Disaster Risk Management - Working Concept - Division 4300

Division 4300
                  Health, Education, Nutrition, Emergency Aid

Disaster Risk Management
Working Concept
Published by:
Deutsche Gesellschaft für
Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH
Dag-Hammerskjöld-Weg 1-5
P.O.Box 5180
D-65726 Eschborn
Telephone: + 49 (0) 6196-79-0
Telefax: + 49 (0) 6196-79-6170
Internet: http://www.gtz.de
Activity Area Emergency and Refugee Aid
(Section 4334)
Person responsible:
Bernd Hoffmann, GTZ
Written by:
Wolfgang Garatwa, GTZ • Dr. Christina Bollin
Special advisers:
Dr. Roland F. Steurer, GTZ • Nadira Korkor,
GTZ • Network for Development-oriented
Emergency Aid (NDEA), GTZ
Layout and editorial revision:
Nadira Korkor, GTZ
Printed by:
O.K.KOPIE GmbH, 65719 Hofheim-Wallau
                                                Deutsche Gesellschaft für
Eschborn, April 2002                            Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH
Disaster risk management is a comparatively new area of social concern and prac-
tice. However, it is a very relevant concern for development cooperation given that
natural disasters have devastated an increasing number of regions, destroyed in-
vestments and set back progress in development. Often, countries victim to the
large-scale impacts of earthquakes, tornadoes, typhoons, floods or droughts are
barely able to respond, and recovering can take years or decades. Following the
United Nations initiative for an International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction
(1990-99), this theme has climbed much higher on the international agenda. An in-
creasing number of development cooperation actors are trying to cater for more pre-
vention in their activities. And, the more vulnerable countries of the South are also
beginning to make efforts to protect their populations and national economies from
future disasters.
The link between disasters and development is now apparent to everyone, and dis-
aster risk management is gaining increasing currency as an effective form of invest-
ment. But, most developing countries are limited in their ability to effectively integrate
a strategic approach to the theme into national policy. It is the poor populations in
the disaster areas that are hardest hit by losses and setbacks.
Development cooperation supports political, economic, ecological and social develop-
ment worldwide. It helps improve living conditions and promotes sustainable de-
velopment. Natural disasters do not just pose a challenge to southern hemisphere
countries. They are also a challenge for development cooperation and therefore for
the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ): Strategies must
be developed and implemented to reduce the vulnerability of populations in partner
countries, as well as measures to decrease disaster risk.
GTZ aims to bridge the gap between the perceived challenges and the necessary
practical steps for addressing them. The present working concept provides a review
of current approaches and GTZ services in disaster risk management. Our intended
audience includes relevant professionals, national and international institutions and
organizations, and GTZ staff.
Special thanks are due to the authors, Wolfgang Garatwa and Dr. Christina Bollin,
who compiled the working concept, and other colleagues within and outside of GTZ
who provided comments and suggestions.

Bernd Hoffmann                                   Dr. Roland F. Steurer

Head of Division                                 Senior Planning Officer

April 2002


List of abbreviations.....................................................................................................6


GTZ – a service enterprise for international cooperation.........................................9

1.            Disasters – a challenge for developing countries and development
              cooperation ..................................................................................................10
1.1           Causes and effects........................................................................................12
1.2           Action needed................................................................................................14
1.3           Obstacles to implementation .........................................................................14

2.            Approach and definitions ...........................................................................16
2.1           The growing risk ............................................................................................16
2.1.1         Hazard ...........................................................................................................17
2.1.2         Vulnerability ...................................................................................................18
2.1.3         Disaster risk management.............................................................................19

3.            From disaster relief to disaster risk management ...................................20
3.1           The scope of disaster relief and the actors involved .....................................20
3.2           The international path towards integrated disaster risk management ..........21

4.            GTZ activities in disaster risk management .............................................24
4.1           The political background in the Federal Republic of Germany .....................24
4.2           Activity areas in disaster risk management...................................................25
4.2.1         Risk assessment ...........................................................................................26
4.2.2         Disaster prevention and mitigation ................................................................27
4.2.3         Disaster preparedness ..................................................................................28       Early-warning systems ................................................................................. 28
4.2.4         Disaster risk management as part of rehabilitation and reconstruction ........29
4.2.5         Mainstreaming disaster risk management in development cooperation
              sectors ...........................................................................................................31
4.2.6         Multisectoral approaches ..............................................................................31       Raising awareness ....................................................................................... 32       Strengthening local disaster risk management capabilities ......................... 33
4.3           Future challenges ..........................................................................................34

5.            GTZ services ................................................................................................35

Sources and selected references..............................................................................37

Selected internet addresses ......................................................................................41

Annex 1 – Selected GTZ reference projects in disaster risk management...........45

Annex 2 – Key terms in disaster risk management.................................................47

List of abbreviations


           AA               German Federal Foreign Office (Auswärtiges Amt)
           ADB              Asian Development Bank
           ADPC             Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre
           BID/IDB          Inter-American Development Bank (Banco
                            Interamericano de Desarrollo)
           BMELF            German Federal Ministry for Food, Agriculture and
                            Forests (Bundesministerium für Ernährung,
                            Landwirtschaft und Forsten)
           BMZ              German Federal Ministry for Economic
                            Cooperation and Development (Bundesministerium
                            für Wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und
           CEPAL/ECLAC      Economic Commission for Latin America and the
                            Caribbean (Comisión Económica para América
                            Latina y el Caribe)
           CEPREDENAC       Coordination Centre for the Prevention of Natural
                            Disasters in Central America (Centro de
                            Coordinación para la Prevención de los Desastres
                            Naturales en América Central)
           CRED             Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of
           DAC              Development Assistance Committee
           DEA              Development-oriented Emergency Aid
           DIPECHO          European Community Humanitarian Office
                            Disaster Preparedness Programme
           DKKV             German Committee for Disaster Reduction – reg.
                            soc. (Deutsches Komitee für Katastrophenvorsorge
           DSE              German Foundation for International Development
                            (Deutsche Stiftung für Internationale Entwicklung)
           ECHO             European Community Humanitarian Office
           ECLAC/CEPAL      Economic Commission for Latin America and the
                            Caribbean (Comisión Económica para América
                            Latina y el Caribe)
           EU               European Union
           FAO              Food and Agriculture Organization
           FEMID            Strengthening of Local Structures for Disaster
                            (Fortalecimiento de Estructuras Locales en la
                            Mitigación de Desastres)
           GDP              Gross domestic product
           GTZ              Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische
                            Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH

List of abbreviations

IATF      Inter-Agency Task Force for Disaster Reduction (of
IDB/BID   Inter-American Development Bank (Banco
          Interamericano de Desarrollo)
IDNDR     International Decade for Natural Disaster
IDRM      International Institute for Disaster Risk
IFRC      International Federation of Red Cross and Red
          Crescent Societies
IPCC      Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
ISDR      International Strategy for Disaster Reduction
LA RED    The Network for the Social Study of Disaster
          Prevention in Latin America (La Red de Estudios
          Sociales en Prevención des Desastres)
OAS       Organization of American States
OCHA      Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
RELSAT    Reforzamiento de Estructuras Locales y Sistemas
          de Alerta Temprana
THW       Technical Support Service (Technisches Hilfswerk)
TC        Technical Cooperation
UN        United Nations
UNDP      United Nations Development Programme
WHO       World Health Organization
WMO       World Meteorological Organization
ZENEB     Centre for Natural Risks and Development
          (Zentrum für Naturrisiken und Entwicklung



There has been an increase in the inci-           poverty alleviation (2001)1, GTZ has put to-
dence of natural disasters worldwide with         gether a service package for disaster risk
increasing loss of life and damage to prop-       management. It has identified five activity
erty. The risk of disasters can also be ex-       areas for cooperation with partner coun-
pected to rise in the future, particularly for    tries:
developing countries populations. There
                                                  •    Risk assessment
are two reasons for this trend:
                                                  •    Disaster prevention and mitigation
•   An increase in extreme natural events,        •    Disaster preparedness
    primarily due to climatic change              •    Disaster risk management as part of re-
•   Increased vulnerability of populations             habilitation and reconstruction
    to these natural events                       •    Mainstreaming disaster risk manage-
                                                       ment in development cooperation sec-
Natural disasters are closely bound up with
the development status of a region: They
disrupt or impair development and, at the         In addition to this, two multisectoral strate-
same time, a low level of development in-         gies are described for supporting measures
creases the chances of them occurring.            in disaster risk management. Firstly, we
Supported in part by bilateral and multilat-      outline ways of raising awareness amongst
eral donors, many countries are stepping          endangered populations and policymakers
up their efforts to prevent disaster. The idea    as a precondition for sustainable efforts in
is that effective precautions will avert future   disaster risk management. Secondly, we
disasters or at least mitigate them. This in      discuss the role of local resources for dis-
turn will help stabilize development in part-     aster risk management and the practical
ner countries. We can lower disaster risk by      experience gained. The working concept
containing the hazards and reducing vul-          concludes with a summary of GTZ services
nerability. The general economic and social       for disaster risk management.
conditions in a country are a major determi-
nant for both factors. All measures must
therefore be assimilated into the 'normal'
institutional, regional and sectoral develop-
ment strategies employed in threatened re-

Mainstreaming this issue in development
cooperation sectors is a major challenge.
Cooperation with projects for decentraliza-
tion and/or community development, rural
development, environmental protection and
resource conservation, housing, health and
education are of particular importance.

Based on the German Federal Govern-
ment's policy papers on BMZ emergency-            1
                                                      BMZ, Poverty Reduction – a Global Responsibility:
oriented development aid (1996) and global            Program of Action 2015. The German Govern-
                                                      ment's Contribution Towards Halving Extreme Pov-
                                                      erty Worldwide, Bonn 2001.

GTZ – a service enterprise for international cooperation

GTZ – a service enterprise for international cooperation

The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische                    age can be averted by preventive meas-
Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH is a gov-                         ures, so approaches, instruments and meas-
ernment-owned corporation for international                 ures have been developed to manage con-
cooperation with worldwide operations. Its                  flicts and prevent crises and disasters.
development-policy mandate is to help im-
prove the standard of living and prospects                  Both the international community and part-
of people in partner countries all over the                 ner governments are attaching increasing
world, whilst stabilising the natural resource              importance to disaster risk management.
base on which life depends. GTZ is respon-                  The measures developed for disaster risk
sible for designing, planning and imple-                    management are designed to supplement
menting programmes and projects in part-                    existing sectors of development coopera-
ner countries oriented by the German Gov-                   tion. Comprehensive approaches are adopted
ernment’s development-policy guidelines                     that aim to reduce the disaster risk associ-
and objectives. The GTZ’s main commis-                      ated with potentially highly destructive
sioning body is the German Government                       natural events. This is designed to make
through the Federal Ministry for Economic                   development more sustainable.
Cooperation and Development (BMZ) and
                                                            The present document is a working concept
other ministries such as the Federal For-
                                                            for disaster risk management. It outlines
eign Office. Other clients of GTZ include the
                                                            some project case studies and presents
European Commission, UN organizations,
                                                            GTZ services in this field.
the World Bank and regional development
banks. Increasingly, foreign governments or
                                                            The first chapter contains a description of
institutions also directly commission GTZ
                                                            the situation in developing countries and
                                                            the rationale for addressing this theme. The
                                                            second chapter deals with the underlying
Technical Cooperation is playing a growing
                                                            policy approach and the specific cause-ef-
role in strengthening the capabilities of both
                                                            fect matrix.
people and organizations in partner coun-
tries. In achieving this, the institution is itself
                                                            The ongoing paradigm shift towards focus-
changing in the process. In the past, an-
                                                            ing emergency aid intervention on disaster
swers were found to clearly delineated
                                                            risk management is outlined in the third
problems. But, today’s intricate and com-
plex issues call for more sophisticated ap-
proach Sustaining improvements in peo-                      In Chapter 4 we identify the link between
ple’s living conditions in our partner coun-                German development cooperation and dis-
tries in the long term crucially depends on                 aster risk management and describe the
the political, economic and social frame-                   specific operational areas of a comprehen-
works in place.                                             sive approach. The fifth chapter summa-
                                                            rizes the specific services GTZ provides in
Where crises, conflicts or disasters create
                                                            this operational area, outlining GTZ's ser-
acute needs that threaten survival, GTZ
                                                            vice delivery profile. Reference projects are
provides development-oriented emergency
                                                            listed in annex 1.
aid (DEA). It has become increasingly ap-
parent in recent years that loss and dam-

