All Together Now: Collaboration and Innovation for Youth Engagement - The Report of the Commission on Youth Voting and Civic Knowledge

 
All Together Now: Collaboration and Innovation for Youth Engagement - The Report of the Commission on Youth Voting and Civic Knowledge
All Together Now:
Collaboration and Innovation
for Youth Engagement
The Report of the Commission on Youth Voting and Civic Knowledge
2013
All Together Now: Collaboration and Innovation for Youth Engagement - The Report of the Commission on Youth Voting and Civic Knowledge
ALL TOGETHER NOW: COLLABORATION AND
                                                                                                                                                      This report should be cited as: All Together Now: Collaboration and Innovation for Youth Engagement: The Report of the Commission on Youth Voting
                                                                                                                                                      and Civic Knowledge (Medford, MA: Center for Information & Research on Civic Learning and Engagement, 2013), www.civicyouth.org/about-circle/
                                                                                                                                                      commission-on-youth-voting-civic-knowledge/

INNOVATION FOR YOUTH ENGAGEMENT
The Report of the Commission on Youth Voting and Civic Knowledge

  A Call to Action.............................................................................................................................. 5   Planning a Discussion.................................................................................................................. 37

  Main Recommendations............................................................................................................. 7                Appendix A: Selected Previous Research on Youth Political Engagement............ 39
       Selected recommendations for national, state, and local policymakers........... 8                                                             Appendix B: Data Collected for the Commission............................................................. 40
       Selected recommendations for school districts and educators........................... 8                                                          1. The Youth Engagement Fund Surveys........................................................................ 41
       Recommendations for families and communities...................................................... 9                                              2. The National Youth Survey.............................................................................................. 41
       Recommendations for collaboration............................................................................... 9                                3. Analysis of official turnout statistics............................................................................ 43
  Research for this Report............................................................................................................ 9                 4. A National Civics Teacher Survey................................................................................. 44
  About the Commission............................................................................................................... 10                 5. Stakeholder interviews...................................................................................................... 45

  New Data on Youth Voting and Civic Knowledge............................................................ 11                                        Appendix C: Examples of Good Practice............................................................................ 45

  Today’s Special Challenges and Opportunities for Youth Civic Engagement....... 13                                                                      1. Coalitions................................................................................................................................. 45

       1. Deep polarization and ideological conflict............................................................... 13                                   2. Programs................................................................................................................................ 48

       2. Growing inequality of civic opportunites................................................................. 15                                       Diverse and accessible opportunities for civically disadvantaged and
                                                                                                                                                             non-college youth................................................................................................................ 48
            Table 1: Voter Turnout Among 18-29 Year Old Citizens ..................................... 15
                                                                                                                                                             Engagement in controversy and disagreement that promotes youth
       3. An increasingly diverse youth population................................................................ 17
                                                                                                                                                             voice/expression, information seeking and deliberation...................................... 48
       4. A powerful role for social media.................................................................................. 18
                                                                                                                                                             Lower barriers to youth political participation and increase
  Fundamental Goals...................................................................................................................... 23
                                                                                                                                                             transparency of the political system............................................................................. 49
       1. Free expression and civil deliberation........................................................................ 23
                                                                                                                                                             High-quality civic learning experiences and assessments that develop
       2. Equality and quality of political engagement......................................................... 24
                                                                                                                                                             higher order knowledge and skills in the context of real-life issues................ 50
  Recommendations........................................................................................................................ 27                 Systems or networks of opportunities and support............................................... 52
      1. Stitch together a quilt of helpful policies................................................................... 27
                                                                                                                                                     Notes.................................................................................................................................................. 54
         Table 2: Summary of State Policy Effects................................................................... 28
      2. Involve families..................................................................................................................... 30
      3. Support teachers................................................................................................................. 31
      4. Encourage collaboration.................................................................................................. 33
      5. Innovate and evaluate....................................................................................................... 35
All Together Now: Collaboration and Innovation for Youth Engagement - The Report of the Commission on Youth Voting and Civic Knowledge
ALL TOGETHER NOW: COLLABORATION AND
                                                                                                                                                      This report should be cited as: All Together Now: Collaboration and Innovation for Youth Engagement: The Report of the Commission on Youth Voting
                                                                                                                                                      and Civic Knowledge (Medford, MA: Center for Information & Research on Civic Learning and Engagement, 2013), www.civicyouth.org/about-circle/
                                                                                                                                                      commission-on-youth-voting-civic-knowledge/

INNOVATION FOR YOUTH ENGAGEMENT
The Report of the Commission on Youth Voting and Civic Knowledge

  A Call to Action.............................................................................................................................. 5   Planning a Discussion.................................................................................................................. 37

  Main Recommendations............................................................................................................. 7                Appendix A: Selected Previous Research on Youth Political Engagement............ 39
       Selected recommendations for national, state, and local policymakers........... 8                                                             Appendix B: Data Collected for the Commission............................................................. 40
       Selected recommendations for school districts and educators........................... 8                                                          1. The Youth Engagement Fund Surveys........................................................................ 41
       Recommendations for families and communities...................................................... 9                                              2. The National Youth Survey.............................................................................................. 41
       Recommendations for collaboration............................................................................... 9                                3. Analysis of official turnout statistics............................................................................ 43
  Research for this Report............................................................................................................ 9                 4. A National Civics Teacher Survey................................................................................. 44
  About the Commission............................................................................................................... 10                 5. Stakeholder interviews...................................................................................................... 45

  New Data on Youth Voting and Civic Knowledge............................................................ 11                                        Appendix C: Examples of Good Practice............................................................................ 45

  Today’s Special Challenges and Opportunities for Youth Civic Engagement....... 13                                                                      1. Coalitions................................................................................................................................. 45

       1. Deep polarization and ideological conflict............................................................... 13                                   2. Programs................................................................................................................................ 48

