2 60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom

 
2 60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom
2
60 Minutes from
 Catalogue to Classroom
      Using Journal Articles for Professional Development

      Module 2: Empathy and Cultural Competence Reflections
 		            from Teachers of Culturally Diverse Children1
2 60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom
This document was prepared under Grant #90HC0001 for the U.S. Department of Health
        and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Office of Head Start, by
        the National Center on Cultural and Linguistic Responsiveness.

        Contact Information:
        The Office of Head Start National Center on Cultural and Linguistic Responsiveness
                 https://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/cultural-linguistic
             • Bank Street College, NCCLR@bankstreet.edu, Toll free: 888.246.1975
             •		 Education Development Center, Inc., NCCLRinfo@edc.org, Toll free: 855.494.0331

        60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom, Module 2
2   x   A Facilitator’s Guide
2 60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom
catalogue to classroom

Table of Contents

         What is 60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

         Preparing for a 60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom Training . . . . . . . . .  7

         Catalogue to Classroom Module Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

         Facilitating a Training, Step by Step. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9

         Module 2: Empathy and Cultural Competence Reflections from
                    Teachers of Culturally Diverse Children
            Main Theme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
            Link to Article. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
            Learning Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
            Conversation Starters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
            Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
            Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
            Learning Extension. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
            Application to Head Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
            Making the Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
            References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
            Appendix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

         Participant Handouts
             Article Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
             Activity Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv
             Learning Extension Instructions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv
             Application to Head Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi
             Making the Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
             Appendix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x

                                                                                   60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom, Module 2
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2 60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom
Empathy and Cult                                                                              Embracing
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Diversity
                                                                                                                   ural                                            Competence
                                                                                                               Reflections from Tea
                                                                                                                                    chers of
                                                                                                               Culturally Diverse
                                                                                                                                  Children
                                                                                                  Teachers cannot
                                                                                                                     hope to
                                                                                                  begin to understan
                                                                                                                       d                                                                                 Michaela W. Colombo
                                                                                                  who sits before
                                                                                                 them unless

                                                                                                                                      A
                                                                                                 they can con-
                                                                                                nect with the
                                                                                                families and
                                                                                               communities
                                                                                               from which their
                                                                                              children come.                                      pproximately
                                                                                                                 To                                               40 percent of
                                                                                              do that it is vital                                  culturally diverse            children in U.S.
                                                                                                                  that teachers                                        backgrounds                  public schools
                                                                                              and teacher educators                                 Start—w                           (NCES 2003).                   are from
                                                                                             plore their own             ex-           ethnic, and cultural here 52 percent of teachers               Yet, other than
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        in Head
                                                                                                                                                                                              come from a
                                                                                             attitudes about
                                                                                                                beliefs and           percent of preschoo backgrounds different from                         variety of racial,
                                                                                                                non-white and                               l teachers are                   the mainstre
                                                                                             non-middle-class                         2002) and the                         culturally diverse             am—only 22
                                                                                                                   people.                           percentage of                               (Saluja, Early,
                                                                                                                                      10 (NCES 2003).                non-White K–12                               & Clifford
                                                                                                                                                                                        teachers actually
                                                                                                             —Lisa Delpit               A cultural mismatch                                                  may be closer
                                                                                                   Other People’s                                              between teachers                                              to
                                                                                                                  Children           in uncomfortable                              and the children
                                                                                                                                                         classroom experien                            they
                                                                                                                                     Unlike many                              ces for some                   teach can result
                                                                                                                                                   children who                                children and
                                                                                                                                    find familiar                 arrive at preschoo                          teachers.
                                                                                                                                                  environments                         l and elementa
                                                                                                                                                                  and teachers
                                                                                           M                                        (English), many                              who speak their        ry  classroom
                                                                                                                                                      culturally and                                                   s and
                                                                                               any culturally                       are moving “from                  linguistically                 same language
                                                                                                               and                 1993, 9). Their
                                                                                                                                                       one world to                  diverse students
                                                                                                                                                                      another” as they                   may feel like
                                                                                           linguistically diverse                                   teachers often                         go from home                  they

          1 Module 2 features Michaela M.W. Colombo’s article, Empathy and
                                                                                                                                   language. Classroo               differ from their                      to school (Au
                                                                                          students may                                                  m expectations                  families in race,
                                                                                                                                   differ from those                      and patterns                    culture, and
                                                                                                           feel like                                  at home.                            of communication
                                                                                          they are moving                                                                                                      may also
                                                                                                             “from
                                                                                          one world to anothe                     Cultural compat
                                                                                                                  r”                                     ibility
                                                                                         as they go from
                                                                                                            home                  Teachers who
                                                                                                                                                   share their students
                                                                                         to school.                             ences between
                                                                                                                                                 home and school.       ’ culture can
                                                                                                                                                                                       minimize some
                                                                                                                               validating the                        Often these                          of the differ-
                                                                                                                                               identities of
                                                                                                                               2002). Unfortun               culturally diverse teachers serve as role models,
                                                                                                                                                ately, while the                 children (Saluja,

            Cultural Competence: Reflections from Teachers of Culturally Diverse
                                                                                       Michaela W.                             diversity of the                  need for teachers                   Early, & Clifford
                                                                                                     Colombo, EdD,                              student populatio                     who reflect the
                                                                                      assistant professor             is an   diverse teachers                     n has grown,                          cultural
                                                                                      in Schooling         in the Leadershi                       has declined                    the percenta
                                                                                                    Program at the          p    Considerable                   (Saluja, Early,                   ge of culturally
                                                                                     sity of Massachu               Univer-                     research (Delgado               & Clifford 2002).
                                                                                     she teaches
                                                                                                       setts, Lowell,
                                                                                                                      where
                                                                                                                              2001; Ogbu 2001)                      -Gaitan & Trueba
                                                                                                   sociocultural                                  indicates, however,                   1991; Halcón
                                                                                     education, second           contexts of cultures can                              that teachers                    2001;
                                                                                    tion, and diversity language acquisi-
                                                                                                                                            provide
                                                                                                                             children’s “cultural culturally compatible instructio     who do not share Moll
                                                                                                        issues for school                                                                                    children’s
                                                                                    leaders.                                 different ways         funds of knowledg                    n if they understa
                                                                                                                                             of knowing, commun e,” which can be thought                      nd the

            Children. (2005) Young children, pg. 1-8. This article is used for
                                                                                     Illustration ©                         homes (Moll                                                              of as the
                                                                                                    Nicole Tadgell.                        1994, 2001). Teachers icating, and doing that
                                                                                                                            different strengths                    who understa                exist within diverse
                                                                                                                                                  and funds of                     nd and apprecia
                                                                                                                                                                knowledge are                         te culturally
                                                                                   Beyond the                                                                                    more likely to
                                                                                                    Journal • Young                                                                               provide enriching
                                                                                                                    Children    on the Web • November
                                                                                                                                                        2005

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1

            implementation of this professional development module.
            Retrieved from the National Association for the Education of Young Children website:
            http://www.naeyc.org/files/yc/file/200511/ColomboBTJ1105.pdf

        60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom, Module 2
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catalogue to classroom

                                                               1                                                                            2
   60 Minutes from Catalogue                                                60 Minutes from
      to Classroom                                                           Catalogue to Classroom
                                                                             Using Journal Articles for Professional Development
      Using Journal Articles for Professional Development
                                                                              Module 2: Empathy and Cultural Competence Reflections from
                                                                              Teachers of Culturally Diverse Children by Michaela Colombo

        Module 1			                                                                 Module 2

What is 60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom?

60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom (C2C) is a series of professional development training
modules that highlight individual journal articles focused on culture, dual language learning, and
best practices from the Head Start Cultural and Linguistic Responsiveness Resource Catalogues
(Volumes One through Three)*. Please note that the content in these modules is designed to
encourage discussion and is not considered an exhaustive review of these topics.

                                      •                     Articles have been selected to help participants explore issues of
                                                            culture and language and stimulate conversation around these
                                                            important ideas (i.e., whether participants agree or disagree with an
                                                            article’s point of view).

                                      •                     All articles complement aspects of the Office of Head Start’s
                                                            Revisiting and Updating the Multicultural Principles for Head
                                                            Start Programs Serving Children Ages Birth to Five (HS
                                                            Multicultural Principles) and support the Head Start Child
                                                            Development Early Learning Framework (HSCDELF).

                                      •                     The modules can be used by Managers and Trainers/
                                                            Technical Assistance (T/TA) providers for staff meetings or trainings.

                                      •                     The modules are designed to be customized to a 60- or 90-minute
                                                            training format.

