EX-POW BULLETIN - American Ex-Prisoners of War

EX-POW BULLETIN - American Ex-Prisoners of War
EX-POW BULLETIN           the official voice of the

            American Ex-Prisoners of War
                  501(c)3 Veterans Service Organization

Volume 78                  www.axpow.org                             Number 10/11/12

            October~November~December 2021

                 We exist to help those who cannot help themselves

             November 11 ~ Veterans Day 2021
EX-POW BULLETIN - American Ex-Prisoners of War
EX-POW BULLETIN - American Ex-Prisoners of War
October-December, 2021
         table of contents
    Officers/Directors             4
    National Commander             5
    CEO                            6
    Medsearch                      7
    Legislative                    12
    Ownership Statement            13
    Andersonville                  14
    NamPOW                         15
    POW/MIA                        16
    Civilian                       17
    News                           20
    Events                         20
    Father’s Wings                 21
    Wreaths                        24
                                                        On the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month of
    Never Forgotten                26
                                                        1918, an armistice, or temporary cessation of hostilities,
    New members                    27
                                                        was declared between the Allied nations and Germany in
    Contributions                  28
                                                        the First World War, then known as “the Great War.”
    Taps/Chaplain                  29
    Biography Form                 33
                                                        Commemorated as Armistice Day beginning the following
    Voluntary Funding              33
                                                        year, November 11th became a legal federal holiday in the
                                                        United States in 1938. In the aftermath of World War II
          Publisher                                     and the Korean War, Armistice Day became Veterans Day,
    PNC Milton M Moore Jr                               a holiday dedicated to American veterans of all wars.
     2965 Sierra Bermeja
    Sierra Vista, AZ 85650                              Veterans Day is intended to honor and thank all military
        (520) 249-7122                                  personnel who served the United States in all wars,
  tombstone490@gmail.com                                particularly living veterans. It is marked by parades and
                                                        church services and in many places the American flag is
                                                        hung at half mast. A period of silence lasting two minutes
             Editor                                     may be held at 11AM. Some schools are closed on Veterans
       Cheryl Cerbone
                                                        Day, while others do not close, but choose to mark the
     23 Cove View Drive
                                                        occasion with special assemblies or other activities.
 South Yarmouth, MA 02664
      (508) 394-5250
                                                                       Merry Christmas! Happy
Deadline for the Jan-Mar 2022                                          Hanukkah! Feliz Navidad!
Bulletin is Dec. 1, 2021                                                   Happy Holidays!
Please send all materials to the                                  from the AXPOW Board of Directors
editor at the above address.

         EX-POW Bulletin (ISSN 0161-7451) is published quarterly (four times annually) by the American Ex-Prisoners of War,
 PO Box 3445, Arlington, TX 76007-3445. Periodical postage paid at Arlington, TX and additional mailing offices. Postmaster:
 send address changes to EX-POW Bulletin, AXPOW Headquarters, PO Box 3445, Arlington, TX 76007-3445. Founded April 14,
 1942, in Albuquerque, NM, then known as Bataan Relief Organization, Washington State non- profit corporation, “American
 Ex-Prisoners of War”, October 11, 1949, recorded as Document No. 133762, Roll 1, Page 386-392. NONPROFIT CORPORATION.
 Nationally Chartered August 10, 1982. Appearance in this publication does not constitute endorsement by the American
 Ex-Prisoners of War of the product or service advertised. The publisher reserves the right to decline or discontinue any such

 © 2021
 American Ex-Prisoners of War
EX-POW BULLETIN - American Ex-Prisoners of War
axpow board of directors
                                                                        National Headquarters
                                                         PO Box 3445, Arlington, TX 76007-3445
                                                                 (817) 649-2979 HQ@axpow.org

                         National Commander ~ Robert Certain
                    5100 John D Ryan Blvd, Apt 1801, San Antonio, TX 78245
                            (770) 639-3313 rgcertain@icloud.com

   operations                                board of directors

Chief Executive Officer
                               Edward “Ted” Cadwallader          Sally Morgan
                               Elk Grove, CA                     Grand Prairie, TX
                               (916) 685-5369                    (972) 896-7252
                               DCadwall@aol.com                  sbmorgan@aol.com

