CYBERCOPS: Air Dogs GRADE 8 TEACHER RESOURCE PACKAGE - An Interactive Internet Safety Program

 
CYBERCOPS:
                     Air Dogs
                      An Interactive Internet Safety Program

                                    GRADE 8
                           TEACHER RESOURCE PACKAGE

Health and Physical Education                                                Healthy Living
Grade 8                                               Personal Safety and Injury Prevention
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Ophea would like to acknowledge the following for their contributions to this resource:

Development team:
Michael Brophy, Ontario Principals Council
Jeff Bumstead, Ophea
Debra Courville, Ophea Curriculum Advisory Council
Nazreen Motiar, Toronto District School Board
Russ Minnis, Conseil scolaire de district des écoles catholiques du Sud-Ouest
Kelly Pace, Conference of Independent Schools
Mel Trojanovic, Halton District School Board

Reviewers:
Michael Brophy, Toronto District School Board
Colin Harris, Educational Computing Organization of Ontario
Sharron McKeever, Institute for Catholic Education
Kelly Pace, Conference of Independent Schools
Lisa Soroko, Toronto Catholic District School Board

All field test participant schools.

LiveWires Design Ltd.

Ministry of Education

Ontario Provincial Police, Electronic Crimes Section

ISBN 0-921868-53-7
Copyright 2006 Ophea.
All rights reserved. Program materials may be reproduced, with credit, for educational purposes.

This Internet Safety Initiative was made possible by a grant from the Ministry of Education in partnership
with the Ministry of the Attorney General’s Victim Justice Fund.

Health and Physical Education                                                                      Healthy Living
Grade 8                                                                     Personal Safety and Injury Prevention
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section 1 – Upfront
Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………...….. 1

The Principal………………………………………………………………………………………..……..2

The Teacher…………………………………………………………………………………….…………4

The Student………………………………………………………………………………………………..6

The Parent………………………………………………………………………………………..…….....7

Connections to the Grade 8 Curriculum………………………………………………………...……...8

Using CyberCops …………………………………………….……………………………….…..……...9

Background………….……………………………………………………………….………..…..……..10

Definitions……………………………………………………………………………………… …..……11

Section 2 - The Unit
CyberCops Unit Preparation…………………………………………………………………………...13

Air Dogs - Game Overview…………………………14
           Detective’s Notebook……………….…..15
        1. Air Dogs Game Synopsis………….…...17
        2. Consequences…………………….….…20
        3. Confession…………………………….…20
        4. Internet Safety Plans……………………20

CyberCops Unit Overview………………………………………………………………………..…….21

Lessons 1-4 ……………………………………………………………………………………………..23

Section 3 – Supports
Copy Masters………………………………………………………………………………….….….….32

Appendices
       A – Literacy – Whole-class Discussions – Four Corners …..………54
       B – Literacy – Writing – Modified Word Wall…………………………59
       C – Reporting……………………………………………………….…...63
       D – Additional Supports……………………………………………….. 66
       E – Glossary……………………………………………………………. 68

References ………………………………………………………………………………………………74

Health and Physical Education                                                             Healthy Living
Grade 8                                                            Personal Safety and Injury Prevention
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SECTION 1
                            Upfront

Health and Physical Education                              Healthy Living
Grade 8                             Personal Safety and Injury Prevention
                                3
INTRODUCTION
The Ontario Curriculum for elementary schools recognizes the importance of and strongly encourages
the use of technology to support learning in all curriculum areas. Elementary schools are more equipped
with higher levels of technology to support and extend classroom learning. With this increased ability to
explore the cyberworld and all the benefits that come with it, there is also a new set of concerns for the
personal safety of the children and youth using this technology. As a result, new levels of safety are
required to ensure all students are able to learn in a safe and supportive environment with the tools
needed to achieve success.

“A wealth of information is available through CD ROMs, the Internet, and many other simulation
activities. As a result, our students are spending more time on computers, both at home and at school,
accessing previously unavailable information. With increased access, however, comes an increased risk
for those who explore cyberspace. In the information age, schools can and should take a role in teaching
students how to be multimedia and technology literate in a world that is increasingly digital. Principals
must be aware of Internet safety and the dangers that exist for students; classroom teachers must also
be aware of and teach students about strategies to stay safe on-line” (Jilks-Racine, 2005).

Cyberdangers: The Current Environment
“Keeping students safe as they explore the Internet today calls for more than simple website blockers
and filters. Parents and teachers must be vigilant in educating children and youth about Internet safety,
yet many parents and educators do not understand the perils that can befall children who explore this
medium. Many adults ignore emails that offer drugs, pornography, or illicit comments. But students are
more vulnerable to these same messages since many are exploring their sexuality and may be intrigued
by these messages” (Jilks-Racine, 2005).

Research suggests that many young people are engaging in high-risk behavior on the Internet, without
understanding how dangerous this may be. Air Dogs was designed to show youth that cybertheft has
life-long legal and social consequences for youth and their families. The program has three messages:

1. Beware of Internet Fraud. Youth should be aware that Internet fraud may be carried on through fake
websites, illicit dealers, or through the theft of credit card information.
Unscrupulous adults may offer money, gifts or other inducements to          Did You Know?
persuade youth to become involved in defrauding others.