* Head Start Cultural and Linguistic Responsiveness Resource Catalogues:
        Volume One: Dual Language Learning (First Edition)
        Volume Two: Native and Heritage Language Preservation, Revitalization, and Maintenance (Second Edition)
        Volume Three: Cultural Responsiveness (First Edition)

                                                                                                                                                60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom, Module 2
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2 60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom
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catalogue to classroom

Preparing for 60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom Training:

         •   Reserve a training space with tables and chairs to maximize discussion
             potential and allow for work in small groups.

         •   Download and read the featured article and the training module.

         •   Distribute featured article to participants to read before training.

         •   Select a 60- or 90-minute training option. Ninety-minute sessions
             include Learning Extensions or the Application to Head Start exercises.

         •   Select one or more Conversation Starters from the module.

         •   Copy the C2C Participant Handouts for each trainee and bring extra
             copies of the featured article.

         •   Have on hand a copy of the Head Start Multicultural Principles and other
             NCCLR or Head Start products listed under Application to Head Start.

         •   Bring paper and pens for each participant.

         •   Set up the training space.

         •   If required, collect additional materials that will be listed under the
             Activity section.

                                                       60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom, Module 2
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2 60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom
Catalogue to Classroom Module Summary

                                     Each Module Contains                                    Estimated Time *

                          Learning Outcomes: A list of important learning objectives,           5 minutes
                          based on the highlights of the featured article.

                          Conversation Starters: Key questions to consider while                10 minutes
                          discussing the article.

                          Key Points: A list of the article’s important concepts.               15 minutes

                          Activity: A hands-on learning experience related to the               30 minutes
                          concepts in the article.

                          Making the Connection: Ways in which the module fits
                          with the Head Start Performance Standards, Head Start                    N/A
                          Monitoring Protocol, T/TA relevance, and NCCLR products
                          and collaborations.

                         Optional Extensions for 90-minute Training                          Estimated Time

                          Learning Extensions: Activities designed to help staff extend         30 minutes
                          and apply thinking based on the article.

                          Application to Head Start: Ways in which C2C connects to the          30 minutes
                          Multicultural Principles, the HSCDELF, and other NCCLR products.

        * Estimated time can be adjusted based on the needs and interests of group.

         60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom, Module 2
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Facilitating the Training, Step-by-Step

60-Minute Training

          1. Introduce the C2C training module to participants. Explain that it is designed to
             stimulate a discussion around a journal article from one of the NCCLR Resource
             Catalogue volumes. (1 minute)

          2. Introduce the featured article to participants. Select a participant to read the
             main theme of the featured article to the whole group. (2 minutes)

          3. Review the Learning Outcomes with participants. Explain that outcomes will
             be met through engaged discussion and participation in activities based on
             the featured article. (2 minutes)

          4. Have participants form small groups of 3 to 4 members. Select one of the
             Conversation Starters to begin discussion. Participants should consider ways in
             which they agree or disagree with the point of view of the author(s). (10 minutes)

          6. Bring participants back to the whole group. Ask each group to share an interest-
             ing point raised in their discussions. Make connections to participants’ ongoing
             work with children and families. Use the Key Points to add concepts not men-
             tioned during the participants’ conversation. (15 minutes)

          7. Have participants engage in the hands-on Activity to apply a strategy from the
             featured article and write down next steps on action planning form. (30 minutes)

          8. Refer participants to Making the Connection to learn how the module connects
             to Head Start resources.

90-Minute Training

           Follow training steps 1 – 8. For the remaining 30 minutes, choose one:

              •   Have participants engage in Learning Extensions activities that
                  encourage further discussion based on the featured article.

              •   Have participants engage in one Application to Head Start exercise.

                                                           60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom, Module 2
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2 60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom
Facilitator Notes:

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Module 2		                                                                                                            Empathy and Cultu
                                                                                                                                       ral Competence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Embracing Diversity

                                                                                                                                   Reflections from Teachers
                                                                                                                                   Culturally Diverse Child of
                                                                                                                                                           ren
            Article: Empathy and Cultural Competence Reflections
                                                                                                                     Teachers cannot
                                                                                                                                      hope to
                                                                                                                     begin to understand                                                                                   Michaela W. Colombo
                                                                                                                     who sits before

                                                                                                                                                         A
                                                                                                                    them unless
                                                                                                                    they can con-
                                                                                                                   nect with the
                                                                                                                   families and

            		       from Teachers of Culturally Diverse Children
                                                                                                                   communities
                                                                                                                   from which their
                                                                                                                   children come. To                                  pproximately 40
                                                                                                                                                                                        percent of children
                                                                                                                   do that it is vital                                culturally diverse                     in U.S. public schools
                                                                                                                                       that teachers                                      backgrounds (NCES                           are from
                                                                                                                  and teacher educators                                Start—where 52                           2003). Yet, other
                                                                                                                                              ex-          ethnic, and cultural          percent of teachers                       than in Head
                                                                                                                  plore their own beliefs                                       backgrounds different          come from a variety
                                                                                                                                              and         percent of preschool                          from the mainstream—          of racial,
                                                                                                                  attitudes about non-white                                      teachers are culturally                          only 22
                                                                                                                                                and       2002) and the percentage                        diverse (Saluja,
                                                                                                                  non-middle-class                                                   of non-White K–12                      Early, & Clifford
                                                                                                                                        people.           10 (NCES 2003).                                 teachers actually
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              may be closer to
                                                                                                                                  —Lisa Delpit              A cultural mismatch
                                                                                                                        Other People’s Children                                   between teachers
                                                                                                                                                         in uncomfortable                             and the children
                                                                                                                                                                            classroom experiences                       they teach can result
                                                                                                                                                         Unlike many children                         for some children
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         and

            Author(s): Colombo, Michaela W.
                                                                                                                                                                                who
                                                                                                                                                        find familiar environments arrive at preschool and elementary teachers.
                                                                                                                                                                                      and teachers who                       classrooms and
                                                                                                                                                        (English), many
                                                                                                                Many culturally and                                       culturally and linguistically   speak their same
                                                                                                                                                        are moving “from                                                     language
                                                                                                                                                                           one world to another”        diverse  students may feel
                                                                                                                                                       1993, 9). Their teachers                     as they go from                  like they
                                                                                                                linguistically diverse                 language. Classroom        often differ from
                                                                                                                                                                                                    their families in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      home to school
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Au
                                                                                                                                                                              expectations and                        race,
                                                                                                               students may feel                       differ from those                          patterns of communicaticulture, and
                                                                                                                                    like                                  at home.                                           on may also
                                                                                                               they are moving “from
                                                                                                               one world to another”                   Cultural compatibili
                                                                                                                                                                                 ty
                                                                                                              as they go from home                       Teachers who share
                                                                                                                                                                               their students’ culture
                                                                                                                                                      ences between home
                                                                                                              to school.                                                      and                       can minimize some

            Year: 2005
                                                                                                                                                      validating the identities school. Often these teachers                  of the differ-
                                                                                                                                                                                of culturally diverse             serve as role models,
                                                                                                                                                      2002). Unfortunately                             children (Saluja,
                                                                                                                                                                            , while the need                              Early, & Clifford
                                                                                                            Michaela W. Colombo,                      diversity of the                       for teachers who
                                                                                                                                                                       student population                        reflect
                                                                                                            assistant professor        EdD, is an    diverse teachers                       has grown, the percentagethe cultural
                                                                                                                                 in                                     has declined (Saluja,                             of culturally
                                                                                                           in Schooling Program the Leadership          Considerable research                  Early, & Clifford
                                                                                                           sity of Massachusetts at the Univer-                                  (Delgado-Gaitan                 2002).
                                                                                                                                   , Lowell, where   2001; Ogbu 2001)                             & Trueba 1991;
                                                                                                           she teaches sociocultural                                    indicates, however,                         Halcón 2001; Moll
                                                                                                                                        contexts of cultures can provide                     that teachers who
                                                                                                           education, second                                                culturally compatible                 do not share children’s
                                                                                                                               language acquisi-    children’s “cultural                           instruction if they
                                                                                                          tion, and diversity                                             funds of knowledge,”                           understand the
                                                                                                                              issues for school     different ways of
                                                                                                          leaders.                                                     knowing, communicati which can be thought of as the
                                                                                                           Illustration © Nicole                    homes   (Moll 1994, 2001).                 ng, and doing
                                                                                                                                 Tadgell.          different strengths          Teachers who understand that exist within diverse
                                                                                                                                                                         and funds of knowledge              and appreciate culturally

