The Oyster Opportunity - Uncovering Solutions That Drive Reef Restoration In The Gulf Of Mexico

 
The Oyster Opportunity - Uncovering Solutions That Drive Reef Restoration In The Gulf Of Mexico
The Oyster                Opportunity

Uncovering Solutions That Drive Reef Restoration
             In The Gulf Of Mexico
The Oyster Opportunity - Uncovering Solutions That Drive Reef Restoration In The Gulf Of Mexico
The Oyster Opportunity - Uncovering Solutions That Drive Reef Restoration In The Gulf Of Mexico
This report was prepared for the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation

                          by Future of Fish

                         September 14, 2012

                For more information, please contact:
                            Cheryl Dahle
                      Founder, Future of Fish

                       cdahle@futureoffish.org
                        www.futureoffish.org
The Oyster Opportunity - Uncovering Solutions That Drive Reef Restoration In The Gulf Of Mexico
The Oyster Opportunity - Uncovering Solutions That Drive Reef Restoration In The Gulf Of Mexico
Table Of Contents
Executive Summary � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � vii
INTRODUCTION  � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 1
DISCOVERY MAP � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 5
            The Question� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 5
            Context� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 6
            Tensions� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 6
            Barriers� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 7
            Design Principles � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 8
            Discovery Chart � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 9
            Project Profiles � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 10

SYSTEM INSIGHTS� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 23
OPPORTUNITIES � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 29
            Group I: Strategies for enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of
            current and future restoration efforts � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �                                   30
            Group II: Market mechanisms to scale restoration activities � � � � � � � � �                                                        32
            Group III: Policy initiatives to support and incentivize restoration� � �                                                            35
            Opportunities Mapping � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �                37

conclusion� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 39
Appendix I • NFWF Oyster Restoration Grantmaking Analysis and Recommendations � � � � � � � � � � � � 43
            NFWF-Funded Oyster Projects At a Glance� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �                                       43
            Grantee Project Planning Checklist� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �                              48
            Oyster Restoration Grant Reporting mendations � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �                                                50

Appendix II • Policy Summary For Oyster Reef Restoration� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 54
Appendix III • Best Practices For Volunteer Management� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 59
Appendix IV • Interviewees� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 63
Appendix V • Bibliography � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 65
Appendix VI • Project Team � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 68
The Oyster Opportunity - Uncovering Solutions That Drive Reef Restoration In The Gulf Of Mexico
“T     he oyster fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico need to
       be managed for what they represent: likely the last
opportunity in the world to achieve both large-scale reef
conservation and sustainable fisheries.”

 —Shellfish Reefs at Risk: A Global Analysis of Problems and Solutions
The Oyster Opportunity - Uncovering Solutions That Drive Reef Restoration In The Gulf Of Mexico
Executive Summary
Oysters from the Gulf of Mexico were once named for the bays where they grew wild. Their abundance provided
irreplaceable filtering, shoreline stabilization, habitat for juvenile fish, not to mention food and livelihoods
for people. Today, that once-plentiful resource, and all it represented, is desperately depleted. In the U.S. and
around the globe, an estimated 85 percent of oyster reefs have been lost.

In almost every coastal region across the country,         • identify opportunity areas that outline possible next
dedicated organizations and tireless volunteers are          steps to scaling, particularly options that include
working to reestablish viable oyster beds. Most              market-driven mechanisms, and where the NFWF
projects are small scale, labor-intensive, high cost,        could help invent and incubate a new solution.
and high risk. Scaling these efforts to a level that can
meet the enormous need for restoration nationwide          Through the course of the study, we reviewed grant
poses significant financial and logistical barriers.       proposals and reports from 65 NFWF-funded
                                                           restoration projects, and interviewed over 30 experts
The National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF),          in the field. We solicited information about the
a long-time and primary investor in oyster restoration,    challenges faced by restoration programs, and the
commissioned Future of Fish to analyze the current         innovative ways those challenges have been overcome.
state of oyster restoration in order to identify           We identified more than 50 unique problems and 50
opportunities to reduce costs, increase efficiency, spur   distinct solutions and clustered them into related
entrepreneurship, and leverage other non-conventional      themes. We then looked for patterns that pointed to
approaches that could drive and sustain large-scale        overarching problems (Barriers) and the underlying
restoration. Our launching point was this question:        strategies (Design Principles) used to solve them.
How can we drive more successful and efficient oyster
restoration in the Gulf of Mexico?                         The four Barriers identified were:

The objectives of this project were to:                    • Inconsistent policy: Laborious permitting
                                                             processes and obstructive laws hinder efforts to
• survey the restoration projects funded by NFWF,            restore oyster reefs.
  as well as external projects, and distill from those
  a framework for understanding the full breadth           • Resource scarcity: Material costs, labor needs,
  of problems encountered and the attributes that            and logistical challenges impede cost-effectiveness
  distinguish successful solutions;                          and scaling.

• recommend potential grantmaking strategies,              • Inadequate planning for environmental factors:
  which may enhance the effectiveness and efficiency         Failure to properly assess sites and insufficient
  of restoration efforts going forward (see Appendix         accounting for human and natural risks threaten
  I);                                                        project success.

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E x e c u t i v e   S u m m a r y
The Oyster Opportunity - Uncovering Solutions That Drive Reef Restoration In The Gulf Of Mexico
• Fragmented management: Lack of information-               These insights led us ultimately to a set of seven
         sharing among projects creates cycles of inefficiency     Opportunities, each with the potential to shift the
         and redundancies that inhibit widespread                  oyster restoration landscape toward greater efficiency,
         progress.                                                 reduced costs, and scalability. These Opportunities
                                                                   included two strategies for enhancing existing
       The four Design Principles identified were:                 restoration efforts, three market mechanisms for
                                                                   driving change, and two policy initiatives to support
       • Use what you’ve got: Build on existing resources          and incentivize restoration.
         and relationships.
                                                                   • Opportunity 1: Expand the support base for
       • Share, share, share: Develop ways to collect and            restoration activities by creating a national
         share past successes and failures so future initiatives     platform to connect local and regional restoration
         become more efficient and effective.                        initiatives.

       • Find a champion: Recruiting a person, organization        • Opportunity 2: Facilitate information-sharing
         or team to take ownership of a project can                  among restoration projects through a single
         often single-handedly overcome an ostensibly                open-source, online collaboration and information-
         insurmountable challenge.                                   sharing tool.

