DutchCu ture Fashion in Turkey

DutchCu|ture                   |   Centre for international

Fashion in
|Version 2019
 Written by Melissa Karadana
Fashion in
Version 2019

In 2011, SICA (the predecessor of DutchCulture)          Acknowledgements

produced a comprehensive mapping of the Turkish          Written by Melissa Karadana based on 2011
cultural field. This mapping was written by local        mapping by Lucy Bossher.
experts and edited by Teike Asselbergs and Chantal
Hamelinck. The mapping was produce as a means to         Edited by Chantal Hamelinck and Teike Asselbergs.
promote cultural exchange between the Netherlands        Proofreading by Natasha Hay.
and Turkey and as a starting point of the year 2012,
which marked 400 years of Dutch – Turkish diplo-         Commissioned by DutchCulture, centre for internati-
matic relations. The mapping was supported and           onal cooperation.
produced in close co-operation with the Dutch public
funds.                                                   Supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture and
                                                         Science of the Netherlands.
An update of these mappings was commissioned in
2018 by DutchCulture while working with the same
editors. The existing mappings were revised and
several new mappings were added. The updated
mappings are focusing more on giving Dutch cultu-
ral practitioners an insight into the Turkish cultural
field and its infrastructure, and helping them get in
contact with colleagues.

This mapping is supported by the Ministry of
Education, Culture and Science of the Netherlands.

Page 2                                                   Fashion in Turkey

Summary                                  4
Introduction                             6
Short History                            7
Main trends and topics                   9
Popular                                 13
Shopping malls                          14
Audiences                               15
Sub-disciplines                         16
Professional groups and organisations   18
Educational institutions                21
Non-professionals                       22
Youth                                   23
Venues                                  24
Leather Industry                        25
Textile and apparel industry            26
Fashion Designers                       27
Festivals and events                    28
Prizes and grants                       29
Financial situation                     30
Regional                                31
Time-to-market infrastructure           32
Critics and researchers                 33
(Social) Media on Fashion               34
Resources                               35
Publications                            36
Facilities                              37

Page 3                                       Fashion in Turkey
|        Summary

         Turkey is well established in the international fashion industry, with a reputation for
         high quality products and designers with a global reach. Although more expensive
         than their counterparts in Asia, Turkish manufacturers can offer faster delivery times
         and the flexibility to repeat a production in season. Asia cannot compete with Turkey’s
         close proximity to Europe, which allows buyers to quickly make repeated orders on
         products that are flying off the shelves.

         A striking trend in the Turkish fashion industry is e-commerce. Estimations are that
         the online retail industry of Turkey reached 50 billion Turkish lira by the end of 2018 –
         an increase of 18.5% from 2017. Social media is an integral part of the e-commerce
         industry, not least because it helps businesses to improve relationships with their
         customers. Companies are now working with influencers to reach a larger audience
         with the aim of persuading that audience to buy their products.

         Many sectors are taking advantage of e-commerce, and one of the fastest-accelera-
         ting of these is modest fashion, which appeals to both the secular and the religious
         communities. This is a global phenomenon that Turkey is leading. Meanwhile, becau-
         se new luxury brands such as Harry Witson, Galeries Lafayette and Harvey Nichols
         began to enter the country in the mid-2000s, the luxury goods market has also ex-
         panded. The industry for high-end shoes, watches, bags and other accessories is set
         to reach nearly $500 billion by 2020, with the premium segment overtaking the top
         luxury segment as the main driver of growth.

         The demographic drivers of these advances are Turkish young people. In particular,
         the youth population is significant for many industries – not least for the baby and
         maternity sectors – but, most importantly, it means that the market is technologi-
         cally active and receptive to social media. The standard of living has increased and
         resulted in greater consumption across the country. This has affected the market for
         luxury goods and heralded a behavioural change in the population: malls have existed
         in Turkey since 1988 and the browsing habits that accompany them are thriving all
         over Turkey.

Page 4                                     Fashion in Turkey
|        Istanbul is at the heart of all this change. Thanks to its numerous fashion boutique
         districts and high-profile events such as Istanbul Fashion Week and Istanbul Design
         Week, the city is gaining a reputation for fashion and many Turkish designers are re-
         aching new global audiences. They are supported by a number of organisations such
         as Istanbul Textile and Apparel Exporter Associations (ITKIB), the Turkish Clothing
         Manufacturers Association (TGSD) and the Fashion Designers Association of Turkey
         (MTD), who look after their industry’s interests both at home and abroad. The non-pro-
         fit sector in Turkey also has an important and increasing role to play. Non-governmen-
         tal organisation membership and activity has grown roughly 50% since 2000, and the
         sector plays an important role in the provision of services such as improving labour
         conditions in factories and educating workers about their rights.

         As of 2018, Turkey has been suffering a currency and debt crisis. Having attracted
         massive amounts of foreign investment – and thus foreign currency debt – over the
         past few years, the country had become vulnerable to a fiscal crisis. When raised US
         interest rates combined with a loss of investor confidence based on regional politics
         and Turkish domestic policy, foreign investment suddenly stopped. This loss of con-
         fidence devalued the Turkish lira, which made foreign debt more expensive to repay.
         This, in turn, damaged the real economy and further reduced confidence in Turkey’s
         ability to cope. In the meantime, though, there are short-term benefits to a devalued
         currency for exporters. Apparel exports from Turkey increased by 7.4% in the first
         seven months of 2018, according to data from the Turkish Statistical Institute. In
         sum, the immediate outlook does not look good for the Turkish economy in general.
         Nonetheless, the crisis is currently too volatile to make predictions with any sort of
         certainty. A lot of shops in malls have got into difficulties because these retailers pay
         their rent in euros or dollars while their income is based on the lira. To prevent rents
         from further increasing, the government decided to solve this problem by converting
         the foreign currency rentals into lira. Even though the government has prohibited ren-
         tal prices in foreign currencies, the gap between import prices and domestic prices
         continues to be a problem. The increase in minimum wages of 26% for 2019 has also
         affected the fashion industry.

         In the long term, though, the Turkish fashion industry has many possibilities for
         growth. The government, business and workers are all determined to see it do well.
         They have set goals for the next decade with the combined aim of becoming an inter-
         national fashion hub for many countries and companies.

Page 5                                     Fashion in Turkey
|        Introduction

         The textiles and apparel industries have long been cornerstones of the Turkish econo-
         my. The country remains one of the world’s most important textile and apparel manu-
         facturers – it is the sixth-largest supplier in the world and the third-largest supplier to
         the EU. Fashion, on the other hand, has only recently reached any national significan-
         ce. Nonetheless, its growth has been rapid and assured. With the new generation of
         Turkish designers and fashion retail companies, the fashion industry in Turkey is set
         to receive more attention both locally and internationally.