       2. Growing inequality of civic opportunites................................................................. 15                                       Diverse and accessible opportunities for civically disadvantaged and
                                                                                                                                                             non-college youth................................................................................................................ 48
            Table 1: Voter Turnout Among 18-29 Year Old Citizens ..................................... 15
                                                                                                                                                             Engagement in controversy and disagreement that promotes youth
       3. An increasingly diverse youth population................................................................ 17
                                                                                                                                                             voice/expression, information seeking and deliberation...................................... 48
       4. A powerful role for social media.................................................................................. 18
                                                                                                                                                             Lower barriers to youth political participation and increase
  Fundamental Goals...................................................................................................................... 23
                                                                                                                                                             transparency of the political system............................................................................. 49
       1. Free expression and civil deliberation........................................................................ 23
                                                                                                                                                             High-quality civic learning experiences and assessments that develop
       2. Equality and quality of political engagement......................................................... 24
                                                                                                                                                             higher order knowledge and skills in the context of real-life issues................ 50
  Recommendations........................................................................................................................ 27                 Systems or networks of opportunities and support............................................... 52
      1. Stitch together a quilt of helpful policies................................................................... 27
                                                                                                                                                     Notes.................................................................................................................................................. 54
         Table 2: Summary of State Policy Effects................................................................... 28
      2. Involve families..................................................................................................................... 30
      3. Support teachers................................................................................................................. 31
      4. Encourage collaboration.................................................................................................. 33
      5. Innovate and evaluate....................................................................................................... 35
All Together Now: Collaboration and Innovation for Youth Engagement - The Report of the Commission on Youth Voting and Civic Knowledge
As a teacher we surveyed for this report said,
civic education “is essential if we are to continue
as a free democratic society. Not to educate the
next generation will ensure the destruction of our
American way of life as we know it.”

                                                      A Call
                                                      to Action
                                                      Each new generation must           On the other hand, more             schools matter, civic education
                                                      become active, informed,           than half of young people           must be a shared responsibility.
                                                      responsible, and effective         did not vote. And on some           The outcomes are acceptable
                                                      citizens. As a teacher we          topics, most young people           only when all the relevant
                                                      surveyed for this report said,     were misinformed. A majority        institutions invite, support,
                                                      civic education “is essential if   (51.2%) of under 25-year-           and educate young people to
                                                      we are to continue as a free       olds believed that the federal      engage in politics and civic
                                                      democratic society. Not to         government spends more              life. Improving the quality and
                                                      educate the next generation        on foreign aid than on Social       quantity of youth participation
                                                      will ensure the destruction of     Security, when in fact Social       will require new collaborations;
                                                      our American way of life as we     Security costs about 20             for example, state election
                                                      know it.”                          times more. (Older adults           officials and schools should
                                                                                         have also been found to be          work together to make voting
                                                      Data show that many young          misinformed on similar topics.)
                                                      Americans are reasonably           Our research, like many other
                                                      well informed and active.          studies, finds that young
                                                      For instance, 45% of citizens      people from disadvantaged
                                                                                                                                    Breaking the pattern of the past
                                                      between the ages of 18 and 29      backgrounds are far less likely
                                                                                                                                    forty years will require new ideas
                                                      voted in the 2012 election. In     to be informed and to vote.
                                                                                                                                    and the active support of all
                                                      a national survey conducted
                                                                                                                                    sectors of society.
                                                      for this Commission, 76% of        These shortcomings cannot
                                                      people under the age of 25         be attributed to the schools
                                                                                                                                    This report is intended to
                                                      who voted could correctly          alone, since families, friends,
                                                                                                                                    engage Americans in a new
                                                      answer at least one (out           political campaigns, election
                                                                                                                                    discussion, leading to experiments,
                                                      of two) factual questions          officials, the mass media, social
                                                                                                                                    partnerships, and reforms.
                                                      about where the presidential       media, and community-based
                                                      candidates stood on a              organizations are among the
                                                      campaign issue and state their     other important influences
                                                      own opinion on that issue.         on young people. In fact, our
                                                                                         research shows that while
As a teacher we surveyed for this report said,
civic education “is essential if we are to continue
as a free democratic society. Not to educate the
next generation will ensure the destruction of our
American way of life as we know it.”

                                                      A Call
                                                      to Action
                                                      Each new generation must           On the other hand, more             schools matter, civic education
                                                      become active, informed,           than half of young people           must be a shared responsibility.
                                                      responsible, and effective         did not vote. And on some           The outcomes are acceptable
                                                      citizens. As a teacher we          topics, most young people           only when all the relevant
                                                      surveyed for this report said,     were misinformed. A majority        institutions invite, support,
                                                      civic education “is essential if   (51.2%) of under 25-year-           and educate young people to
                                                      we are to continue as a free       olds believed that the federal      engage in politics and civic
                                                      democratic society. Not to         government spends more              life. Improving the quality and
                                                      educate the next generation        on foreign aid than on Social       quantity of youth participation
                                                      will ensure the destruction of     Security, when in fact Social       will require new collaborations;
                                                      our American way of life as we     Security costs about 20             for example, state election
                                                      know it.”                          times more. (Older adults           officials and schools should
                                                                                         have also been found to be          work together to make voting
                                                      Data show that many young          misinformed on similar topics.)
                                                      Americans are reasonably           Our research, like many other
                                                      well informed and active.          studies, finds that young
                                                      For instance, 45% of citizens      people from disadvantaged
                                                                                                                                    Breaking the pattern of the past
                                                      between the ages of 18 and 29      backgrounds are far less likely
                                                                                                                                    forty years will require new ideas
                                                      voted in the 2012 election. In     to be informed and to vote.
                                                                                                                                    and the active support of all
                                                      a national survey conducted
                                                                                                                                    sectors of society.
                                                      for this Commission, 76% of        These shortcomings cannot
                                                      people under the age of 25         be attributed to the schools
                                                                                                                                    This report is intended to
                                                      who voted could correctly          alone, since families, friends,
                                                                                                                                    engage Americans in a new
                                                      answer at least one (out           political campaigns, election
                                                                                                                                    discussion, leading to experiments,
                                                      of two) factual questions          officials, the mass media, social
                                                                                                                                    partnerships, and reforms.
                                                      about where the presidential       media, and community-based
                                                      candidates stood on a              organizations are among the
                                                      campaign issue and state their     other important influences
                                                      own opinion on that issue.         on young people. In fact, our
                                                                                         research shows that while
positive effect. Certainly, the     Although levels of turnout
                                                                                                                     current policies in states and      and knowledge have not
                                                                                                                     major school districts do not       changed dramatically over
                                                                                                                     come close to achieving the         time, the Commission believes
                                                                                                                     goals of civic education, which     that the present moment is a
                             18-29 year olds who voted in 2012                                                       are to provide all young people     particularly challenging one