            Journal: Young Children on the Web (1)
                                                                                                                                                                                                   are more likely to
                                                                                                          Beyond the Journal                                                                                           provide enriching
                                                                                                                                    • Young Children on
                                                                                                                                                        the Web• November 2005

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         1

            Volume: November, 2005
            Pages: 1 – 8
            Volume: Selected from the Office of Head Start Cultural and Linguistic Responsiveness
                    Resource Catalogue, Volume Three, Cultural Responsiveness (First Edition)
            Resource Catalogue Website: http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/cultural-
                     linguistic/center/HeadStartCultur.htm
            Journal Website: http://www.naeyc.org/files/yc/file/200511/ColomboBTJ1105.pdf

            Main theme: This article describes a small study of 27 middle class White pre k through
               third grade teachers who participated in a professional development initiative designed
               to help teachers rethink their assumptions about the Latino students and families

                                                                                            60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom, Module 2
                                                                                                                          A Facilitator’s Guide                                                                                                    x   11
enrolled in their suburban Massachusetts public school. Professional development included
                        12 workshops that combined coursework with cultural immersion experiences and interac-
                        tions with culturally diverse Latino families and children, most of whom
                        qualified for the free or reduced lunch program. Although Spanish was the home
                        language of all of the families, several different Latino cultures were represented.

          Learning Outcomes

          Through engagement in this C2C training, participants will

                       •    learn to critically examine journal articles and identify the “big ideas”
                            presented;

                       •    discuss and explore personal beliefs and attitudes about diverse families;

                       •    reflect on staff’s misconceptions of diverse families;

                       •    consider culturally responsive practices and strategies for working with
                            diverse families;

                       •    incorporate the funds of knowledge concept as a springboard toward un-
                            derstanding cultural responsiveness.

         60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom, Module 2
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Conversation Starters

Goal

The goal of these Conversation Starters is to increase participants’ self awareness and understanding
of cultural responsiveness in their work with children and families. (The Key Points, found on page 14,
should be integrated into the conversation.)

Choose one or more of the following questions to start and guide the participant conversation.

            •   What does the author mean by cultural “compatibility” and cultural
                “mismatch?”

            •   The author mentions four misconceptions that teachers held prior to the
                professional development initiative. What are your reactions? Are these
                “misconceptions?” Why or why not?

            •   What has been your professional development experience related to culture
                and diversity?

Have participants form small groups of 3 to 4 people. Have each group choose a recorder and
reporter, and discuss the Conversation Starter(s).

Have each “reporter” share some reactions and one highlight from their discussion.

                                                          60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom, Module 2
                                                                                        A Facilitator’s Guide   x   13
Key Points

         Key Points are designed to add concepts to the participants’ discussion based on what is most
         interesting about the featured article. Key Points can be added during or at the conclusion of
         the discussion, if they are not brought up by participants during the conversation.

                      •   Funds of knowledge are a family’s essential practices and bodies of
                          knowledge that can be cultural and cognitive resources for relationship
                          building and concept and skill development in programs and learning
                          environments.

                      •   Incorporating the funds of knowledge of children and families from
                          all ethnic, cultural, and linguistic backgrounds into the learning
                          environment provides a more meaningful and enriching learning
                          experience for children, families, and staff.

                      •   Self reflection and thinking about the families in the program will
                          increase cultural responsiveness by challenging possible biases and
                          misconceptions about differences among cultures.

                      •   Children and families from the same cultural group are individually
                          unique with varying behaviors, values, and beliefs that extend beyond
                          cross-cultural differences.

                      •   Individual family differences are viewed as strengths that are the
                          foundation of a culturally responsive classroom and/or program.

                      •   The exchange of information between families and staff regarding their
                          roles, shared expectations, attitudes and values, and available supports
                          and resources at the program and in the community will build trusting,
                          positive, goal-oriented relationships.

                      •   Staff can strongly encourage and support families to speak their home
                          language(s) with their children. Research shows that children who
                          develop two languages experience gains in cognitive development.

          60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom, Module 2
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catalogue to classroom

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Student Nam
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    e: _________
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ____________
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ___________
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         What are your                                                                                           Date: ______
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Fund                 s of Knowled                                                                       __________
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ge?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Home Language                             E.g., Arabic; Spani
                                                Funds of Knowledge
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         sh; Navajo; Italia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               n

                                                                         Luis C. Moll, Ph.D.

                                                                         Keywords
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Family Values                            E.g., holiday celeb
                                                                                             family engagement                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          rations; religio
                                                                         Funds of knowledge,                                                                                                                                                                                           and Tradition                                                                       us beliefs; work
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     s                                                                                         ethic
                                                                                                ts
                                                                          Some Research Highligh          t knowledge that program
                                                                                                                                    s
                                                                              • Families have abundan                        ent efforts.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Caregiving                              E.g., swaddling
                                                                                                        their family engagem                                                                                                                                                                                                                       baby; giving baby
                                                                                   can learn and use in                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    pacifer; co-sle
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              eping
                                                                                                                 funds of knowledge from
                                                                                  •  Students bring with them                            for
                                                                                                                 ities that can be used
                                                                                     their homes and commun                                                                                                                                                                          Friends and Fam                         E.g., visiting grand
                                                                                                                 ment.                                                                                                                                                                                        ily
                                                                                     concept and skill develop                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ma; barbecues;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           sports outings
                                                                                                                                  timate and
                                                                                                          s sometimes underes
                                                                                   • Classroom practice                   to display intellectually.
                                                                                                                are  able
                                                                                      constrain what children
                                                                                                                                     find
                                                                                                       focus on helping students                                                                                                                                                   Family Outings
                                                                                   • Teachers should                                    and facts                                                                                                                                                                          E.g., shopping;
                                                                                                              rather than learn rules                                                                                                                                                                                                          beach; library;
                                                                                       meaning in activities,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     picnic
                                                                                                                    race and class should
                                                                                      •    Group discussions around
                                                                                                                     ge dialogue.
                                                                                           promote trust and encoura                                                                                                                                                              Household Chor                         E.g., sweeping;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                es                                           dusting; doing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 dishes
                                                                             Relevant Publications:                           N. (1992). Funds of knowl-
                                                                                                      Neff, D., & Gonzalez,
                                                                             Moll, L. C., Amanti, C.,                           h to connect homes
                                                                                                                                                      and
                                                                                                        a qualitative approac
                                                                             edge for teaching: Using                              .
                                                                                                        Practice, 31(2), 132-141                                                                                                                                                 Educational Activ                      E.g., going to
                                                                             classrooms. Theory Into                                                                                                                                                                                               ities                                 the museum;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           taking a walk
                                                                                                                                           of knowledge:                                                                                                                                                                                                                     in the neighborho
                                                                                            Moll, L., & Amanti,   C. (Eds). (2005). Funds         ms.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 od
                                                                              González, N.,                                    ities and classroo
                                                                                                    in households, commun
                                                                              Theorizing practices
                                                                               Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum
                                                                                                              .                                                                                                                                                                 Favorite TV Show                      E.g., watching
                                                                                                                                                         Student Name: ________________________________ Date: ________________                                                                  s                                        Dora; Sesame
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Street; Sid the
                                                                                                                                                         What are your Funds of Knowledge?                                                                                                                                                                                  Scien    ce Kid

Activity
                                                                                                                                                                                          E.g., Arabic; Spanish; Navajo; Italian
                                                                                                                                                         Home Language

                                                                         C2C Activity
                                                                                                                                                                                          E.g., holiday celebrations; religious beliefs; work ethic

                                                     Instructions for
                                                                                                                                                         Family Values
                                                                                                                                                         and Traditions

                                                                                                                                                         Caregiving
                                                                                                                                                                                          E.g., swaddling baby; giving baby pacifer; co-sleeping

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Family Occupatio                       E.g., fishing; office
                                                                   e to Classroom, Module
                                                                                          2.                                                                                             E.g., visiting grandma; barbecues; sports outings                                                             ns                                   ; construction;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               policeman
                                                     (pgs 15 – 16 in Catalogu
                                                                                                                                                         Friends and Family

                                                                           other side.)
                                                     Worksheet found on
                                                                                                                                                                                         E.g., shopping; beach; library; picnic
                                                                                                                                                         Family Outings

                                                                                                                                                                                         E.g., sweeping; dusting; doing dishes

                                                                                            dge
                                                                                                                                                         Household Chores