2. Avoid Counterfeit Software. Using counterfeit software may be                • 99% of young people have
appealing at first glance, but piracy is now being prosecuted more                access to the Internet
rigorously. A serious or repeat offender may face severe penalties,             • 60% of Canadian students
including fines, restitution and incarceration.                                   use chat rooms and instant
                                                                                  messaging
3. Report Bullying. If a teen is being bullied, on-line or in person, the
bullies should be reported to a trusted adult. If left unchecked, bullying
may escalate to criminal offenses including violence, theft and extortion.
                                                                                (Frank Clegg, Microsoft Canada)

Health and Physical Education                                                                       Healthy Living
Grade 8                                                                      Personal Safety and Injury Prevention
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THE PRINCIPAL

  Role of the Principal
  School Administrators have a DUTY OF CARE to:
             • Ensure that all reasonable safety procedures are carried out to protect the well
               being of: students, staff, volunteers, visitors and others.

How Principals/Vice Principals can Help
The school administrator has a responsibility to provide leadership in ensuring that all students have the
opportunity to learn in a safe environment. The principal should inform teachers about the board/school
Acceptable Use Policy and provide the staff with access to appropriate resources. They also have the
role of providing clear parameters around acceptable use in the school and ensuring the policies set out
by the school board and school are followed. This can be done through vigilance and a consistent set of
consequences for inappropriate use.

1. Acceptable Use Policies
Send out School/Board Acceptable Use Policies
At the beginning of each school year, prior to the students accessing the Internet, establish a protocol to
inform parents that students will be using the Internet, the type of technology that will be used, and
include the Acceptable Use Policy of the school.

Communicate and work with the school board technology department to establish Acceptable Use
Policies. Understand the role that they can provide to support the school in their vigilance towards safe
Internet use. They may be able to provide training and resource support for school staff.

2. Organize and Supervise
Organize and Supervise Computers in the School                                     CODE OF CONDUCT
Computer labs must be set up in such a way as to allow teachers to
view all of the screens in a quick sweep of the room. Setting up the      Principals, under the direction of
monitors around the perimeter of the room allows for vigilant             their school board, take a leadership
teachers to make a quick check of screen content. Some schools            role in the daily operation of a school.
have software which allows teachers to view student monitors on           They provide this leadership by:
their own screen, but the “walkabout” is the most effective method        • demonstrating care and
to let students know you are being vigilant.                                  commitment to academic
                                                                              excellence and a safe teaching
Post Safe Internet Usage Signs by the Computers
                                                                              and learning environment;
Post safe Internet use signs in all rooms near computers with
                                                                          • holding everyone, under their
Internet access. Also provide tips for reporting unsafe activities.
                                                                              authority, accountable for their
3. Communicate to Staff                                                       behaviour and actions;
Acceptable Use Policy for Internet Use                                    • communicating regularly and
Inform staff of their school/board Acceptable Use Policy for both             meaningfully with all members of
students and staff and provide staff with the necessary information           their school community.
and supports to inform students of what acceptable use means and
the consequences associated with not complying with the policy.

Appropriate Supervision of Students Using the Internet
Make staff aware of the level of supervision required while students are using the Internet. Inform staff
that while students are using the Internet, circulating around the room is an effective way to monitor that
students are using appropriate sites and are on task.

Health and Physical Education                                                                       Healthy Living
Grade 8                                                                      Personal Safety and Injury Prevention
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Steps to Dealing with Inappropriate use of Technology
Staff should be aware of the potential for inappropriate activities while students are using the Internet
and the steps to take when these activities are found/reported.

4. Communicate to Parents
Provide ongoing communication to parents to both inform and educate them on the topic of Internet
safety. Information can be published in school newsletters and communicated to school councils.

Coordinate with the school council a common message about the appropriate use of the Internet at
school. The school may host a parent’s information night on Internet safety to inform parents about the
school/board Acceptable Use Policy, supports available for the safe use of the Internet at home and
what is being done at the school to foster appropriate use of the Internet. It is important to inform parents
of the seriousness of the situation and the potential threats.

5. Work in Partnership
Investigate the partnerships available in your community and potential supports that can be utilized to
reinforce the messages sent about Internet safety. Community partners make great supports to reinforce
the curriculum lessons learned in the classroom, to present at school councils meetings, and to provide
advice and expert support when dealing with issues around Internet safety. Some of the community
partners that can be accessed are: the local police force, the Ontario Provincial Police, boards of health,
and community support agencies.

Health and Physical Education                                                                        Healthy Living
Grade 8                                                                       Personal Safety and Injury Prevention
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THE TEACHER

  Role of the Teacher
  Education Act - Duties of the teacher: (Reg. 298, S.20)

  g) Ensure that all reasonable safety procedures are carried out in courses and activities for
  which the teacher is responsible.

How Teachers can Help
The teacher should inform and discuss with the students the appropriate use of technology. It is very
important to carefully supervise students and be vigilant in monitoring student use of technology as well
as teach students the appropriate response to clicking onto an inappropriate site and how to report
inappropriate Internet activity. It is also important for the teacher to preview relevant sites and bookmark
safe, educational sites for student use.

1. Acceptable Use Policy
Be familiar with your Board’s Acceptable Use Policy
Take time to read over the Acceptable Use Policy and share the contents of it with the students. Have
the students discuss the meaning and consequences of this policy to further develop their understanding
and knowledge of the rules.