                                                                                    45      %                        with the knowledge, skills,         for civic educators, whether
                                                                                                                     and dispositions they need          they work in schools or other
                                                                                                                     to be active and responsible        settings. Civic education
                                                                                                                     citizens. Either the policies are   is a low priority for most
                                                                                                                     misconceived, the quality of        policymakers and private
                             Voters under 25 who correctly answered one (of two)
                                                                                                                     implementation is inadequate,       funders, and the very idea

                                                                                    76%
                             factual questions on a candidate’s stance
                                                                                                                     or both.                            of trying to engage young
                                                                                                                                                         people in politics has become
                                                                                                                     For example, we find that           controversial. Breaking the
                                                                                                                     testing civics has no positive      pattern of the past forty years
                                                                                                                     impact, but that could be           will require new ideas and the     YOUNG PEOPLE DEVELOP
                             Citizens under 25 who believed more money is
                             spent on foreign aid than Social Security
                                                                                                                     because the tests are not well      active support of all sectors      AS CITIZENS UNDER THE
                                                                                                                                                                                            INFLUENCE OF:

                                                                                    51
                                                                                                                     designed, teachers are not          of society—including youth
                                                                                          %                          well prepared and supported
                                                                                                                     to teach the material, or the
                                                                                                                                                         themselves. Just as we should
                                                                                                                                                         teach young people to work         •   Their own parents and family
                                                                                                                     curriculum is misaligned            together to address public             members;
                                                                                                                     with the tests. The quality         problems—each contributing         •   Schools and colleges;
                             18-29s who knew their state’s voter registration                                        of implementation requires          his or her assets and ideas—
                             deadline in July 2012.                                                                  more attention, and there is        so people of all ages must         •   Peer groups, both in-person and

                                                                                    21    %                          an urgent need to experiment        collaborate to improve youth           online;
                                                                                                                     with wholly new strategies and      civic engagement. This
                                                                                                                     policies, some of which are         report is intended to engage       •   Community groups and religious
                                                                                                                     suggested in this report.           Americans in a new discussion          congregations;
                                                                                                                                                         about educating the next           •   Neighborhood and community
                                                                                                                     Despite enormous shifts in          generation of voters, leading to       norms;
                                                                                                                     the nature of campaigns             experiments, partnerships, and
                                                                                                                     and political issues, news          reforms.                           •   National news and entertainment
                                                                                                                     and electronic media, the                                                  media;
                                                                                                                     demographics of the youth
                                              underlying social and political                                        population, and education
                                                                                                                                                         Main                               •   Social media; and
procedures understandable                                                          we accounted for other factors
and to educate students about                 problems in conjunction with         that are related to voting.       policy and voting law, changes      Recommendations                    •   The formal political system.
voting rules.                                 service projects in high school.     States with many restrictive      in youth turnout and civic
                                                                                   measures in place on Election     knowledge have been limited         The following                      Civic education is best understood
Some of the existing strategies               The effects of policies are          Day also saw lower turnout by     since 1972. The average youth       recommendations emerged            as a shared responsibility, requiring
for civic education are strongly              more difficult to estimate than      non-college youth.                turnout (for ages 18-24) in         from the Commissioners’            collaboration.
supported by research and                     the effects of educational                                             presidential years from 1972-       deliberations, which were
deserve to be maintained                      strategies and practices.                                              2012 was 43.7%. The rate in         informed by an in-depth
                                                                                   Research conducted for this       2012 was just a bit below the       analysis of prior research and
and expanded. For instance,                   There are only 50 states, and
                                                                                   report does not by any means      mean at 41.2%. Since 1972,          extensive original research
teaching young people                         they differ in many ways.
                                                                                   rule out the benefits of some     the 50% threshold has never         conducted during and after
explicitly about politics and                 We find that some policies
                                                                                   existing policies, such as        been breached. Meanwhile,           the 2012 election (see the
elections is related to higher                probably have detrimental
                                                                                   mandatory courses and tests       the best national data on civic     next section for a summary of
levels of political knowledge;                consequences. For example,
                                                                                   or convenient means of voter      knowledge—from the National         the new research). No single
thus schools should be                        young people without
                                                                                   registration. However, the data   Assessment of Educational           reform listed here is a panacea,
encouraged and supported                      college experience who lived
                                                                                   collected for the Commission      Progress (NAEP) Civics              but combining several of them
to cover politics in classes                  in the states with photo ID
                                                                                   and previous studies suggest      Assessment—show very small          would help build a supportive
that reach all students. Young                requirements were less likely
                                                                                   that none of the existing state   changes since the 1970s.1
adults are also more civically                to vote in 2012 than those who
                                                                                   policies has an impressive
engaged if they discussed                     lived in other states, even when

6      All Together Now: Collaboration and Innovation for Youth Engagement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7
positive effect. Certainly, the     Although levels of turnout
                                                                                                                     current policies in states and      and knowledge have not
                                                                                                                     major school districts do not       changed dramatically over
                                                                                                                     come close to achieving the         time, the Commission believes
                                                                                                                     goals of civic education, which     that the present moment is a
                             18-29 year olds who voted in 2012                                                       are to provide all young people     particularly challenging one

                                                                                    45      %                        with the knowledge, skills,         for civic educators, whether
                                                                                                                     and dispositions they need          they work in schools or other
                                                                                                                     to be active and responsible        settings. Civic education
                                                                                                                     citizens. Either the policies are   is a low priority for most
                                                                                                                     misconceived, the quality of        policymakers and private
                             Voters under 25 who correctly answered one (of two)
                                                                                                                     implementation is inadequate,       funders, and the very idea

                                                                                    76%
                             factual questions on a candidate’s stance
                                                                                                                     or both.                            of trying to engage young
                                                                                                                                                         people in politics has become
                                                                                                                     For example, we find that           controversial. Breaking the
                                                                                                                     testing civics has no positive      pattern of the past forty years
                                                                                                                     impact, but that could be           will require new ideas and the     YOUNG PEOPLE DEVELOP
                             Citizens under 25 who believed more money is
                             spent on foreign aid than Social Security
                                                                                                                     because the tests are not well      active support of all sectors      AS CITIZENS UNDER THE
                                                                                                                                                                                            INFLUENCE OF:

                                                                                    51
                                                                                                                     designed, teachers are not          of society—including youth
                                                                                          %                          well prepared and supported
                                                                                                                     to teach the material, or the
                                                                                                                                                         themselves. Just as we should
                                                                                                                                                         teach young people to work         •   Their own parents and family
                                                                                                                     curriculum is misaligned            together to address public             members;
                                                                                                                     with the tests. The quality         problems—each contributing         •   Schools and colleges;
                             18-29s who knew their state’s voter registration                                        of implementation requires          his or her assets and ideas—
                             deadline in July 2012.                                                                  more attention, and there is        so people of all ages must         •   Peer groups, both in-person and