                                                     Gathering    and using funds of knowle            for staff to gather funds
                                                                                                                                                         Educational Activities
                                                                                                                                                                                         E.g., going to the museum; taking a walk in the neighborhood
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Scientific Know
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ledge
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    E.g., recycling;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       exercising; healt
                                                                               formal opportunities                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        h
                                                     There are informal and                                  parent teacher
                                                                                                                                                                                         E.g., watching Dora; Sesame Street; Sid the Science Kid
                                                                                                                                                        Favorite TV Shows

                                                                                 off, pick up, home visits,
                                                     of knowledge (e.g., drop                                together to give
                                                                                                                                                                                         E.g., fishing; office; construction; policeman
                                                                                                                                                        Family Occupations

                                                                                   etc.) All staff can work
                                                     conferences, intake forms,                        knowledge. Based on
                                                                                                                                                                                         E.g., recycling; exercising; health

What We Know – What We Need to Know:
                                                                               and family’s funds of
                                                                                                                                                        Scientific Knowledge

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Additional Funds
                                                     a full picture of a child                        new categories of funds
                                                                                                                                                                                        Additional Funds of Knowledge

                                                                                                 find                                                                                                                                                                                                                             of       Knowledge
                                                                                    ,  staff may
                                                      conversations with families
                                                                                                                                                      González, N., Moll, L., and Amanti, C. (2005)

                                                                     to add  to the   list.
                                                      of knowledge
                                                                                                                                                                                  Bank Street College | NCCLR@bankstreet.edu | Toll Free: 888.246.1975
                                                                                                                                                                             Education Development Center, Inc. | NCCLRinfo@edc.org | Toll Free: 855.494.0331
                                                                                                                                                                                        http://ecklc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/cultural-linguistic

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         González, N.,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Moll,   L., and Aman
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ti, C. (2005)

Understanding funds of knowledge
                                                                                                                                                                                                      2
                                                                                                                                                                                to Classroom, Module                                                                XI
                                                                                                                               60 Minutes from Catalogue
                                                                                                                            u | Toll Free: 888.246.19
                                                                                                                                                       75                           Participant Handout                                                         x
                                                                                                  | NCCLR@bankstreet.ed                            855.494.0331
                                                                             Bank Street College                             edc.org | Toll Free:
                                                                                             nt Center, Inc. | NCCLRinfo@                                                                                                                                                                              Bank Street College
                                                                        Education Developme                                       cultural-linguistic
                                                                                                           s.gov/hslc/tta-system/                                                                                                                                                                Education Develo            | NCCLR@bank
                                                                                   http://ecklc.ohs.acf.hh                                                                                                                                                                                                        pment Center                street.edu |
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 , Inc. | NCCLR             Toll Free: 888.24
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            http://ecklc.o                       info@edc.org                   6.1975
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           hs.acf.hhs.gov                       | Toll Free: 855.49
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          /hslc/tta-syste                            4.0331
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          m/cultural-lin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         guistic

               Materials:

                    •   Key Point bullet one from page 14

                    •   11 Note Cards, each with one funds of knowledge category written on it

                    •   Funds of knowledge categories handout

                    •   Blank paper

                    •   Sticky notes

Moll 1994, 2001 states that “…Teachers who do not share children’s cultures can provide
culturally compatible instruction if they understand the children’s ‘cultural funds of knowledge,’
which can be thought of as the different ways of knowing, communicating and doing that exist
within diverse homes.” This activity is designed to explore the funds of knowledge that children
bring to early childhood care and education programs to begin to understand how that information
can serve to inform quality programming and instruction for all children.

       By Engaging in the funds of knowledge Activity, Participants will

           •   gain an understanding of the definition of funds of knowledge;

           •   process and discuss 11 specific categories of funds of knowledge;

           •   think about how their own funds of knowledge influences their
               instructional practices and interactions with children and families
               in their program; and

           •   consider what they know and don’t know about children and families
               in their program using the lens of Luis Moll’s funds of knowledge.

                                                                                            60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom, Module 2
                                                                                                                          A Facilitator’s Guide                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            x      15
Facilitating the Activity, Step-by-Step
              •   Begin by reading the definition of funds of knowledge from Key Point bullet one,
                  page 14.

              •   Next, form small groups of 3 to 4 participants.

              •   Provide each small group with 3 note cards with the funds of knowledge categories.
                  Each small group will process and discuss 3 of the 11 funds of knowledge categories.
                  The groups combined should have a good representation of the 11 funds of knowledge
                  categories.

              •   Have participants in each group draw 2 columns on a blank sheet of paper. One
                  column will be labeled “self” and the second column will be labeled “a child/family
                  in my program.”

              •   Instruct each group to select one note card and think about their own funds of
                  knowledge in that category. Participants will individually list all the things that make
                  up their funds of knowledge for that category in the “self” column. Allow 3 to 5
                  minutes to complete this task.

              •   Instruct participants to discuss their own funds of knowledge in their small groups.

              •   Next, have participants think about a particular child/family in their program. Using the
                  same note card, each participant will individually complete what they know about the
                  child’s/family’s funds of knowledge for that category. Information should be recorded
                  in the “a child/family in my program” column.

              •   Instruct each group to then discuss what they know about that child’s/family’s funds of
                  knowledge in contrast with information that might be missing. The conversation should
                  then be guided to ways they can learn about this information from the child and family
                  in their program. Encourage groups to use sticky notes to capture valuable strategies and
                  ideas for gathering funds of knowledge. This will reinforce the idea that children bring
                  experiences to the learning environment and that those experiences are the foundation
                  for curriculum and learning.

              •   This sequence will be repeated for each of the 3 note cards represented at each table.

              •   Finally, have each group brainstorm strategies on how to collect each child and family’s
                  funds of knowledge and how they can be integrated into the program.

         60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom, Module 2
16   x   A Facilitator’s Guide
catalogue to classroom

Learning Extensions

Learning Extensions are designed to apply and extend thinking based on the featured article.
They require participants to engage deeply with a suggestion, strategy, or concept from the
featured article in a step-by-step process.

Columbo (2005) suggests a number of strategies to help educators develop increased cultural
responsiveness.

These include:

           •     Get to know and talk to families in a variety of settings (school, home, community
                 events, places of worship, etc.) to discover their diverse strengths. Infuse families’
                 customs and history into the classroom or home-based setting.

           •     Read adult literature about other cultures that are written by authors who have
                 in-depth knowledge of that culture.

           •     Place yourself in situations that force you to experience a cultural disequilibrium
                 to help you understand what it is like for diverse children and families when they
                 come to your program.

Have participants:

           •     Reflect on what they are already doing to become more culturally responsive.

           •     Pick a strategy from above.

           •     Think critically about how that strategy can help them feel more competent.

           •     Discuss how to implement that strategy with a partner or small group.

           •     Write a step-by-step plan of how to achieve and implement a chosen strategy.

           •     Think about how the new strategy may be integrated with existing plans
                 (if applicable) to become more culturally responsive.

           •     Take their step-by-step plan back to the leadership team and implement
                 the plan (include input from the Policy Council, Policy Committee, and Parent
                 Committee.)

           •     Think about ways to incorporate the new knowledge about families into
                 program planning: family engagement, curriculum development and
                 individualizing children’s needs.

                                                           60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom, Module 2
                                                                                         A Facilitator’s Guide   x   17
25