                               David Eberly                      Jim 'Moe' Moyer
                               Williamsburg, VA                  Lake Wales, FL
                               (757) 508-8453                    (407) 448-1181
Chief Operations Officer       eberlydsl@verizon.net             moehog@verizon.net
Clydie J Morgan
PO Box 3445                    Pam Warner Eslinger               Mary Schantag
Arlington TX 76007-3445        Hammon, OK                        Branson, MO
(817) 300-2840 - Cell          (580) 821-1526                    (417) 336-4232
hq@axpow.org                   eslingerpam@gmail.com             info@pownetwork.org

                               Alan Marsh                        Charles A. Susino
Chief Financial Officer        Lizella, GA                       Piscataway, NJ
Marsha M Coke                  (478) 951-9247                     (732)221-0073
2710 Charon Court              alanmarsh@bellsouth.net           charles.susino@gmail.com
Grand Prairie TX 75052
(817) 649-2979 – Office        Milton ‘Skip’ Moore               Jan Williams
(817) 723-3996 – Cell          Sierra Vista, AZ                  Guthrie, OK
axpow76010@yahoo.com           (520) 249-7122                    (580) 821-2376
                               tombstone490@gmail.com            williamsjj72@ymail.com
EX-POW BULLETIN - American Ex-Prisoners of War
                                      Indochina to colonial status set       rest of our fellow countrymen
                                      the stage for the rise of              may be grateful that we are gone
                                      Communism in Hanoi. The Korean         and feel no remorse for those we
commander                             War has never been concluded
                                      with a formal treaty, only an
                                                                             leave behind – and they are to be
                                                                             pitied. If we do not examine our
                                      armistice or cease-fire, leaving a     motives, our actions, and our
                                      desperate       and       despotic     consequences, we will not be able
                                      dictatorship in the northern half.     to capitalize on our successes or
                                      The Paris Peace Accords of             to learn from our mistakes. If our
                                      January 1973, while it resulted in     civilian leaders and commanders
                                      the release of prisoners of war,       do not learn, they will eventually
                                      was little more than a holding         send another generation of brave
                                      action for the next two years.         Americans into the fog and
                                                                             friction of war with foolish rules
                                      Our 20-year undeclared war in          of engagement and no real exit
                                      Afghanistan is ending as I write       strategy.
                                      this, and the events of the ragged
                                      withdrawal and evacuation are          When combat troops come home
                                      strongly reminiscent of the swift      from war, we have been
                                      and ignominious fall of Saigon in      profoundly changed. While some
                                      1975. Even though American             of that change is not so good,
Robert G. Certain                     fighting    men      and    women      some of it can actually lend us a
5100 John D Ryan Blvd, Apt            successfully turned back evil          greater understanding of who we
1801                                  forces and held them at bay in         are, what society is about and
San Antonio, TX 78245                 both Vietnam and Afghanistan,          what international relations are
(770) 639-3313                        American diplomats ultimately          about. Our wartime experience
rgcertain@icloud.com                  tired of the conflicts and called us   can     bring    a    wealth     of
                                      home without thinking through or       understanding to apply to the
ENDING WELL OR POORLY?                planning for our honorable exit        important work to fully utilize the
                                      and for the stability of the nation    positive aspects of those days in
The wars in which we fought have      we left behind.                        our life back in the world as we
had spotty endings with lingering                                            step forward to take leadership in
undesirable consequences. The         Those of us who fought, died, or       government, business, and our
Treaty of Versailles did not result   nearly died in the service of our      faith communities. We must
in global peace following the “war    nation and that of our allies can      never stop serving those who
to end all wars” and instead set      hold our heads high knowing we         serve today by advocating for
the stage for the Nazi takeover of    acted with valor, honor, and           good and thoughtful government
Germany a mere generation later.      dignity. I suspect we feel the         as well as for the benefit of those
World     War    II   was    more     greatest amount of grief at the        “who have borne the battle and
conclusively ended, but the Allied    tragedies we see befalling the         for his widow, and his orphan.”
agreement to restore French           nation we tried to protect. The
EX-POW BULLETIN - American Ex-Prisoners of War
Of course, we are always happy to
                        from the CEO                                receive your donations by mail as well.
                                                                    Your support enables us to maintain
                                                                    our programs. It also shows us that
                        Cheryl Cerbone                              the future of AXPOW is important to

