 Interpol, NCB-Interpol of other countries and related institutions in the country. Task include as follow: a) making the concept of planned activities; b) assigning staff/member to arrange work plan concept up to become official script; c) correcting and signing official script to be reported to Head of Section; d) making disposition of incoming letters as directed by Head of Section to be followed up by the administrative officer; e) analyzing criminal and intelligence information; f) creating letter concept related to criminal/intelligence information; g) assigning administrative officer to follow up the letter concept that has been made to become official script; h) correcting and proofread official script of criminal and intelligence information to be proposed to Head of Section to get approval to be forwarded to general secretariat of ICPO-Interpol, NCB-Interpol of other countries and related agencies/institutions in the country; i) supervising subordinate at all times in order to achieve the expected level of performance; j) reporting the results of the implementation of the tasks to the Leader. 2) Preparing report materials and advice to the Leader. Task include as follow: a) preparing the action plans for Certain Economic Crime; b) instructing staff to make Sub-section action plans according to the concept; c) defining Sub-section Certain Economic Crime action plans; d) together with the staff prepares a report materials, materials, concepts as well as suggestions and opinions for the leader; e) supervising the implementation of the tasks and discipline of personnel in Certain Economic Crime Sub-section; f) reporting the activities to the Leader. 3) Implementing cooperation and coordination with internal and external executive officer of Indonesian National Police in the search/arrest and prosecute perpetrators of international crimes/transnational. Task include as follow:

Page 17 of 33 a) preparing the concepts of action plans of Certain Economic Crime Section; b) instructing staff to create action plans in accordance with the concept of Sub-section; c) defining the action plans of Certain Economic Crime Section; d) dividing personnel responsibility to carry out referred cooperation and coordination task; e) conducting coordination with the unit areas/agencies in implementing their tasks/duties; f) informing the requesting state police about the cooperation development; g) making analysis and evaluation of the implementation of the tasks; h) reporting the results of the implementation of the tasks to the Leader. 4) Accompanying and helping other state police investigator for the smooth execution of their duties in Indonesia. Task include as follow: a) making concepts of guidance activities planes and assisting police investigation of foreign countries; b) instructing administrative officers to make action plans in accordance with the concept; c) defining action plans; d) making coordination with foreign countries police through Interpol/ SLO of foreign countries; e) dividing the personnel tasks related to the implementation of the guiding and assisting investigation by foreign countries police investigators; f) making coordination with unit area/agency; g) making analysis and evaluation of the implementation of the tasks; h) reporting the results of implementations of the tasks to the Leader. 5) Conducting seminar assignments, supervision, meetings (Interpol Team Coordination, ASEANAPOL, ICPO General Assembly etc) and foreign and domestic visits by order of the Leader. Task include as follow: a) studying/preparing stuff /materials to arrange action plans; b) carrying out the tasks according to action plans; c) reporting the results of the implementation of the tasks to the Leader.

Page 18 of 33 6) Periodical tasks. Carrying out periodical tasks on the orders of the leader either through disposition or oral communication such as becoming the committee of the Police Anniversary, NCB-Interpol Anniversary, becoming the academic selection committee, etc, Things to be carried out are: a) studying/preparing stuff/materials to arrange action plans; b) conducting the tasks in accordance with action plans; c) reporting the results of implementation toward the Leader. 7) Other tasks. Carrying out other duties on the orders of the Leader either through disposition or oral command such as teaching, becoming a member of the Working Group, socialization and others. Things to be done: a) studying/preparing materials/materials to arrange action plans; b) conducting task/duty in accordance with action plans; c) reporting the results of the implementation of the tasks/duties to the Leader.

8) In the implementation of duties, Head of Certain Economic Crime Section is assisted by other staff related with: a) the preparation of report materials, materials and concepts; b) the implementation of administrative correspondence (distribution and archiving); c) the implementation of administrative implementation of cooperation and coordination with Interpol coordination team and territorial units; d) the preparation of administrative implementation of assisting investigation of foreign countries police; e) preparation of the Information for requesting state police about the information on the development of cooperation and coordination with internal and external Indonesia National Police in the investigation related to the search / arrest of international/transnational crime perpetrators; f) report making and evaluating of the implementation of the tasks/duties.