                                                                                                                                                                                                  PRINCIP
                                                                                         3:                                                                                                                             LE 9:                                                                 61
                                                                     PLE
                                                              PRINCI                                        g
                                                                                            rse programmint                                                                                     Culturally rele
                                                                              vant and dive                                                                                                    examines and vant and diverse program
                                                              Culturally rele g accurate information abou                                                                                                      challenges inst              min
                                                              requires lear
                                                                            nin             ps and discard
                                                                                                          ing                                                                                  personal bias                   itutional and g
                                                                              different grou                                                                                                                 es.
                                                              the cultures of
                                                               stereotypes.
                                                                                                                                               l
                                                                                                                              al Multicultura
                                                                                                            from the Origin
                                                                                                Highlights                                                                                                                                        Highlights
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                from the Origina
                                                                                                                                                            e
                                                                                                Principles (1991)                           e with effectiv                                                                                      Multicultural                     l
                                                                                                                           rmation interfer                                                                                                                        Principles (1991)
                                                                                                               and misinfo
                                                                                                • Stereotypes                                                                                                                                    • Program
                                                                                                                      m services.                                                                                                                              systems and
                                                                                                   Head Start progra                     responsibility
                                                                                                                                                        to                                                                                          services should
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     be reviewed
                                                                                                                           an individual                                                                                                                                         for
                                                                                                              m staff have                       l groups in                                                                                       institutional
                                                                                                 • All progra                                                                                                                                                     bias.
                                                                                                                                  about cultura
                                                                                                            accurate information                                                                                                                • Skills to deal
                                                                                                    acquire                                                                                                                                                       with bias must
                                                                                                                 nity.                                                                                                                            taught to children             be
                                                                                                    their commu                                                                                                                                                        .
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Research Review
                                                                                                   Research Review                       in child develop
                                                                                                                                                            ment.
                                                                                                                    important factor                    understanding                                                                          One challen
                                                                                                   Culture is an                        challenges to                                                                                                        ge to underst
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             anding culture
                                                                                                                      there are many                 own culture
                                                                                                                                                                    start­                                                                    involves the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             way we acquire
                                                                                                   Nevertheless,                      acquire our                                                                                                                               it. Rogoff
                                                                                                                    is. Because we              go about our
                                                                                                                                                                daily                                                                         (1990) posed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              the problem
                                                                                                    what culture                directly as we                                                                                               are “blind” to                  this way: We
                                                                                                                think about it                            ourselves                                                                                            our own culture
                                                                                               challenged to                           culture, we find                                                                                      our way of thinkin                    because
                                                                  ing at birth,
                                                                                we are rarely                        about our own                                                                                                                                 g and living,
                                                                                            we  do start to think                                                                                                                           over a lifetime                        built up
                                                                                ver, when                                                                                                                                                                    , has become
                                                                   lives. Moreo                       complex reality.                                                                                                                                                        a habit.
                                                                                     a dynamic and                                                    discuss culture
                                                                                                                                                                        .                                                                   Although all

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          humans live
                                                                    confronted with                                                             e, or                                                                                                                      within
                                                                                                                            to define, describ                       an                                                                     more culture
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          s, our cultural
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    one or
                                                                                                        different ways                           help us develop                                                                                                            knowledge
                                                                                       there are many                             ons that can                                                                                             is often subcon
                                                                     As we have seen,                             these definiti                          in child                                                                                           scious. As much
                                                                                                  n features of                           culture plays                                                                                    we do on a daily                      of what
                                                                     Yet there are
                                                                                   some commo                            different roles                                              involves routine                                                         basis (e.g., workin
                                                                                                         tanding the                                                                                   s, we rarely                       eating, relaxing
                                                                                         ork for unders                                                                                                             consciously                             , raising children
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     g,
                                                                     organized framew on features include:                                                                not.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 think of culture                                )
                                                                                                                                                         l knowledge is
                                                                                     Comm                                                                                            Another challen                                               as shaping our
                                                                      development.                                              cal. Howev   er, cultura                                              ge to underst
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     anding culture
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     behavior at all.
                                                                                                           innate or biologi                              begin at birth             aspects of cultural                             involves the
                                                                                           for culture is                             e processes that                                                   information
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      and ways of                  personal, social,
                                                                           • The capacity                        d through multipl                                                  into habits since
                                                                                                                                                                                                      childhood, natural           living. Our way of                  and  emotio
                                                                                                dge is acquire                                                                      “right way.”                                                        thinking and                 nal
                                                                              Cultural knowle                                                                                                    We tend                  ly lead us to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        think that our                   living, built
                                                                                              Valsiner 1997).                                            values and beliefs,       is often to confirm to notice culture when                           way of doing
                                                                              (Rogoff 1990;                                                s, including                                                                             we encounter                         things is the
                                                                                                                    g or understanding                                                                   our own expecta

          Application to Head Start
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    differences,
                                                                                      e involve s shared meanin                                                                                                          tions and ideas.                          and our reaction
                                                                            • Cultur                                                                                         and
                                                                                                (Rogoff 2003).                                 1998). That
                                                                                                                                                             is, it evolves
                                                                               within a group                                   o & Collier
                                                                                                           volitional (Ovand                                     lives, includ­
                                                                                           dynamic and                                           of their daily
                                                                             • Culture is                                       in the course
                                                                                                                  make choices                          meanings, values,
                                                                                               time as people                       ate in the shared
                                                                                changes over                   they will particip
                                                                                               what extent)
                                                                                ing if (and to
                                                                                              rs of their group.
                                                                                 and behavio

          The Application to Head Start activities are designed to help participants understand
          how journal articles can be used to support existing Head Start frameworks and documents
          such as the Revisiting and Updating the Multicultural Principles for Head Start Programs
          Serving Children Ages Birth to Five.

          Choose 1 of the Following 3 Exercises

              Exercise 1. Connecting to the publication Revisiting and Updating the Multicultural
                      Principles for Head Start Programs Serving Children Ages Birth to Five.

                       In small groups, have participants review Principle 3 (p. 25) or Principle 9 (p.
                       61). Participants can then choose the corresponding questions below
                       to discuss in the small group.

                       Principle 3 states, “Culturally relevant and diverse programming requires
                       learning accurate information about the cultures of different groups and
                       discarding stereotypes.” Columbo (2005) and Principle 3 stress the
                       importance of education staff discarding and challenging misconceptions
                       about certain cultural groups.

                            •    What opportunities do staff have to reflect upon and share their
                                 own cultural experiences, values, and beliefs with colleagues?

                            •    What opportunities do staff have to collect, learn, and share
                                 the cultures and languages of the families and communities
                                 with colleagues?

                       Principle 9 states, “Culturally relevant and diverse programming examines
                       and challenges institutional and personal biases.” Columbo (2005) and
                       Principle 9 stress the importance of educational staff rethinking assumptions
                       and biases as well as institutional practices that hinder cultural competence.

                            •    Does your program incorporate reflective supervision practices
                                 so that staff have opportunities to reflect on their family
                                 engagement approaches and services?

                            •    How do your program’s policies and procedures support
                                 culturally responsive services for children and families?
         60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom, Module 2
18   x   A Facilitator’s Guide
catalogue to classroom

Exercise 2. Connecting to The National Center on Parent, Family and Community
    Engagement (PFCE) Framework

       •   Review the PFCE Framework Program Foundations area focusing
           on Professional Development. The framework states, “Giving staff
           members regular opportunities to come together as a community of
           learners helps them find mutual support and ideas for turning training
           and information into action. It also helps them gain new insights from
           working in cross-service area teams, such as teaching, family services,
           and home visiting.” (p.3)

       •   Think of two new ways to learn about different cultural groups in
           your program. Broaden the definition to go beyond race, language,
           and ethnicity.

       •   Refer to both the PFCE framework and the featured article for ideas.
           Ideas such as:
               — Training for staff conducted by families or other trusted
                   cultural representatives about different cultural practices
               — Social activities that help staff get to know families within
                 the context of their day to day life
               — Including families in professional development opportunities alongside staff

                                                    60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom, Module 2
                                                                                  A Facilitator’s Guide   x   19
Exercise 3. Connecting to Curriculum and the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS)

                Curriculum

                          •   Review the curriculum used in the EHS/HS or early care and education
                              program.

                          •   Discuss how families’ funds of knowledge can be infused into the
                              curriculum.

                          •   Discuss how children’s funds of knowedge can be infused into the
                              curriculum.

                          •   Discuss how children’s funds of knowledge can be considered within
                              observations and individualizing.

                 CLASS

                          Choose one of the following dimensions of CLASS and discuss the
                          corresponding questions:

                          Positive Climate: Relationships – How might staff develop positive
                          and supportive relationships with children and families?

                          Teacher Sensitivity: Responsiveness – How might staff individualize
                          responses to children and families?

                          Instructional Learning Formats-Variety of Modalities and Materials (pre-k) –
                          How could learning be given deeper context with the
                          incorporation of culturally relevant materials?

                          Faciliation of Learning and Development-Expansion of Cognition (Toddler) –
                          How could faciliation of learning and development be given deeper context
                          with the incorporation of culturally relevant materials?

         60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom, Module 2
20   x   A Facilitator’s Guide
catalogue to classroom

Making the Connection
This section provides information on how the C2C training modules connect to and support the Head
Start Performance Standards and Protocols. It also explains how the modules can be used by Early
Childhood Education (ECE) Specialists.

The Head Start Performance Standards
1304.21 Education and Early Childhood Development

   •   (a) Child Development and Education for all children (2) Parents must be (i) Invited
       to become integrally involved in the development of the program’s curriculum and
       approach to child development and education;

   •   (3)(i)(E) Supporting and respecting the home language, culture, and family
       composition of each child in ways that support the child’s health and well-being.