1. Disasters – a challenge for developing countries and development cooperation

1. Disasters – a challenge for developing countries
          and development cooperation

A number of well documented studies show                            List of some disasters from 1998 to
that there has been a significant increase in                       2001:
natural disasters2 over the last decade.                            •   The three-months of flooding in Bangladesh
                                                                        and India in the summer of 1998 left more
                                                                        than 4,700 dead and 66 million homeless,
                  Total number of reported natural
                disasters worldwide from 1966-2000                      destroyed 1.2 million buildings and indirectly
                                                                        caused several hundred deaths due to
                                                                    •   At the end of October 1998 Hurricane Mitch
    800                                                                 in Central America claimed a death toll of
                                                                        more than 9,000 with almost 13,000 injured
                                                                        and it left 2 million homeless. Altogether
     0                                                                  11% of the total population was affected.
          1966-70 1971-75 1976-80 1981-85 1986-90 1991-95 1996-00
                                                                        The total damage came to over US$ 7
Fig. 1: Number of natural disasters worldwide from                      billion.
1966 to 2000.
Source: CRED, University of Louvain, Belgium 2001.
                                                                    •   In August 1999, the earthquake in north-
                                                                        western Turkey claimed over 17,000 lives
There are also many small-scale, local                                  with 44,000 injured. In November 1999, the
                                                                        same region was hit by another earthquake.
disasters that are not recorded in official
                                                                        The two earthquakes are estimated to have
statistics.3 Even more pronounced than the                              destroyed or badly damaged a total of
increase in the numbers of disaster events                              400,000 buildings.
is the magnitude of the physical damage                             •   Heavy rains in Venezuela in December
caused and particularly the loss of human                               1999 caused floods and landslides that
life.                                                                   destroyed more than 23,000 houses. This
                                                                        disaster caused the death of about 30,000
Natural disasters are caused by extreme                                 people.
occurrences in nature for which society is                          •   Since the end of 1999, Kenya has been
unprepared. They destroy the basic condi-                               suffering from the worst drought in 40 years.
tions of life for the victims, who lack the re-                         This drought, which reached its worst point
                                                                        in July 2000, affected over 4 million people.
sources to recover in the short or medium
                                                                        For several months more than 3 million had
term. Disasters often have a very significant                           to rely on external food aid.
detrimental impact on past development
                                                                    •   At the beginning of 2000 over 650,000 peo-
efforts.                                                                ple were made homeless by 2 cyclones and
                                                                        flooding in Southern Africa. Mozambique
                                                                        was particularly hard hit by this disaster.
                                                                        Over 2 million people in this country suf-
2                                                                       fered in the aftermath.
     The present paper concentrates on so-called natu-
     ral disasters that have to do with natural events              •   Two severe earthquakes that shook El
     such as earthquakes, hurricanes or tornadoes. We
     leave aside technological disasters that are often
                                                                        Salvador in January and February 2001
     caused by people taking inadequate safety precau-                  took a toll of more than a thousand lives. In
     tions, such as reactor accidents, and the disastrous               the hardest hit Department, La Paz, 90% of
     impacts of political-military conflicts (cf. Eikenberg,
     C., Journalisten-Handbuch zum Katastrophenma-                      the houses in urban and rural areas were
     nagement 2000, Typologie von Katastrophen,                         damaged or destroyed. Material loss
     DKKV, Bonn 2000, p. 6-7).
3                                                                       amounted to US$ 1.3 billion.
     Cf. BMZ, Entwicklungspolitik zur Vorbeugung und
     Bewältigung von Katastrophen und Konflikten, BMZ
     spezial 082, Bonn 1997, p. 9.

1. Disasters – a challenge for developing countries and development cooperation

A vast majority of natural disasters occur in                                              Material damage in high, medium and low
                                                                                          human developed countries from 1991-2000
emerging economies (medium human de-
veloped) and developing countries (low                                                                                      329.615
human developed).4

           Natural disasters in high, medium and low                                                   Total material loss in US$ millions
          human developed countries from 1991-2000
                                                                                  High human developed countries    Medium and low developed countries

1.500                                                                         Fig. 4: Material damage in high, medium and low hu-
                                                                              man developed countries from 1991-2000.
                                                                              Source: IFRC, World Disasters Report 2001, Geneva
                          Number of natural disasters
                                                                              If, however, we compare the size of the
    High human developed countries      Medium and low developed countries
                                                                              damage caused with gross domestic prod-
Fig. 2: Natural disasters in high, medium and low                             uct (GDP), the ratio shifts substantially.
human developed countries from 1991-2000.                                     Take the following comparison as an ex-
Source: IFRC, World Disasters Report 2001, Geneva
                                                                              ample: The colossal earthquake that de-
                                                                              stroyed the Japanese town Kobe on 17
The loss of life in the emerging and devel-                                   January 1995 caused damages totalling
oping countries is also much higher than in                                   US$ 100 billion (see Fig. 5). This amounted
the industrialized countries.                                                 to approximately 2% of Japanese GDP in
                                                                              the same year.
              Loss of life in high, medium and low human
                 developed countries from 1991-2000
                                                                              In contrast, a study5 put the US$ 1,255 mil-
800.000                                                                       lion in total damages after the earthquake
                                                                              in El Salvador at the beginning of 2001 at
                                                                              about 10% of national GDP (as much as
                                                                              20%-35% in most of the departments af-
                                                                              fected). World Bank figures for small island
                                                                              states indicate an even heavier burden: In
                                      Number of deaths
                                                                              the state of Niue in the South Pacific cy-
     High human developed countries      Medium and low developed countries   clone Ofa in 1990 caused damage to gov-
                                                                              ernment and administrative buildings worth
Fig. 3: Loss of life in high, medium and low human de-                        US$ 4 million, which made up 40% of
veloped countries from 1991-2000.
Source: IFRC, World Disasters Report 2001, Geneva
                                                                              A comparison between Venezuela and
In absolute figures, however, the material                                    France gives us a similar picture: Land-
damage in industrialized countries (high                                      slides in Venezuela and severe storms in
human developed) is greater.                                                  France in December 1999 caused similar
                                                                              economic losses in both countries – about
                                                                              US$ 10 billion. The death toll in France was

                                                                                   Cf. CEPAL/BID, El terremoto del 13 de enero de
                                                                                   2001 en El Salvador. Impacto socioeconómico y
      We use the definitions of UNDP. They categorize                              ambiental. Naciones Unidas, LC/MEX/L.457, 2001.
      countries according to their level of human devel-                           Cf. World Bank, Managing Disaster Risk in
      opment. See also, UNDP, Human Development                                    Emerging Economies, Disaster Risk Management
      Report 2001, New York, Oxford 2001.                                          Series No. 2, Washington 2000, p. 13-14.