       • Add spin: Find ways to create public messaging            • Opportunity 3: Pair industry and restoration in
         with context, crafting, and follow-up to motivate           a way that taps into underutilized resources and
         people to care about oysters.                               builds on infrastructure and knowhow that exists
                                                                     in other industries.
       These Barriers and Design Principles create a
       Discovery Map, which includes organizational profiles       • Opportunity 4: Turn oyster farmers into reef
       for 53 projects and programs that employed unique             stewards by using sales of specially branded
       solutions to overcome restoration challenges. From            oysters to effectively generate restoration funds,
       our observations we inferred the following System             raise public awareness, and bring higher profits
       Insights:                                                     for growers.

       • Policymakers and permitting agencies impede               • Opportunity 5: Name a new value and develop
         restoration to the detriment of their jurisdictions.        a market for it through the use of environmental
         (A summary of friendly and hostile policy and               impact bonds or other strategies that use economic
         permitting practices related to oyster restoration          valuation to develop new funding vehicles.
         can be found in Appendix II.)
                                                                   • Opportunity 6: Streamline the permitting
       • Many projects cite the ecosystem service benefits           processes to significantly accelerate the initiation of
         provided by their restoration projects, but no              projects, save time and money, and encourage more
         one has found a way to capitalize on this added             organizations to pursue restoration activities.
         value.
                                                                   • Opportunity 7: Increase the supply of shell to
       • Project resource management—simply pulling                  decrease the cost of restoration by enacting
         together the logistical and human components                widespread shell recycling and recovery legislation
         for reef restoration—is dauntingly complex. Best            and launching related businesses.
         practice standards could go a long way in assisting
         first-time organizers. (As an example of how such         Of the seven opportunities identified, we choose
         BMP might be communicated, Appendix III outlines          four paths (Opportunities 2, 3+7, 4 and 5) that
         recommendations for attracting, motivating,               we believe are both feasible and have potential to
         rewarding, and retaining volunteers.)                     deliver significant impact. These opportunities have
                                                                   the greatest promise for serving NFWF’s restoration
       • Organizations engaging in restoration projects            priorities, and deserve consideration for deeper
         don’t have a collaborative platform for sharing           evaluation in a subsequent phase of work with Future
         ideas, insights, and experiences.                         of Fish and other partners.

       • Community support from citizens, businesses, and
         local government is critical to project success.

viii
                                                                                                E x e c u t i v e   S u m m a r y
Photo:  Chesapeake Bay  P ro g ra m

                                                                             ix
E x e c u t i v e  S u m m a r y
“I
 ’ve always been interested in living structures that provide
 support for a whole galaxy of living organisms.”

                          —Betsy Peabody, Executive Director
                              Puget Sound Restoration Fund
INTRODUCTION
Oysters from the Gulf were once named for the bays where they grew wild: Grand Bayou, Bayou Cook, Lake
Washington, Lake Grande Ecaille. Their flavors ran salty, grassy or sweet based on the unique “meroir,” the
distinctive blend of water salinity, mineral content, and other attributes absorbed from their reef homes. Their
abundance provided irreplaceable filtering of delta waterways and the Gulf itself, shoreline stabilization,
high-quality habitat for juvenile fish and crustaceans, and the foundation for ecosystems in which other flora
and fauna could thrive, not to mention providing food and livelihoods for humans. Today, that once-plentiful
resource, and all it represented, is desperately depleted. Estimates are that less than 20 percent of the Gulf’s
historical oyster population remains. Shockingly, these are some of the most robust reefs we have left. Oysters
in the Chesapeake Bay are down to 1 percent of former abundance, and around the globe, 85 percent of oyster
reefs have been lost.

Despite these dramatic declines, many suggest that        the enormous need for restoration nationwide faces
the Gulf of Mexico is the last place in the world         significant financial and logistical barriers.
where significant reef restoration, conservation,
and sustainable harvest of wild oysters might still       The opportunity is to reach beyond known solutions
be possible. As such, the National Fish and Wildlife      to ask: How might we discover new ideas, new
Foundation (NFWF), a long-time and primary investor       funding mechanisms, or new leverage points that will
in oyster restoration, has drafted a ten-year recovery    be harbingers of a breakthrough?
plan for reversing oyster decline in the Gulf, with
three main goals: (1) rebuild oyster populations to       We believe that possibility resides in a methodology
25 percent of historic levels; (2) create sustainable     that blends the lessons of experience with a fresh
systems of wild oyster harvest and management; and        perspective, and deep systems empathy with
(3) establish “living shorelines” to mitigate shoreline   entrepreneurial zeal. This is an approach we have
erosion and protect coastal wetlands.                     honed at Future of Fish through more than four
                                                          years of convening scores of designers, fishermen,
Currently, in almost every coastal region across          economists, businesspeople, anthropologists,
the country, dedicated organizations and zealous          investors, journalists, and social entrepreneurs in
volunteers are working to reestablish viable oyster       the service of crafting new solutions to the global
beds in depleted areas. Most of these projects are        overfishing crisis. The same approach that has yielded
small scale, labor-intensive, high cost, and high risk.   the FoF cohort—a portfolio of businesses working on
For many, the long-term outcome remains unknown;          market disruption on behalf of sustainability in the
for some it’s unknowable. Nearly all are implemented      seafood industry—can also potentially reinvent the
by resource-strapped non-profits dependent on             future of oyster restoration.
limited funding from government and foundation
grants. Scaling these efforts to a level that can meet

                                                                                                                   1
I n t r o d u c t i o n
How It Works                                                 Project Scope

    The effectiveness of our approach is derived from the        The National Fish and Wildlife Foundation
    combined 20 years of experience in complex systems           commissioned Future of Fish to analyze the
    analysis of the team that designed it. Its strengths         current state of oyster restoration in order to
    include:                                                     identify opportunities to reduce costs, increase
                                                                 efficiency, spur entrepreneurship, and leverage other
    It is inherently optimistic. Our analysis begins by          non-conventional approaches to drive and sustain
    identifying what is working and succeeding in a given        large-scale restoration.
    space, and then we look for ways to build on that
    success.                                                     The objectives of this first-stage analysis were to:

    It relies on the wisdom of those in the trenches.            • Survey the restoration projects funded by the
    The gap is significant between theories of academics           National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, as well
    or consultants, and what is practiced as a solution on         as external projects, and distill from those a
    the front lines of the fight to solve any environmental        framework for understanding the full breadth of
    or social challenge. Within that gap are insights and          problems encountered and the underlying attributes
    adaptations—flashes of brilliance—that often do not            that distinguish successful solutions;
    get captured by high-level views of the system.
                                                                 • Recommend potential grantmaking strategies,
    It distills patterns not otherwise visible. Those              which may enhance the effectiveness and efficiency
    insights and adaptations from the field, when                  of restoration efforts going forward (see Appendix
    knit together, provide new possibilities: ways for             I);
    players working on entirely separate aspects of a
    multidimensional challenge to potentially collaborate,       • Identify opportunity areas that outline possible
    segments of the problem that have been inadvertently           next steps to scaling, particularly options that
    ignored, successful insights that could be more widely         include market-driven mechanisms, and where
    applied.                                                       NFWF could help invent and incubate a new
                                                                   solution. This last deliverable lays the foundation
    It reframes challenges to allow for new thinking               for Future of Fish’s next phase of work proposed
    and new participants. The definition of a problem              with NFWF.
    shapes not only the types of approaches applied,
    but also the expertise invited to the conversation.          To these ends, our work included the following
    Ultimately, multiple framings are necessary and              activities:
    compelling. For example, seafood sustainability is
    a marine science issue. But it is also an investment         • Evaluating restoration projects funded by NFWF
    issue and a business issue. Without investors and              and making observations around problems
    entrepreneurs in the room, important voices are left           affecting successful restoration and the solution-
    out of the solution set.                                       oriented approaches to those problems;

    This report is the first phase of our approach, which        • Analyzing objective project attributes and estimating
    encompasses latter phases of convening, field research         the comparative cost-effectiveness of different
    (possibly ethnography) and strategic design. The               restoration methodologies, where possible;
    analysis here sets the stage for these next steps and
    provides NFWF with multiple options. Our analysis            • Conducting interviews with experts engaged in
    is qualitative in nature, not quantitative. It is meant to     restoration projects nationwide in order to capture
    generate a framework for understanding and a set of            insights and context that may not be revealed
    viable assumptions to shape the path forward, rather           within a typical grant report;
    than a statistically derived proof.
                                                                 • Evaluating particular policies or regulations that
                                                                   serve to promote or impede restoration success;

                                                                 • Researching analogous solutions in other industry
                                                                   sectors in order to surface potentially transferrable
                                                                   strategies.

2
                                                                                                       I n t r o d u c t i o n
The Discovery Map: Understanding The                        Envisioning The Power Of
Wisdom Of The Solution Designers                            Partnership And Entrepreneurship

The Discovery Map is an integrative approach to             The factors that have contributed to the widespread
understanding the multi-faceted nature of a problem         loss of oyster reefs in the U.S. and around the world
and how its different components (Barriers) might be        are a combination of tragedy-of-the-commons
overcome. By parsing the problem into Barriers, we          circumstances, unfavorable environmental conditions,
acknowledge the complexity of the challenge and the         and large-scale manmade disasters, like the Deepwater
need for strategies on several levels (Design Principles)   Horizon oil spill. The challenges are significant. But
to engage with those problems.                              our research found that the story of oysters and their
                                                            many beneficial services is one that inspires hope,
The Discovery Map highlights how these varied               imagination, and confidence among the people
solutions work in concert across the dimensions of          involved. Real, actionable solutions for scaling
a problem to bring about real and lasting positive          restoration efforts are within reach.
change—much like success in extinguishing a forest
fire requires complementary, but diverse, tactics on        The opportunities we present in this report identify
multiple fronts.                                            some specific paths for NFWF to consider as they
                                                            launch their ten-year recovery plan to scale restoration
We began by reviewing documents submitted by                efforts in the Gulf of Mexico and around the country.
past and present NFWF grantees engaged in projects          With NFWF’s fourteen-year history of investing
related to oyster restoration. To that group we added       a total of over $13 million in oyster restoration,
external projects and interviews with field experts. We     the organization is well-positioned to lead other
scoured the reports and interview notes for explicit        partners and stakeholders, as well as incentivize
and implicit problems and successful solutions. Our         entrepreneurship, toward large-scale, cost-effective
criteria for a successful solution was that it needed       and long-term restoration.
to entail progress toward its intended goal, and that
it needed to contribute toward the ultimate goal of
large-scale and widespread oyster restoration. The
insights presented are based on the apparent success
of solutions included in our analysis, rather than on
statistical significance or impact metrics.

We sifted through the problems and solutions,
clustering them into related themes. We then looked
for patterns that pointed to overarching problems
(Barriers) and the underlying strategies (Design
Principles) used to solve them. These Barriers and
Design Principles frame the Discovery Map.

Unveiling Opportunity

The Discovery Map allowed us to gauge what was
working and what was missing among current
oyster restoration efforts. Those observations led
us to identify a number of potential opportunity
areas where new ideas or inventions could accelerate
progress, increase efficiency, improve success rates, or
scale those endeavors. We narrowed the opportunity
areas to three categories: Policy Opportunities;
Non-Profit Opportunities; Business Opportunities.
We outline seven of these opportunity areas in this
report, from which we recommend four paths for
further consideration by NFWF.

                                                                                                                       3
I n t r o d u c t i o n
“W        hat is needed is just more intersection of design-type
          folks who have the greater vision, and the folks on
the fieldwork side who have the practical knowledge.”

              —Meredith Comi, Oyster Restoration Program Director
                                                 NY/NJ Baykeeper
DISCOVERY MAP
Development of the Discovery Map involved identifying more than 50 unique solutions addressing problems
that hinder successful oyster restoration. Some of the restoration solutions we analyzed were distilled from
reviewing proposals and final reports from NFWF grantees (65 total). We added other solutions to our analysis
base by researching external reports and conducting first-hand interviews with on-the-ground participants in
government agencies, academia, research institutions, aquaculture, and non-profit organizations (34 total). We
discerned the insights behind each solution, specifically when an idea was coupled with an identified problem.
In all, we noted over 50 distinct challenges in the current system. The matching total quantities of problems
and solutions is purely coincidental; problems and solutions were not one-to-one matches. Some problems
were addressed by multiple solutions, and some solutions addressed multiple problems.

The Discovery Map includes the following components:

• Context: The external conditions or climate that        • Design Principles: The underlying ideas or
  influence the current situation within a system.          observations beneath the surface of a solution.
                                                            Principles are not tools or solutions themselves, but
• Tensions: Social, political, economic, and                ways to understand the mechanism a solution is
  behavioral trends and biases that perpetuate a            addressing. They reveal truths about a system and
  problem, but that might also be openings for new          insights to address longstanding stuck points.
  solutions.
                                                          • Project Profiles: Brief descriptions of the solutions
• Barriers: The core challenges of a problem which,         and the organizations behind them.
  if successfully resolved, could pave the way for real
  progress. Barriers are not immutable conditions or      • System Insights: Observations of patterns,
  context; they must be moveable and changeable.            trends, and holes, which lead to our subsequent
                                                            recommendations and identification of opportunity
                                                            areas.

                                            The Question

          How can we drive more successful and efficient oyster reef restoration in the Gulf of Mexico?