         Turkish brands are now present on high streets around the world, with their combina-
         tion of international trends and Turkey’s own multicultural style successfully compe-
         ting with fast-fashion organisations such as Inditex, Mango and H&M. High-profile
         designers such as Les Benjamin, Hussein Chalayan and Cengiz Abazoğlu led the
         way for more affordable designs, showcased by the likes of Koton, Ipekyol, Roman,
         Mavi and Damat Tween to foreign markets. This success abroad has led to increased
         engagement at home. And nowhere is this more visible than at the annual Istanbul
         Fashion Week (IFW), also known as “Mercedes Benz Fashion Week”, which has been
         showing collections twice a year since 2013. Here, local and international designers
         and brands gather to give direction to this growing market.

Page 6                                     Fashion in Turkey
|        Short history

         Ottoman Times
         The history of textile production in Turkey goes back to the Ottoman times. In the
         sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, cities such as Bursa, Bilecik and Üsküdar were
         production centres for the world’s finest silks, velvets, cottons and woollens. The Otto-
         man world was known for its production of sumptuous textiles that were woven with
         shimmering silk and metallic threads. Exquisitely decorated satins and velvets were
         cherished by both the Ottomans and the Europeans. These luxurious fabrics also pro-
         vided a medium for the arts of embroidery, hand-painting and block-printing.

         The Ottoman Empire was strategically located on the path of the east-west silk route
         bridging Asia and Europe. Silk, transported by caravans from Iran, passed through
         Anatolia as far as Bursa. Bursa was the major centre for the international silk trade
         during the early sixteenth century and provided substantial revenue to the state by
         customs, taxes and brokerage fees levied from the Iranian and Italian merchants.
         In addition, it developed its own textile industry, an important sector of the Ottoman

         The tradition of tailoring and master tailors can be traced back to the same period.
         Even today with fast fashion available everywhere, there isn’t a neighbourhood in
         Istanbul without a tailor shop. Turkish tailors are able to execute the most intricate
         designs and produce spectacular garments often without patterns, cutting directly
         on the fabric. In other countries with sizable Turkish communities, many tailor shops
         are headed or owned by people with Turkish roots and they also, to some extent, have
         skills and networks that can be used by fashion entrepreneurs from the Turkish mar-
         ket that seek expansion abroad.

Page 7                                    Fashion in Turkey
|                                 Today
                                      Turkey is already well established in the international fashion industry, with a reputati-
                                      on for high quality products and designers with a global reach. Although more expen-
                                      sive than their counterparts in Asia, Turkish manufacturers can offer faster delivery
                                      times and the flexibility to repeat production within a season. Asia cannot compete
                                      with Turkey’s close proximity to Europe, which allows buyers to quickly make repeated
                                      orders on popular products.

                                      Today, Turkey remains among one of the world’s most important textile and apparel
                                      manufacturing countries. Apparel is Turkey’s second most successful export pro-
                                      duct, which earned 9.4% of the country’s total exports, of which knitwear amounted
                                      to $US8.8 billion (5.6% of total exports), while exports of woven clothing reached $6
                                      billion (3.8% of the total) in 2017, according to Textile today.

                                      Exports of both the Turkish textile and clothing industries achieved a modest growth
                                      in 2017, rising 2.5% and 3%, respectively. Industry leaders predicted that 2018 would
                                      be better. Last year, textile exports totalled around $10 billion and clothing exports
                                      around $17 billion.

                                      Hikmet Tanrıverdi, chairman of the Istanbul Apparel Exporter Associations, forecast
                                      an 8%-10% increase in clothing exports in 2018.

                                      According to World Trade Organisation (WTO) data from 2016, the Turkish apparel
                                      industry, with a global share of 3.39%, is the sixth largest supplier in the world and the
                                      third largest supplier to the EU. It has a share of 4.06% in knitted apparel and 2.73% in
                                      woven clothing exports in the world.1


    Page 8                                                              Fashion in Turkey
|        Main trends and

         The new generation
         Turkey has a crop of home-grown fashion talent of its own. A few names mentioned
         below are on the path to becoming global brands, ranging from casual streetwear to
         haute couture and bridal wear.

         Les Benjamins is an Istanbul-based contemporary streetwear brand with a growing
         fan base. As of January 2019, Les Benjamins had 86.3 thousand followers on Face-
         book and 79.3 thousand followers on Instagram. The hybrid design philosophy of the
         founder and creative director, Bünyamin Aydın, merges culture and comfort through
         textures and prints. Les Benjamins was launched in 2011 in Istanbul, with the mission
         of becoming a global streetwear brand, embracing the beauty of discovery with dy-
         namic variation and explosive colours. Les Benjamins’ main competition is Givenchy,
         Eleven Paris and Balmain.

         Les Benjamins is proving an impact on retail – it now has 120 retail stockists and in
         September 2018 inaugurated a brand-new flagship in Istanbul. A first collaboration
         with Puma is on the way, too. A debut wave of Les Benjamins and Athleisure pieces
         will appear in 450 Puma stores worldwide in the spring of 2020.

         Haute Couture
         Dilek Hanif is a true Turkish fashion pioneer who through her creative and visionary
         designs has been able to translate her Anatolian cultural heritage into the world
         fashion scene.

         In 1990, she established her first brand, the Dilek Hanif line, and entered the internati-
         onal fashion world with her first haute couture fashion show in 2002 in the historical
         setting of the Aya Irini Church in Istanbul. In 2003, she was named Woman Fashion
         Designer of the Year with her spring-summer collection where she used traditional
         needle-embroidered figures. Then in 2004, again with a spring-summer collection, she
         became the first Turkish fashion designer to present a collection at the Paris Haute
         Couture Week, thus becoming a true pioneer. After 2004, her collection became an
         acclaimed regular fixture at the show every year. In 2011, with great entrepreneurial
         spirit, she launched her ready-to-wear line under the brand Dilek Hanif. In addition to
         her label being an international Turkish brand in the world fashion industry, she has

Page 9                                     Fashion in Turkey
|                                managed to become a global brand with great market sales, unique selling points and
                                     high quality production capacity.
                                     Hanif’s designs, which range from sleek ready-to-wear dresses to sensual draped
                                     couture gowns, have been worn by celebrities such as Miranda Kerr, Katherine Heigl,
                                     Nicole Richie and Jane Fonda.