1304.40 Family Partnerships

   •   (e)(1) Parent involvement in child development and education. Grantee and
       delegate agencies must provide opportunities to include parents in the development
       of the program’s curriculum and approach to child development and education.

Improving Head Start for School Readiness Act of 2007
Sec.642 Powers and Functions of Head Start Agencies

   •   (11) Provide to parents of limited English proficient children outreach and
       information, in an understandable and uniform format and, to the extent
       practicable, in a language that the parents can understand.

The 2014 Office of Head Start Monitoring Protocol
Family & Community Engagement Key Indicator #1- Partnerships with Families

   •   Interview the FCE Coordinator and staff to determine how they demonstrate
       respect for each family’s cultural, ethnic, and linguistic diversity.

   •   Interview parents to determine how the program provides them with opportunities
       to share their culture, values, beliefs, and traditions with the program. OHS T/TA

System Early Childhood Education (ECE) Specialists
This professional development resource supports ECE Specialists to provide T/TA around
Parent and Family Engagement

   •   ECE Specialists can help grantees develop their skills in facilitating home-school
       connections with parents and families; to reinforce children’s learning and
       development; and to understand and respond to the many cultures and
       languages represented in their programs.
                                                             60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom, Module 2
                                                                                           A Facilitator’s Guide   x   21
School Readiness

                   •                                            ECE Specialists can help grantee staff to explore developmental concepts identified in the
                                                                HSCDELF Language and Literacy domain (e.g., the importance of maintaining the home
                                                                language); and Social and Emotional Development domain (e.g., maintaining cultural
                                                                continuity between home and school to support self-concept and identity).

         Making the Connection
         The National Center on Culture and Linguistic Responsiveness (NCCLR) has created a number of products
         that support practice with culturally and linguistically diverse families and children. These products can
         be given as handouts to participants.

           The Gift                                                                                                                                                                                             Language at Home and
           of Language                                                                                                                                                                                          in the Community
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                                                                                                                                                                                                               do every day to help your                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 recognizing that every family                                                   Thailand, Malaysia, Bangladesh,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         child                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          is unique and that cultural
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                                                                                                                                                                                                              and become successful in                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Practice Tip:                         when saying                                                                                        were interviewed for this                                                refugees from Burma
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  cultural informa
                                  e with your child                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          practices                               greeting, used                  ac-                                                grounder. While general                                  back-                                                                (U.S. Depart­
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               provides general              that cultural                              is a typical                    ” and may be                                                                              information is provided here,                          ment of State, 2012).
            Speak your languag                                                                                                                                                                                school!                                                                                                                                                          This resource
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                every family
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             is unique and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Several Bhutane
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   se         ”Namaste”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              goodbye. Literally
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 it means, “I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              bow to you,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              together.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        best to get to know each
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  family and learn their unique
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 it is
                      every day!                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ognizing that                   by generation. backgrounder.                                by palms pressed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        characteristics; wherever                                                        Culture and Religion
            at home                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             will vary by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             household and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            interviewed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          for this
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             to get to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               companied                                                                                                community about different
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   possible, ask members of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             the                        While there are eight
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              leaders were                  here, it is best                                                                                                                                                         cultural practices.                                                        main ethnic groups within
                          language               important?                                                                                                                                                   Use your language at home                                                                                                                                         community                      is provided                        wher-                                                                                                                                                                                                 and over 130 sub-groups,                                  Burma,
             Why is home                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         information                  characteristics;                          Religion               though a fair
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     the largest groups of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 refugees
                                         speak with your children                                                                                                                                            The easiest, most important                                                                                                                                        While general
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              family and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          learn their unique nity about different            Culture and           s are Hindu,    follow the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Nepali                                                                                                                                    from Burma in the U.S.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 are Karen and Chin (Southeast
                     The language you                           is their                                 community. It                                                                                                                   step is to use your                                                                                                                     know each                    rs of the commu                                          ese refugee                                                                                                                                                                      Asia Resource Action
                                            they will learn. It
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      They
                                                                                   to their culture and                                                                                                      home language every day.                                                                                                                                                           , ask membe                                            Most Bhutan                      Christian.                           r used                                                                                                                                            Center, 2011). There are
                     is the first language                      their family, and                   is the language that                                                                                                              Many families worry that                                                                                                                         possible                                                                        Buddhist or                          ian calenda                                                                                                                                 differences among these                               significant
                                           you, to the rest of                    around them. It                                                                                                            using their home language                                                                                                                                           ever                s.                                                number are            differs from
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             the Gregor                  -year.                                                                                                                                                     ethnic groups, including
                     first connection to                        about the world                             is one of the                                                                                                                 will confuse their children.                                                                                                            cultural practice                                                    calendar, which holiday dates vary
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        from year-to                                                                                                                                   ferent languages, cultural                                  dif­
                                             first use to learn                         that process! This                                                                                                   languages at the same time.                               Actually,                                                                                                                                                                                                                         some of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          most                                                                                                                                                       practices, political histories,
                      is the language they life”—and you are a central part of
                                            for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          They have an easier time learning children can easily learn several                                                                                                                                           in the U.S.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Thus,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       holidays, but
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       and religions. Refugees
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 from Burma may be Buddhists,
                      helps them get “set                         first teachers.                                                                                                                            foundation in their first language.                             English when they have a                                                                                                                                                                many Nepali                                                                                                                                                                       Christians, animists, or
                                             are their children’s                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     strong                                                                                                                                             There are                                                                                                                                                                                                              Muslims; they may be
                       many ways parents                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                include:                                                                                                                                                                       or urban areas. While                                 from rural
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         significant                                                 ese):                                                                                                                                                    some speak Burmese,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    some Bhutan                                                                                                                                                                                            the Karen,
                                                                                       language?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Dashara by                                                                                                                                                          Karenni, Chin, and other
                             benefits              of using your home              your family. It also
                                                                                                        provides a                                                                                          Tell stories and sing songs                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Dasain (called                               es the victory
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          which celebrat days, with the                                                                                                                               guages specific to their
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ethnic minorities speak
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 lan­
               What are the                                    your children to                              who speak                                                                                     Your family has a rich heritage                                                                                                                                                                                                                     This major
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              holiday,               d for 15                                                                                                                                                                   ethnic group. Some may
                                           language connects                           friends and neighbors and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  evil, is observe the most important.                                                                                                                                speak Burmese fluently,                                    not
                       Using your home                              traditions, and to                                                                                                                                                      to pass on to your children.                                                                                                                                                                                        of good over                                                                                                                                                                                                     if at all. It is likely that
                                             important cultural                          to teach your children, can                                                                                        sayings, and songs from your                                 Stories, chants, rhymes, poems,                                                                                                                                                                         10th days being in early October.                                                                                                                                    from Burma will need                                    refugees
                       connection to your                         language allows you            and words; you
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          childhood are an important                                                                                                                                                                                             8th, 9th and                                                                                                                                                                                                 an interpreter.
                                             Using your home                                                                                                                                                your children and have fun!                                part of their heritage. Share                                                                                                                                                                             typically occurs
                       the same language.                          talk about new experiences part of your children’s                                                                                                                                                                                these with                                                                                                                                                  This holiday                             Falling three
                                              together. You can                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Diwali in India):late October to early
                       to learn new things                             things are an importantdo it in your most
                                              numbers. All of these                       if you                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               • Tihar (called
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Dasain, usually
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      in                                                                                                                                                  Practice Tips:
                        practice letters and                           more fun for you                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           weeks after
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ed for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 of lights is celebrat the most
                                               it will be easier and                                                                                                                                                                                              Tell stories and share books
                        early learning—and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 together                                                                                                                                November,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  the festival
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      5th days being when
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         • Refugees from Burma
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  may avoid direct eye contact,
                        comfortable language.                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Reading together is a critical                                                                                                                                                                                       the 3rd and                     day,                                                                                                                                 considering it to be impolite.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 part of your children’s early                                                                                                                                     five days, with                is brother/sister
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               learn-                                                                                                                                             The 5th day                      s’ heads.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ing. Children learn many
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             skills they will need in school                                                                                                                                        important.                  on  their brother
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         • In Burma, distinct clothing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         is one way to distinguish
                                English?                                                                      life.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               a blessing                                                                                                                                                                ethnic group. However,                                 an
                But what about                                  need English to succeed
                                                                                             in school and in
                                                                                                                more than
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 they listen to stories and look                             when
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  at books with their families.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     sisters put                       ted in mid-Ap
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ril.                                                                                                                                                         the "Longyi" (a long cloth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 worn
                                              the United States                          A person who speaks                                                                                                                                                     also a lot of fun!                                              It’s                                                                                                                                                Year: Celebra                            of Bud-                                Background                                                                            by men and women) and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 • Nepali New
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       "Hta mein" (woman's skirt)
                           Children living in                       become bilingual.                       in the United                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ion  of the birth                                                                                                                                 common across many groups.                              are
                                                children can easily                        and work—both                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Jayanti: A
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               celebrat                                                              Burma, a large country
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              located in
                           Fortunately, young                        ies to study, travel,                       thinking                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         • Buddha                                                                                          been officially called Myanmar Southeast Asia, has                                  • Some refugees may be
                           one language well
                                              has more opportunit                       children build stronger                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        dha in early
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     May.                                                                                                             since 1989, but the name                                                      reluctant to ask for what
                                                                 bilingual also helps                                                                                                                                                                           Check out materials in your language                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                change is disputed by                                                                  need. Try anticipating their                       they
                                               the world. Being                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              those who do not recognize                                                                 needs and asking open-
                           States and around                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 from the library                                                                              s have been                                                                                ,                             legitimacy of the ruling                              the                             ended questions, multiple
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Look for books, DVDs, and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           music in your language. If                                                                     Background 60,000 Bhutanese refugee camps in                             Practice Tip:                       among Bhutane
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          se refugees                                                         military government.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A former                              through an interpreter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       times if necessary, ideally
                            skills.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                British colony, the country                                                                                     (Karen American Communities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               don’t have what you want,                                they                                                              Since 2007,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       over
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     States from
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  refugee                                         common practice .                                                                                              has experienced a long-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ask the library staff to help                                                                                                                          Origi-              Fasting is a                                                                                   running civil war. In recent                                                           Foundation, n.d.).
                                   English,     should I use it at home?                                  language is
                                                                                     e using. If your home children
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               what you need.                                          you find                                                           resettled to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        the United
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Department
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               of State, 2012). in the               especially during
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          the holidays                                                                                           decades, due to government
                  If I speak some                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (U.S.                         Nepal                                                                                                                    repression and persecution,
                                                                 are most comfortabl      language with your                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Eastern Nepal                         d from
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              repression                                                               , thus Hindus                                                              tens of thousands of people,
                                               the language you                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         migrate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       minorit y group they experienced                                                          sacred to Hindus
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   mainly ethnic minorities,                                                       Due to the years of internal
                             You should speak                       should use your home                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   nally, this                                                                          considered                           also abstain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      from                                                     have fled their homeland.                                                        conflicts in Burma, in
                                                 English, then you                                                                                                                                       Talk about your traditions and                                                                                                                                                                   . In the 1990s oring Nepal. Someti
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   mes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 The cow is                           while some                                                   of these refugees live                                 Most                     different ethnic groups                             which
                             stronger than your        skills.                                                                                                                                                                                                    culture                                                                                                                   19th century            neighb                           ese                            not eat beef
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           in neighboring countries,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      such as
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           may have found themselves
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   opposing sides, one should                            on
                             to build strong language
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Visit your child’s classroom                                                                                                                                                                  and fled to                 all of the Bhutan             typically will                                                                                                                                                                                                 not assume that all refugees
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      and share your language, culture                                                                                                                      in Bhutan                 pas, almost                  English.
                                                                                                                                                                                                         and songs and encourage your                                    and traditions. Share family                                                                                                    as Lhotsam                     also speak                pork.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        child to retell family stories                                stories                                                                                referred to       Nepali and  some may
                                                                                                                                                                                             1           others. Share songs and games                                 and share your family’s heritage                                                                                      refugees speak                                                                                                                                                                         Bridging Refugee
                                                                                                                                                                        guistic
	                                                       from your culture with your                                     with                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Bridging Refugee Youth and          Youth &
                                                                                                        du • Toll free 888.246.1975
	                                                                                                                                  child’s classmates and teachers.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Office
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Services (USCCB/MRS) www.brycs.orgof Head Start’s National Center on Cultural
                                                                                                                                                     system/cultural-lin
                                                                                    • ncclr@bankstreet.e
                                                                Bank Street College Toll free 855.494.0331 • http://eclkc.ohs.ac
                                                                                                                                  f.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               .org              1                                    Children’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Children’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Services
                                                                                 org •                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       E-mail: info@brycs
                                                Center, Inc. • NCCLRinfo@edc.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1.888.572.6500                                 u                    Office of HeadToll Free:                                                  Tolland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Free:Linguistic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1.888.572.6500
                        Education Development                                                                                                                                                                 Education Development                   Bank Street College
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Center, Inc. • NCCLRinfo@edc.org • ncclr@bankstreet.edu • Toll free 888.246.1975                                                                                                                                              cs.org Toll Free:                               ncclr@bankstreet.ed                                          Start     1. 888.572.650
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       National Center on Cultural
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               0 and Linguistic                                   Responsivenes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     E-mail: info@brycs.org
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Toll free 855.494.0331
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   • http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov                                                                                                                    /MRS) www.bry                    Free: 1.888.24
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     6.1975 E-mail:                                                                  E-mail: info@brycs.org                     Responsiveness                   Toll
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Toll Free:    1.888.246.19
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ’s Services (USCCB                   siveness Toll
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Free: 1.888.246.1975 E-mail:75
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 /hslc/tta-system/cultural-lin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              guistic   1                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ncclr@bankstreet.edu   1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Youth and Children                   Linguistic Respon                                                                                                                                                                                          E-mail: ncclr@bankstreet.edu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Bridging Refugee                         Cultural and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            l Center on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Start Nationa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Office of Head