                                                                                                                    5
D i s c o v e r y   M a p
Context                                                        Despite the tens of millions of dollars invested over
    The largely static background or climate                       the past two decades, the restoration progress to
    that influences the current situation                          date is small relative to the total magnitude of oyster
    within a system.                                               reef loss. The field currently lacks capacity to meet
                                                                   the enormous need for restoration work, as well as
    Nearly every coastal state in the U.S. has pursued             a process that envisions how scaling scale oyster
    some form of oyster restoration to achieve ecological          restoration might be possible.
    outcomes. In most cases, the work is performed by
    NGOs, government agencies, academic institutions,              The core question underlying the framework we’ve
    or a partnership among these groups. Where budgets             developed is: How can we drive more successful
    allow, professional contractors are hired to do the            and efficient oyster reef restoration in the Gulf of
    manual work. More often than not, project plans                Mexico?
    are carried out largely by unpaid volunteers who are
    overseen by program managers with varying levels
    of experience and expertise. While always initiated
    and executed with the best intentions, for a variety of        Tensions
    reasons, these efforts have produced mixed results.            Social, political, economic, and behavioral
                                                                   trends and biases that perpetuate a
    Establishing an oyster reef that is self-sustaining            problem, but that might also be openings
    and grows over time is no easy feat. Significant time          for new solutions.
    and energy are required before restoration activities
    even begin, such as obtaining the proper permits,              Tension #1 Oyster reefs are among the most important
    which can be a laborious process, draining resources           marine ecosystems in the world; They have the lowest
    from limited budgets. Initial site assessments are             public profile of any endangered marine resource.
    recommended to ensure that the appropriate methods
    and materials are selected for a given locale, as what         As far as public awareness of marine ecosystems
    works in one location may not work in another. But             goes, oyster reefs are obscure. They’re not typically
    the scientific and technical expertise needed to perform       associated with charismatic or sympathetic marine
    these assessments can be difficult to obtain or cost-          creatures, and they rarely receive national press.
    prohibitive. Some project managers choose to forgo             With a few exceptions in regions that have explicitly
    this step in the process, which can be detrimental to          adopted oysters as part of their cultural heritage,
    the success of the project.                                    individual knowledge of oysters rarely goes beyond
                                                                   the experience of eating them. That general lack of
    Ideally, preliminary site information is available to          awareness is partly because, until recently, oyster
    inform the particular restoration strategy. That strategy      reefs had been overlooked as an important marine
    involves multiple decisions, including substrate type          ecosystem worth preserving. This could prove to be a
    (e.g., shell, spat-on-shell, artificial substrate), planting   tactical advantage moving forward: The combination
    method (e.g., shell mats, bags of shell, loose shell),         of an historic lack of public exposure, the ‘newness’
    planting density, and timing. Some materials and               and urgency of the issue, and the ability to provide
    methods may be more expensive or labor-intensive               tangible engagement activities for the general public,
    than others, so the ultimate strategy chosen might             creates a rare and meaningful feel-good experience
    be more a function of the project budget than what             for people overwhelmed by the panoply of ocean
    nature requires.                                               degradation issues. That experience, if nurtured,
                                                                   could create broader public support for all issues and
    The plan is then executed in the selected site by project      policies related to ocean protection.
    managers and, quite often, an army of volunteers.
    Because of limited resources, many projects are forced         Tension #2 Short-term cultivation is a thriving,
    to cut corners and fail as a result, while the fates of        profitable business; Long-term restoration is a bust.
    other projects are never evaluated; funding for long-
    term monitoring is difficult to secure.                        Oyster aquaculture, a $117.6 million (2010) industry,
                                                                   makes up 90 percent of the 28.1 million pounds of
    Oftentimes successful projects can be linked to those          oysters harvested domestically each year. Like natural
    employing contractors with the experience and                  reefs, cultivated oysters are beneficial to their home
    knowhow to do the physical work. However, a lack               water bodies, offering important water-purifying
    of competition among contractors for reef restoration          services. However, unlike natural reefs, farmed oysters
    projects drives costs ever higher.                             are temporary. Within a couple of years of being

6
                                                                                                      D i s c o v e r y   M a p
planted, they grow to commercial size, are harvested,        other cases, projects fail because concern arises over
and sold. Thus, they are not adequate substitutes for        the potential poaching and selling of oysters from
the permanent, three-dimensional structures that             restored reefs, which if contaminated, could result in
provide the gamut of ecosystem services for marine           the shut-down of the state oyster industry.
life and coastal communities. Because those benefits
are still not adequately valued, short-term oyster           Resource Scarcity Successful restoration efforts
aquaculture receives precedence—including far more           require significant resource inputs and support. Of
public funds, resources, and political support—over          primary importance (and highest cost) is the substrate
long-term reef restoration. The fact that an industry        or cultch (most commonly empty oyster shells) on
of this magnitude is built on oyster cultivation, while      which new larvae can settle and grow. Logistical
restoration work has languished, suggests that if            challenges and costs include transportation, storage,
market incentives could be applied to restoration,           and cleaning of substrate. Human resources, such as
affordable capacity to execute would follow in               scientific expertise, technical skills, and raw labor,
time.                                                        are also needed for project design, building reef
                                                             structures, and/or filling bags with shell. In some
Tension #3 Oyster shell is valuable; The easiest and         cases, the presence or absence of public support
most efficient thing to do with an oyster shell is throw     (and, therefore, manual labor availability) can be the
it away.                                                     determining factor for whether a project gets off the
                                                             ground.
Oyster shell is the best substrate for restoration. Yet,
the need for shell far outstrips supply. In addition         Inadequate Planning for Environmental Factors
to demand for shell by other industries (e.g.,               Once deployed in a bay, estuary, or gulf, a restoration
construction, oil drilling, cosmetics, poultry, etc.), the   reef is at the mercy of nature and human influence.
transport of oysters to inland restaurants results in a      Finding a suitable site is paramount if the oysters
net loss of shell from coastal regions. In the absence       are to survive, grow, and reproduce. Disease, water
of adequate recycling programs and a coordinated             quality, native oyster larvae recruitment, predators,
logistics network, these valuable shells are ultimately      soft sediment, wave action, boat wakes, poaching,
tossed into landfills. As a result, restoration projects     and inclement weather can all threaten the success of
are forced to purchase shell—which can consume               a project. In many cases, this risk can be mitigated
a significant portion of their overall restoration           with proper site-assessment and planning, as well as
funding—or use an inferior, but slightly less expensive,     regular monitoring. But often, adequate risk planning
substrate alternative. The unmet demand for shell            either falls to the wayside because of cost, or because
in the face of these wasteful practices suggests a           of ignorance of historical failures that should inform
latent force that could drive collection and recycling       an analysis.
activities, if properly harnessed.
                                                             Fragmented Management While there is no
                                                             universal formula for restoration, as the conditions
                                                             and resources available can vary from site to site,
Barriers                                                     the knowledge and know-how gleaned from project
The core challenges of a problem which,                      experience is not readily shared or available. Thus,
if successfully resolved, could pave the                     a fair amount of inconsistency exists with respect
way for real progress. Barriers are not                      to how restoration projects are executed, as well as
immutable conditions or context; they                        to how success is measured. There is a tendency to
must be moveable and changeable.                             re-make the same mistakes. The nature of funding
                                                             and grant cycles hinders efforts to engage in long-
Inconsistent Policy Oyster restoration projects              term monitoring to determine the ultimate success
require permits. But the permitting process is complex,      or failure of projects and the contributing factors to
time-consuming, and varies wildly across states. In          these outcomes.
many places the same process designed for polluting-
activity permits is used for restoration, which results
in false assumptions that derail approval. Projects
can require authorization from multiple agencies
holding jurisdiction over a single site. For novices,
that complication can be a significant hurdle. In some
cases, the hard substrate used for oyster cultivation is
framed as ocean-dumping, and permits are denied. In