Create a classroom Acceptable Use Policy in a cooperative
learning class activity.
                                                                                  CODE OF CONDUCT
Inform the students that there are consequences if they do not
use computer time appropriately. Ensure that students are
engaged and challenged allowing no time to visit sites they do          Teachers and School staff, under the
not belong in.                                                          leadership of their principals, maintain
                                                                        order in the school and are expected to
Work with the school board technology department to support the         hold everyone to the highest standard
teaching of Internet safety.                                            of respectful and responsible
                                                                        behaviour. As role models, staff uphold
2. Organize and Supervise                                               these high standards when they:
(e.g., Classrooms and Labs)                                             • help students work to their full
Computer labs must be set up in such a way as to allow teachers
                                                                            potential and develop their self-
to view all of the screens in a quick sweep of the room. Setting up
the monitors around the perimeter of the room allows for vigilant           worth;
teachers to make a quick check of screen content. Some schools          • communicate regularly and
have software which allows teachers to view student monitors on             meaningfully with parents;
their own screen but the “walkabout” is the most effective method       • maintain consistent standards of
to let students know you are being vigilant.                                behaviour for all students;
                                                                        • demonstrate respect for all
Report any Suspected Inappropriate Content or Activity                      students, staff and parents;
Some schools and teachers have been vulnerable to those who             • prepare students for the full
choose to harass and leave hateful and hurtful email. It must not           responsibilities of citizenship.
be tolerated. Report these inappropriate activities to the school
administrator immediately.

Create a recommended list of resources rather than allowing
Internet searches which may lead to potentially dangerous and inappropriate web pages.

Health and Physical Education                                                                        Healthy Living
Grade 8                                                                       Personal Safety and Injury Prevention
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3. Communicate to Students
Listen to student’s concerns and fears and help them seek appropriate help. If it is related to school use,
follow appropriate board policies for reporting inappropriate internet use and disclosure of student
information.

Post in the computer lab or by computers safety tips for using the computer. You may want to have a
learning bulletin board that outlines safe Internet practices and what students should do if inappropriate
situations arise.

Teach students how to use technology respectfully and how to be a responsible cybercitizen.
This includes information on appropriate participation in chat rooms, how to appropriately deal with
potentially dangerous situations and how to access support.

It is important to teach the students how to look after and protect themselves. They must learn to
question all people they meet, whether in person or on the Internet. There are warning signs when
students are out in the real world, there are few in cyberspace.

4. Communicate with Parents
Ensure all parents are informed and understand that students will be using the Internet, the type of
technology that will be used and the Acceptable Use Policy of the school prior to students using the
Internet. Parents must understand the seriousness of inappropriate Internet use and the potential threats
associated with it.

Provide ongoing communication about the use of technology in the classroom and tips for safe Internet
use. This information can be published in class newsletters.

5. Work in Partnership
Contact the local police department or Ontario Provincial Police to access an officer with expertise and
experiences in the areas of cybersafety to come in to support the teaching of Internet safety in the
classroom.

Health and Physical Education                                                                       Healthy Living
Grade 8                                                                      Personal Safety and Injury Prevention
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THE STUDENT
How Students can Help
The increase in information and communication access for youth through the Internet and chat rooms
provides new freedom and access to the world, and with this comes new responsibilities. Students are
responsible for understanding and following the Acceptable Use Policies of the Internet while at school
and at home. Students should also ensure that they know what to do if a potentially dangerous situation
arises.

1. Acceptable Use Policy
¾ Read carefully the Acceptable Use Policy and share with your parents. Remember that nothing you
   write on the web is completely private including email, so be careful and think about what you type
   and who you tell. Never use language in chat rooms that you would not use in public.

2. Organization and Supervision
¾ Never arrange a face-to-face meeting without telling your parent/guardian. If your parent/guardian
   agrees to the meeting make sure you meet in a public place with a parent/guardian present. It is
   potentially dangerous to meet unsupervised.
¾ Be wary of those who want desperately to be your friend, especially if they try to turn you against your
   parents or real friends.
¾ Respect the feelings and privacy of others online.
¾ Choose a password that is easy to remember and hard to guess.
¾ Only chat over a webcam with people that you already know and trust in the real world, under adult
   supervision wherever possible.
¾ Be sure that you are dealing with someone that you and your parent/guardian know and trust before
   giving out any personal information about yourself via email such as name, home address, school
   name, or telephone number in a public message, such as a chat room or on bulletin boards.
¾ Never send a person a picture of yourself without first checking with a parent/guardian.
¾ Never open emails, files, links, images or games from people you do not know or trust.

3. Communicate to Parents
¾ Remind your parents to keep the family computer properly protected by installing up to date security
   patches, current anti-virus software and a firewall.
¾ Let your parents know the moment something worries you                 CODE OF CONDUCT
   online and report it to the chat service provider. Save any Students are to be treated with respect
   conversations that you think could prove someone has        and dignity. In return, they must
   been bullying or harassing you. Some chat rooms have        demonstrate respect for themselves, for
   instructions on how to do this.
                                                               others and for the responsibilities of
¾ Be careful when someone offers you something for
   nothing, such as gifts and money. Be very careful about     citizenship        through       acceptable
   any offers that involve you coming to a meeting or having   behaviour.    Respect    and   responsibility
   someone visit your house.                                   are demonstrated when a student:
                                                               • comes to school prepared, on time
4. Communicate with School                                       and ready to learn;
¾ Understand the school/board Acceptable Use Policy and        • shows respect for themselves, for
   ensure that you are using the computers for school related    others and for those in authority;
   work. Report potentially dangerous situations immediately.  • refrains from bringing anything to
¾ Know who to talk to at the school and the steps to take if a   school that may compromise the
   potentially dangerous situation arises.
                                                                   safety of others;
5. Work in Partnership                                            • follows the established rules and
¾ If a dangerous situation arises communicate the situation          takes responsibility for his or her own
   to parents, teachers, peers, police officers, etc.,               action.
   immediately in order to support yourself in addressing and
   resolving the situation and preventing the situation from getting worse.