                                     Bridal Wear
                                     Raşit Bağzıbağlı was born in London in 1985. After studying in London, he designed
                                     his first collection at the age of 21 and began his career as a couture designer. In
                                     2010, he received the award for “best young designer of the year” in Turkey and in the
                                     same year received an award for “best upcoming designer” at the Face of Fashion
                                     competition in New York. In 2013, he designed the police uniforms, corporate identity
                                     logos and emblems for the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.

                                     He designed costumes for the Elidor Miss Turkey 2014 and 2015 finalists, and in 2014
                                     he also received an award for fashion designer of the year during the FTV Awards. He
                                     has shown his collections during Istanbul Fashion Week since 2015.

                                     In 2016, he became a jury member on the TV show Gardırop Savaşları and gave tips
                                     and advice to the audience over two years for 220 episodes. In 2017, he added a wed-
                                     ding dress collection to his ready-to-wear collections RASHID and COUTURE.

                                     The designer celebrated the 10th anniversary of his career in 2018. He has worked
                                     together with many Turkish celebrities such as Tuba Büyüküstün, Tülin Şahin, Demet
                                     Şener, Bergüzar Korel, Fahriye Evcen, Dilan Deniz and Amine Gülşe. He has also dres-
                                     sed international celebrities such as Paris Hilton, Yolanthe Cabau, Petra Nemcova and
                                     Victoria’s Secret model Doutzen Kroes.

                                     E-commerce in Turkey is growing quickly. Although the country has a relatively low
                                     internet penetration, at 67% in 2018, more and more Turks are using the internet
                                     regularly, and they have become aware of the benefits of online shopping. The value
                                     of the sector grew from some 4.7 billion euro in 2013 to a predicted 6.4 billion euro in
                                     2017, and (as of February 2018) reached 7.59 billion by the end of 2017, which means
                                     a growth of 18.5%.

                                     Fashion has played a significant part in driving this expansion. Before 2015, the
                                     growth of fashion online had largely been driven by flash sale start-ups, but is now
                                     increasingly dominated by big retailers such as Zara and the Turkish brand LC Wai-
                                     kiki. Turkey’s domestic textile and fashion manufacturers have also expanded their
                                     e-commerce ventures. The most notable ones are Trendyol and Morhipo. The latter is
                                     owned by Boyner Holding, which was named Europe’s fastest-growing e-commerce
                                     site in 2015 and is now the second-most visited e-commerce site for clothing in
                                     Turkey after Trendyol. Other important ventures as Alwaysfashion, which was Tur-
                                     key’s first luxury e-commerce store; Modacruz, a marketplace for women to buy and
                                     sell second-hand fashion; and Modanisa, which is one of the world’s leading online
                                     fashion retailers for Muslim women. In 2018, Amazon opened a branch in Turkey, with
                                     a website, warehouse and office.2


    Page 10                                                           Fashion in Turkey
|                                  Modest Fashion
                                       Muslim fashion has evolved from a religious and cultural movement to a fashion-
                                       savvy trend and booming industry. The increasing demand for Islamic clothing has
                                       not only encouraged the growth of the domestic Muslim fashion industry, but also
                                       inspired mainstream brands to cater to a Muslim clientele. With Dolce & Gabbana
                                       launching an abaya line in 2016 and Nike creating a mainstream sports hijab in 2017,
                                       Muslim fashion is now acknowledged in mainstream Western society.

                                       In the 2015 Thomson Reuters State of the Global Islamic Economy report, Muslim
                                       consumer spending on apparel topped $243 billion, with an expected increase to
                                       over $368 billion by 2021. As a result, some fashion companies and brands are
                                       increasingly recognising the scale of opportunity from better connecting with such a
                                       prosperous consumer segment.

                                       Istanbul has sought to become an Islamic fashion capital, an ambition that reflects
                                       the degree to which Turkish society has been reshaped under the Islamist govern-
                                       ment of President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. Kerim Ture, the creator of the modest-wear
                                       fashion house Modanisa, had already spotted a gap: “The market for Muslim women’s
                                       fashion is one of the largest, but their needs are still very under-addressed,” he said
                                       in an interview with Wired in 2015. Modanisa was the winner of the e-commerce and
                                       digital experience award at the 2018 International Business Excellence Awards.

                                       While many international brands started to launch their own modest fashion lines,
                                       including Koton, H&M, DKNY and Mango, Turkey recently introduced a new concept by
                                       launching the world’s first conservative women-specific mall in Zeytinburnu, Istanbul.
                                       Zeruj Port brings together modest fashion brands under one roof. The shopping cent-
                                       re targets women of all ages.

                                       Luxury market
                                       The luxury goods market in Turkey is becoming increasingly fragmented as a result of
                                       new brands entering the country. The global market for fashionable luxury products
                                       will see strong growth in the coming years, according to a study by EY-Parthenon.
                                       Valued at around $420 billion today, the industry for high-end shoes, watches, bags
                                       and other accessories is set to reach nearly $500 billion by 2020, with the premium
                                       segment overtaking the top luxury segment as the main driver of growth.3

                                       The luxury goods market is expected to show positive growth driven by the expanding
                                       middle class, a greater number of women in the workplace and the opening of new
                                       luxury shopping centres and hotels. Luxury goods are expected to continue attracting
                                       foreign investors and a higher number of luxury brands is expected to enter the coun-
                                       try over the forecast period.

                                       In 2017, Turkey had 39.9 million tourists and ranked sixth among the most-visited
                                       countries in the world, according to United Nations World Tourism Organisation
                                       (UNWTO) data released in 2017. The drop in value of the Turkish lira positively af-
https://www.consultancy.eu/            fected the retail expenditure of foreign tourists particularly in the luxury retail sec-
news/768/premium-products-dri-         tor. Luxury brands now expect record figures in turnover, with tourists forming long
fashion-market                         queues in front of shopping malls, according to a report from Turkish newspaper

    Page 11                                                               Fashion in Turkey
|         Opportunities for Expansion
          While most e-commerce activity has been concentrated in Istanbul, it has also proven
          to be successful in Samsun, on the Black Sea. Expectations are that it will expand in
          central Anatolia, led by companies such as Tozlu Giyim.

          The decline of the flash sale start-ups has relegated private shopping clubs and daily
          deal websites to the fringes. No doubt niche fashion design will continue to flourish
          there, but, for the most part, expansion is predicted to come from areas such as
          plus-size, luxury and children’s products.