                                                                                    21    %                          an urgent need to experiment        collaborate to improve youth           online;
                                                                                                                     with wholly new strategies and      civic engagement. This
                                                                                                                     policies, some of which are         report is intended to engage       •   Community groups and religious
                                                                                                                     suggested in this report.           Americans in a new discussion          congregations;
                                                                                                                                                         about educating the next           •   Neighborhood and community
                                                                                                                     Despite enormous shifts in          generation of voters, leading to       norms;
                                                                                                                     the nature of campaigns             experiments, partnerships, and
                                                                                                                     and political issues, news          reforms.                           •   National news and entertainment
                                                                                                                     and electronic media, the                                                  media;
                                                                                                                     demographics of the youth
                                              underlying social and political                                        population, and education
                                                                                                                                                         Main                               •   Social media; and
procedures understandable                                                          we accounted for other factors
and to educate students about                 problems in conjunction with         that are related to voting.       policy and voting law, changes      Recommendations                    •   The formal political system.
voting rules.                                 service projects in high school.     States with many restrictive      in youth turnout and civic
                                                                                   measures in place on Election     knowledge have been limited         The following                      Civic education is best understood
Some of the existing strategies               The effects of policies are          Day also saw lower turnout by     since 1972. The average youth       recommendations emerged            as a shared responsibility, requiring
for civic education are strongly              more difficult to estimate than      non-college youth.                turnout (for ages 18-24) in         from the Commissioners’            collaboration.
supported by research and                     the effects of educational                                             presidential years from 1972-       deliberations, which were
deserve to be maintained                      strategies and practices.                                              2012 was 43.7%. The rate in         informed by an in-depth
                                                                                   Research conducted for this       2012 was just a bit below the       analysis of prior research and
and expanded. For instance,                   There are only 50 states, and
                                                                                   report does not by any means      mean at 41.2%. Since 1972,          extensive original research
teaching young people                         they differ in many ways.
                                                                                   rule out the benefits of some     the 50% threshold has never         conducted during and after
explicitly about politics and                 We find that some policies
                                                                                   existing policies, such as        been breached. Meanwhile,           the 2012 election (see the
elections is related to higher                probably have detrimental
                                                                                   mandatory courses and tests       the best national data on civic     next section for a summary of
levels of political knowledge;                consequences. For example,
                                                                                   or convenient means of voter      knowledge—from the National         the new research). No single
thus schools should be                        young people without
                                                                                   registration. However, the data   Assessment of Educational           reform listed here is a panacea,
encouraged and supported                      college experience who lived
                                                                                   collected for the Commission      Progress (NAEP) Civics              but combining several of them
to cover politics in classes                  in the states with photo ID
                                                                                   and previous studies suggest      Assessment—show very small          would help build a supportive
that reach all students. Young                requirements were less likely
                                                                                   that none of the existing state   changes since the 1970s.1
adults are also more civically                to vote in 2012 than those who
                                                                                   policies has an impressive
engaged if they discussed                     lived in other states, even when