                                                                                                                       7
D i s c o v e r y   M a p
DesiGn PrinCiPles
    The underlying ideas or observations beneath the surface of a solution. Principles
    are not tools or solutions themselves, but ways to understand the mechanism a
    solution is addressing. They reveal truths about a system and insights to address
    longstanding stuck points.

    UseWhatYou’veGotIdentify and leverage existing resources that are aligned with restoration efforts to
    overcome resource and logistical challenges. That could mean tapping into local organizations with ready-
    made volunteer bases, creating shell recycling programs alongside restaurants with existing supply chains, or
    utilizing local suppliers for materials, handling, shipment, and storage needs.

    Share,Share,Share Overcome inefficient and ineffective approaches to restoration by sharing information,
    knowledge, and resources among projects and programs. Currently the learnings are lost or become siloed in
    stand-alone reports or conference proceedings, many of which are not easily accessible publicly. This lack of
    dissemination makes for unnecessarily steep learning curves, constant wheel reinvention, redundancies, and the
    perpetuation of mistakes that could be otherwise avoided through better communication and collaboration.

    FindAChampion Recruit a person, organization, or community to take ownership, create enthusiasm, and
    motivate others. Whether those champions are individual volunteers, aquariums, branches of the military,
    dock owners, or even private clubs, they can often single-handedly overcome an ostensibly insurmountable
    challenge.

    AddSpinFind ways to motivate people to care about oysters. That is no easy task, given the non-charismatic
    and immobile nature of these often unfamiliar invertebrates. But public perception can greatly influence the
    ease with which a project is implemented. Messages to rally volunteer and community support require context,
    crafting, and follow-up. Tactics can include targeted educational programs, marketing campaigns, appeals to
    people’s self-interest, or linking a restoration project with another topic of high value or concern.

                                                                                Photo:  Chesapeake Bay Program

8
                                                                                                   D i s c o v e r y  M a p
Discovery Chart

Each circle represents the number of solutions employing the given Design Principle to address the specific
Barrier. The proportion of NFWF-funded projects in each area is represented in blue. The proportion of
non-NFWF projects is represented in black.

                                                                                                   Inadequate
                                                                                                   Planning For
         BARRIERS                            Inconsistent             Resource                    Environmental Fragmented
                                                Policy                Scarcity                       Factors    Management
          DESIGN
        PRINCIPLES

   Use What You’ve Got                              1                       12                                  8         1

     Share, Share, Share                                                        2                               3         7

         Find A Champion                            4                           2                               1         1

                        Add Spin                                            10                                  1

                    1   Total Projects                  NFWF-Funded Projects                              Non-NFWF Projects

                                         ©    F u t u r e   O f   F i s h   /       I m p a c t   A s s e t s

                                                                                                                              9
D i s c o v e r y   M a p
Project Profiles                                                goals of the restoration activities is to re-establish viable
                                                                     sport-fishing grounds in areas decimated by Hurricane
                                                                     Katrina and, thus, demonstrate the benefits of oyster
     Design Principle One                                            restoration to users of the preserve. Barrier: Inadequate
                                                                     Planning for Environmental Factors
     Use What You’ve Got
                                                                     Copano Bay Reef Restoration, Harte Research
     Build on existing resources and relationships.                  Institute Corpus Christi, TX Nearly four acres of oyster
                                                                     reef habitat were restored using over 1,600 cubic yards of
     100-1000 Restore Coastal Alabama Mobile Bay,                    recycled shell and crushed concrete in Summer 2011. The
     AL The 100-1000 Restore Coastal Alabama project is the          scientists used clean, crushed concrete to form the base of
     brainchild of several major conservation organizations that     each reef mound, and then topped each with the recycled
     joined together in the wake of the Deepwater Horizon oil        oyster shell collected from area restaurants through Harte’s
     spill to determine how best to create effective restoration     shell recycling program. These structurally complex,
     on the Gulf Coast. The goal of the project is to restore        high-relief reefs were expected to be less subject to
     100 miles of oyster reef—which would provide protection         sedimentation, allow higher oyster densities, and support
     and support for recovery of 1000 acres of saltmarsh and         larger fish populations. Within a month after the Copano
     seagrass habitat—to revive local fisheries and protect          Bay project’s completion, fish had found the new reef.
     shorelines against continued erosion. The scaled-up             Within six months, new oysters were growing. Barrier:
     restoration effort (1/4 mile already deployed) required         Inadequate Planning for Environmental Factors
     assistance from local contractors who innovated new
     technologies for automating shell-bagging in order to           Deadman’s Island Restoration Project, City of Gulf
     increase the efficiency of the process. This bold effort        Breeze Pensacola Bay, FL (EZG 5863 & 2385,
     is now supported by over 35 public-private partnerships         2008 & 2009) The Deadman’s Island Restoration
     and has spurred development of a living shoreline general       Project established a natural, sustainable breakwater
     permit within the Army Corps to streamline the permitting       to protect an eroding shoreline in Pensacola Bay. The
     process. Environmental and economic studies related to          1,240-foot breakwater was made from natural shell with
     the project show the ecological and job creation potential      structural support provided by welded rebar. Students from
     of the larger project vision. Barrier: Resource Scarcity        a local technical school were enlisted to weld the reef units
                                                                     using school equipment, instructor time, forklifts, etc.
     Alternative Substrate Research, Harte Research                  They then helped fill the breakwater units with shell and
     Institute Corpus Christi, TX Researchers at Harte               transport them to the restoration site. Through the process
     Institute have begun experiments to test the feasibility of     of learning about and building the oyster breakwater,
     using new substrates for oyster reef restoration projects.      project directors noted that the students, many of whom
     Namely, they’re interested in whether ceramic and               were avid anglers, became particularly motivated to
     porcelain (from caps on telephone poles as well as sinks        participate when they learned that new oyster habitat
     and toilets) could be viable alternatives to shells, which      would enhance fish populations in Pensacola Bay. Thus,
     are becoming increasingly more expensive, despite their         in addition to supplying thousands of dollars of free labor
     successful shell recycling program. If these substances         and equipment, the student volunteer program created a
     turn out to effectively attract and grow oysters, a program     new community of advocates for oyster reef restoration.
     could be developed to divert them from landfills, saving        Barrier: Resource Scarcity
     disposal fees and providing free substrate to restoration
     projects. Barrier: Resource Scarcity                            Delaware Bay Oyster Habitat and Population
                                                                     Enhancement, Rutgers University Delaware Bay,
     Biloxi Bay Oyster Habitat Restoration, The Nature               DE and NJ (EZG 1001, 2009) The restoration of
     Conservancy Biloxi Bay Estuary, MS (EZG 29044,                  natural oyster beds in Delaware Bay is an ongoing project
     2012) The objective of this active project (as of Fall 2012)    that began in 2005 and primarily focuses on the timely
     is to construct an additional 15-20 acres of sub-tidal oyster   planting of fresh clean shell cultch on natural oyster beds
     reef in Biloxi Bay, as part of ongoing restoration activities   in order to provide a suitable substrate for maximizing
     in this estuary. Prior to this project, 19 acres of sub-tidal   larval oyster settlement and survival. The Haskin Shellfish
     reef habitat had already been created. The oyster reefs         Research Laboratory at Rutgers University works with
     restored by this project are not only constructed by an         local government agencies and fisheries to conduct
     organization with experience and expertise, but they’re         an annual area-wide survey of oyster populations and
     located in areas that are currently closed to commercial and    spawning conditions in order to inform oyster harvesting
     private oyster harvest. As such, these reefs are protected      quotas, as well as to determine the best locations and times
     from poaching by the State of Mississippi. One of the key       to plant shell to enhance existing populations. For this