Page 12                                    Fashion in Turkey

Nişantaşı                                  Galata Tower is definitely worth
Nişantaşı is an upscale residential        a visit to find several cool local
area that is popular for its fashion       designers. Serdar-ı Ekrem, one of the
boutiques selling international and        streets in this area, has particularly
prominent local labels. Abdi İpekçi        interesting retro clothes, as well as
Street’s broad sidewalks are lined         fashion from local designers. At the
with cafés, while the backstreets are      foot of the Galata hill, the neighbour-
dotted with neighbourhood bakeries         hood becomes Karaköy, which used
and markets.                               to be known for its fish stalls and
                                           machinery shops. Now the area is
Nişantaşı, Istanbul’s equivalent of        being gentrified with exciting new
London’s Chelsea or New York’s Up-         designer hotels, many fashion stores
per East Side, used to be dominated        and art galleries. Young Turks and
by strawberry orchards in the 18th         foreigners have also opened small
century. Walking down the streets,         boutique stores with a creative twist.
you will notice very small differen-
ces in the Turkish people there.           Arnavutköy and Bebek
There are more blonde women,               A bit further from Istanbul’s centre,
botox is popular and you will hardly       Bebek is another wealthy neigh-
see any hijabs, the headscarf some         bourhood with many million-dollar
Turkish women wear. This privileged        estates on the Bosphorus that line
district has several small buildings       the way to Sarıyer. Apart from its
that house the world’s top fashion         high-end restaurants, Bebek has
brands, as well as prominent Turkish       plenty of shops to explore up and
ones. Abdi İpekçi Street, for instan-      down the side streets. You’ll find
ce, is a fashionista’s paradise, with      great boutiques with exceptional
shops such as Christian Louboutin,         clothing and accessories from local
Prada, Louis Vuitton, Armani and           designers. If you continue on to
l’Occitane, to name a few. Prices, in      Arnavutköy by strolling along the
general, tend to be a slightly lower       Bosphorus, you’ll find more restau-
than in European capitals. Two neig-       rants and boutiques hidden in the
hbourhoods for finding more luxury         side streets.
fabrics or lace are Osmanbey and
Kurtuluş. Here you can find all sorts      Bağdat Caddesi
of fabrics such as silk, cotton and        If you happen to be on the Asian
beautiful laces. In these areas you        side and are looking to go shopping,
can also find a few wholesale sellers      then Bağdat Street is the place to
such as Şair Nigâr, Hacı Mansur and        go. With one end displaying high-end
Kodaman.                                   brands such as Prada and Vakko
                                           (another one of Turkey’s premier
Istiklal-Galata-Karaköy region             department stores), the other has
Located in Istanbul’s central Beyoğlu      other brands such as Zara or Mas-
neighbourhood, Istiklal Avenue is          simo Dutti.
the shopping preference for many.
Visited by millions of tourists every
year, this street is always crowded
and vibrant 24/7 with its shops,
restaurants, galleries, bars, art galle-
ries and cinemas. The area around

Page 13                                                                              Fashion in Turkey
Shopping malls

Ever since the first shopping mall        metres of store area.                    clothes, shoes, jewellery, as well
was constructed in 1988, they                                                      as interior design homeware and
have been popular in Turkey. The          Mavi Bache                               electronics. Here you can find well-
combined revenue of all malls in          Mavi Bache in Izmir is marketed as       known Turkish brands and also inter-
the country was 110 billion lira in       a “town square” for people to meet       national brands such as Mango and
2017. According to Chairman of            with their children and friends and      United Colors of Benetton. Prices
the Shopping Centres and Investors        shop in a green environment. It was      are much more affordable because
Association Hulusi Belgü, the target      designed by an investment group          the collections are from previous
for 2018 was 125 billion lira and for     from Izmir whose mission was to          seasons. Star City opened its doors
2023 it is estimated at 200 billion       create a “meeting, dining, shopping      in July 2016 and attracts locals and
lira. However, this sector reflects the   and entertainment point”. Mavi Ba-       foreign tourists alike.
economy as a whole: of Turkey’s 397       che offers a collection of some 220
malls, 82 were financed by foreign        national and international brands        Yeşilköy market
investors, which suggests that they       and is supported by 2,000 parking        Yeşilköy market in Istanbul is a per-
are also vulnerable to the ongoing        places.                                  fect place to go to for a market ex-
fiscal crisis.                                                                     perience. Here you can find rejected
http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/         Forum Bornova                            items from factories that produce
uncontrolled-growth-in-malls-is-kil-      Forum Bornova in Izmir has 128           clothes for brands such as Mango,
ling-merchants-in-turkey-confedera-       shops and 3,000 parking places.          H&M or Tommy Hilfiger. The market
tion-128257                               Built in 2006, it was one of the first   has more than 2,000 stands and
                                          Forum shopping centres in Turkey. In     sells everything from make-up to
Zorlu Centre                              2016, Forum Bornova was awarded          clothes and even food. This market
Zorlu shopping mall is home to            the IC Silver Solal Award in the         takes place every Wednesday from
some 205 stores built on 22,000           customer services category by the        early morning till the afternoon.
square metres and surrounded by a         International Council of Shopping
further 73,000 square metres. Bey-        Centres.                                 Optimum outlet
men, Turkey’s top high-end store, is                                               Optimum is one of Turkey’s bigger
on the top floor, along with many big     Kanyon                                   outlet shopping malls, with three
designer brands. On the floors below      Also built in 2006, Kanyon is located    locations: Istanbul (located in the
are international brands such as Cos      in Levent, a business district of        Ataşehir district), Ankara and Izmir.
and Gap, along with restaurants and       Istanbul. It has 160 stores, 2,300       Here you can find good quality
cafés.                                    parking places, a multiplex cinema,      products from international and
                                          a 30-floor office tower and a 22-floor   local brands.
Istinye Park                              residential block with 179 residential
Istinye Park has received a number        apartments. It was built to create an    Viaport outlet shopping
of international awards: the              integrated centre for the district.      This shopping mall has more than
“Shopping Mall Developer of the                                                    250 stores as well as an entertain-
Year Award” in 2008 from Mapic,           Outlets                                  ment centre, with a multiplex cinema
the world’s biggest real estate and       Due to the huge textile business         and other facilities.
retail expo; the “Grand Opening”,         in Istanbul, you can find lots of
“Expansion & Renovation” and “Maxi        outlet shopping malls and stores.
Silver” awards from the International     These outlet stores, malls and even
Shopping Mall Council ICSC in 2009;       factories sell their stock directly
“Europe’s Best Shopping Mall” from        to the public. Here are a few of the
ICSC, also in 2009; and “Shopping         most popular outlet stores or malls
Mall of the Year” from Shopping           in Turkey:
Malls and Retailers Association
AMPD. The mall is bigger than             Star City
Zorlu, with more than 87,000 square       Star City is an outlet shop that sells

