Cybercrime in Canadian Criminal Law - CARSWELL - Sara M. Smyth, LL.M., Ph. D.

 
NEXT SLIDES
Cybercrime
   in Canadian
  Criminal Law
   Sara M. Smyth, LL.M., Ph. D.
Member of the Law Society of British Columbia

       CARSWELL
Table of Contents

Preface                                                                v
Table of Cases                                                       xvii

                               PART ONE
       Introduction to Cybercrime and the Regulation of Cyberspace

Chapter 1: Introduction to Cyberspace and Cybercrime                  3
Cybercrime and the Internet                                           3
    Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA)                           5
    The Net Expands                                                   6
The Internet's Unique Layered Architecture                            9
The Anatomy of a Computer                                            11
Cyberspace and Criminal Activity                                     15
What Challenges Does Computercrime Pose for Criminal Justice?        18
   How Serious Is the Cybercrime Problem?                            19
   Why Should We be Concerned about Computercrime?                   21
Conclusion                                                           21
Questions for Further Thinking and Discussion                        22

Chapter 2: Introduction to the Regulation of Cyberspace              23
Introduction                                                         23
Cyberspace as a Unique Place                                         24
     Social Contracts in Cyberspace                                  26
    The Regulation Debate                                            28
Regulation in Cyberspace                                             31
    The Role of Government                                           31
    The Role of the Third Party                                      32
    Government Cooperation                                           33
Conclusion                                                           35
Questions for Further Thinking and Discussion                        36

                              PART TWO
                    Traditional Crime in Cyberspace

Chapter 3.identity Theft and Cyber Fraud                             39
Introduction                                                         39
What Is Fraud?                                                       40
xii / Cybercrime in Canadian Criminal Law

What Is Identity Theft?                                              43
    A Curious Tale of Mistaken Identity                              44
    Identity Theft Facts and Figures                                 45
    How Does Identity Theft Happen?                                  45
    Costs of Identity Theft                                          45
The Underground Economy                                              47
    Information Targets                                              49
Phishing                                                             50
    How Is Phishing Carried Out?                                     51
    Making the Lure Convincing                                       51
    Technical Tricks                                                 52
Pharming                                                             52
Spyware                                                              53
Keystroke Logging Software                                           53
Policy Approaches to Identity Theft                                  54
Legislation                                                          55
    Privacy Legislation                                              58
Data Breach Notification Legislation                                 59
Identity Theft Policies and Legislation in the United States         60
Conclusion                                                           62
Questions for Further Thinking and Discussion                        63

Chapter 4: Child Sexual Abuse and the Internet                       65
Introduction                                                         66
What Is Child Pornography?                                           66
     Expansion with the Internet                                     68
The Legal Definition of Child Pornography                            73
Child Pornography and Freedom of Expression                          74
R. v. Sharpe and Subsequent Legislative Initiatives                  76
Child Pornography Laws in the United States                          82
Child Pornography and Border Searches                                84
The Role of Third Parties - ISPs and Individuals                     88
     Individuals and Mandatory Child Pornography Reporting Laws in
        Canada                                                        88
     ISPs and Filtering and Blocking                                  92
The Need for International Cooperation                                93
     The Importance of International Conventions                      94
     The Need for an International Law Enforcement Network            96
Child Luring                                                          98
     The Nature of Child Luring Incidents                             98
     Child Luring and the Law in Canada                              101
     Online Sting Operations and Child Luring Cases                  102
Conclusion                                                           103
Questions for Further Thinking and Discussion                        104
Table of Contents I xiii

 Chapter 5: Bullying, Stalking and Harassment on the Internet            105
Introduction                                                             jQg
Cyber-Bullying: An Overview                                              106
The Law in Canada                                                        109
     Cyber-Bullying and Freedom of Expression                            110
     The Civil and Criminal Response to Cyber-Bullying                   110
Canadian Law and Hate Speech on the Internet                             114
The American Legal Framework                                             116
Cyber-Harassment and Cyber-Stalking                                      117
     Proving Cyber-Stalking                                              120
Internet Defamation                                                      120
Conclusion                                                               122
Questions for Further Thinking and Discussion                            122