                                                                    Speaking of Guidestar, you may have
                                                                    noticed our Gold Seal of Transparency
                                                                    on the home page of our website as
                                                                    well as on the front cover of each
                                                                    EX-POW Bulletin. Your officers spend
It’s a cool September morning here on Cape Cod…I can feel           days each year filling out the
the difference in the air as we make the transition to fall. My     requirements for us to obtain this very
next column will probably be filled with “I HATE WINTER!”…but       special recognition. It tells potential
right now I’m enjoying the weather.                                 donors that we are transparent in our
                                                                    finances, goals and plans.
Normally in September, I’m busy packing my helmet and
planning to meet Marsha, Debbie and Mom in Georgia for the          One donation we decided to make
POW/MIA Recognition Day ceremonies with The Ride Home.              again this year was to sponsor wreaths
It was a disappointment that this year’s event was canceled –       for the National Cemetery at
due to COVID concerns at Warner-Robins and the serious              Andersonville…the site of our National
injuries sustained by our National Director Moe Moyer, who          POW Museum. As you know,
runs The Ride each year. Please keep Moe and his wife Ginnie        Andersonville is our legacy – ensuring
in your prayers. We hope to see him in April in Texas for our       your experiences and your stories are
board meeting.                                                      never forgotten. There is more
                                                                    information on Wreaths Across
We’ve had a lot going on this summer at AXPOW. Guidestar            America in this Bulletin, and if you
finally realized that we were, in fact, a 501(c)3 and that opened   decide you would like to contribute,
a lot of donation doors. I don’t know how many of you are           your wreath will also be placed at
spending time on the Internet, but for those of you who are,        Andersonville. Our special link is;
we’ve got opportunities for you to make painless donations.         www.wreathsacrossamerica.org/AEPW

The first is Amazon Smile. We’ve got a notice on the home           The POW Museum itself is only newly
page of our website: www.axpow.org that allows you to click         reopened as we recover from COVID.
on and make AXPOW your charity. If you want, you can also           Programs that had been put on hold
check on our unique link: https://smile.amazon.com/ch/94-           last year should be restarted in 2022.
1430564 Make any purchase through the Amazon Smile                  This year, our board voted that unused
charity portal, and they'll make a donation to AXPOW—at no          funds be used for oral transcriptions
cost to you! Just use the link on the website, and designate        and a wayside exhibit near the Park
part of your purchase price to help fund our POW support            entrance to tell visitors about the POW
activities. Try it next time you make a buy on Amazon. It's         Memorial Grove.
painless. It makes shopping more satisfying. And you'll help
a great cause!                                                      From my family to yours, we wish you
                                                                    a very happy holiday season – running
The second is Facebook. I had no idea they participated in a        from Thanksgiving through New Year’s
program that let friends and family (or even total strangers)       Day. Please stay safe and healthy and
make a birthday/anniversary/important date donation. We just        pray for our military always.
received our first check from Facebook from friends who
wanted to honor me on my birthday. Again, it’s an easy
process. When my birthday was coming, I received a notice           Fondly
from Facebook that I could ask for donations to my favorite
charity. Naturally, it was AXPOW, and a number of friends did       Cheryl
make a donation.
EX-POW BULLETIN - American Ex-Prisoners of War
pow medsearch                                                                                        nso
Marsha Coke, Chairman                                                              Ruth Powell, Director
e-mail: axpow76010@yahoo.com                                                           665 NC Hwy 121
PO Box 3445                                                                       Greenville, NC 27834
Arlington, TX 76007-3445                                                             781-296-6307 cell
(817) 649-2979                                                                   powell.rut@verizon.net