Page 19 of 33 9. Problems in Implementing the Task/Duty In the implementation of the above tasks, the problems that we encounter are: a. The members’ skill in conducting diplomacy supported by their ability to write and speak a foreign language (such as English, French and Chinese) is still limited so that the effectiveness of implementing the task is not yet to the maximum b. There is no Indonesian Police personnel who occupy a strategic position in ICPO headquarters in Lyon, ICPO Bangkok, ICPO Singapore, and United Nations Headquarters, so no one can be expected to encourage/boost the participation of Indonesia in international forums. c. Limited information which is mainly because of the existence of conflicts of interests with other countries has made sharing of information or implementation of cooperation/collaboration run less than the maximum. d. The Coordination in handling the bordering region is still weak e. The success of international cooperation depends on the legal system adopted by each country. In the Common Law system, extradition focuses on judicial procedure (judicial procedure) while the Civil Law legal system focuses on administrative procedures (administrative procedure). Differences of opinions resulted in the absence of harmonization of international cooperation in extradition and mutual assistance in criminal matters between the relevant countries.

Page 20 of 33 CHAPTER 4 THEORY SWOT AND THE RATIONAL PLANNING MODEL 10. Theory SWOT (Strenghts, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) Relating to the main roles, as part of defined situation in combating terrorism, NCB Interpol-Indonesia has opportunities and threats as follows: a. Strenghts: 1) has international assistance in the form of funds and high technology; 2) has good networking as member of ICPO-Interpol supported by e-24/7 (secure data base and electronic communication); 3) has good networking as member of ASEANAPOL supported by e-ADS (secure data base and electronic communication); 4) has basic Law and political will from government to eradicate terrorism; 5) has organization’s vision and mission, HRD and experience; 6) has Interpol coordination team.14 14 The Interpol Coordination Team (established in 1992, by Chief of Indonesian National Police Order No. Pol.: Skep/203/V/1992) is non structural activities under the coordination of the Secretary of NCB-Interpol Indonesia. Members of Interpol Coordination Team that relate in handling terrorism case are: Central Bank, General Attorney, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, National Intelligence Agency, PPATK, ASEAN Secretariat, and BNPT.

Notes: a. Aims and Goals of Interpol Coordination Team is: 1) To assure the smooth running, expedite as well as strengthen cooperation and coordination of the components of the Indonesian National Police and other agencies related to the duties of the NCB-Interpol Indonesia. 2) In order that requests for assistance by NCB of other country and the Secretary General of ICPO-Interpol can be immediately, accurately and completely fulfilled. 3) In order that requests for assistance by the Indonesian National Police and other agencies’ components towards NCB of other country and the Secretary General of ICPO-Interpol can be immediately and accurately fulfilled. b. Duties of Interpol Coordination Team is: 1) Discuss and execute each request for assistance both by NCB of other country and internal one especially for those outstanding issues that need the inter-sector collaboration and coordination.

2) Exchange of information on issues with international aspects. c. Procedure of Interpol Coordination Team is: 1) Hold periodic meetings and or whenever in need for them arise. 2) Based on the results of the meeting, the Chairman of the Organizing Team would submit proposals and follow-up action suggestions for resolving the very special problems to Chief of the Indonesian National Police who is the head of the NCB-Interpol Indonesia. 3) Duties are carried out functionally in accordance with each one’s authority based on existing laws and regulations. 4) Further procedures, including the procedures for execution (if needed), will be established on the basis of the agreements reached by the Interpol Coordination Team.