Page 14                                                                              Fashion in Turkey
|         Audiences

          The Turkish consumer is fashion-savvy and aware of trends, says Erdinç Karataş
          from Worth Global Style Network (WGSN). They are more concerned with making a
          “statement” and “dress to impress” style than with discretion and subtlety – their style
          choices are for the most part logo-driven. In general, men and women dress well and
          take care of their appearance. Turkish women’s fashion sense is little different from
          the rest of the world, especially since the advent of social media. Good public appea-
          rance is important – 24/7 and 365 days a year. Indeed, the public and personal life of
          Turkish women presents a great variety of occasions when they are both obliged and
          happy to dress up. In fact, the possibilities to dress up in Turkey are endless. All of the
          above applies to secular and religious women alike.

          Consumer behaviour in Turkey is affected by two particular factors. The most im-
          portant is the interest in shopping by young people: 49.2% of the population is under
          the age of 35 (as of 2018). The significance of this extends to technology, since the
          younger generations in Turkey, as in the rest of the world, have proven to be more
          frequent users of technology.

          This means there is a great appetite for planning purchases and online searches, lar-
          gely in line with global trends. According to the Turkish Consumer Academy Survey of
          2017, 60% of internet users in Turkey shop online at least once a month, and 20.5% do
          so once a week. Much of this focuses on foreign goods, branded goods from Europe
          and America and cheaper imitations from Asia.

          The second factor is the steady growth of disposable incomes. Living standards have
          increased and resulted in greater consumption across the country. This has affected
          the market for luxury goods and heralded a behavioural change in the population:
          malls, and the browsing habits that accompany them, are thriving all over Turkey.

          As disposable incomes have increased, so has access to credit. There were 62 million
          credit cards in Turkey as of January 2018, according to the Turkish Interbank Card
          Centre Survey, while the total number of debit cards was 130 million. This makes
          Turkey the biggest bank card market in Europe. Meanwhile, bank loans in 2017 were
          up 24% over the previous year, reaching 2.24 trillion lira. All in all, Turkish consumers
          have greater access to both capital and goods, and have proven themselves ready to
          take advantage of this.

Page 15                                     Fashion in Turkey
|         Sub-disciplines

          Leather Industry
          The Turkish leather industry has a long and rich heritage. Today Turkey is one of the
          biggest producers of high-quality leather products in the world. It is mainly known for
          processing sheep and goat leather, which puts it in second position in Europe after
          Italy, but 22% of the world’s small cattle leather processing and production is Turkish.
          The country has 13 industrial leather zones that use modern technology and produce
          high-quality products. Perhaps most importantly, production is carried out to Euro-
          pean standards using eco-friendly advanced methods – 70% of the leather produced
          in Turkey is made using environmentally friendly methods.

          In 2017, the Turkish Leather Federation sought to double leather export revenue over
          the next three years, from some $1.6 billion. The number of Russian tourists incre-
          ased 25% in 2018. Exports to Russia also grew rapidly in 2018 – at a rate of 124%
          from 2017 to 2018.

          Jewellery Industry
          Purchasing gold and coins for celebratory events and weddings has always been a
          part of Turkish culture. With the rise in the price of gold, consumers have switched
          to cheaper products, which has led manufacturers to develop new gold products. In
          2017, domestic jewellery brands continued to enjoy wide national coverage, offering
          high-quality products at fair prices. Individual jewellery manufacturers such as Atasay
          Kuyumculuk, Altınbaş Kuyumculuk and Gülaylar Uluslararası Kuyumculuk Mücevherat
          control the entire supply chain down to the retail level.

          Fashion-conscious Turkish women continued to purchase high volumes of costume
          jewellery in 2018 and this will likely continue throughout the forecast period. In 2018,
          growth of costume jewellery outstripped fine jewellery with a robust performance.
          Turkish exports of jewellery stood at over $1 trillion in 2017. Much of this goes to the
          Middle East, where the UAE is one of Turkey’s fastest-growing markets. Big names in
          the jewellery industry in Turkey that are also popular internationally are Vedra Alaton,
          Yesim Yüksek, Sevan Biçakçı and Aida Bergsen.

Page 16                                     Fashion in Turkey
|         Organic and sustainable fashion
          Today consumers are in search of new environmentally friendly and customised
          goods. Turkish textile producers have been making an effort to improve the image
          of sustainable fashion in Turkey. The president of the Turkish Clothing Industrialist
          Association (TCIA), Hadi Karasu, said on June 20, 2018, that the aim is to reach 18
          billion dollars by the end of 2018 and that their target is to increase that amount to
          25 billion dollars in the next five years. Unfortunately, the EU’s perception of Turkish
          sustainability has been negative. Therefore, according to the TCIA president, Turkey
          is working together with NGOs in Europe to clear that image. Turkey’s textile sustai-
          nability movement is growing fast and the number of certified companies is steadily
          rising. Although Turkey is going in the right direction, the sector also needs to improve
          the quality of labour to compete with other countries.

          Organic cotton
          Turkey has a high number of organic cotton fields and the country has been manu-
          facturing organic cotton product for nearly 30 years. In 2017, there were 185 organic
          cotton farmers. Over the past three production seasons in Turkey, there has been a
          shift in the size of production areas, producers and production volumes, which decre-
          ased from 7,958 megatons in 2013/2014 to 7,304 megatons in 2014-2015 and back
          up again in 2015-2016 with 7,577 megatons.

Page 17                                     Fashion in Turkey
|         Professional groups
          and organisations

          Under secretariat for Foreign Trade
          The under secretariat for Foreign Trade of the Prime Ministry is the highest authority
          that controls and directs all issues related to imports and exports. The UFT assists
          the government in the formulation of foreign trade policy and arranges bilateral and
          multilateral trade and economic relations, along with exports, export promotion, im-
          ports and contracting services abroad, monitoring their implementation and promo-
          ting them.

          The UFT is composed of seven General Directorates (GD), namely: Exports; Imports;
          Agreements; European Union Affairs; Free Zones; Standardisation of Foreign Trade;
          and Economic Research and Assessment. Besides these GDs, the UFT also has com-
          plementary institutions such as the Export Promotion Centre and Exporters’ Union.
          The UFT, with its complementary institutions, facilitates entry to the global market for
          Turkish producers.