1. Disasters – a challenge for developing countries and development cooperation

123. In Venezuela, however, it amounted to                                       people living in these regions. The com-
30,000. Venezuela will take years to re-                                         paratively low level of development, as evi-
cover from the aftermath, whereas France                                         dent in the fragile infrastructure, the poor
was quick to get over the worst hanks to                                         building fabric of housing, the vulnerability
effective public and private system of dis-                                      of productive activities, the low level of po-
aster management and damage sharing.7                                            litical and social organization and the ab-
                                                                                 sence of warning systems, makes them
              Loss of life and material damage worldwide                         more vulnerable to natural disasters.
             after natural disasters between 1990 and 1999
  Damage in Mio.US                                              People killed
250.000                                                               200.000
                                                                                 The doubling of the world population since
                   *                            **
200.000                                                                          1950 to more than 6 billion and its impact
150.000                                                                          on settlement patterns and natural re-
100.000                                                                          sources also makes itself particularly felt in
    50.000                                                                       the developing countries. Moreover, the
        0                                               0
        1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
                                                                                 rapid rise in world population has not just
                       Total amount of estimated damage in mio. US $             caused a drastic increase in the density of
                       Total amount of people killed
                                                                                 settlements; it has also altered their distri-
Fig. 5: Loss of life and material damage worldwide                               bution pattern and land use. There is, for
after natural disasters between 1990 and 1999.
                                                                                 example, a growing migratory trend towards
Source: IFRC, World Disasters Report 2001, Geneva
2001.                                                                            valleys and slopes under threat of flooding,
* The year 1991 claimed a particularly high number of deaths.                    land-slides and earthquakes, particularly on
The floods in Bangladesh alone left about 139,000 people
dead.                                                                            the outskirts of large and medium-sized
** 1995 was the year with the heaviest material damage. The
big earthquake in Kobe, Japan, alone caused losses worth                         conurbations. These are growing too fast
about US$ 100 billion.
                                                                                 for the requisite planning and building
                                                                                 regulations to be drafted and supervised.
It is no coincidence that 95% of the deaths
                                                                                 Modernization without the necessary safety
caused by natural disasters in 1998 were in
                                                                                 precautions (e.g. when building bridges) in-
developing countries.8 The vulnerability of
                                                                                 creases the vulnerability to and risk of ad-
these countries is much higher than in the
                                                                                 verse impacts resulting from a natural
industrialized nations. We shall look at the
reasons for this in the following section.

                                                                                 Finally, another cause of the increase in
1.1           Causes and effects
                                                                                 natural disasters is the widespread human
Due to their geographical location devel-                                        intervention in the climatic system9 and in
oping countries are particularly exposed to                                      the equilibrium of fragile ecosystems (forest
extreme natural phenomena. Storms, heavy                                         clearance, soil erosion, single cropping
rains and landslides are more frequent and                                       practices).
severe in the subtropical and tropical re-
                                                                                 Natural disasters have direct and indirect
gions of the South. Hydrometeorological,
                                                                                 effects on developing countries. First, dur-
seismic, volcanic and other natural events
pose a permanent ongoing threat to the
                                                                                     The scientific findings of the IPCC report show
                                                                                     clearly that the rise in global temperatures correlate
7                                                                                    with the increase in greenhouse gas emissions.
      Cf. World Bank, Managing Risk, A Special Report                                The inference in this connection is that human
      on Disaster Risk Management, ProVention Con-                                   activities exert an influence on the global climate
      sortium, undated, p.2.                                                         (cf. IPCC, Third Assessment Report – Climate
      Cf. CEPAL/BID, Un Tema del Desarrollo: La Re-                                  Change 2001, http://www.ipcc.ch/). To date, how-
      ducción de la Vulnerabilidad Frente a los Desas-                               ever, there is no scientific proof that this is the
      tres, LC/MEX/L.428, no loc. 2000.                                              cause of climate change.

1. Disasters – a challenge for developing countries and development cooperation

ing and after a disaster people lose their              large-scale assets (e.g. infrastructure, in-
homes, their belongings, the very basis of              dustrial plant, technology). Unlike the de-
their livelihood. The poorer population is              veloping countries, material losses far out-
much harder hit than the middle and upper               weigh human loss. Also, population and
classes because their vulnerability is far              governments have the capacity to make
greater. This is due to social, economic and            good these losses, at least in the medium
political factors. The poorest people often             term. Most are insured and part of the costs
have nothing left with which to resume their            of rebuilding and rehabilitation are borne by
daily battle for survival. It is very difficult for     the insurance firms. Nor does local and na-
them to recover from the losses they have               tional economic stability depend on a few
suffered and many migrate elsewhere in                  marketable products. This signifies far
the hope of finding better conditions of life.          lower levels of economic vulnerability.

Then, the direct losses in productive sec-              The figure below illustrates the different
tors are followed by indirect impacts. In the           medium-term economic effects of disasters,
largely agrarian economies the production               taking capital formation as a benchmark.
losses lead to the dismissal or unemploy-
ment of day labourers. The loss of jobs re-                            Impact of disasters on capital formation in
                                                                              smaller national economies
duces income and curbs spending power in
families that already live under very pre-
carious conditions. This in turn affects trade
                                                         Formation of Capital

and transportation as well as other ser-
vices. Finally, losses can occur in the finan-
cial sector and even result in economic
collapse if deposits and large amounts of
savings are withdrawn. Disasters thus im-
poverish the population further, and in-
crease their vulnerability. A vicious circle of
vulnerability to more frequent extreme natu-
ral events is established.                                                      *      Disaster

                                                                                       Developing countries

The international community often provides                                             Industrialized countries

assistance for reconstruction but this is a
huge burden on the economy. Since eco-                  Fig. 6: Impact of disasters on capital formation in
nomic rationale demands that destroyed                  smaller national economies.
                                                        Source: ECLAC/IDB, La reducción de la vulnerabilidad
infrastructure are restored first, little funding       frente a los desastres: Una cuestion de desarrollo,
is left for years to pursue coherent devel-             presentation at IDB anual meeting in March 2000, New
                                                        Orleans 2000.
opment strategies. Disasters often have a
destabilizing political impact as well given            The disaster itself causes disruption to eco-
the worsening situation of large sectors of             nomic development, which is overcompen-
the population in the medium and long                   sated at first by the rapid provision of addi-
term.                                                   tional capital. After the additional funds for
                                                        emergency aid and reconstruction have
In the industrialized nations, the damage               been consumed, the local economy has to
caused by extreme natural events is also                cope with the remaining adverse effects on
on the increase. This increase may be ex-               its own. While the industrialized countries
plained in good part by the higher density of