Page 21 of 33 b. Weaknesses: 1) under staff and has weak human resources especialy in foreign language; 2) there is no Indonesian Police personnel who occupy a strategic position both in ICPO headquarters in Lyon or ICPO in Bangkok and in United Nations Headquarters that actually is very useful to enhance coordination; 3) limited Information; 4) conflicts of interests with other countries; 5) coordination in handling bordering region is still weak. c. Opportunities; 1) political will and encouragment from UNO and ASEANAPOL; 2) external support (funds, technological advance and capacity building); 3) go international (placement of Indonesian National Police personnel at ICPO-Interpol and UNO); 4) increased in capacity building; 5) increased in reputation that build diplomacy as well. d. Threats: 1) security problem related to poverty and lack of education; 2) radicalization movement based on religious fanaticism; 3) spreading of Ideology and organizational recruitments through internet; 4) issue anti-USA both open or clandestine agitation, with the issues of superiority, injustice, vulnerability, distrust and helplessness as driving factor on radicalism to conduct terrorism; 5) the movement of the international terrorist group in Indonesia. Base on SWOT analysis, both the hard approach (catch the perpetrator) and the soft approach (prevent terrorism) are needed. International cooperation is very crucial to reveal the involvement of international group

Page 22 of 33 actors as well as to prevent terror action in Indonesia as integrated program in handling terrorism crime in the vision and mission. 11. The Rational Planning Model Relating to the implementation of POAC (Planning, Organizing, Actuating and Controlling), to describe job description in making decision, the procedures of decision making consist of series of process that concern with the Rational Planning Model as a multi-step process for making logical sound decision that aims at following the orderly path from problem identification to solution as well shown by the schema bellow: Schema 1: The Rational Planning Model Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rational_planning_model (accessed: 2 February 2014). Notes: The Rational Planning Model is the process of realizing a problem, establishing and evaluating planning criteria, creating alternatives, implementing alternatives, and monitoring progress of the alternatives. Here is the application of

Page 23 of 33 the theory based on the understanding of the Writer when accompanying BNPT chairman visit to Russia in 2010 (in order to realize MoU of Counter Terrorism Cooperation between the two countries) as an example of explaining a series of steps of Rational Planning Model: a. Over Data (Define Situation) The first step of tasks execution is to accept and understand the tasks assigned by the Secretary of NCB-Interpol Indonesia. This step includes reading the content of the disposition, recognizing the problem, defining an initial solution, and starting primary analysis to solve the problem in an effective manner/way.

b. Formulate Goal The second step is to attend a meeting invitation from BNPT to receive input regarding the formulation of a work plan or formulation of objectives to be achieved. This activity is best done in groups, as different people may contribute different ideas or alternative solutions to the problem. Gathering information based on time-line of Indonesia-Russia relations is needed as well as the description of the current situation and the prediction of the consequences. c. Examine, evaluate and choose alternatives/generate objective assessment criteria The third step is to make the assessment criteria by following every meeting progress of Indonesia-Russia and the steps that have been and will be achieved as the guideline of evaluation. After going through the process of defining the problem, exploring for all the possible alternatives for the problem and gathering information, this step says evaluate the information and the possible options to anticipate the consequences of each and every possible alternative that is thought of.

Page 24 of 33 d. Implement alternatives and Evaluate Outcome The fourth step is to make a task assignment report on the implementation of the task and active participation in decision-making through writing suggestions and opinions based on defining situation, formulated goals, alternatives that was taken, the criteria of assessment and the analysis done in the previous steps. e. Monitor and Evaluate outcomes and results The fifth step is to keep track on the development of activities carried out by BNPT and Russia. This step contains the secondary and final monitoring of the outcomes and results of the site. This step takes place over a long period of time which is manifested in an intelligence research paper about the benefits, results and the effectiveness of the work that has been done. In this context, the Writer has been able to translate/interpret: 1) the strategic plan of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs especially in the field of counter terrorism; 2) the development of the strategic environment related to terrorist case; 3) the consequences of the activity that has been done.