Health and Physical Education                                                                      Healthy Living
Grade 8                                                                     Personal Safety and Injury Prevention
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THE PARENT
How Parents can Help
Parents must stay well informed about the dangers that their children could encounter as they explore
the Internet. By understanding these dangers and discussing them with their children, parents can help
realize the positive potential of the Internet while minimizing its inherent risks.

1. Acceptable Use Policy
¾ Establish a set of rules for your child(ren) to follow when using the Internet that include amount of use,
  how to interact appropriately online, and what to do if they feel uncomfortable or in danger.
¾ Be familiar with the school/board Acceptable Use Policy. When this document comes home to be
  signed, discuss the components with your child and outline the benefits of using technology and the
  safety procedures that need to be taken when using it.

2. Organization and Supervision                                                 CODE OF CONDUCT
¾ Keep Internet-connected computers in an open area and out          Parents play an important role in the
   of the bedrooms. Check out your child’s Instant Messaging         education of their children and have a
   (IM) names and profiles to ensure personal information is
                                                                     responsibility to support the efforts of
   not being shared or accessed over the Internet.
¾ Supervise children’s computer usage. Do not rely on filtering      school staff in maintaining a safe and
   software to do the work.                                          respectful learning environment for all
                                                                     students.       Parents       fulfill  this
3. Communicate with Your Child(ren)                                  responsibility when they:
¾ Talk to your children about Internet safety and ethical            • show an active interest in their child's
   behaviour on the Internet. Participate with them online. If         school work and progress;
   they know more than you, let them teach you.                      • communicate regularly with the
¾ Ensure that, if your children are thinking of meeting an online      school;
   friend, they check with you. It is potentially dangerous for
   this meeting to take place unsupervised.                          • help their child be neat, appropriately
¾ Teach your child(ren) never to give out personal information         dressed and prepared for school;
   without your permission when using email, chat rooms, or          • ensure that their child attends school
   instant messaging, filling out registration forms and personal      regularly and on time;
   profiles, and entering online contests.                           • promptly report to the school their
¾ Encourage your child(ren) to come to you if they receive a           child’s absence or late arrival;
   message that makes them feel uncomfortable or threatened.         • become familiar with the Code of
   The Internet should not be used to spread gossip, bully or
                                                                       Conduct and school rules;
   threaten others.
                                                                     • encourage and assist their child in
4. Communicate with the School                                         following the rules of behaviour;
¾ Ensure you understand the school/board Acceptable Use              • assist school staff in dealing with
   Policy. If you have any questions or concerns contact the           disciplinary issues.
   school immediately.
¾ If your child feels uncomfortable or threatened by things done
   on the Internet such as gossip, bullying, harassment, or threats contact the school immediately to
   ensure it is addressed.

5. Work in Partnership
¾ Be aware of the supports available in the community to support safe Internet practices and how to
   access them if needed.
¾ Be aware of the safety features that the Internet Provider has available.
¾ If a situation becomes potentially dangerous contact and report the situation immediately to the local
   police, school administrator, or other support agencies.

Health and Physical Education                                                                        Healthy Living
Grade 8                                                                       Personal Safety and Injury Prevention
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CONNECTIONS TO THE GRADE 8 CURRICULUM
Health and Physical Education – Personal Safety and Injury Prevention (The Ontario Curriculum,
Grades 1-8, Health and Physical Education, 2000)

Personal safety and injury prevention are essential components of the healthy living strand. Education in
these areas is critical for reducing children’s injuries. Personal safety topics include bullying, peer
assault, child abuse, harassment, and violence in relationships. Injury prevention topics include bicycle
safety, seasonal safety rules, sun protection, home safety, fire safety, seat belt use, and first aid. The
expectations address the knowledge and skills needed to reduce safety risks at home, at school, and in
the community.

Students will become familiar with the support available to them within the family as well as with the
agencies and services that provide support and help within the community. However, knowledge alone
is not enough; students require the necessary skills to respond appropriately to situations that threaten
their personal safety and well-being. Living skills such as conflict resolution, assertiveness, resistance
and refusal techniques, and decision-making will help them respond to situations effectively.

Ontario Code of Conduct (Ontario Code of Conduct, 2001)
A school is a place that promotes responsibility, respect, civility and academic excellence in a safe
learning and teaching environment.

All students, parents, teachers and staff have the right to be safe, and feel safe, in their school
community. With this right comes the responsibility to be law-abiding citizens and to be accountable for
actions that put at risk the safety of others or oneself.

The Ontario Code of Conduct sets clear provincial standards of behaviour. It specifies the mandatory
consequences for student actions that do not comply with these standards.

The provincial standards of behaviour apply not only to students, but also to all individuals involved in
the publicly funded school system – parents or guardians, volunteers, teachers and other staff members
– whether they are on school property, on school buses or at school-authorized events or activities.

Language (The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 1-8, Language, 1997)
Oral communication is an important component in a variety of communications media; it is the main
component in radio, for example. But many communications media have a strong visual component in
addition to, and sometimes instead of, the oral component – as in film, television, or the graphic arts.
Students' repertoire of communication skills should include the ability to understand and interpret the
messages they receive through the various media and the ability to use these media to communicate
their own ideas. In particular, skills related to high-technology media (such as film, television, and the
Internet) are important because of the pervasive influence of these media in our lives and society.
Learning to understand and use these and other media can greatly expand students' sources of
information, expressive and communicative capabilities, and career opportunities.