6      All Together Now: Collaboration and Innovation for Youth Engagement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7
environment for youth civic                          of current, controversial political   •   Assign students to read and        •   Discuss current events (including    •   Align states’ high school civics         CIRCLE surveyed 4,483
learning and engagement.                             issues in the curriculum.                 discuss news in class and with         upcoming elections) and political        curricula with voting reforms            representative individuals
The main body of the report                                                                    their parents or other adults.         issues.                                  that encourage pre-registration          (ages 18-24) by cell phone and
explains whether each of these                   •   Lower the voting age to 17 in                                                                                             in schools.                              land-line phones. At least 75
recommendations is based                             municipal or state elections          •   Teach in detail the current        •   Obtain and discuss high-quality                                                   participants came from each of
on extensive experience and                          so that students can be                   voting laws that apply in the          news, to the extent possible.        •   Support the study of civics and          the 50 states and Washington,
evaluation data or is a new                          encouraged to vote while they             state, as many young people do                                                  government among college                 DC (75-131 per state) to allow
idea that the Commissioners                          are taking a required civics class.       not know the specifics of the      •   Encourage children to form               students who are headed for              us to estimate the effects of
advocate on a pilot basis.                                                                     laws that govern voting in their       and express their own views on           teaching careers.                        state policies using a statistical
                                                 •   Increase the scale and quality of         own jurisdictions.                     current controversial issues.                                                     model. Participants of Black
Selected recommendations                             national and community service                                                                                        •   Hold contests and award                  and Hispanic backgrounds were
for national, state, and local                       programs that involve elements        •   Emphasize youth conducting         •   Support the discussion of                certificates of civic achievement.       slightly oversampled.
policymakers                                         of deliberation, collaboration,           community research and                 controversial issues in schools.         Students enrolled in k-12
                                                     and work on social issues,                producing local journalism, with                                                schools would be eligible,           •   The Teacher Survey: In May and
•   Make voting more accessible                      and make sure they are open               the twin goals of enhancing        •   If eligible, vote, and talk to           but community groups would               June 2013, CIRCLE surveyed a
    through reforms such as Same                     to youth who do not attend                students’ communications skills        children about why they vote.            participate in judging and               national sample of high school
    Day Registration; automatic                      college.                                  and making a contribution                                                       awarding the prizes. Parents             government and social studies
    registration of eligible high                                                              to the community in light of       •   Involve their children in out-of-        and other adults could also be           teachers. We collected 720
    school students or pre-                      Selected recommendations                      the severe gap in professional         school groups and organizations          eligible for awards.                     complete teacher responses.
    registration of 17-year-old                  for school districts and                      reporting.                             that address political and social
                                                 educators
    students; and online registration
    with easy mobile updating.                                                             •   Provide standards, curricular
                                                                                                                                      concerns.
                                                                                                                                                                           Research for this                        •   Stakeholder interviews:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        CIRCLE interviewed 15
                                                 •   Implement high school course              materials, and professional        Recommendations for                      Report                                       stakeholders (nonprofit leaders
•   Implement state standards for                    requirements with valid                   development that ensure            collaboration                                                                         and advocates, including
    civics that focus on developing                  assessments that measure                  students discuss the root causes                                            To investigate the full range of             young adults) and coded and
    advanced civic skills, such as                   higher-order skills and the               of social problems when they       •   Develop and support statewide        influences on informed youth                 summarized their ideas.
    deliberation and collaboration,                  application of knowledge.                 participate in service-learning        coalitions that advocate for         voting, CIRCLE organized
    rather than memorizing facts.                    Courses should teach the                  and ensure that student groups         favorable policies and work to       and staffed a scholarly,                 •   Analysis of national data:
    Standards should be more                         registration and voting process           address social issues.                 ensure that policies are well        nonpartisan commission.                      CIRCLE analyzed National Exit
    challenging, more coherent, and                  explicitly and engage students                                                   implemented. (For instance, as       Research for the Commission                  Poll and the U.S. Census Current
    more concerned with politics                     in following the news and             •   Strengthen standards and               well as advocating a civics test,    was funded by the S.D.                       Population Survey, Voting and
    than the typical state standards                 deliberating about issues.                curricula for digital media            the coalition will help design a     Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, W.T.                Registration Supplement (CPS
    in place today. Because these                                                              literacy and coordinate digital        good test, align it with materials   Grant Foundation, the Robert                 Voting Supplement) data to
    standards will be challenging,               •   Adopt explicit policies that              media literacy and civic               and curricula, and help provide      R. McCormick Foundation,                     calculate youth turnout and to
    they will require both deep                      protect teachers’ careers if              education.                             professional development for         the Spencer Foundation and                   examine relationships between
    attention to civics within the                   they teach about controversial                                                   teachers.)                           the Youth Engagement Fund.                   turnout and laws at the state
    social studies curriculum and                    issues, as long as they               •   Implement multi-player role-                                                To inform the Commission’s                   level.
    support from other disciplines,                  encourage discussion of diverse           playing video games as tools for   •   Award badges for excellence          deliberations, CIRCLE
    such as English/language arts                    perspectives on those issues.             civic education.                       in civics. These portable, online    conducted the following                  •   Policy scans: CIRCLE conducted
    and the sciences.                                                                                                                 certificates would demonstrate       ambitious and original research              a full scan of all the states’
                                                 •   Provide professional                  Recommendations for families               advanced civic skills, knowledge,    projects in 2012-2013:                       civic education policies and a
•   Experiment with assessments                      development that goes well            and communities                            and actual contributions.                                                         separate scan of their teacher
    of civic skills that use portfolios              beyond one-day events and                                                        Badges could be designed and         •   The Youth Engagement Fund                certification requirements.
    of students’ work instead                        that is available to all teachers,    Families and caring adults                 awarded by various institutions          polls: CIRCLE conducted a                We categorized these laws to
    of standardized tests. (This                     including those serving               contribute to the younger                  (e.g., schools and religious             nationally representative online         incorporate them in statistical
    reform is currently being                        disadvantaged students.2              generation’s civic development             congregations), but the sectors          survey of 1,695 youth (ages              models of the effects of policies
    implemented in Tennessee, and                                                          in many ways. Families cannot              should share ideas and set               18-29) in June/July 2012 and             on youth outcomes.
    the experience there will provide            •   Use assessment systems that           be required to teach civic                 voluntary standards.                     surveyed 1,109 of the same
    valuable lessons.)                               reward students’ discussion and       education, and even advice                                                          youth in October 2012 to track       •   A literature review: CIRCLE
                                                     investigation of current events       should be offered cautiously           •   Encourage parents to                     change during the campaign               completed a comprehensive
•   Enact state and district                         and issues.                           out of respect for families’               participate in civic activities          season.                                  literature review, highlights of
    policies that support teachers’                                                        autonomy and diversity. But in             within schools, e.g., by judging                                                  which are briefly summarized as
    obligation to include discussions                                                      general, families should:                  students’ portfolios or by joining   •   The National Youth Survey:               Appendix A.
                                                                                                                                      discussions of current events.           Immediately after the election,