          The UFT has representative organisations and representatives abroad whose task
          is to promote exports to the countries to which they are accredited, as well as faci-
          litate imports from these countries. The under secretariat for Foreign Trade has 61
          operational commercial offices in 51 countries and three international organisations
          (OECD-Paris, WTO-Geneva, EU-Brussels).

          The Textiles Department functions under the General Directorates of Imports. The
          Under secretariat for Foreign Trade provides institutional support and funding, as well
          as promotional and other activities to strengthen the textile sector, including Istanbul
          Fashion Week and Collection Premiere Istanbul.

          Istanbul Textile and Apparel Exporter Associations (ITKIB)
          The Istanbul Textile and Apparel Exporter Associations (ITKIB) has four associations
          under its umbrella: the Istanbul Apparel Exporters’ Association, Istanbul Textile and
          Raw Material Exporters’ Association, Istanbul Leather and Leather Products Expor-
          ters’ Association and Istanbul Carpet Exporters’ Association. The General Secretariat
          of ITKIB has been in operation since 1986. ITKIB’s main functions consist of assisting
          members to improve their export performance, increase the market share in textile,
          apparel, leather and carpet exports in international markets and defend the common-
          interests of these sectors at a national and international level.

Page 18                                    Fashion in Turkey
|         In order to fulfil these functions, ITKIB carries out the following activities: export regis-
          tration; trade promotion and development; economic research and reporting;
          consulting; co-ordination and public relations; training and publication.

          For the promotion of trade and development, members are given advice and support
          to participate in international fairs. Members can attend more than 30 international
          fairs annually with ITKIB’s assistance, as well as getting help with trade missions
          abroad, foreign trade delegations to Turkey, matchmaking to facilitate interaction
          between Turkish and foreign businessmen; and import and cooperation requests of
          foreign companies. A Young Designers Contest is held every year to promote creativi-
          ty and fashion, as well as an EU-funded “Fashion and Textile Clustering Project” to in-
          crease international competitiveness among SMEs in the textile and clothing sectors.

          ITKIB is the driving force behind the organisation of Istanbul Fashion Week and the
          trade fair CPI, Collection Premiere Istanbul, as part of an ambitious push to turn Istan-
          bul into a fashion hub and rebrand Turkey from a textile manufacturer to a country of
          fashion design.

          Among CPI’s objectives are to transform Istanbul into a meeting point loyal to its eas-
          tern roots and welcoming the enterprise-oriented culture of the West; to support the
          growth of the Turkish textile and fashion industry by increasing its competitive power;
          to leverage the value of Turkish brands and designers; to support the branding mo-
          vement in the Turkish prêt-à-porter industry; to create an environment for cross-busi-
          ness opportunities; to increase export, find new markets and maintain the share in
          existing markets; and to be a “fashion-designing country” rather than a “fashion-pro-
          ducing country”.

          Turkish Clothing Manufacturers Association
          The Turkish Clothing Manufacturers Association (TGSD) is the leading professional
          association of the industry. Founded in 1976, its objective is to create a climate that
          is conducive to the development of the clothing industry in Turkey, to promote the
          sector abroad and to encourage cooperation among sector players. Since 2008 it
          has organised the “Bridges of Fashion, Where Design and Production Meet” Istanbul
          Fashion, Textile and Apparel Conference and Exhibition. To date, TGSD has some 400
          members who occupy leadership positions in the Turkish apparel industry.

          The Fashion Designers Association of Turkey
          Established in 2006, the Fashion Designers Association of Turkey (FDAT) pursues
          the vision of creating a distinctive Turkish fashion school of thought as a reference in
          world fashion. The brainchild of Bahar Korçan and six other designers, FDAT current-
          ly counts some 100 designers among its members. They represent various design
          fields, including fashion, textile design and haute couture. The association tries to
          promote Turkish fashion and designers locally and internationally. It also seeks to
          contribute to the overall development of the fashion industry in Turkey through the
          organisation of promotional and educational events, deepening interaction between
          businesses and designers, and by conceiving of and supporting projects that raise
          awareness of the value of Turkish fashion design.

          Galata Moda is the signature event launched by FDAT. An alternative to the luxury
          shopping centres dominating the retail landscape, Galata Moda is a street platform
          for Istanbul designers to connect directly with consumers. In this case, the street
          platform does not imply street fashion, but rather, Galata Moda features established

Page 19                                      Fashion in Turkey
|         designers selling their evening gowns next to alternative lines with up-and-coming
          designers offering more experimental fashion. Galata Moda has been very succes-
          sful in raising awareness of the local fashion talent, making it “cool” to wear Turkish

          Compared to other countries where the fashion industry is often divided, FDAT is an
          exceptional organisation that represents and promotes the interests of all designers
          in Turkey.