To develop their media communication skills, students should have opportunities to view, analyse, and
discuss a wide variety of media works and to relate them to their own experience. They should also have
opportunities to use a range of technologies to create media works of many types (e.g., drawings,
cartoons, designs, radio plays, films, World Wide Web pages).

Health and Physical Education                                                                      Healthy Living
Grade 8                                                                     Personal Safety and Injury Prevention
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USING CYBERCOPS
The CyberCops: Air Dogs disc included in this resource includes the following: A Guide for Parents and
Teachers, the Air Dogs game, the Consequences and the Confession modules and Internet Safety Plan
pages.

1. Download the Guide for Parents and Teachers which includes the Detective’s Notebook and
the Internet Safety Plan poster template. The guide is a PDF that can be downloaded to paper. It
gives useful background information and suggestions for using the game in the classroom and
introduces the four components of the Air Dogs program.
      • The Guide for Parents and Teacher includes a description of the Air Dogs game, including the
          Detective’s Notebook which includes the puzzles and their answers.
      • The next pages of the Guide illustrate Consequences, a class discussion that helps students
          assess the serious penalties resulting from cybertheft.
      • The third part of the Guide demonstrates Confession, a class discussion focusing on the life-
          long legal and social consequences of cybertheft on the individuals involved as well as their
          families.
      • Finally, this Guide includes an Internet Safety Poster Template. Using this template, students
          can design a poster with their own Internet safety guidelines. Teachers should also download
          these pages.

2. View the slide show for background and suggestions on how the game can be played in the
classroom.

There are two ways of playing Air Dogs in the classroom:

Theatre Style: The game can be played on a single computer, hooked up to a projector at the front of
the classroom. The teacher assigns one student to use the keyboard, while the rest of the class is asked
to call out their answers to the puzzles. Played this way, the class will finish the game in approximately
40 minutes.

Small Groups: The game can also be loaded onto multiple computers, with students playing in pairs.
One student is in charge of the keyboard, while the other writes down the clues. Played this way, it will
take approximately 60 minutes to play the game.

Note: the game must be played in sequence as it can not be stopped and restarted at the point stopped.

3. Download the game from the disc. The Air Dogs story is told through two simultaneous streams of
video. In order to achieve a smooth playback of both video streams, use a computer with a minimum of
384MB of RAM (512 for optimal playback). The computer should be loaded with Quicktime 6.02.
External speakers are recommended.

4. View Consequences. Consequences is a class discussion program in which the students are asked
to play the role of a cyberpolice officer examining the evidence amassed during the game and deciding
what charges can be laid against the perpetrators. This program also includes a website,
www.cybercops.net which offers a description of the Consequences activity to see one way this class
discussion can be conducted.

5. View Confession. Confession is the real story used in the creation of Air Dogs. Students read
Confession and then discuss the life-long social and legal consequences of cybertheft on both the
individuals involved and their families.

Health and Physical Education                                                                       Healthy Living
Grade 8                                                                      Personal Safety and Injury Prevention
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BACKGROUND
The Ontario Government has funded the CyberCops game series – Mirror Image (Grade 7) and Air
Dogs (Grade 8) as part of its commitment to ensuring that youth in Ontario schools learn through
concrete applications, the critical thinking skills required to make judicious decisions associated with
Internet use.

The Personal Safety and Injury Prevention component of the Health and Physical Education Curriculum
document is the primary subject area in the curriculum where students can learn about Internet safety.
This component of the Health and Physical Education curriculum focuses on effective decision making
skills, conflict resolution, resistance and refusal techniques at all age levels to respond to various
situations effectively. Students in grades 7 and 8 would have prior knowledge related to these living
skills and thus a solid foundation on which to apply the knowledge acquired through the CyberCops
programs, Mirror Image and Air Dogs.

Notes for Catholic District School Boards
Issues that address the Ontario Health and Physical Education Curriculum: Health Living Strand can be
effectively integrated with the Family Life Education Program, Fully Alive. The issues identified in this
unit that addresses relationships and sexuality are effectively taught through the themes and topics
presented in Fully Alive. The Fully Alive Program provides the students with a context of values within
the Catholic faith tradition to teach the Healthy Living expectations. The program reinforces learning and
provides a strong basis for decision-making.

This unit was also written with the Ontario Catholic School Graduate Expectations in mind. Some
expectations that should be considered when the unit is taught are:

CGE 3 A reflective, creative and holistic thinker who solves problems and makes responsible
decisions with an informed moral conscience for the common good
CGE 6 A caring family member who attends to family, school, parish, and the wider community

Health and Physical Education                                                                        Healthy Living
Grade 8                                                                       Personal Safety and Injury Prevention
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DEFINITIONS
The following definitions can help teachers and other users, such as community police officers to identify
and understand the following elements within the game: cyberbullying and how it can play a role in
escalating further violent acts, cybercrime and software piracy.

Cyberbullying
"Cyberbullying involves the use of information and communication technologies such as e-mail, cell
phone and pager text messages, instant messaging, defamatory personal Web sites, and defamatory
online personal polling Web sites, to support deliberate, repeated, and hostile behaviour by an individual
or group, which is intended to harm others." -Bill Belsey, President, Bullying.org Canada

Please note the terms cyberbullying and cyberharrasment are interchangeable in this resource.