8         All Together Now: Collaboration and Innovation for Youth Engagement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9
environment for youth civic                          of current, controversial political   •   Assign students to read and        •   Discuss current events (including    •   Align states’ high school civics         CIRCLE surveyed 4,483
learning and engagement.                             issues in the curriculum.                 discuss news in class and with         upcoming elections) and political        curricula with voting reforms            representative individuals
The main body of the report                                                                    their parents or other adults.         issues.                                  that encourage pre-registration          (ages 18-24) by cell phone and
explains whether each of these                   •   Lower the voting age to 17 in                                                                                             in schools.                              land-line phones. At least 75
recommendations is based                             municipal or state elections          •   Teach in detail the current        •   Obtain and discuss high-quality                                                   participants came from each of
on extensive experience and                          so that students can be                   voting laws that apply in the          news, to the extent possible.        •   Support the study of civics and          the 50 states and Washington,
evaluation data or is a new                          encouraged to vote while they             state, as many young people do                                                  government among college                 DC (75-131 per state) to allow
idea that the Commissioners                          are taking a required civics class.       not know the specifics of the      •   Encourage children to form               students who are headed for              us to estimate the effects of
advocate on a pilot basis.                                                                     laws that govern voting in their       and express their own views on           teaching careers.                        state policies using a statistical
                                                 •   Increase the scale and quality of         own jurisdictions.                     current controversial issues.                                                     model. Participants of Black
Selected recommendations                             national and community service                                                                                        •   Hold contests and award                  and Hispanic backgrounds were
for national, state, and local                       programs that involve elements        •   Emphasize youth conducting         •   Support the discussion of                certificates of civic achievement.       slightly oversampled.
policymakers                                         of deliberation, collaboration,           community research and                 controversial issues in schools.         Students enrolled in k-12
                                                     and work on social issues,                producing local journalism, with                                                schools would be eligible,           •   The Teacher Survey: In May and
•   Make voting more accessible                      and make sure they are open               the twin goals of enhancing        •   If eligible, vote, and talk to           but community groups would               June 2013, CIRCLE surveyed a
    through reforms such as Same                     to youth who do not attend                students’ communications skills        children about why they vote.            participate in judging and               national sample of high school
    Day Registration; automatic                      college.                                  and making a contribution                                                       awarding the prizes. Parents             government and social studies
    registration of eligible high                                                              to the community in light of       •   Involve their children in out-of-        and other adults could also be           teachers. We collected 720
    school students or pre-                      Selected recommendations                      the severe gap in professional         school groups and organizations          eligible for awards.                     complete teacher responses.
    registration of 17-year-old                  for school districts and                      reporting.                             that address political and social
                                                 educators
    students; and online registration
    with easy mobile updating.                                                             •   Provide standards, curricular
                                                                                                                                      concerns.
                                                                                                                                                                           Research for this                        •   Stakeholder interviews:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        CIRCLE interviewed 15
                                                 •   Implement high school course              materials, and professional        Recommendations for                      Report                                       stakeholders (nonprofit leaders
•   Implement state standards for                    requirements with valid                   development that ensure            collaboration                                                                         and advocates, including
    civics that focus on developing                  assessments that measure                  students discuss the root causes                                            To investigate the full range of             young adults) and coded and
    advanced civic skills, such as                   higher-order skills and the               of social problems when they       •   Develop and support statewide        influences on informed youth                 summarized their ideas.
    deliberation and collaboration,                  application of knowledge.                 participate in service-learning        coalitions that advocate for         voting, CIRCLE organized
    rather than memorizing facts.                    Courses should teach the                  and ensure that student groups         favorable policies and work to       and staffed a scholarly,                 •   Analysis of national data:
    Standards should be more                         registration and voting process           address social issues.                 ensure that policies are well        nonpartisan commission.                      CIRCLE analyzed National Exit
    challenging, more coherent, and                  explicitly and engage students                                                   implemented. (For instance, as       Research for the Commission                  Poll and the U.S. Census Current
    more concerned with politics                     in following the news and             •   Strengthen standards and               well as advocating a civics test,    was funded by the S.D.                       Population Survey, Voting and
    than the typical state standards                 deliberating about issues.                curricula for digital media            the coalition will help design a     Bechtel, Jr. Foundation, W.T.                Registration Supplement (CPS
    in place today. Because these                                                              literacy and coordinate digital        good test, align it with materials   Grant Foundation, the Robert                 Voting Supplement) data to
    standards will be challenging,               •   Adopt explicit policies that              media literacy and civic               and curricula, and help provide      R. McCormick Foundation,                     calculate youth turnout and to
    they will require both deep                      protect teachers’ careers if              education.                             professional development for         the Spencer Foundation and                   examine relationships between
    attention to civics within the                   they teach about controversial                                                   teachers.)                           the Youth Engagement Fund.                   turnout and laws at the state
    social studies curriculum and                    issues, as long as they               •   Implement multi-player role-                                                To inform the Commission’s                   level.
    support from other disciplines,                  encourage discussion of diverse           playing video games as tools for   •   Award badges for excellence          deliberations, CIRCLE
    such as English/language arts                    perspectives on those issues.             civic education.                       in civics. These portable, online    conducted the following                  •   Policy scans: CIRCLE conducted
    and the sciences.                                                                                                                 certificates would demonstrate       ambitious and original research              a full scan of all the states’
                                                 •   Provide professional                  Recommendations for families               advanced civic skills, knowledge,    projects in 2012-2013:                       civic education policies and a
•   Experiment with assessments                      development that goes well            and communities                            and actual contributions.                                                         separate scan of their teacher
    of civic skills that use portfolios              beyond one-day events and                                                        Badges could be designed and         •   The Youth Engagement Fund                certification requirements.
    of students’ work instead                        that is available to all teachers,    Families and caring adults                 awarded by various institutions          polls: CIRCLE conducted a                We categorized these laws to
    of standardized tests. (This                     including those serving               contribute to the younger                  (e.g., schools and religious             nationally representative online         incorporate them in statistical
    reform is currently being                        disadvantaged students.2              generation’s civic development             congregations), but the sectors          survey of 1,695 youth (ages              models of the effects of policies
    implemented in Tennessee, and                                                          in many ways. Families cannot              should share ideas and set               18-29) in June/July 2012 and             on youth outcomes.
    the experience there will provide            •   Use assessment systems that           be required to teach civic                 voluntary standards.                     surveyed 1,109 of the same
    valuable lessons.)                               reward students’ discussion and       education, and even advice                                                          youth in October 2012 to track       •   A literature review: CIRCLE
                                                     investigation of current events       should be offered cautiously           •   Encourage parents to                     change during the campaign               completed a comprehensive
•   Enact state and district                         and issues.                           out of respect for families’               participate in civic activities          season.                                  literature review, highlights of
    policies that support teachers’                                                        autonomy and diversity. But in             within schools, e.g., by judging                                                  which are briefly summarized as
    obligation to include discussions                                                      general, families should:                  students’ portfolios or by joining   •   The National Youth Survey:               Appendix A.
                                                                                                                                      discussions of current events.           Immediately after the election,

8         All Together Now: Collaboration and Innovation for Youth Engagement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9
In all, we surveyed or                               Foundation and Professor             Program Assistant; Felicia
interviewed 6,913 people                             of Education, University of          Sullivan, Senior Researcher;
(some more than once, to                             Wisconsin-Madison                    and Nancy Thomas, Director of
detect changes over time) and                                                             CIRCLE’s Initiative for the Study
scanned the relevant laws of                     •   Joseph Kahne, Professor of           of Higher Education and Public
all 50 states plus the District                      Education at Mills College           Life.
of Columbia for the purpose                          and Chair of the MacArthur
of producing this report.                            Foundation Research Network
Additional details are available
in Appendix B.
                                                     on Youth and Participatory
                                                     Politics
                                                                                                                              New Data on Youth Voting and Civic Knowledge
About the                                        •   Alex Keyssar, Matthew W.
                                                     Stirling Jr., Professor of History
Commission                                           and Social Policy at the Kennedy
                                                     School of Government at
The members of the                                   Harvard University
Commission are among the                                                                                                      Many of the statistics and specific findings presented in this report have previously been released publicly under
most distinguished scholarly                     •   Michael McDevitt, Professor                                              the aegis of the Commission. But this report is the first-ever presentation of several findings, such as the following:
experts on youth political                           of Journalism and Mass
engagement, representing                             Communication, University of                                             «« For young people without college experience, the existence of a photo ID law in their state predicted lower
diverse disciplines and                              Colorado, Boulder                                                           turnout in 2012, even after we included many other potential explanations in our statistical models. (Future
institutions. They studied and                                                                                                   elections may differ from 2012, when the photo ID laws were highly controversial and actively opposed.)
discussed the findings from the                  •   Richard G. Niemi, Don Alonzo
new research and then jointly                        Watson Professor of Political                                            «« Allowing people to register to vote on the same day that they vote had a positive effect on youth turnout in
wrote this report.                                   Science, University of Rochester                                            2012, and that finding is consistent with previous research.