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                                                                                                            D i s c o v e r y   M a p
project, cultch was planted on 38-acres of the Silver Bed       Oyster Habitat Restoration in the Cape
in Delaware Bay, which subsequent monitoring suggests           Romain National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina
has contributed to restoring the site’s carbonate balance,      Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR)
which is critical for maintaining natural oyster beds. It is    Awendaw, SC (EZG 26426, 2011) Through relationship-
expected that this shell will continue to provide a substrate   building and clever use of resources, this project,
for spat settlement for many years, thereby expanding           implemented through SCDNR’s community-based South
abundance and biomass of oysters on the Silver Bed.             Carolina Oyster Restoration and Enhancement (SCORE)
Barrier: Fragmented Management                                  Program, successfully restored 75 square meters of oyster
                                                                habitat. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)
Mosquito Lagoon and Intertidal Reef Restoration,                provided boats for site selection and monitoring, as well as
University of Central Florida Indian River Lagoon               storage and security for stockpiling of shell bags. USFWS
System, FL (EZG 4600, 2002) This project                        staff and the South Eastern Wildlife and Environment
involved the restoration of six intertidal oyster reefs         Education Association assisted in volunteer recruitment
in Mosquito Lagoon by constructing 360 oyster mats,             for bagging, water monitoring and reef building through
where shells are tied to mesh screens. An alternative to        their contacts with ~1,500 area volunteers. Reefs were
other shell deployment methods, shell mats not only             constructed of recycled oyster shells, collected by
utilize fewer shells per unit area, but they mitigate           volunteers and DNR staff from local restaurants, caterers,
damage from boat wakes, which can cause shell                   and public events. Reefs consisted of 600 volunteer-filled
movement, dislodging of oysters from their reefs,               shell bags, which were loaded onto boats donated by
and sediment resuspension. In Mosquito Lagoon,                  the Coastal Conservation Association. Volunteers were
this process has resulted in the formation of dead              transported at no cost to the restoration sites aboard the
zones and piles of broken oyster shells accumulating            Bulls Island Ferry, courtesy of Coastal Expeditions,
on the seaward edges of the reefs. After six months             a project partner. Through the course of the project,
of monitoring, recruitment and survival were high,              additional relationships were forged, which are expected
and only one of the 360 reef mats had sustained                 to contribute to the ongoing success of this and future
damage. This success rate led Canaveral National                projects. For example, a teacher workshop, which was
Seashore’s resource management officers to approve              developed during the project phase, has been submitted
the relocation of some of the mats to areas most in             to the Education Department for approval as continuing
need of restoration.Barrier: Inadequate Planning for            education credit. Barrier: Resource Scarcity
Environmental Factors
                                                                Oyster Reef Restoration in Charlotte Harbor, Florida
Olympia Oyster Recovery in Puget Sound, Puget                   Gulf Coast University Lower Charlotte Harbor, FL
Sound Restoration Fund Puget Sound, WA (EZG                     (EZG 14191, 2003) This project focused on creating,
18671, 2010) The primary objectives of this project             training, and mobilizing an intergenerational citizen group
were to install shell enhancement projects on 7.25 acres        to construct 12 reefs at 12 demonstration sites over two
at selected sites in Puget Sound in order to augment            years. Over 200 volunteers participated in site preparation,
remnant Olympia oyster populations and accelerate               shell bagging, reef construction, and monitoring of water
the recruitment process for new populations. All shell          quality, reef development, and oyster growth. The project
enhancement sites were surveyed for natural oyster set,         was supported by the Charlotte Harbor National Estuary
but some showed little to no recruitment over several           Program, a partnership of citizens, elected officials,
years. Considering that contemporary Puget Sound oyster         resource managers and commercial and recreational
beds were estimated at 4% of historical abundance and           resource users working to improve the water quality
recruitment was low, project partners turned their focus        and ecological integrity of the greater Charlotte Harbor
toward advancing the conservation use of hatchery-              watershed. Many of these partners also financially support
propagated native oysters. Hatcheries can be an important       the program, which affords the program opportunities to
restoration tool to restore source populations in historic      fund projects such as this. Barrier: Resource Scarcity
habitat areas where a sustainable source population is
absent in the water body. As a result of the project, genetic   Oyster Restoration in St. Mary’s River, Sustainable
protocols were developed and a collaborative effort began       Development Institute St. Mary’s City, MD (EZG
in Washington State to establish a hatchery facility to         5494, 2006) The St. Mary’s River oyster gardening
produce restoration-grade Olympia oyster seed. This             program tested the use of “floats” with oysters that had
will enable project partners to rebuild Olympia oyster          been selectively bred by the Circle C Oyster Ranch, as
populations in Puget Sound in order to restore ecosystem        an alternative to the less-than-successful conventional
services provided by native oyster habitat. Barrier:            practice of reviving native oyster beds by fortifying old
Inadequate Planning for Environmental Factors                   oyster reefs with extra shell, and planting seed oysters
                                                                raised by volunteer amateur farmers. The main problem