1. Disasters – a challenge for developing countries and development cooperation

manage this relatively quickly, in the devel-           health and education, for example). These
oping countries the disaster depletes capi-             sectors are either heavily affected by dis-
tal formation for a long time.                          asters and their consequences and/or strive
                                                        to reduce the vulnerability of the population
1.2       Action needed                                 with the aim of promoting sustainable de-
                                                        velopment. "Development can only be
As we showed in the previous section, vul-
                                                        sustained if it enables a society to prevent
nerability to extreme natural events com-
                                                        or cope with disasters."12
prises various factors that bear a close re-
lation to the development of a country or               Most developing countries are still a long
region. These provide a number of starting              way from assimilating disaster risk man-
points for bilateral and international devel-           agement in national development strategy,
opment cooperation.                                     despite the verifiable economic costs of
                                                        disasters and the demand for effective dis-
In many development cooperation projects
                                                        aster risk management voiced at the na-
and programmes efforts are underway to
                                                        tional and international level for years. The
reduce development constraints and short-
                                                        United States Geological Survey estimates
comings. This implicitly translates into low-
                                                        that investing US$ 40 billion worldwide in
ered vulnerability in developing countries.
                                                        preventive measures in the 90s would have
Nevertheless, as BMZ points out, "the con-
                                                        reduced economic loss through disasters
nections between poverty and vulnerability
                                                        by US$ 280 billion.13 With the help of a cost-
are quite complex" and "not every kind of
                                                        benefit analysis for eight towns in Argentina
development effort in areas threatened by
                                                        the World Bank also worked out that in-
disaster qualifies as disaster prevention".10
                                                        vestments of US$ 153 million in flood pre-
                                                        vention would have been more than offset
On the other hand, as the term itself im-
                                                        by an estimated saving of US$ 187 mil-
plies, disaster risk management is fre-
quently aimed at finding practical remedies
for current problems. There is need here for
                                                        1.3      Obstacles to implementation
a wider vision to include the systematic re-
duction of hazards and vulnerability. This              There are many different reasons why gov-
means extending the mandate beyond                      ernments are reticent as regards disaster
emergency assistance. "Assistance in dis-               risk management. However, these are com-
asters and conflicts and the related preven-            pounded by the following difficulties found
tive measures (development-oriented emer-               in mainstreaming disaster risk management
gency aid) cannot properly be treated as an             in development strategy:
isolated field of activity; it must be as-
similated into development cooperation as               •     Preventive measures are seen by gov-
an integral component."11                                     ernment and the private sector as cost

GTZ's concern is to mainstream this theme               12
                                                             Plate, E., Merz, B. and Eikenberg, C., Naturkatas-
in other sectoral projects and programmes                    trophen – Strategien zur Vorsorge und Bewäl-
(in decentralization and rural development,                  tigung, Bericht des Deutschen IDNDR-Komitees
                                                             zum Ende der "International Decade for Natural Di-
                                                             saster Reduction", Deutsche IDNDR-Reihe 16,
                                                             Bonn 1999, p. 16.
10                                                      13
     Cf. BMZ, Entwicklungspolitik zur Vorbeugung und         Cf. IFRC, World Disasters Report 2001, Focus on
     Bewältigung von Katastrophen und Konflikten, BMZ        Recovery, Geneva 2001, p. 12.
     spezial 082, Bonn 1997, p. 4.                      14
                                                             Weltbank, Weltentwicklungsbericht 2000/2001 –
     Cf. ibidem, p. 17.                                      Bekämpfung der Armut, Bonn 2001, p. 212.

1. Disasters – a challenge for developing countries and development cooperation

    factors and not as profitable invest-
    ments. On the other hand, external aid
    supplies and reconstruction measures
    expected in the event of a disaster are
    mostly cost-free transfers.

•   Pure emergency measures taken after
    disasters are spectacular. And it is eas-
    ier to make political capital out of them
    than out of disaster risk management.

•   Donors are still more prone to react with
    reconstruction models rather than with
    preventive action.

•   Expanding infrastructure is often a way
    of attracting votes during elections.
    When implementing these measures,
    however, construction quality standards
    that are important for disaster risk re-
    duction are often neglected (e.g. streets
    without drainage systems).

•   Uncertainty as to whether an extreme
    natural event is actually going to occur
    often deters decision makers from in-
    vesting scant existing funds in risk-re-
    duction measures. In addition, many
    disaster risk management technologies
    are still too costly and sometimes too
    complicated to be easily applied by
    poorly equipped and funded organiza-
    tions and populations.

•   Some well-established local political
    and economic institutions hamper dis-
    aster risk management (land law and
    land distribution, for instance). Reforms
    meet with strong opposition from all
    kinds of pressure groups.