Page 25 of 33 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION 12. Solution In order to support counter-terrorism, the challenging tasks faced by the NCB- Interpol Indonesia are: a. the quantity and quality of terrorist threats (both spread out of ideology through internet could contribute to the adding of the amount of potential terrorism perpetrators and the utilization of technology development in implementing the terror modus operandi); b. cross jurisdiction case; c. personnel skills (as facilitator, coordinator, investigator and dynamist); d. there is no Indonesian Police personnel who occupies a strategic position in ICPO headquarters Lyon, ICPO Bangkok, ICPO Singapore, and United Nations Headquarters that could encourage the achievement of the vision and mission in the international level; e. coordination in handling the bordering region is still weak. To overcome these challenging tasks, NCB Interpol Indonesia implements the following strategies: a. enhancing either formal or informal cooperation with other country in the area of law enforcement on terrorism cooperation along with other trans-national crimes. Collaborating with Australian Government, Indonesia has founded JCLEC (Jakarta Centre for Law Enforcement Cooperation) as a center for training and sharing of best practices in combating trans - national crimes for law enforcement Officials in Asia Pacific region; b. strengthening bilateral cooperation through implementation of conventions or agreements between neighboring countries; c. creating professional cooperation among countries at the level of police forces to share information;

Page 26 of 33 d. exploring the possibilities of cooperation to enhance existing cooperation; e. exploring the possibilities to post Indonesian National Police personnel in the strategic position in ICPO-Interpol and Police Advisor in UNO in New York; f. capacity building (Bachelor, Master and PHD programs); g. promoting de-radicalization and rehabilitation program for convicted terrorism perpetrators as well as building partnerships with former inmates to help them gain better lives, which in due course could decrease their radical thought levels.

The above strategy in broad outline, in particular on issues related to terrorism case can be accommodated and elaborated through job description of Subdivision of Special Crime in charge of sharing information related to terrorism case. 13. Recommendation In order of the effectiveness of goals achievement, we should add the following matters as part of the International Relation Division of INP strategy: a. exploring the possibilities of cooperation to enhance student exchange programs between countries to attend the school of leadership; b. exploring the possibilities of cooperation to enhance student exchange with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to attend the school of leadership / diplomacy; c. exploring the possibilities of cooperation to enhance existing cooperation in monitoring the border area; d. exploring the possibilities of cooperation with a third party to hold an annual workshop on terrorists prevention.

Page 27 of 33 APPENDIX 1. Law Foundation in Combating Terrorism a. International Law: 1) Vienna Convention 1986 On The Law Of Treaties Between States and International Organization; 2) UNO charter, ASEAN charter and ASEAN Convention relate to MLA and Counter Terrorism; 3) UNCS Resolution 1373 (2001), relate to freezing terrorist assets; 4) EU Council Framework Decision on Combating Terrorism (2002); 5) United Nations Conventions against Transnational Organized Crime, 2000, 6) International Convention (ratified by Indonesia): a) 1963 Convention on Offences and Certain other Act Committed on Board Aircraft; b) 1970 Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft; c) 1971 Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against Safety of Civil Aviation; d) 1980 Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material; e) 1997 International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings; f) 1999 International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism; g) Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) 1979.

b. National Law 1) Law No. 15 / 2003 on Stipulation of Government Regulation in Lieu of Law No. 1 / 2002 on Combating Criminal Acts of Terrorism as Legislation; 2) Law No. 2 / 2002 on Indonesian National Police; 3) Penal Law;

Page 28 of 33 4) Law No 8 / 1981 on Criminal Procedure; 5) Law No 7 / 1992 on Banking; and Law No 15 / 2002 on Money Laundering; 6) Law No 12 / 1951 on Weapon and Explosive; 7) Law No 9 / 1992 on Immigration; 8) Law No 36 / 1999 on Telecommunication; 9) Law No 1 / 1979 on Extradition; 10) Law No. 1 / 2006 on Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters; 11) Law No 13 / 2006 on Protection of Witnesses and Victims. 12) Law No. 24 / 2002 on International Agreement 13) Law No. 37 / 1999 on Foreign Affairs 14) Government Regulation Republic of Indonesia No. 68 in 2008 about the Procedures of implementation Relation and Police Cooperation 15) President Regulation No. 52 in 2010 about the Organizational Structure and Working Procedures Indonesia National Police.