                                                                                                                               11
D i s c o v e r y   M a p
with the latter approach is the presence of pollution and      After hurricane Ike, Texas Parks and Wildlife utilized
     disease (MSX and dermo), which tend to attack and kill         side-scan sonar to determine which areas of reef had
     young oysters before they are big enough to harvest. The       the least sediment and instead of planting cultch, they
     Circle C oysters are raised close to the surface on floats     employed local commercial fishermen to drag their rakes/
     (to reduce susceptibility to disease) and bred for their       dredges over the areas and re-expose the hard substrate.
     fast growth rates. After a number of controlled and field      Analysis showed they were able to successfully re-expose
     experiments, researchers found that the Circle C oyster        almost 30% of the area (1100 acres out of 3800 acres
     (called the Linebacker) was found to remove significantly      assessed). Factoring in this success rate drove the cost of
     more algae and sediment than the wild-type species. The        “restoration” down from nearly $36,000 an acre to $740
     results provided support for the possibility of utilizing      an acre. Though limited in application, this partnership
     specially bred oysters to enhance wild reefs. An ancillary     shows that shallow sediment deposits can be efficiently
     benefit of the project was the fact that it converted 10       removed to re-expose oyster reef. Barrier: Inadequate
     waterfront homeowners, who had agreed to host a Circle         Planning for Environmental Factors
     C float, into private oyster growers. Barrier: Inadequate
     Planning for Environmental Factors                             Project PORTS (Promoting Oyster Restoration
                                                                    Through Schools), Rutgers University Delaware
     Oyster Shell Drillers, Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines            Estuary (EZG 5881 & 7471, 2007 & 2008) Project
     Indian River Lagoon, FL The Nature Conservancy’s               PORTS is a strategic effort to raise awareness of the
     Mosquito Lagoon oyster restoration project utilized            importance of oysters to the local environment and
     “oyster mats”—18-inch square mats with 36 oyster               economy. Since its NFWF-funded inception, Project
     shells vertically attached with zip ties—as starter reefs      PORTS has worked with more than 2,000 local fourth-
     for intertidal restoration. To build the mats requires         through eighth-grade students in 14 area schools. Each
     oyster shells that are drilled with holes where zip ties       year, teachers and students receive classroom instruction on
     can fasten. Previously a bottleneck for the project,           the role of oysters in their local environment and economy,
     TNC found a reliable and efficient source of oyster            then spend an afternoon filling mesh bags with shells,
     shell drillers in the crew of Royal Caribbean’s Mariner        which eventually make their way to oysters beds within
     of the Seas ship. While out to sea, the crew drill holes       a 10-acre plot designated for restoration in the Delaware
     in the shells and then, when in port, they swap buckets        Estuary. As an initiative of the Rutgers University Haskins
     of drilled shell for undrilled. The partnership has            Shellfish Lab, Project PORTS leaders work with Haskins
     made it possible for the project to meet the demand            scientists to determine the precise location and volume
     for mat-building projects among the many community             of oyster restoration to be carried out each year. Project
     and school groups that now engage in volunteer                 PORTS conducts restoration at sites that are permissible
     efforts to restore the reef. In addition to hands-on           based on approval of New Jersey state agencies involved
     labor, Royal Caribbean has also awarded money to               with water quality and shellfisheries, thus streamlining the
     the project. Barrier: Resource Scarcity                        permitting process. As a result, Project PORTS has been
                                                                    able to carry out restoration projects each year without
     Perdido and Pensacola Bay OYSTER, Florida                      needing to apply grant funding to either the permitting
     Department of Environmental Protection (DEP)                   process or toward determining where or how to conduct
     Escambia County, FL (EZG 4160, 2006) New                       the restoration. Barrier: Resource Scarcity
     restored oyster reef habitat in non-harvestable
     waters was constructed with recycled shell from                Rapid Oyster-bagging, J&W Marine Enterprises,
     local restaurants and volunteers from community                Inc Mobile Bay, AL Laying down and stacking bags of
     organizations (e.g., churches, Boy Scouts). Boats to           oyster shell is one of the main methods used to construct
     transport the shell to the site were loaned at no-cost         three dimensional oyster reefs. Creating these sacks of
     from DEP and a volunteer. The project drew on                  shell is a herculean effort, often requiring large numbers of
     past restoration experience to modify deployment               volunteers to hand-stuff the bags. Normally, one volunteer
     techniques on soft sediment, which tend to cause               can fill two or three bags in an hour. When tasked with
     berms to sink and scatter. To prevent that, they used          filling 80,000 sacks for a TNC Alabama project, Wayne
     coconut fiber matting to disperse the weight, and jute         Eldridge knew he had to innovate a new, faster way to bag
     netting to prevent loose shell from scattering. Barrier:       shells. He modified his conventional conveyor machine
     Resource Scarcity                                              to accommodate oyster shells so that a six-person team
                                                                    could fill 300 bags per hour. Operating two machines at
     Plowing Oysters, Texas Parks and Wildlife                      once and employing 12 people, Eldridge successfully
     Department Galveston Bay, TX One of the major                  created 150,000 shell bags for the expanded project.
     threats to oysters along the Texas coast is burial from        Such innovation offers promise for supporting larger-scale
     sedimentation, especially after large storms and hurricanes.   restoration efforts. Barrier: Resource Scarcity