2. Approach and definitions

2. Approach and definitions

Extreme natural events can become disas-             taking place over months and even years,
ters if people are affected directly or indi-        the causes are more complex and it is often
rectly. At present, the term disaster is not         only possible to identify the effects in-
used to mean only one thing; the definition          directly.
of the term can differ greatly depending on
the standpoint (e.g. victim, insurer or scien-       However, not every extreme natural event
tist) and the cultural setting.                      is a disaster. A volcanic eruption in an un-
                                                     occupied area is a natural event but not a
Nevertheless, in all definitions, there are          disaster. Floods can also have many bene-
two common elements: one, the extent of              ficial effects – the soil is supplied with fresh
damage and loss, which is considered to be           nutrients and made more fertile again, re-
very high, and two, the inability of the peo-        sulting in higher yields. So, disasters al-
ple, regions or countries affected to cope in        ways have adverse impacts but specific
the short or medium term on their own.               approaches to them must cater for the dual
                                                     nature of such events, i.e. disaster risk
Under the auspices of the International              management searches to maintain the
Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) an            positive impacts while reducing the adverse
updated glossary was issued in May 2001,             consequences of extreme natural events.
which marks a major step forward in stan-
dardizing terms in disaster risk manage-             2.1    The growing risk
                                                     In many regions of the world the threat of
GTZ's disaster risk management strategy is           natural events such as volcanic eruptions,
based on the United Nations' definition of           earthquakes and tsunamis, hurricanes and
disaster.                                            tornadoes extreme rainfall, droughts or for-
                                                     est fires are permanently present. People
Definition of 'disaster'                             living in these regions are exposed to these
"A serious disruption of the functioning of soci-    natural hazards, but they may be able to
ety, causing widespread human, material or en-
                                                     prevent them having grave consequences
vironmental losses which exceed the ability of
                                                     (e.g. earthquake-resistant building, a dyke
affected society to cope using only its own re-
sources."16                                          or a good insurance policy). People who
                                                     are unable to protect themselves sufficiently
This notion of disaster draws a distinction          against the adverse effects of a natural
between sudden and slow onset disasters.             event are particularly 'vulnerable' to disas-
Amongst natural disasters extreme droughts           ter.
are the only ones that are slow onset by
nature. The causes and effects of a drought          The disaster risk (of a region, a family, or
disaster are far more difficult to ascertain         a person) is therefore made up of two ele-
than sudden natural events such as                   ments: hazard and vulnerability.
earthquakes, tsunamis or landslides. Due
to the gradual nature of the process, often

     ISDR, Updated and Expanded Terminology on Di-
     saster Reduction, Geneva 2001.
     Cf. ibidem, p. 24.

2. Approach and definitions

                                                        ing vulnerability, i.e. the possible repercus-
      Hazard                       Vulnerability
                                                        sions in the event a natural phenomenon
                                                        should occur.

                                                        2.1.1 Hazard

                  Disaster risk                         Hazards are extreme natural events with a
                                                        certain degree of probability of having ad-
                                                        verse consequences. A distinction also needs
                                                        to be drawn between a real natural hazard
                                                        and a socio-natural hazard. Given the com-
                                                        plex set of influences this distinction is
                    Disaster                            difficult to make, but it is useful in helping
                                                        define disaster risk management measures.

                                                        Whereas with truly natural phenomena
Fig. 7: Components of disaster risk.
Source: GTZ, Eschborn 2001.                             people exert no influence as regards their
                                                        occurrence, socio-natural hazards are in-
The following formula is used to calculate              duced or aggravated by a combination of
disaster risk:                                          extreme natural events and human inter-
                                                        ventions in nature. Only a few hazards,
                 Disaster Risk =
                                                        earthquakes for example, occur as purely
           Hazard x Vulnerability17                     natural phenomena; most others, such as
                                                        forest fires, floods and landslides, can come
In this equation risk is the product of the             about with and without human intervention.
two factors, hazard and vulnerability. There-
fore, it is clear that a risk exists only if there      Some examples of extreme natural events
is vulnerability to the hazard posed by a               are listed and classified in the following
natural event. For instance, a family living in         box.
a highly earthquake-resistant house would
                                                        List of natural hazards18
not be vulnerable to an earthquake of 6 on
                                                         Volcanic eruptions                     ♦
the Richter scale. So, they would not be at                                                     ♦
                                                         Earthquakes and seaquakes
risk. If the hazard approaches zero, be-                 Floods                                 ♦       X
cause, for example, buildings have been                  Droughts                               ♦       X
constructed in areas far away from conti-                Storms                                 ♦
nental plate subduction zones and tectonic               Hurricanes and tornadoes               ♦
faults, a house built with minimum precau-               Forest fires                           ♦       X
                                                         Landslides                             ♦       X
tions will be a safe place for the family, be-
                                                         Avalanches                             ♦       X
cause they would only be vulnerable to very
                                                         Heat and cold waves                    ♦
extreme events.
                                                         Tsunamis                               ♦

Risk identification starts with identifying the         ♦      Hazard posed by pure natural phenomena
                                                        X      Hazard also due to human intervention
hazard and then assesses the correspond-

17                                                      18
     Cf. amongst others Wilches-Chaux, Gustavo, Auge,        This list does not claim to be complete. See also
     Caída y Levantada de Felipe Pinillo, Mecánico y         the typology in Eikenberg, C., Journalisten-Hand-
     Soldador o Yo Voy a Correr el Riesgo, LA RED,           buch zum Katastrophenmanagement 2000, Bonn
     Peru 1998, p. 142.                                      2000, p. 6-7.

2. Approach and definitions

Hazards can be narrowly confined to a lo-                  mented (regional development and land
cality or threaten entire regions. So a haz-               use planning, building regulations).
ard is a variable whose intensity and prob-
                                                       •   The personnel and financial resources
ability can differ by place. This has a con-
                                                           available for disaster risk management
siderable influence on the levels of possible
                                                           and preparedness are inadequate.
                                                       •   Roles are not properly or clearly as-
                                                           signed and there is a lack of coordina-
                                                           tion in and amongst the responsible in-
                                                           stitutions (including centralism: insuffi-
                                                           cient power for local actors).

                                                       •   The political culture is conducive to
                                                           vested interests and corruption, which
                                                           hampers consistent disaster risk man-
                                                           agement (e.g. in the building trade) and
                                                           effective disaster preparedness.
Fig. 8: Aftermath of Hurricane Mitch: roof of a clay   •   Democratic institutions are underdevel-
house in mud following floods, Honduras 1998.
                                                           oped: The low level of participation of
To be able to reduce hazards or prepare for                the population in democratic processes
them, we have to ascertain their potential.                diminishes their self-help capabilities.
To a certain extent, it is possible to obtain          •   Mechanisms and instruments for spread-
quite a full picture of possible hazards from              ing financial risks are lacking or in-
the history of past events. To exactly iden-               adequate (e.g. disaster funds, insur-
tify the possible size of the hazard, how-                 ance).
ever, this information must be supple-
                                                       •   A culture of prevention is obstructed or
mented by professional assistance and
                                                           insufficiently promoted.
modern technology.