2. Guidance Books as an Attitude Reference a. The Grand Strategy of INP (every 20 years) b. The Plan Strategy of INP (every 5 year) c. The Bureaucracy Reform of INP d. The Annual Work Plan of INP e. The Annual of Intelligence Estimate f. The Work Plan Annual of International Relation Division of INP g. The Organization and the Procedures of Work in NCB Interpol-Indonesia h. The Conception and Strategic of BNPT on Counter Terrorism and The Work Plan of BNPT in Combating Terrorism i. The Work Plan Annual of Special Detachment 88 Anti-Terror j. Vademinkum Annual of International Relation Division of INP k. The Reflection and Projection International Relation Division of INP (annual) l. The Financial Accountability within the Administration of INP.

Page 29 of 33 3. List of Tables as Guidance in Conducting Cooperation Table 1: List of Countries that have Bilateral Agreement with INP No Name of Country Notes 1 Ministry of General Security People’s Republic of China 2 Pakistan 3 New Zealand Police 4 South Korea Police 5 Malaysia Police 6 Ministry of General Security Socialist Republic of Vietnam 7 Poland 8 Philippines Police 9 Australian Federal Police 10 Ministry of Interior and Relation Netherlands Kingdom 11 Police Academy of Netherlands 12 Great Britania and North Ireland 13 Romania 14 Federation of Russia Source: Data processed as 10 March 2014 Table 2: List of Countries that have Extradition Agreement with Indonesia NO Name of Country Status Notes 1 Thailand Ratified UU No. 2 / 1978 2 Malaysia Ratified UU No. 9 / 1974 3 Philippines Ratified UU No. 10 / 1976 4 Australia Ratified UU No. 8 / 1994 5 South Korea Ratified UU No. 42 / 2007 6 Hong Kong Ratified UU No. 1 / 2001 7 Singapore Ratification process 8 India Ratification process 9 China Ratification process 10 Vietnam Ratification process 11 Papua New Guinea Ratification process 12 United Emirate Arab Signing process Source: Data processed as 10 March 2014

Page 30 of 33 Table 3: List of Countries that have Agreement in Mutual Legal Assistance NO Name of Country Status Notes 1 Australia Ratified UU RI NO 1/1999 2 China Ratified UU RI NO 3/2006 3 Hong Kong Ratified UU RI NO 3 /2012 4 ASEAN MLAT Ratified UU RI No.15 / 2008 5 India Ratification process 6 Vietnam Ratification process 7 South Korea Ratification process 8 Unites Emirate Arab Already Sign 9 Brazil Negotiation Process Source: Data processed as 10 March 2014 4. Case Examples of The arresting and Handing Over Pratheepan Thavarajah Since 1999 the American Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has investigated the provider of equipment for Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam (LTTE) group. As a result PRATHEEPAN THAVARAJAH, a citizen of Sri Lanka, has been designated as DPO/fugitive accused of illegal arms purchasing actor by using the e-mail account in the USA. Besides Pratheepan is also accused of attempting to bribe the U.S. government officials to exclude LTTE from the list of terrorist organizations.

Pratheepan Thavarajah was punished 15 years in prison by a New York District Court on charges of providing support resources to a foreign terrorist organization and conducting conspiracy to bribe public officials. Based on the letter from Interpol Washington on August 20, 2006 concerning the request for search assistance and extradition arrest, NCB-Interpol Indonesia on August 25, 2006 informed the immigration about the request for search assistance of Pratheepan Thavarajah. Then, on January 4, 2007 Soekarno Hatta Immigration caught and handed over Thavarajah Pratheepan to Special Detachment 88 Anti-