                    The Benefits of
                    Being Bilingual
                                             serves more than 300,000 in
                     Head Start currently
                                               language learners (DLLs)
                     children who are dual               (Office of Head Start,
                     87.4 percent of its classrooms
                                                lists some reasons bilingualism
                     2011). This document
                                                   families, and our entire
                      is an asset to individuals, share the benefits of
                      society. Head Start
                                            staff can
                                                       find ways to support
                       bilingualism with families, and encourage families to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Refugee Families
                       children’s home languages,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ilies from                                                               Iraq                                                                                                              from                                                             Somalia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Refugee Fam
                                              strong.
                       keep their language                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            This backgroun
                                                                                                                                         iew                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                experience
                                                               Benefits: An Overv
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        der provides general
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             have had some                                                            while recognizin                         cultural informatio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              of Iraqis will              acquainted
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      with                                                               g that every family                        n,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The majority                   and are well                                                            cultural practices                       is unique and that                   has experienc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   information,                               -style living,                 s quick adapta­                                                              will vary by household                                                  ed civil war on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  general cultural                            with Western                       ge promote                                                          Several Somali                                                                November 2011,                 and off
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      nearly one million since 1991. As of
                                                                                                                  Social-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        . This knowled                                                                                                                    and by generation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  nder provides                     and that cultural         urban lifestyles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       community leaders                                .          outside their
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  This backgrou                    family is unique                                                                                                                                 backgrounder. While                      were interviewe                                     country, and            Somali refugees
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ng that every                        n. Several
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               tion to life in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               the U.S.                                                                                                      this resource provides           d for this                                       nearly 1.5                 live
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     d and by generatio backgrounder.
                                                                                                                  Emotional
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  while recognizi                                                                                                                                                                   it is best to get                                                             displaced within
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     their own country million have been
                            Cognitive
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      to know each family            general informatio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  vary by househol                   this                                                                                                                                                                                                 n,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   practices will                    interviewed for         is best to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   characteristics;                          and learn their                      U.S. has resettled                    (UNHCR, 2011).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ity leaders were         information, it                        Practice Tip:                                          use formal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       wherever possible,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ask members of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             unique
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  across the country
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     more than 100,000                   The
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Iraqi commun           provides general                         istics;                                           placed on respect,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   community about
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             the                                                          Somali refugees
                                                                                                           supports children                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        While this resource                   their unique character dif­                                the high value                      names un­                                                        different cultural                                                           (Refugee Processin
                                                                                    Becoming bilingual                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   family and learn                 ity about                In keeping with                      Do not use first                                                                                     practices.                                                                    g Center, 2012).
                                                   bilingual switch                                           with their                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            get to know each ask members of the commun                                                        (Mr., Mrs., Ms.).
                             Individuals who are                                    to maintain strong ties                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        titles with adults
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    do so or given
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   permission.                                                                                                                                      Practice Tip:
                                                      language systems.                • entire family,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             whenever possible,                                                              less invited to
                             between two different                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   practices.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Somali Bantu
                                                    active and flexible                • culture, and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ferent cultural                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   refugees are historically
                              Their brains are very                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   culturally different                      , ethnically, and
                                                        2000). Research also                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Religion                                         the                                                                                                                                        from other Somali
                              (Zelasko and Antunez,                                     • community.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Culture and                                  ethnic groups,                                                                                                                          of this resettled
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        group are descendan refugees. The majority
                                                    people have an easier                                  parts of children’s                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       d of many different              Iraqi Kurds                                                                                                                    African Bantu                            ts of southeaste
                              shows that bilingual                                   All of these are key                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Iraqis are comprise the Iraqi Arabs (75 - 80%).                                                                                                                                                           people who were                           rn
                                                                                                            (Zelasko and Antunez,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                are                             remainder of                                                                                                                        slaves in the 19th                 brought to Somalia
                              time                                                   developing identity                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    largest of which of the population. The                                                                                                                                                                      century. Somali                       as
                                                             concepts and                                           are also able                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            - 20%                              of groups, in­
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Somalia in the                       Bantu refugees
                                • understanding math more easily
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1990s,                               fled
                                                                                     2000). Bilingual children                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               represent 15                       d of a variety                                                                                                                                      were finally resettled lived in refugee camps in Kenya,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             on is comprise                            Chaldeans.
                                     solving word problems                                           friends and   create strong                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             the populati                            Assyrians, and                                                                                                                                                         in the United States                 and
                                                                2000);                to make new                                    n                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             n, Armenians,           3% of the populati
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  on                                                                                                                2007. For more
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      information, see            between 2003­
                                     (Zelasko and Antunez,                                                    second language—a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               cluding Turkome            approximately                                                                                                                                                                                 The Somali Bantu
                                                                                      relationships in their
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   www.culturalorientati
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           (http://
                                                           thinking skills                                   skill in our increasingly                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Christians comprise5).                                                                                                                                                               somali-bantu-culture- on.net/library/publications/the­
                                 • developing strong                                   important personal                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      al., p.                                                                                                                                                                                      profile).
                                      (Kessler and Quinn,
                                                              1980);                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Ghareeb, et.                                              although
                                                               and Majumder,           diverse society.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Iraqis is Arabic,
                                 • using logic (Bialystok                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              e spoken by                        The                                                                                                                Due to ongoing
                                                                        &                                         has also found that                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The main languag                      on ethnic group.                                                                                                                                          instability in
                                      as cited in Castro, Ayankoya,                     Finally, recent research                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                variation based                       is commonly                                                                                                            to resettle Somali               Somalia, the
                                                                                                                       households                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              there is some                        English, which                                                                                                                                               refugees. Some            U.S. continues
                                                                                        children raised in bilingual                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                e is typically                           profi­                                                                                                          having relatives                     are resettled
                                       Kasprzak, 2011);                                                             (Kovács and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 second languag from a young age. The English fluent.                                                                                                                                           currently in the                  without
                                                                g, and making           show better self-control                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         to                                                                                                                 single mothers                      U.S. These are
                                  • focusing, rememberin                                                                   indicator of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         taught in schools                   range from basic                                                                                                                                          with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            the wider communi young children, who must
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                often
                                                               2001);                             2009), which is a key                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            refugees will
                                       decisions (Bialystok,                   al.,      Mehler,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ciency of Iraqi                                  practice Islam                                                                                                           extended family. ty for support in the absence on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                rely
                                                         language (Castro et             school success.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Muslim and
                                   • thinking about                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 of Iraqis are          rtionately high
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              number                                                                                                                           Others have grown                  of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Although 97%                                                                                                                                                              and may not
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          have experienc            up in refugee
                                       2011); and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 al., p. 5), a dispropo in the population re­                                                                                                                                             ed the same traditiona camps
                                                                    ( Jessner,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Ghareeb, et.                          ted                                                                                                                               bringing or parenting
                                   • learning other languages                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     of Iraqi Christian
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        s are represen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In fiscal year
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     2012, over 40%                         Background
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    role models as
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    older generatio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    l up­
                                        2008).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      United States.                         minority                                                                                                       Culture and                                                 ns.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              refugees             settled in the                          s of Christian                                   Somalia is a hot,                                                                               Religion
                                                         indicates that                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Background years more than 105,000 Iraqi Dept. of                                     Iraqis were member                           , and the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        or Shi’ite Muslims (U.S.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                arid country on                                           The majority
                                   In addition, research                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Over the last
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          30                     States (U.S.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   of resettled
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    50% were Sunni
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Africa, bordered                       the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               by Ethiopia, Kenya, eastern coast of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         of Somalis are
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Sunni Muslims,
                                                           the onset of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           to the United                 refugees in         groups, over                             minority groups                                                                                                             faith that is central
                                   bilingualism may delay
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ing colonizat                                                                                                                  an Islamic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           have been    resettled             over 12,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Iraqi                                          from  other  Iraqi                                                                ion, areas of modern and Djibouti. Dur­                       the 11th century. to Somali culture and dates
                                                        (Dreifus, 2011).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The U.S. resettled                    to continue         remainder were                                                                         Britain, Italy,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           France, and Ethiopia, Somalia were ruled by                                                                        back to
                                    Alzheimer’s disease                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    State, 2012).                  refugees is expected                                         2012).
                                                                                                                                                                                                     1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        the flow of Iraqi                                           Dept. of State,                                       to religious                    independence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             on July 1, 1960.      with Somalia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 gaining                Most Somalis
                                                                                                                                 • Toll free 888.246.1975                   em/cultural-linguisti
                                                                                                                                                                                                 c
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2012,  and                                                                                                       ns related                                                                                                                                  will observe the
                                                                                                         • ncclr@bankstreet.edu • http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-syst
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          dietary restrictio ed when working with                         ity of Somalis                       Before the war,                          cultural practices                 following religious/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            at a steady pace.
                                                                                     Bank Street College                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   were nomadic                        the
                                                                                                        g • Toll free 855.494.0331
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 in                  There are many                                                                                                         herders or farmers, major­                                      :
                                                                     Center, Inc. • NCCLRinfo@edc.or
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ent often stay                                          should be consider pork, consume alcohol                         about 1/5 of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          the populatio                         while
                                          Education Development