How Cyberbullying Takes Place
Cyberbullying, like other forms of bullying, is about human relationships, power and control. Those who
bully others are trying to establish power and control over others that they perceive to be weaker than
them. Those who bully want to make victims feel that there is something wrong with them. It is the
bullies who have the real problems.

How it Starts
In most cases, cyberbullies know their victims, but their victims may not know the cyberbully. The
aggressor may or may not be bullying their victims through physical, verbal, or other means that are
more commonly identified. With the increase in mobile communications (i.e., cell phones, text
messaging, wireless Internet access), cyberbullying can happen at any time and place and for many
children, home is no longer a refuge from negative peer interaction and pressures such as bullying.

Cyberbullying and the Law
Some forms of cyberbullying are considered criminal acts. Under the Criminal Code of Canada, it is a
crime to communicate repeatedly to someone if your communication causes them to fear for their own
safety or the safety of others. It is also a crime to publish a “defamatory libel” writing something that is
designed to insult a person or likely hurt a person’s reputation by exposing him/her to hatred, contempt
or ridicule.

A cyberbully may also be violating the Canadian Human Rights Act if he/she
                                                                                       Did You Know?
spreads hate or discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour,
religion, age, gender, sexual orientation, marital status, family status or
disability.                                                                            • A 2002 British survey
                                                                                         found that 1 in 4 youth
                                                                                         aged 11 to 19 has been
                                                                                         threatened via their
Cybercrime                                                                               computers or cell phones,
Many young people believe that software piracy and computer hacking are                  including death threats
clever or “cool”. Air Dogs illustrates that these are serious crimes that may
carry heavy legal penalties.                                                           • In 2004, software piracy
                                                                                         cost the Canadian
Cybercrime consists of specific crimes dealing with computers and networks               economy $1.1 billion in
(such as hacking) and the facilitation of traditional crime through the use of           lost retail sales
computers (child pornography, hate crimes, telemarketing /Internet fraud). In
addition to cybercrime, there is also “computer-supported crime” which covers
the use of computers by criminals for communication and document or data               (From www.cyberbullying.ca and
storage. While these activities might not be illegal in and of themselves, they        Canadian Alliance Against
                                                                                       Software Theft (CAAST))
are often invaluable in the investigation of actual crimes. (www.dfait-
maeci.gc.ca/internationalcrime/cybercrime-en.asp).

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Software Piracy
Software piracy is defined as the unauthorized distribution or reproduction of software for business or
personal use. The purchaser of software is the licensed user (not the owner of the software) and has
the right to use the software on a single computer, but not to put copies on other computers or to pass
that software on to friends. Whether software piracy is deliberate or not, it is illegal and punishable by
law.

Software Piracy and the Law

Under the Criminal Code of Canada it is illegal to copy or use software in any manner other than what is
permitted by copyright law or authorized by the owner in the software licensing agreement. Individuals
caught with illegal software can be fined and prosecuted to the full extent of the law and they may be
liable under both civil and criminal law.

Forty-seven per cent of Canadian university students admit that they pirate software by downloading it
online without paying for it and 53 per cent say they swap computer disks among friends (survey
released by the Canadian Alliance Against Software Theft (CAAST), 2005).

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SECTION 2
                            The Unit

Health and Physical Education                             Healthy Living
Grade 8                            Personal Safety and Injury Prevention
CYBERCOPS UNIT PREPARATION
Important Notes to Consider Prior to the Unit:
The classroom teacher should:
      send home CM13 - Letter to Parents in advance of starting the lessons.
      become familiar with the Air Dogs game (i.e., play the game), the Detective’s Notebook, the
       Consequences and Confessions class discussions before introducing them to the students.
      decide if the game will be played in theatre style or small groups and arrange for the necessary
        computers for an adequate amount of time.

Dealing with Disclosure
Teachers are required to be aware of legislation (Child and Family Services Act, Section 72 – Duty to
Report) and school board policies regarding reporting of disclosures of abuse (or suspected neglect) to
the Children’s Aid Society. Before commencing any anti-violence lessons, teachers are required to know
the procedures for the reporting and documenting of abuse and ways to support students. See
Appendix C for a complete listing of the Child and Family Service Act responsibilities.

Cautionary Note: During the presentation of the following material, the potential exists for students to
disclose personal experiences of an abusive nature. Encouragement should be given to the student to
take up such matters with the teacher outside the context of the class. It is incumbent upon the teacher
to follow up with the directions specified in their board’s Child Abuse Protocol.

The following are the abbreviations and symbols used in the CyberCops unit:
 Copy Master (CM) - these are pages provided at the end of the unit for the teacher to copy for each
student in the class.

8p14 – this is the reference to the curriculum expectation that will be the focus in the unit/lesson. The
referenced expectations codes can be found in the Ontario Curriculum Unit Planner (www.ocup.org).
The first number refers to the grade, the letter (p) refers to the subject Health and Physical Education,
and the final number (14) refers to the expectation number.

 Cyber Graphic Organizer - is the tool the students will use throughout the unit to collect information
and use to prepare students for their decision making task at the end of the unit.

 Classroom Materials -these are materials that the teacher should have on hand in order for the
students to work on the sub-tasks as described. If a teacher wishes to modify the lesson, additional
materials may be needed.

† Assessment Opportunity - this indicates the assessment opportunities or assessment tools
available throughout the unit.

1 Student Materials - these are materials the students are asked to contribute in order to effectively
complete a sub-task.

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Air Dogs Game Overview
Air Dogs was designed to show youth that cybertheft has life-long legal and social consequences for
youth and their families. The program is divided into four segments.