•   David Campbell, Professor of                 •   Eric Plutzer, Professor of                                               «« About one in four high school civics or American government teachers believe that the parents of their
    Political Science and Director of                Political Science, Penn State                                               students or other adults in their community would object if they brought discussion of politics into the
    the Rooney Center for the Study                  University                                                                  classroom.
    of American Democracy, the
    University of Notre Dame                     •   Debra Satz, Marta Sutton Weeks                                           «« Ninety percent of teachers believe that their principal would support their decision to teach about an
                                                     Professor of Ethics in Society                                              election (and 46% would expect strong support from principals). But only 38% of teachers think they would
•   Constance Flanagan, Professor,                   and Professor of Philosophy,                                                get strong support from their district, and only 28% think parents would strongly support them. If teachers
    Department of Interdisciplinary                  Stanford University                                                         perceive strong support, they are significantly more likely to provide an open climate for discussion in class
    Studies, University of Wisconsin-                                                                                            and tend to prefer more deliberative forms of discussion. Teachers with more experience are more likely to
    Madison                                      •   Ismail K. White, Assistant                                                  perceive support.
                                                     Professor of Political Science,
•   Lisa García Bedolla, Professor,                  Ohio State University                                                    «« Attending racially diverse high schools predicted lower electoral engagement and lower levels of informed
    Graduate School of Education,                                                                                                voting, probably because it is more difficult to discuss controversial issues in diverse contexts, and
    University of California, Berkeley           Staff: CIRCLE provided                                                          individuals feel less encouragement to participate politically when others around them disagree.3 On the
                                                 research and other forms of                                                     other hand, discussion of controversial current issues in school and parental support for controversial
•   Trey Grayson, Director of the                support for the Commission.                                                     discussions diminished the negative relationship between diversity and electoral engagement.
    Institute of Politics at Harvard             CIRCLE Director Peter Levine
    University and former Secretary              was the Principal Investigator                                               «« Only eight states (California, Georgia, Kansas, Kentucky, Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia)
    of State of Kentucky                         on all the research efforts and                                                 include social studies in their assessments of schools’ performance, usually as a very small proportion of
                                                 coordinated the Commission.                                                     the schools’ scores.
•   Eitan Hersh, Assistant Professor             Kei Kawashima-Ginsberg,
    of Political Science at Yale                 CIRCLE’s Deputy Director, had                                                «« Only ten states (Arizona, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Massachusetts, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Utah,
    University                                   primary responsibility for the                                                  and Wisconsin) require teachers of government or civics to be certified in civics or government.
                                                 research. Other key staff were:
•   Diana Hess, Senior Vice                      Surbhi Godsay, Researcher;
    President, the Spencer                       Abby Kiesa, Youth Coordinator
                                                 & Researcher; Kathy O’Connor,

10        All Together Now: Collaboration and Innovation for Youth Engagement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11
In all, we surveyed or                               Foundation and Professor             Program Assistant; Felicia
interviewed 6,913 people                             of Education, University of          Sullivan, Senior Researcher;
(some more than once, to                             Wisconsin-Madison                    and Nancy Thomas, Director of
detect changes over time) and                                                             CIRCLE’s Initiative for the Study
scanned the relevant laws of                     •   Joseph Kahne, Professor of           of Higher Education and Public
all 50 states plus the District                      Education at Mills College           Life.
of Columbia for the purpose                          and Chair of the MacArthur
of producing this report.                            Foundation Research Network
Additional details are available
in Appendix B.
                                                     on Youth and Participatory
                                                     Politics
                                                                                                                              New Data on Youth Voting and Civic Knowledge
About the                                        •   Alex Keyssar, Matthew W.
                                                     Stirling Jr., Professor of History
Commission                                           and Social Policy at the Kennedy
                                                     School of Government at
The members of the                                   Harvard University
Commission are among the                                                                                                      Many of the statistics and specific findings presented in this report have previously been released publicly under
most distinguished scholarly                     •   Michael McDevitt, Professor                                              the aegis of the Commission. But this report is the first-ever presentation of several findings, such as the following:
experts on youth political                           of Journalism and Mass
engagement, representing                             Communication, University of                                             «« For young people without college experience, the existence of a photo ID law in their state predicted lower
diverse disciplines and                              Colorado, Boulder                                                           turnout in 2012, even after we included many other potential explanations in our statistical models. (Future
institutions. They studied and                                                                                                   elections may differ from 2012, when the photo ID laws were highly controversial and actively opposed.)
discussed the findings from the                  •   Richard G. Niemi, Don Alonzo
new research and then jointly                        Watson Professor of Political                                            «« Allowing people to register to vote on the same day that they vote had a positive effect on youth turnout in
wrote this report.                                   Science, University of Rochester                                            2012, and that finding is consistent with previous research.

•   David Campbell, Professor of                 •   Eric Plutzer, Professor of                                               «« About one in four high school civics or American government teachers believe that the parents of their
    Political Science and Director of                Political Science, Penn State                                               students or other adults in their community would object if they brought discussion of politics into the
    the Rooney Center for the Study                  University                                                                  classroom.
    of American Democracy, the
    University of Notre Dame                     •   Debra Satz, Marta Sutton Weeks                                           «« Ninety percent of teachers believe that their principal would support their decision to teach about an
                                                     Professor of Ethics in Society                                              election (and 46% would expect strong support from principals). But only 38% of teachers think they would
•   Constance Flanagan, Professor,                   and Professor of Philosophy,                                                get strong support from their district, and only 28% think parents would strongly support them. If teachers
    Department of Interdisciplinary                  Stanford University                                                         perceive strong support, they are significantly more likely to provide an open climate for discussion in class
    Studies, University of Wisconsin-                                                                                            and tend to prefer more deliberative forms of discussion. Teachers with more experience are more likely to
    Madison                                      •   Ismail K. White, Assistant                                                  perceive support.
                                                     Professor of Political Science,
•   Lisa García Bedolla, Professor,                  Ohio State University                                                    «« Attending racially diverse high schools predicted lower electoral engagement and lower levels of informed
    Graduate School of Education,                                                                                                voting, probably because it is more difficult to discuss controversial issues in diverse contexts, and
    University of California, Berkeley           Staff: CIRCLE provided                                                          individuals feel less encouragement to participate politically when others around them disagree.3 On the
                                                 research and other forms of                                                     other hand, discussion of controversial current issues in school and parental support for controversial
•   Trey Grayson, Director of the                support for the Commission.                                                     discussions diminished the negative relationship between diversity and electoral engagement.
    Institute of Politics at Harvard             CIRCLE Director Peter Levine
    University and former Secretary              was the Principal Investigator                                               «« Only eight states (California, Georgia, Kansas, Kentucky, Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia)
    of State of Kentucky                         on all the research efforts and                                                 include social studies in their assessments of schools’ performance, usually as a very small proportion of
                                                 coordinated the Commission.                                                     the schools’ scores.
•   Eitan Hersh, Assistant Professor             Kei Kawashima-Ginsberg,
    of Political Science at Yale                 CIRCLE’s Deputy Director, had                                                «« Only ten states (Arizona, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Massachusetts, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Utah,
    University                                   primary responsibility for the                                                  and Wisconsin) require teachers of government or civics to be certified in civics or government.
                                                 research. Other key staff were:
•   Diana Hess, Senior Vice                      Surbhi Godsay, Researcher;
    President, the Spencer                       Abby Kiesa, Youth Coordinator
                                                 & Researcher; Kathy O’Connor,