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Iraqi refugees
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             awaiting resettlem years during the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           several
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     practice; these
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       . Muslims do
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       not eat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ring animals)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         n lived in urban
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          areas. Somalia               •       Women covering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                their arms and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            countries for                harsh living                Iraqi refugees                 process of slaughte                                                                                                                        “hijab” (head                    legs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             neighboring              They may endure and limited ac­                 or eat non-halal (Islamic                                                                                                                                                              covering) in public—a and wearing the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             process.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              nd in the presence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              resettlement          wding, homeles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     sness,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     services.        meat.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              conditions, over-cro                and other critical
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                n, medical care,                                                                                                                         Bridging Refugee
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Youth and Children’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               cess to educatio                                                                                                                                                                                 Services www.brycs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    rg               1   Office of Head Start                                        .org Toll Free: 1.888.572.6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           6500 E-mail: info@brycs.o                                          National Center                                                   500 E-mail: info@brycs.o
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      s.org Toll Free: 1.888.572.                      ncclr@bankstreet.edu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              on Cultural and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Linguistic Responsiv                                      rg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        MRS) www.bryc                                    .1975 E-mail:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Services (USCCB/                              Toll Free: 1.888.246                                                                                                                              eness Toll Free: 1.888.246.1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Youth and Children’s                            Responsiveness                                                                                                                                                                                            975 E-mail: ncclr@bankst
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Bridging Refugee                                  and Linguistic                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   reet.edu         1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Center on Cultural
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Start National

         The Importance of Home Language Series
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Office of Head

         This series of handouts is designed to provide                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Cultural Backgrounders
         staff and families with basic information on topics                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This series of resources provides general cultural
         related to children learning two or more languages.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                information on various refugee and cultural groups
         They emphasize the benefits of being bilingual, the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                new to the United States to help staff begin discus-
         importance of maintaining home language, and the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   sions with families. It is always best to get to know
         value of becoming fully bilingual. These easy-to-read                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              each family and learn their individual characteristics,
         resources highlight important information that every                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               as every family is unique and cultural practices vary
         adult living or working with young dual language                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   by household and by generation.
         learners should know. eBooks now available.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        https://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/cultur-
         https://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     al-linguistic/refugee-families/cul-backgrounders.html
         cultural-linguistic/home-language.html

          60 Minutes from Catalogue to Classroom, Module 2
22   x    A Facilitator’s Guide
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