Page 20                                     Fashion in Turkey

Universities                             are taught in English. Students who     IMA, Istanbul Moda Academi, was          Turkish fashion. Since the language
Students who study fashion design        graduate from this department have      founded as part of the Fashion and       of instruction at Esmod is English,
learn about the art of designing         work permits for one year in the        Textile Cluster Project, financed by     Esmod is considering running
and creating different types of          United States.                          the European Union, the Underse-         language courses to help students
clothing and accessories. History,       Yeditepe University, Izmir University   cretariat for Foreign Trade and the      cope with the curriculum.
techniques, drawing and business         of Economics, Atilim University         Istanbul Textile and Apparel Expor-      Massoud is keen to pursue potential
are possible subjects covered in pro-    Ankara and Istanbul Bilgi University    ters’ Associations (ITKIB). The Aca-     collaboration with foreign fashion
grammes in this field. Universities      all have fashion and textile design     demy’s aim is to contribute to the       schools.
in Turkey provide two to four years      programmes.                             development of the Turkish textile
of education for undergraduate                                                   and apparel industry. IMA commen-
studies, while graduate programmes       From discussions with Turkish           ced its educational programmes at
last a minimum of two years. There       designers who studied abroad,           the beginning of 2008 with courses
are around 820 higher education          it transpires that they enjoy the       in fashion design, fashion product
institutions in Turkey, including 76     conceptual project-based approach       development and technology,
universities with a total student        and the freedom to experiment in        fashion photography and media,
enrolment of over one million. The       the European schools of fashion.        and fashion management and
quality of education at Turkish          They say the Turkish system is more     marketing in collaboration with the
universities varies greatly, with some   authoritarian, more technical and       world’s leading fashion schools: the
providing education and facilities on    too dependent on test results.          London College of Fashion, Domus
par with internationally renowned                                                Academy (Italy) and Institut Français
schools.                                 Private Institutions                    de la Mode (IFM, France). The staff
                                         A growing demand for fashion            consists of foreign and local instruc-
Mimar Sinan University of Fine Arts      education and its importance to the     tors who train fashion professionals
is one of the most reputable schools     national economy has spurred the        of the future through professional
in Turkey. Many successful desig-        growth of private fashion education     development programmes and
ners of the Turkish fashion scene        institutions. Lasalle International     academic programmes focusing on
today are graduates of Mimar Sinan       Academy was the first to open in        the industry.
University.                              Istanbul in the 1990s and has been
                                         very successful. The school has an      Esmod Istanbul, a new branch of
Istanbul Technical University has        intimate, family style of teaching      the world’s oldest fashion school,
a textile technologies and design        and interacting with students. The      opened its doors to Turkish students
faculty where fashion design is          language of instruction is English.     in September 2010. It has joined the
taught. Education, training and R&D      Director Selim Çeçen is a passionate    international network of 21 other
activities of the Fashion Design         industry visionary who focuses on       ESMOD schools from around the
Department are in the framework          teaching the business of fashion.       globe where students are trained by
of cooperation between Istanbul          Through well-established links with     unique “French expertise” to become
Technical University and the Fashion     the industry, graduates are either      future designers in their country. It
Institute of Technology (FIT, New        placed in partner companies or start    starts with a three-year programme
York) under the auspices of New          their own businesses.                   in fashion design. Nadine Massoud,
York State University (SUNY).            Çeçen is very keen on establishing      Esmod’s director, has a long-term
Accordingly, students accepted           contacts with foreign educational       vision for the school and believes
to this department continue their        institutions. He expressed great        that Turkey has great potential
education for five terms at Istanbul     interest in developing projects that    in design and creation: “Local
Technical University and the last        could benefit students and promote      designers have impressive technical
four academic terms at FIT in New        exchange and interaction. As he         skills and savoir faire. What they
York. They graduate with a diploma       pointed out, “Here at Lasalle we        need is discipline, organisation and
approved by both institutions.           make decisions very fast; we do not     openness.” She sees poor language
Thirty students are accepted to this     wait for approval from the top.”        skills as one of the major obsta-
department each year, where they                                                 cles for the internationalisation of

Page 21                                                                            Fashion in Turkey

The non-profit sector in Turkey has     women’s NGOs operating in 12 dif-
grown over the past few years.          ferent Turkish cities. This NGO aims
Non-governmental organisation           to increase women’s employment
membership and activity has grown       with decent working conditions in
about 50% since 2000, and the           all industries. It is an advocacy or-
sector plays an important role in the   ganisation that aims at contributing
provision of services. The following    to the development of policies res-
organisations represent the fashion     ponsive to women’s needs regarding
and textile industries within this      employment.
                                        Workers’ Health and Work Safety
Fair Wear Foundation                    Assembly (WHSA)
The Fair Wear Foundation (FWF)          The Workers’ Health and Work
was established in Turkey in 2002.      Safety Assembly is a labour organi-
The country now ranks fifth for FWF     sation founded by workers, public
production volume, after China,         employees, families of victims of
Bangladesh, Vietnam and Italy, with     past accidents, doctors, engineers,
165 factories in Turkey mostly in       scholars, journalists and their orga-
the Istanbul and Izmir regions. FWF     nisations. It monitors the occupa-
seeks to improve labour conditi-        tional health and safety conditions
ons in Turkish factories through a      and occupational accidents in all
complaints helpline and training        industries and provides regular
to educate workers of their rights      monitoring reports.
under the Code of Labour Practice.
                                        Support to Life (STL)
Turkish Textile Employers Asso-         Support to Life is an independent
ciation                                 humanitarian agency working in the
The association aims to protect the     field of disaster risk reduction, di-
economic and social interests of its    saster preparedness and emergency
members within the frame of local       response by promoting community
regulations. The organisation is the    participation in Turkey and the sur-
only one that forges group collective   rounding region. STL’s work is based
bargaining agreements with trade        on international principles such as
unions in the garment and textile       humanity, impartiality, neutrality,
industry. It is affiliated with the     independence and accountability.
Turkish Confederation of Employer
Associations, which works with the
following: the International Organi-
sation of Employers, Confederation
of European Business, European
Apparel and Textile Confederation,
Business and Industry Advisory
Committee and the OECD (Organisa-
tion for Economic Cooperation and

Women’s Labour and Employment
Platform – KEIG
KEIG is an umbrella organisation of

Page 22                                                                         Fashion in Turkey

The Turkish baby and maternity            Award in 2017. She has a contract
sector reached $2.05 billion in 2017      with LC Waikiki and worked for
and according to the Children Baby        American fashion brands Mama-
Maternity Expo (CBME), it will grow       luma and Goose. Lavinya currently
by 5% in the next five years. Turkey      has 151,000 followers on Instagram,
counts 1.25 million new-borns             which makes her a fashion icon for
annually and has a young populati-        a lot of her fans.
on, with more than 19 million under
the age of 14. Although the fertility     Maya Başol
rate in Turkey has been decreasing,       With her 18,000 followers, Maya
as of 2017 the number of baby-store       Başol is very young – aged five –
chains had grown from 200 to 500 in       but already an Instagram star. She
three years.                              models for LC Waikiki, is sponsored
                                          by Deichmann and attends events
Popular children fashion brands           for Pandora and Lazzoni.
Children’s fashion is a huge part
of the Turkish textile industry with
many big names, says Semih
Etyemez from CBME. According to
Etyemez, the most popular children’s
fashion brands are Best Kids, Pami-
na, NK Textile, Incity, Roly Poly, Cim-
pa, Nanica, Monna Rosa, Caramell,
Cantoy, Bebus, Ilgaz Kids and Cemix.
Big chains such as LC Waikiki and
Zara are also doing well in children’s
wear in the Turkish market.