10        All Together Now: Collaboration and Innovation for Youth Engagement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11
Challenges and
                                                                           Opportunities
                                                                           Every generation needs civic         Today’s young people enter         parties were more divided than
                                                                           education. Young people do           civic and political life at a      the public was.5
                                                                           not automatically acquire the        time characterized by four
                                                                           skills, knowledge, motivations,      interrelated trends, each of       Polarization contributes to
                                                                           and values necessary to              which poses special challenges     failures of governance, such
                                                                           contribute to the republic;          and opportunities:                 as repeated fiscal crises in
                                                                            they must be educated and                                              Washington, DC. The constant
                                                                             encouraged. This principle                                            controversy and struggle
                                                                              has long been recognized.
                                                                                                                1. Deep                            for advantage also lead
                                                                               The great champion of free       polarization and                   many Americans to disdain
                                                                                public education, Horace                                           politics, to mistrust their
                                                                                 Mann, wrote in 1846,
                                                                                                                ideological conflict
                                                                                 “since the achievement of
                                                                                                                We are living in a period of
                                                                                  American independence,
                                                                                                                bitter partisan and ideological
                                                                                   the universal and ever-
                                                                                                                conflict, especially in official
                                                                                    repeated argument in
                                                                                                                political settings like the              THE CHALLENGE:
                                                                                     favor of public schools
                                                                                                                U.S. Congress. Americans
                                                                                      has been that the
                                                                                                                disagree about political issues,         Civic education is especially difficult
                                                                                       general intelligence
                                                                                                                but professional politicians             when young people have good reasons
                                                                                       which they are
                                                                                                                are more polarized than the              to view politics as polarized and
                                                                                        capable of diffusing
                                                                                                                public and more polarized                dysfunctional.
                                                                                         is indispensable to
                                                                                                                than political leaders used
Young people do not automatically acquire                                                 the continuance
                                                                                                                to be. In February 2013, 76%             THE OPPORTUNITY:
                                                                                           of republican
the skills, knowledge, motivations, and values                                              government.”4
                                                                                                                of registered voters said that
                                                                                                                American politics had become             Teaching a new generation to be civil,
                                                                                             But each
necessary to contribute to the republic; they must                                            generation
                                                                                                                more divisive lately, 74%
                                                                                                                believed that this was a bad
                                                                                                                                                         responsible, and constructive citizens
                                                                                                                                                         may be part of the solution to our
                                                                                              faces unique
be educated and encouraged.                                                                    circumstances.
                                                                                                                trend, and 55% agreed that the           polarized and dysfunctional politics.

12   All Together Now: Collaboration and Innovation for Youth Engagement
Challenges and
                                                                           Opportunities
                                                                           Every generation needs civic         Today’s young people enter         parties were more divided than
                                                                           education. Young people do           civic and political life at a      the public was.5
                                                                           not automatically acquire the        time characterized by four
                                                                           skills, knowledge, motivations,      interrelated trends, each of       Polarization contributes to
                                                                           and values necessary to              which poses special challenges     failures of governance, such
                                                                           contribute to the republic;          and opportunities:                 as repeated fiscal crises in
                                                                            they must be educated and                                              Washington, DC. The constant
                                                                             encouraged. This principle                                            controversy and struggle
                                                                              has long been recognized.
                                                                                                                1. Deep                            for advantage also lead
                                                                               The great champion of free       polarization and                   many Americans to disdain
                                                                                public education, Horace                                           politics, to mistrust their
                                                                                 Mann, wrote in 1846,
                                                                                                                ideological conflict
                                                                                 “since the achievement of
                                                                                                                We are living in a period of
                                                                                  American independence,
                                                                                                                bitter partisan and ideological
                                                                                   the universal and ever-
                                                                                                                conflict, especially in official
                                                                                    repeated argument in
                                                                                                                political settings like the              THE CHALLENGE:
                                                                                     favor of public schools
                                                                                                                U.S. Congress. Americans
                                                                                      has been that the
                                                                                                                disagree about political issues,         Civic education is especially difficult
                                                                                       general intelligence
                                                                                                                but professional politicians             when young people have good reasons
                                                                                       which they are
                                                                                                                are more polarized than the              to view politics as polarized and
                                                                                        capable of diffusing
                                                                                                                public and more polarized                dysfunctional.
                                                                                         is indispensable to
                                                                                                                than political leaders used
Young people do not automatically acquire                                                 the continuance
                                                                                                                to be. In February 2013, 76%             THE OPPORTUNITY:
                                                                                           of republican
the skills, knowledge, motivations, and values                                              government.”4
                                                                                                                of registered voters said that
                                                                                                                American politics had become             Teaching a new generation to be civil,
                                                                                             But each
necessary to contribute to the republic; they must                                            generation
                                                                                                                more divisive lately, 74%
                                                                                                                believed that this was a bad
                                                                                                                                                         responsible, and constructive citizens
                                                                                                                                                         may be part of the solution to our
                                                                                              faces unique
be educated and encouraged.                                                                    circumstances.
                                                                                                                trend, and 55% agreed that the           polarized and dysfunctional politics.

12   All Together Now: Collaboration and Innovation for Youth Engagement
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