12
                                                                                                           D i s c o v e r y   M a p
Restoring the Olympia Oyster in Southern                   events, currently more than 100 restaurants and seafood
California, KZO Education, Inc Long Beach, CA               distributors participate in the program and tens of
This program represents one of only two scientific pilot         thousands of bushels of shell are collected per year. As
studies to determine the feasibility of oyster restoration       the program has grown, efforts have succeeded in getting
in Southern California waters. KZO Education founders            distributors to backfill their trucks with empty shell as they
Phil Cruver and Debbie Johnson leveraged their personal          deliver fresh product to restaurants, making use of existing
connections with key players (yacht club members,                supply chains. Barrier: Resource Scarcity
government officials) in the Long Beach City Council to
secure permission for the project within the uniquely city-      ShellfishRestoration,CoastalSteward,Inc Port
owned Jack Dunster Marine Reserve, thereby bypassing             JeffersonHarborComplex,NY(EZG5546,2006)
the “byzantine” permitting process that otherwise hampers        The objective of this project was to raise 98,000 oysters
restoration efforts in the region. Partnership with local        from seed and to release 250,000 adult oysters into four
oyster restoration scientist Danielle Zacherl with CSU           selected sanctuaries and harbors, where the population of
Fullerton overcame the insurance barrier faced by many           oysters has fallen to 1% of its historical high. While the
small non-profits. The project seeks to raise public             explanations of the methodology were sparse, and success
awareness of the value and need for native oysters as part       was anecdotal, one notable characteristic of the project
of a healthy coastal ecosystem through KZO Innovation’s          was that all replanted oysters had been bred to have a
novel learning platform (originally designed to help with        black stripe, which distinguished them from wild-type
increasing education in Pakistan). It will also establish        oysters. Such genetic markings could be utilized in future
scientific baselines for best practices for native oyster        projects to deter poachers from harvesting and selling
restoration in the region. Barrier: Inconsistent Policy          restoration oysters. Barrier: Inadequate Planning for
                                                                 Environmental Factors
San Francisco Bay Native Oyster Habitat
Restoration,TheWatershedProject SanFrancisco
Bay,CA(EZG2786,2009) This project was initially
intended to restore and monitor a ¼ acre oyster reef in the
San Francisco Bay. However, because matching funding did
not materialize, a new goal was set. Organizers recognized
that much of the shell planted during a restoration project
does not result in live oyster growth. This is largely because
fouling agents (algae, sediment, etc.) prevent oyster spat
from settling. So, in lieu of establishing new reef, local
volunteers cleaned shell from previously restored reefs, in
order to increase their chances of long-term survival and
growth. Follow-up monitoring revealed that the process
of removing fouling agents allowed oyster density on
washed shells to rival that of newly-planted shell. Washed
shells also dramatically outperformed shell on reefs that
had not been washed. In the end, the Watershed Project
created significant new oyster habitat without the use of
new shell, and without the need for more funds. Barrier:
Resource Scarcity

Shell Recycling Alliance, Oyster Recovery
Partnership ChesapeakeBay The Shell Recycling
Alliance collects used oyster and clam shells on a weekly
basis from restaurants, caterers, and seafood wholesalers
throughout Maryland, Virginia, Washington, D.C., and
Delaware. Shells are deposited into shell collection
                                                                         Photo:  Fi l e Photo,  Coastal  and Aquati c  Managed A rea s,  F D EP
containers distributed throughout the region, and then
delivered to the University of Maryland’s Center for
Environmental Science Horn Point Hatchery for use                Shellfish Restoration Hatchery, Puget Sound
as substrate for spat raised to replenish the Chesapeake         Restoration Fund Puget Sound, WA As part of
Bay oyster population. A program begun in 2008                   the Washington Shellfish Initiative, the Puget Sound
with a Chesapeake Bay oyster community that was                  Restoration Fund has engaged in a unique partnership with
frustrated to see oyster shell thrown away at shucking           NOAA’s Manchester Lab to build a hatchery to support

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growth of seed (spat on shell) specifically for restoration        Design Principle Two
     purposes. Prior to this development, all seed came from
     commercial aquaculture, which focuses its efforts oyster           Share, Share, Share
     characteristics that are good for production (such as fast
     growth), not necessarily for natural population survival.          Develop ways to collect and share past successes and
     The Manchester Lab facility will work not only to provide          failures so future initiatives become more efficient
     more seed in order to meet scaled-up restoration goals,            and effective.
     but utilizing the genetic expertise of lab staff the hatchery
     will also work to build diversity of seed population               Community-basedRestorationMatchingGrants
     and ensure appropriate strains are matched with the                Program, The Nature Conservancy and NOAA
     right environment. Barrier: Inadequate Planning for                Nationwide The Community-based Restoration
     Environmental Factors                                              Matching Grants Program is a partnership between
                                                                        TNC’s Global Marine Team and NOAA’s Restoration
     Whale Island Oyster Reef Creation, Tampa Bay                Center with the goal to bring together local non-profit,
     WatchWhaleIsland,FL(EZG2244,2009) Tampa                      public, private, and tribal groups to implement
     Bay Watch, in partnership with the Pinellas County                 habitat restoration projects by providing technical
     Environmental Fund, Crabby Bill’s Restaurant, and                  and monetary support at a community level. The
     510 local volunteers, created approximately 550                    partnership began in 2001 and has funded several
     linear feet of oyster shell bar along the northern                 oyster reef restoration projects around the country.
     shoreline of Whale Island in the Pinellas National                 TNC works with project sites and regional programs
     Wildlife Refuge. Much of the success of the project                to promote information exchange and coordination
     was attributed to Crabby Bill’s donating roughly 40                across projects. NOAA staff are also available to
     tons of recycled oyster shell for the construction of              provide site-specific guidance on project design and
     the shell bar. Tampa Bay Watch, thus, chose to extend              engineering, environmental compliance, and science-
     its partnership with the restaurant for the continued              based project monitoring. This type of coordination
     use of recycled oyster shell in reef restoration projects          helps to reduce project redundancy and promote
     around Tampa Bay. Barrier: Resource Scarcity                       sharing of best practices for reef restoration. Barrier:
                                                                        Fragmented Management

                                                                        Development of National-Scale Oyster Reef
                                                                        Restoration Goals, The Nature Conservancy
                                                                        Nationwide(EZG1047,2009)This project developed
                                                                        quantitative estimates of the extent and health of
                                                                        native oyster habitat in 72 current and historical
                                                                        bays across 8 eco-regions in the continental U.S. It
                                                                        established standard terms for describing individual
                                                                        oyster reefs and oyster reef systems, as they have been
                                                                        described and catalogued using a range of measures
                                                                        and terms, making comparison of the health and
                                                                        status of oyster reefs in different areas difficult, if not
                                                                        impossible. For example, the researchers confirmed
                                                                        that the extent of an oyster reef is not necessarily a
                                                                        good proxy for oyster abundance. Data were used
                                                                        to produce maps of existing and historical reefs, and
                                                                        to develop models for estimating the provision of
                                                                        ecosystem services provided by oyster reefs in U.S.
                                                                        estuaries. These tools are intended to enable new
                                                                        restoration projects to be located in optimal areas,
                                                                        and to help project managers and agencies establish
                                                                        realistic budgets and goals for oyster restoration in
                                                                        specific regions. Barrier: Fragmented Management

                                   Ph oto :Ch esap eakeBay Program

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