                                                       Economic factors
2.1.2 Vulnerability
                                                       •   Governmental financial resources are
Vulnerability denotes the inadequate means                 insufficient for disaster risk manage-
or ability to protect oneself against the ad-              ment (e.g. for flood protection infra-
verse impacts of natural events and, on the                structure).
other hand, to recover quickly from their
                                                       •   Poverty in general limits the self-help
                                                           capabilities of large parts of the popula-
Vulnerability comprises very diverse, often                tion, although very effective traditional
mutually reciprocal, factors that have to be               mechanisms to cope with disasters still
taken into account to determine the vulner-                exist in many regions. Poverty increas-
ability of a family, a village or a country. The           ingly compels people to settle in en-
main vulnerability factors are summarized                  dangered areas (on riverbanks and
below:                                                     steep slopes, in gulleys or ravines or on
                                                           the slopes of volcanoes). Partly through
Political-institutional factors                            environmental degradation (e.g. unoffi-
                                                           cial garbage dumps or slash-and-burn
•    Legislation is lacking, is not commensu-
     rate with the hazard or is not imple-

2. Approach and definitions

    clearance), poor people often contribute      help reduce poverty, facilitate the applica-
    to their own higher disaster risk.            tion of appropriate production methods and
                                                  raise organizational abilities. This in turn
•   The economies depend on a few prod-
                                                  can motivate people for prevention, thus
    ucts (low level of diversification) and the
                                                  generating a positive influence on the politi-
    danger is particularly great if these
                                                  cal factors through greater participation.
    sectors are vulnerable to disaster (e.g.
                                                  2.1.3   Disaster risk management
•   Not enough account is taken of the
    influence of economic activities on dis-      Technical Cooperation defines disaster
    aster risk (e.g. consumption of natural       risk management as a series of actions
    resources).                                   (programmes, projects and/or measures)
                                                  and instruments expressly aimed at re-
Sociocultural factors                             ducing disaster risk in endangered re-
                                                  gions, and mitigating the extent of disas-
•   Due to poor education and insufficient
    knowledge of the cause-effect matrix,
    people are less able to respond appro-
                                                  Disaster risk management includes risk as-
    priately in a changing environment.
                                                  sessment, disaster prevention and mitiga-
                                                  tion and disaster preparedness. It is used in
•   Fatalism is widespread as a conse-
                                                  the international debate to underscore the
    quence of the belief that natural disas-
                                                  current trend of taking a proactive approach
    ters are willed by God and are therefore
                                                  to hazards posed by extreme natural phe-
                                                  nomena. The intention is a comprehensive
•   The tradition of slash-and-burn clear-        reduction in disaster risk accounting for all
    ance or the application of out-dated          the factors that contribute to risk (risk man-
    production methods can result in              agement), as opposed to a focus on each
    greater vulnerability for people and their    individual danger.
    property. On the other hand it may re-
    sult in greater hazard due to the ad-
    verse impact on the natural environ-
    ment (e.g. erosion through deforesta-

•   The population is not prepared to en-
    gage in mutual support schemes and
    organize themselves in order to negoti-
    ate competing interests in the search
    for greater levels of general welfare.

These political, economic and cultural fac-
tors are interconnected in a complex way.
They have a reciprocal relationship and of-
ten compound each other. Progress in indi-
vidual aspects, therefore, may well also
have a positive effect on other vulnerability
factors. A general improvement in school
education, for instance, can be expected to

3. From disaster relief to disaster risk management

3. From disaster relief to disaster risk management

The notion of a continuum of crises and                         Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
disasters, as coined by the UN, conveys the                     (OCHA),
idea that the phases of emergency aid, re-
                                                         •      the European Union (EU) with its spe-
habilitation, reconstruction and the resump-
                                                                cialized ECHO office and
tion of development are concurrent but
nevertheless interconnected. From this                   •      non-governmental organizations, such
standpoint, they must be viewed as an in-                       as the well renowned International
teractive process.19 Until a few years ago,                     Federation of Red Cross and Red
disaster relief was a major intervention area                   Crescent Societies (IFRC).
whenever sudden events disrupted the
                                                         The main responsibility remains, however,
functioning of society and overstretched
                                                         with the government and civil society of the
available self-help capabilities. Due to the
                                                         affected country. However, developing coun-
close link between disasters, development
                                                         tries in particular are usually incapable of
and development cooperation an increasing
                                                         coping with the magnitude of the financial
number of national and international actors
                                                         and technical-organizational tasks. As a
are calling for the introduction of disaster
                                                         rule, state institutions in these countries
prevention measures in development plan-
                                                         lack sufficient technical equipment and they
ning, and the establishment of national
                                                         do not have the same organizational capa-
systems for comprehensive disaster risk
                                                         bilities as institutions in industrialized coun-
management. Kofi Annan, the Secretary
General of the United Nations, has also ex-
pressly demanded a paradigm shift from
                                                         Due to the existence of many national and
the prevalent 'culture of reaction' to a 'cul-
                                                         multilateral institutions as well as the rapid
ture of prevention'.20
                                                         growth in the number of small non-govern-
                                                         mental organizations, it is difficult to keep
3.1      The scope of disaster relief and
                                                         track of all of the actors involved. For this
         the actors involved
                                                         reason it is very difficult to arrive at exact
The main organizations and institutions in-              figures as regards the financial scope of
volved with disaster relief (humanitarian aid            disaster relief. Another problem is that the
in the phase of emergency assistance and                 phases of emergency aid, reconstruction
reconstruction) are:                                     and the resumption of development coop-
                                                         eration are often hard to demarcate such
•      Friendly governments which proffer                that it turns out to be very difficult to exactly
       their help immediately,                           allocate costs for each phase. However, it
                                                         can be clearly established that the share of
•      the various suborganizations of the
                                                         emergency and disaster relief in total public
       UN, particularly the UN Office for the
                                                         development cooperation spending by the

     See EU, Communication from the Commission to
     the Council and the European Parliament – Linking   21
                                                              Aside from the public agencies, the health services,
     Relief, Rehabilitation and Development – An as-          police and fire departments in Germany the techni-
     sessment, COM (2001) 153 final, 2001.                    cal relief organization (THW) for example is a
     Annan, K., Facing the Humanitarian Challenge. To-        leading actor when it comes to rapid response to
     wards a Culture of Prevention, Report on Work of         disasters. The THW does not confine its relief op-
     Organization, New York 1999.                             erations to Germany; it also engages abroad.

3. From disaster relief to disaster risk management

OECD countries in the 90s was much                           United Nations Conference on Natural Dis-
higher than in the 80s.22                                    aster Reduction celebrated in Yokohama in
                                                             1994.24 In the Yokohama Declaration,
3.2      The international path towards                      disaster prevention, mitigation, prepared-
         integrated disaster risk man-                       ness and relief were specified as the basis
         agement                                             for a sustainable development policy.