1. Air Dogs. The Air Dogs computer game is based on a 2003 police case from Massachusetts in
which a U.S. snowboarding coach created an international cybertheft network and manipulated dozens
of youth into assisting him. In the game, students are invited to take on the role of a cyberspecialist and
track down a cybertheft ring. These cybertools are described in the Detective’s Notebook on the
following page.

2. Consequences. The Consequences activity asks students to play the role of a cyberpolice officer
and examine the evidence amassed during the game. This leads to a class discussion of the tactics that
were used to manipulate Luke, the fictional youth in Air Dogs.

3. Confession. In Confession, a young snowboarding coach describes how he set up the cybertheft
ring that gave rise to the Air Dogs game.

4. Internet Safety Plan. When students have completed the three interactive modules, they may write
an Internet Safety Plan using the Internet Safety Plan Poster Template with guidelines for protecting
themselves from these pressures.

Each of these is further explained on the next few pages.

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The Detective's Notebook
In the Air Dogs game, students are invited to take on the role of a cyber-specialist and track down a
cybertheft ring. To win, they will need to use six cybertools. Here is a brief explanation of each.

                1. Microscope. Cyberpolice can detect fake copies of CDs by making a microscopic
examination of the hologram of a suspect disc, comparing it with the original. Most manufacturers silk-
screen graphics onto the disc, whereas a pirated copy may have photocopied paper applied to the
surface. The colours on the fake version may not be perfectly aligned. Manufacturers also put
holograms on the disc so that the manufacturer’s logo is visible when the disc is tilted under a light.

                  2. Waybill Number. When a package is shipped by courier, the sender fills out a
waybill, a sheet of paper that states the contents of the package. The courier company then gives the
shipment a waybill number, a digitized representation of the code on the package, which helps to trace
the package.

When a package crosses an international border, officials want to be sure that the package contains
exactly what the shipper stated on the waybill. They can detect misinformation by checking the
addresses of the send and receiver, and by weighing any suspicious packages. They may also check
the financial history of the credit card that was used for the shipment.

                 3. PixPass. Most of us protect our computer files with a password, a series of letters
and numbers that only we know. But programmers are also experimenting with graphic passwords.
These are composed of a series of icons that have special meaning to the person who owns the
computer. In the Air Dogs game, we have used the fictitious name PixPass for this technology.

When police officers get a warrant to search a computer, they have to guess which icons the perpetrator
has used for the graphic password. In the future, police may be able to run a program that tests all the
possible combinations of icons, so the police can solve graphic icons more quickly.

                   4. Tixel. A digital photograph is made up of four layers of information. The first three
layers are red, green and blue. A combination of these layers gives the photograph its colour.

The fourth, called the Alpha layer, is usually empty. However, criminals have learned that it may be
used to carry secret information. For example, people may use it to send messages or images. In the
Air Dogs game, this technology (called steganography) has been given the fictitious name, Tixel.

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5. Triangulation. When our cell phones are turned on, they constantly emit a signal to
tell surrounding cell phone towers where the cell phone is located. Cyberpolice officers can use this
signal to track the location of a criminal.

To do so, the police officer measures the strength of the signal that is received at three nearby cell
phone towers. They may also determine the length of time it takes for the signal to travel from the tower
to the cell phone. By comparing information from three nearby cell phone towers, police can determine
the geographic location of the criminal.

                 6. Thermal Imaging. When it is difficult to see a suspect with the naked eye, police
departments use sophisticated camera equipment that picks up an image of the heat of a suspect’s
body.

In the Air Dogs game, the police officers track Terry with ground-based infrared imaging. In these video
images, a person appears in red or yellow, while the surrounding forest appears blue or violet. The
game also demonstrates a second kind of infrared image, which appear in black-and-white. Inanimate
objects are dark grey or black, while living creatures stand out in white.

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1. Air Dogs – Game Synopsis
The following pages provide teachers with a brief overview of the Air Dogs game. This includes a
synopsis of the plot and a description of how each clue can be solved. Nevertheless, it is recommended
that teachers play the game to the end before introducing it to the students.

As the game opens we meet Luke, a fifteen-year old who has taken the day off school to go
snowboarding. In a video phone message to his dad, he explains that he is feeling depressed.

Luke has not recovered from the death of his mother the year before. In addition, he was recently
caught pirating software in the basement of the family home. The arrest is made all the more
embarrassing by the fact that his father is a police officer.

Luke’s father, Stephen, is with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. He is working on joint border
protection projects with the U.S Department of Homeland Security. Stephen is caught between his
concern about his son’s illegal activities and a grudging recognition that Luke has a rare gift with
computers.

Challenge: Stephen challenges the players to compare the legitimate disc with one that Luke has
burned in the basement. How can you spot the fake?

Solution: Click on the arrows under the legitimate disc to tilt it back and forth until you spot the
hologram. Notice that the manufacturer has placed a hologram of the company logo, TL, along the inner
rim of the disc. Then use the arrows under the disc that was seized from Luke. The hologram on the
pirated disc reads: TJ.

Stephen’s counterpart in Vermont is Marisol, a by-the-book agent who has been sent in from New York
City to step up law enforcement along the US/Canadian border. Marisol is frustrated that she has been
assigned to a small border station, when she could be handling more challenging cases.

Stephen calls his son and he discovers that Luke is unrepentant about missing school. He is training
intensively with his coach, Terry, hoping he can master some new moves for the Air Dogs tournament in
Vermont. Nothing his father says can persuade him to return home.