Influencers in the children’s fashion
There are a few brands that
influence the market: Best Kids,
Pamina and Incity, says Mehmet
Nesih Özmen from CBME. This is
mainly because of their design,
seasonal colours and quality fabrics
that come from abroad, especially
Italy and France. Although they are
young (aged 5 to 10) there are a few
Instagram influencers who are effec-
ting the children’s fashion world in
Turkey. Two well-known influencers
on social media are:

Lavinya Ünluer
Lavinya Ünluer is a Turkish social
media star. Born in Istanbul, this
eight-year-old actress and model
was awarded the Best Child Style

Page 23                                                                         Fashion in Turkey

There are a number of venues in Tur-      from all over the country are able to
key that add value to the fashion and     mingle with local and international
textiles industries. Here are some of     designers and entrepreneurs.
the leading ones:                         http://www.istanbulmodakonferansi.
Monroe Creative Studio
The Monroe Creative Studio provi-         L’appart PR
des support for all sorts of creative     Created in 1999, L’appart PR is a
endeavours. This includes help with       creative public relations agency that
brand identity, the production of         supports fashion designers, luxury
communication materials, including        brands and cosmetics brands.
photography and video, as well as         The team designs communication
website development. Founded in           strategies, including digital public
Istanbul in 2011 by Hatice Çağlar         relations, and organises events to
and Onur Gökalp, it now has an            enhance global brand awareness.
office in London. Turkish brands and      The Istanbul office was founded
designers such as Zeynep Tosun            in 2005 as part of L’appart PR’s
and Art by Chance have all benefited      expansion into new regions, which
from the studio’s support.                includes a partner office in Beijing.
Worth Global Style Network Istanbul
The WGSN was founded in London
in 1998 and quickly revolutionised
the market with its new online trend
library. This was the first successful
attempt to apply modern technology
to the global creative industry. Their
office in Istanbul provides business
intelligence on Turkish consumers,
along with “Discover the Potential
of Turkey”, which is a campaign
to promote Turkey internationally
and attract investment in Turkey. In
order to do so, they facilitate Turkish
brand attendance at international
events. The WGSN is used only by
fashion professionals.

The Istanbul Fashion Conference
The Istanbul Fashion Conference,
which was first held in 2008, aims to
bring together all the supply chain
rings of the apparel and textiles sec-
tor: supply, manufacturing, export,
import, economy, fashion design,
brand, retail and logistics. At the
conference, Turkish manufacturers

Page 24                                                                           Fashion in Turkey

There are several leather associati-      Footwear Industrialists Association
ons and supporting organisations          of Turkey
in Turkey. These vary in focus,           The Turkish Footwear Industry Asso-
but all aim to provide support and        ciation was established in Istanbul
assistance to the various members         in 1985. This institution seeks to
of the Turkish leather industry and       advance the technical and economic
boost the sector in the international     development of the industry. It also
market.                                   provides professional support to
Turkish Leather Industrialists            http://www.tasd.com.tr/
Founded in 1999, the Turkish              Istanbul Leather Industrial Organi-
Leather Industrialists Association        sed Zone
is a non-governmental organisation        Free zones are defined areas in
that aims to contribute towards the       which special regulations apply. The
development of the leather sector         Istanbul Leather Industrial Organi-
in Turkey. It brings together all kinds   sed Zone offers a flexible business
of organisations and associations         climate to increase trade volume
under its umbrella, including those       and exports. It was established in
of the various sub-sectors of the         1982 by a protocol signed by the
industry such as tannery, garment         Istanbul Leather Industrial Organi-
industry, shoemaking and leather-         sed Zone Entrepreneur Organisation.
craft products, fur, machinery and        Later it gained legal status of the
chemical suppliers.                       Organised Industrial Zones, Law No.
http://www.tdsd.org.tr/en                 4562.

Istanbul Leather and Leather Pro-         Izmir Menemen Leather Industrial
ducts Exporters Union (IDMIB)             Organised Zone
Istanbul Leather and Leather              The Izmir Free Zone was founded
Products Exporters Union (IDMIB)          in 1997 when the Leather Industry
is one of the most important              Organised Area was given full legal
organisations of Turkish leather          status as a free zone. It was opened
and leather products. Istanbul has        to other industries in 2011.
a significant share in the IDMIB has      The Izmir Menemen Leather Free
an indispensable role in the industry.    Trade Zone thrives thanks to
Founded in 1988, IDMIB is one of the      local and foreign investors. It is
four associations operating under         conveniently located and has gained
the General Secretariat of Istanbul       attention and popularity among
Textile and Apparel Exporters’ Asso-      investors due to its treatment plant
ciation. IDMIB has more than 1,500        with a capacity of 18,000 squa-
registered member firms mostly            re metres per day. It also offers
located in and around Istanbul. More      assistance for incorporating Turkish
than half of Turkish leather products     companies and obtaining free trade
and leather exports are made by           licenses.

Page 25                                                                          Fashion in Turkey
Textile and
apparel industry

Sanko Tekstil                             design-led sourcing and planning
Founded in 1943, Sanko Textile            of apparel, goods and lifestyle
Industries is active in cotton and        products, such as cosmetics and
synthetic yarn production, home           footwear, which reflect the latest
textiles, weaving and knitting. The       trends and consumer needs for the
main goals of the company are to          growing SPA market. Saide Group
support the position of textiles in the   works with global companies in the
Turkish economy, encourage quality,       fashion industry such as Inditex,
stability and trust within the industry   New Look, NKD and OVS. The
in Turkey and maintain strength in        Marubeni Group invested in Saide
the Turkish economy by increasing         Group as a shareholder in 2017.
textile production and employment.        Saide Group has a planning base in
Sanko Textiles is part of Sanko Hol-      London, which is the centre of fast
ding, which was established in 1904       fashion. In recent years Saide has
by Sani Konukoğlu. This holding has       been rapidly expanding sales in the
more than 14,000 employees in 12          European apparel market by provi-
different sectors.                        ding customers with a short lead
                                          time production in Turkey, which has
ISKO                                      a cluster of textile manufacturers
ISKO was established in 1904. In          with the advantage of being close
1989, it opened a 300,000-squa-           to European centres, and design
re-metre manufacturing plant that         and planning that reflects the latest
made ISKO the world’s largest             global trends.
denim manufacturer. They have a
production capacity of 250 million
metres of fabric per year, while their
portfolio includes more than 25,000
products. ISKO’s sales are rapidly
expanding across the world. They
have a strong presence in 30 coun-
tries and an international network of
textile technologists, design experts
and retail specialists. ISKO is part of
Sanko Tekstil, the textiles division of
the Sanko Group.

Eroğlu Giyim Sanayi Ltd.
Eroğlu Giyim was founded by Nuret-
tin Eroğlu in 1983 as a small-sized
clothing workshop. By 1992, all
factories had been merged under
the roof of Eroğlu Giyim Sanayi Ltd.,
and its Kulis brand was renamed
Colin’s. Today, Colin’s is a popular
jeans company in Turkey.

Saide Group
Founded as a family company in
1993, Saide specialises in fast and

Page 26                                                                           Fashion in Turkey
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