The United Nations International Decade                      In December 1999 the United Nations
for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR),                      General Assembly adopted a resolution
which ended in 1999, made a major contri-                    (No. 54/219) on actions to be taken follow-
bution to raising international community                    ing the end of the International Decade for
awareness of the need to move from reac-                     Natural Disaster Reduction. Since then, the
tive measures towards integrated disaster                    issue has been followed up in an Interna-
risk management. The decade was inaugu-                      tional Strategy for Disaster Reduction
rated in 1989 by the General Assembly of                     (ISDR), whose organization (IATF secre-
the United Nations with the overall goal of                  tariat and task force) is to concentrate on
mitigating the adverse consequences of                       raising political awareness, assisting re-
disasters, particularly in developing coun-                  gional networks and stepping up scientific
tries (Resolution 44/236). A secretariat un-                 research.
der OCHA was established to coordinate
IDNDR activities. The IDNDR initiative also                  Between 1989 and 1999 other major UN
prompted the establishment of national                       international conferences took place that
committees for disaster risk management.                     highlighted the interdependence between
In Germany the IDNDR committee was ap-                       disaster risk management and other global
pointed in 1989 and renamed German                           challenges facing the international commu-
Committee for Disaster Reduction – DKKV                      nity. Of particular note here are the summits
(reg. soc.) once the decade expired in                       in Rio de Janeiro (1992) and Kyoto (1997)
1999. The committee focuses on combining                     on environment and development. In Rio de
activities in science and practice, innovation               Janeiro, Agenda 21 was adopted. With re-
development and know-how transfer, social                    gard to disaster risk management, Agenda
dialogue and raising public awareness, as                    21 points in particular to the threat of sea
well as strengthening local disaster prepar-                 level changes for densely populated coastal
edness capabilities.23 GTZ is currently re-                  regions, the need to combat drought and
presented on the executive board and in                      desertification and the paramount role of
the operative advisory board of the DKKV.                    local authorities in prevention/prepared-
                                                             ness. In September 2002, the World Sum-
In the course of the decade, the early more                  mit on Sustainable Development (Rio + 10)
technical approach of the IDNDR was sup-                     will take place in Johannesburg. Its aim is
plemented with the incorporation of socio-                   to review how sustainable changes have
economic factors in the cause-effect matrix                  been achieved in the world since the 1992
of disasters, hazards and vulnerabilities. A                 world summit in Rio. The prime concern in
major milestone in this process was the                      Kyoto was to reduce the greenhouse effect

     See OECD, The DAC Journal, Development Co-
     operation Report 2000 – Efforts and Policies of the     24
                                                                  United Nations, World Conference on Natural Di-
     Members of the Development Assistance Com-                   saster Reduction, Yokohama Strategy and Plan of
     mittee Volume 2 Issue 1, Paris 2001.                         Action for a Safer World – Guidelines for Natural
     Plate, E. und Merz, B. (Pub.), Naturkatastrophen.            Disaster Prevention, Preparedness and Mitigation,
     Ursachen, Auswirkungen, Vorsorge, Stuttgart 2001.            Yokohama 1994.

3. From disaster relief to disaster risk management

worldwide through the implementation of                     Despite its priority of providing rapid emer-
definite measures. Major progress in im-                    gency aid, the International Federation of
plementing the Kyoto Protocol was made at                   the Red Cross and the Red Crescent So-
the climate conferences in Bonn (July                       cieties (IFRC) has for many years attached
2001) and Marakkesh (November 2001),                        importance to disaster risk management.
although the original targets had to be                     To promote this it supports relevant activi-
rolled back.                                                ties by its members worldwide and as of
                                                            1993 publishes an annual World Disaster
The UN international conference HABITAT                     Report containing developments, facts and
II in Istanbul in 1996 also dealt explicitly                analysis on natural disasters and crises and
with the issue of disaster risk management.                 conflicts.26
As does Agenda 21, the final document
stresses the role of local action: "The most                There is also a discernible trend amongst
efficient and effective disaster prepared-                  the international development banks to-
ness systems and capabilities for post-dis-                 wards assimilating disaster risk manage-
aster response are usually provided                         ment in projects. Via its Disaster Manage-
through volunteer contributions and local                   ment Facility, the World Bank launched the
authority actions at the neighbourhood                      ProVention Consortium in 2000. This initia-
level."                                                     tive centres on mitigating the impacts of
                                                            disasters by means of comprehensive dis-
In 1996, the World Food Summit took place                   aster risk management. The World Bank
in Rome under the auspices of the United                    underpins its activities in this field with mar-
Nations Food and Agriculture Organization                   ket incentives for investment in disaster risk
(FAO).25 Amongst other things, the 186 na-                  management.27 When planning its finance
tions and 32 international organizations                    investment projects the Inter-American De-
pledge to combat drought and desertifica-                   velopment Bank now also includes risk as-
tion and improve preparedness for natural                   sessment and investigation into appropriate
disasters, with a view to preventing a short-               and feasible disaster risk management
age of basic foodstuffs due to extreme                      measures.28
natural events. A follow-on conference is
planned for 2002 to review the results.                     As of 1994, the European Union finances
                                                            projects for disaster risk management via
At the operative level of the United Nations,               its European Community Humanitarian Of-
disaster risk management is the responsi-                   fice (ECHO). Since 1996 the focus has
bility of the United Nations Development                    been on programmes (DIPECHO) for
Programme. The focus of UNDP activities
is on strengthening national disaster risk
management capabilities in developing
countries. UNDP's approach comprises
short, medium, and long-term measures.
Scheduled for publication in spring 2002,                   26
                                                                 Reconstruction was a priority topic in the latest
the first World Vulnerability Report will                        report: IFRC, World Disaster Report 2001. Focus
                                                                 on recovery, Geneva 2001.
analyse disaster risk and outline measures                  27
                                                                 Market Incentives for Mitigation Investment (MIMI):
in disaster risk management worldwide.                           http://www.worldbank.org/html/fpd/urban/dis_man/
                                                                 Cf. for example IDB, Action Plan – Facing the
     The final declaration and plan of action are printed        Challenge of Natural Disasters in Latin America
     in BMELF, Nahrung für alle. Welternährungsgipfel            and the Caribbean. Special Report, Washington
     1996. Dokumentation, Bonn 1997.                             2000, pp. 24-26.

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