Suddenly, a courier knocks on the door of Luke’s dorm room and brings in a package. “Snowboarding
gear,” Luke tells his father as he stows the package quickly under his desk.

But Stephen is suspicious and takes an electronic photo of his son that captures the waybill number of
the package. Although Marisol feels that the photograph is a violation of his son’s privacy, Stephen
sends the image off to be analysed.

Challenge: The photograph reveals that the label has been partially ripped from Luke’s package. Only
the first few digits of the waybill number are legible. Players must decipher the bar code to get the
waybill number and then find out what the package contains.

Solution: Each vertical pattern represents a discrete number. Students must decode the final four
numbers by comparing them to a chart. When they complete the sequence, they check the records from
the courier company and find that the package contains two new laptop computers.

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Stephen is furious. He knows that his son cannot afford to buy two laptop computers so Luke must have
obtained them illegally. Stephen calls his son, but before he can question him, two older teens enter
Luke’s dorm room.

Taylor and James noticed the courier as he was leaving Luke’s room, and have learned that Luke has
received a package with two laptops. The older boys demand that Luke hand over his laptops. If not,
they threaten to post embarrassing photos of Luke and his girlfriend on the Internet. Luke gives in.

Stephen and Marisol disagree on how the problem should be addressed. As a father, Stephen wants to
sort out the problem with the bullies privately; Marisol believes that the police should be involved. “Theft.
Extortion. These are crimes, whether you are sixteen or sixty.”

Stephen orders a search of the dorm rooms of Taylor, James and his son, Luke, requesting that their
laptops and phones be confiscated. Then he resigns from the case.

Challenge: Students must open Luke’s computer by guessing the three icons that Luke has used for his
graphic password. If they click on the snowboard, the goggles and the snowboarder, the files will open.

Solution: By opening the emails, students can read Luke’s email from Terry, his coach, praising his
snowboard skills. They can also read Luke’s bank statement, which shows he has almost $10,000 in
the bank. Finally, there is a link to a bullying website with embarrassing photos of Luke and his girlfriend
Jeannette. The logo that runs along the bottom of the final page of the website is the same as on the
pirated software: TJ.

Marisol is determined to find out who is behind the ring of youth who are stealing laptops. Stephen
agrees to answer questions from the two American agents, but Luke is mute.

Marisol reveals what her investigation has uncovered. More than $100,000 worth of stolen laptops have
passed through Luke’s hands. She has also found Luke’s bank account, with only a small portion of that
money in it. She reasons that Luke has been forwarding the bulk of the money to someone else. Marisol
demands to know the name of his partner.

Stephen is stunned at the magnitude of the theft, but he resents the strong-armed tactics that Marisol is
using to get answers from Luke. Angrily, he cuts off the interview.

Challenge: The challenge is to prove there is a financial link between Luke and his partner in the scam.
Students are given a photo that the snowboarding coach, Terry, has sent to Luke.

Solution: The photograph shows Terry at the top of a mountain. A 3-D rendering of the photo reveals it
is made up of four layers, including bands of red, green and blue pixels. By stripping off the layers one
by one, students reveal a message in the Alpha band: Terry has sent Luke an account number from a
bank in Boston – along with a cryptic message.

Terry has been using stolen credit card information to buy laptops, which he ships to Luke. Although
Luke thinks he has a “job” selling laptops, he is actually fencing stolen property.

Marisol insists that Luke reveal everything he knows about the cybertheft operation, but Luke is
adamant: he will not betray his friend and coach for fear of losing his one shot at the Olympic Games.
He is shocked to learn that Terry’s promise to put him on the national team was a lie, used to manipulate
him into selling the laptops.

Reluctantly, Luke gives his father the cell phone number that Terry has told him to use in the event of an
emergency. Stephen only hands the information to Marisol when she promises to go easy on the youth
who have been caught up in Terry’s network.
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Challenge: Terry is snowshoeing along the shore of Lake Memphramagog, hoping to cross the border
into Vermont unnoticed. The police will only be able to trace him by tracking the signal emitted by his
cell phone.

Solution: Students determine Terry’s location by measuring the time it takes for a signal to go from his
cell phone to three cell phone towers. The 3-D model uses coloured discs to illustrate the distance.
When the distance to each of the three towers has been measured correctly, the map of the terrain
rotates, so the intersection of the three discs can be located. This is the spot where Terry will be found.

While Marisol and fellow agent Charlie pour over their map of the Vermont border, Luke lets slip that
Terry will try to escape by crossing into the United States on snowshoes, along the shores of a lake that
straddles the two countries.

The Department of Homeland Security tracks Terry using two infrared cameras. One camera is carried
by Marisol and Charlie who are combing the forest on foot. Marisol is frantic. She can hear Terry but
she cannot see him unless the camera reveals the bright-coloured image of a figure snowshoeing
through the woods.

A second camera is mounted in a helicopter, which is surveying the terrain along the lake. It sends back
black-and-white video. From time to time figures cross the screen: turkeys, a wolf and the police
officers hunting on the ground.

Finally, students spot Terry as he makes his way through the forest. When Marisol moves in for the
arrest, Terry threatens his Canadian accomplice: “Luke, buddy, remember. If I go down, you go down.”

Challenge: Students must pinpoint Terry’s location. He has crossed the border by snowshoeing along
the shore of Lake Memphramagog from Quebec to Vermont.

Solution: By cross-checking Charlie’s ground-based thermal video with images from a helicopter
overhead, students are able to pinpoint Terry’s location and click on it.

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