Page 31 of 33 Terror INP officers accompanied by NCB-Interpol Indonesia for the purpose of further investigation. [[ Because there is no Extradition Treaty between Indonesia and the United States, Indonesian NCB-Interpol coordinated with Washington Interpol on the technical delivery of the suspect with two (2) alternatives, they are: 1. The U.S. government asked Sri Lanka Government to send a letter to Indonesian government and a copy letter to Kapolri (Chief of Indonesian National Police) requesting the handover of the suspect immediately handed over to the United States government through the FBI representative in Jakarta. 2. The United States government in collaboration with the Sri Lanka Government asked Sri Lanka embassy in Jakarta to willingly accept the suspect from INP to be further handed over to the U.S. government through the FBI representative in Jakarta.

From the results of this coordination, they agreed with the first alternative, the Government of Sri Lanka through the Secretary of State would make a letter stating that the Government of Sri Lanka agreed to submit Thavarajah Pratheepan directly by the NCB-Interpol Indonesia to the FBI. Based on the letter, the handover of Pratheepan Thavarajah with all the evidence was carried out at Soekarno-Hatta airport on January 10, 2007 from Superintendent AKHMAD JAMAL YULIARTO (NCB-Interpol Indonesia) to FREDERICK WONG (Legal Attaché, FBI). Furthermore, the suspect was taken to Bangkok, Thailand with the escort of two Special Detachment 88 Anti-Terror personnel of INP (Indonesia National Police).

Page 32 of 33 BOOKS Cooper, H.H.A. What Is A Terrorist: A Psychological Perspective. Legal Medical Quarterly. 1977. Erickson, Bonnie H. Secret Societies and Social Structure. Social Forces. 1981. Romli, Atmasasmita. 2002. Masalah Pengaturan Terorisme dan Perspektif Indonesia. Jakarta, Badan Pembinaan Hukum Nasional Departemen Kehakiman dan HAM RI. Sihombing, Albert Barita, 2013. The Radicalization of Terrorist (A Criminological Study on The motives of Terrorism in Indonesia), Thesis Foreign Affairs Police. Central Police University ROC Taiwan.

WEEBSITE http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/radicalism?s=b. http://www.polri.go.id/organisasi/op/sop/ http://www.interpol.go.id/en/about-us/organizational-structure http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rational_planning_model Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, definitions of terrorism.

Page 33 of 33 EDUCATION  2013, Post Graduate Degree in Foreign Affairs Police, Department of Social and Politics, Central Police University, ROC Taiwan.  2004, Post Graduate Degree in Criminology, Department of Social and Politics, University of Indonesia, Jakarta-Indonesia  1997, Graduate Degree in International Relation, Department of Social and Politics, Parahyangan Catholic University, INA. POLICE DEPARTMENT  Position, Police officer at International Relation Division INP  Title, Police Superintendent  Education in Police o Command Course Advance 38th Royal Thai Police, 2014 o School of Advance Police Officer 35th INP, 2006 o School of Police Officer 5th INP, 1998 RESEARCH ACVTIVITY  Master Thesis o The Radicalization of Terrorist (A Criminological Study on The motives of Terrorism in Indonesia) o Credit Card Crimes Through Internet (Criminology Study Towards Carder Motives)  Bachelor Thesis Efforts of Socio Economic Development Group Work at Malaysia – Indonesia Borderline (Malindo Socio Economic Group Work) at Entikong – Tebedu and Their Impact for the Local Development at West Kalimantan Borderline (1990-1992)  Advance Police Officer Scientific Paper Increasing Special Detachment 88 Anti Terror Readiness to Anticipate the Carding of Dangerous Stuff by Terrorist.

Sihombing, Albert Barita Marulam Born: Bandung-Indonesia, March 29, 1967 Religion: Christian International Relation Division of Indonesia National Police INP HQ-TNCC Building 11th Floor South Jakarta 12110 – Indonesia albert_barita@yahoo.com / albert_barita@interpol.go.id “Nothing is impossible to a willing heart”

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