                             PART THREE
                         Computer Misuse Crimes

Chapter 6: Viruses and Other Malicious Programs                           127
Introduction                                                             127
What Is a Virus?                                                         128
What Is a Worm?                                                          130
     The Morris Worm                                                     130
What Is a Trojan Horse?                                                  131
What Is a Rootkit?                                                       132
How Is a Malware Attack Carried Out?                                     133
     Web Attacks                                                         133
     SQL Injection Attacks                                               134
    Malicious Advertisements                                             134
    Fake Codec                                                           135
    Rogue Security Software                                              135
    Bot Networks                                                         136
Policy Responses to Malware                                              138
Conclusion                                                               139
Questions for Further Thinking and Discussion                            139

Chapter 7: Hacking and Denial of Service Attacks                          141
                                                                         l4
Introduction                                                               '
Phone Phreaking: The Precursor to Hacking                                142
The Definition of Hacking- A Form of Spying and Intrusion                143
Methods of Hacking - Digital Spying and Intrusions Explained             144
    Password Cracking                                                    '44
    Packet Sniffing and War Driving                                      144
                                                                         145
    Port Scanning
    Scareware                                                            '*"
                                                                         !46
    Spy ware and Keystroke Loggers
xiv / Cybercrime in Canadian Criminal Law

Social Engineering - The Art of the Con                             146
Hacker Subculture and Hacker Ethics                                 149
    Hacker Typologies and Hacker Motivations                        149
    The Culture of Hacking                                          151
Preventing and Managing Hacking - Regulatory and Non-Regulatory
   Measures                                                         154
Attacks Against Servers                                             156
    Denial of Service Attacks                                       156
    DoS Attacks in the Metaverse                                    157
    Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attacks                    159
Conclusions                                                         160
Questions for Further Thinking and Discussion                       160

Chapter 8: Spam in Cyberspace                                       161
Introduction                                                        161
What Is Spam?                                                       162
     Why Did Spam Proliferate?                                      163
Spam Laws in Canada                                                 166
     Canadian Jurisprudence                                         166
     Canadian Legislation                                           167
Spam Laws in the United States                                      170
     Trespass to Chattels                                           170
     The CAN-SPAM Act                                               173
Non-Legal Measures to Combat Spam                                   177
Conclusion                                                          178
Questions for Further Thinking and Discussion                       180

                              PART FOUR
Specific Problems with the Regulation and Prosecution of Cybercriminals

Chapter 9: International Jurisdiction and the Regulation of
   Cyberspace                                                       183
Introduction                                                        183
Specific Measures for Effective Inter-Jurisdictional Cooperation    184
     The Importance of International Conventions                    184
     International Law Enforcement Cooperation                      188
Conclusion                                                          189
Questions for Further Thinking and Discussion                       189

Chapter 10: Searching and Seizing Evidence in Cyberspace            191
Introduction                                                        191
The Privacy and Charter Implications of Electronic Surveillance     194
Introduction to Computer Forensic Investigations                    199
Lawful Access-The Future of Search and Seizure                      201
Lawful Access Provisions                                            203
     Requirements to Ensure Intercept Capability                    203
Table of Contents I xv

   Requirement to Provide Subscriber Information                     209
   Orders for the Preservation of Data                               211
   Orders for the Production of Data                                 213
   The Personal Information and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA)... 213
Conclusion                                                           215
Questions for Further Thinking and Discussion                        216

Chapter 11: Emerging Trends and Future Concerns                      219
Questions for Further Thinking and Discussion                        221

Glossary                                                             223
Index                                                                237
You can also read
NEXT SLIDES ... Cancel