Patients often seek advice first       amount of activity. The physician    or secondary to a variety of
from     their     primary     care    should also inquire about the        metabolic,      structural      or
physicians       regarding       the   effectiveness of current or          inflammatory disorders.
diagnosis and treatment of their       previous            treatment(s).    The pathophysiology of bunions
foot problems. The role of the         Observation of the patient’s gait    is poorly understood, but is
physician is to recognize and treat    and foot position and inspection     thought to be secondary to both
the underlying condition, prevent      of his/her footwear should be        hereditary and environmental
further injury or deformities, and     performed since tight fitting        factors. The fact that bunions
educate the patient about his/her      shoes may exacerbate the foot        occur commonly in families
disease. In order for this to occur,   condition, and modifications may     suggests a genetic predisposition
physicians require a basic             prevent further injury.              from ligamentous laxity and
understanding of the anatomy,                                               hyperpronation of the foot. The
pathophysiology,                and
biomechanics of the foot. This         Common Foot                          higher incidence in women
                                                                            compared to men is believed to
article focuses on three of the
most common conditions of the
                                       Disorders                            be due to tightly fitting women’s
                                                                            footwear. However, footwear
foot seen by primary care                                                   alone is not sufficient to explain
physicians in the ambulatory           Bunion                               this condition. The complex
setting: bunion, plantar fasciitis,                                         relationship of the first ray
and Morton’s neuroma.                  Bunion is derived from the Latin     biomechanics      and     hindfoot
                                       word meaning turnip. It is a bursa   mechanics     influence    bunion
Evaluation begins by taking a          sac that develops over the first     development. Additionally, any
thorough history which includes        metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint      disorder resulting in first MTP
questions regarding the quality,       as a result of a hallux valgus       joint inflammation may weaken
location, radiation, severity,         deformity of this joint. Hallux      MTP soft tissue restraints,
duration,    and     exacerbating      valgus refers to the lateral         predisposing to bunion formation.
and/or relieving factors related to    deviation of the first toe.
the pain. A family history of          However, in common parlance,         The pain associated with a bunion
congenital or acquired disorders       “bunion” has come to denote any      is caused by pressure and
of the foot should be sought.          bump or associated deformity of      frictional force exerted on the
Additional information should          the first MTP joint with deviation   skin, soft tissue, and bursa at the
include a history of previous          of the lateral great toe. Bunions    medial prominence of the first
injuries,    occupational      and     can be primary in the absence of     MTP joint. Over time, callous
recreational activities, and any       any known underlying diseases        formation and progression of the
recent changes in the type or                                               foot deformity cause internal
EX-POW BULLETIN - American Ex-Prisoners of War
medsearch, cont’d…                     considered if pain or functional
                                       disability persists or progresses
                                                                               Examination shows focal plantar
                                                                               medial pain over the medial
                                       despite conservative measures.          process of the calcalenal tubercle
                                                                               that may extend throughout the
subluxation      with   abnormal
mechanics resulting in articular       Plantar fasciitis                       longitudinal arch. This pain may
                                                                               be exacerbated by the forced
deterioration. A painful callous                                               dorsiflexion of the toes that
may also occur under the lateral       The plantar fascia or plantar
                                       aponeurosis is a fibrous band of        stretches the aponeurosis. Pain
subluxed                    medial                                             that is located posteriorly to the
sesamoid.¹ Additionally, changes       connective tissue located on the
                                       plantar surface of the foot. This       medial calcaneal tubercle or
in the biomechanics of the foot                                                which occurs with compression of
result in an imbalance which           fascia assists in forming the
                                       longitudinal arch of the foot. The      the calcaneus from a medial to
causes the patient to shift his/her                                            lateral direction suggests another
weight laterally and, in turn,         plantar fascia originates near the
                                       medial process of the calcaneal         diagnosis such as stress fracture,
increases pressure and pain at                                                 a heel pad disorder, a plantar
the head of the metatarsals            tubercle and inserts onto the
                                       plantar           ligamentocapsular     nerve entrapment (“jogger’s
(metatarsalgia).      Progressive                                              foot”), or periostitis.
lateral great toe deviation            complex of the first through fifth
produces a retrograde load on the      metatarsal heads. The origin of
                                       the plantar fascia is the most          Foot pain associated with plantar
first metatarsal, which deviates                                               fasciitis occurs immediately after
medially allowing for great toe        “fixed” point of this structure, and
                                       it is this site that is most prone to   standing or walking, especially
shifting, and begins a vicious                                                 when preceded by prolonged
cycle. Subsequently, the great         injury. It should be noted that
                                       heel       spurs      or   calcaneal    sitting (“start-up pain”). Thus,
toe may either override the                                                    patients will complain of pain,
second toe or, more commonly,          osteophytes have no relationship
                                       to plantar fasciitis. In fact, heel     particularly in the morning,
go beneath the second toe.                                                     occurring after taking their first
Elevation of the second toe may        spurs occur in 15% to 20% of the
                                       asymptomatic population and are         step. During the early phase of
result in significant second MTP                                               the disease, pain often improves
joint pain and a hammer toe            absent in many people with
                                       plantar fasciitis.⁴ Additionally, the   or resolves with continued
deformity of the second toe.                                                   walking. When pain occurs at
Frequently, the hammer toe may         plantar calcaneal spur originates
                                       at a different anatomic layer of        night or persists in the prone
be the greater source of                                                       position, other causes of heel pain
discomfort. Relief of hammer toe       the foot than the plantar fascia.
                                                                               should be sought, including stress
pain may require addressing an                                                 fracture or a nerve entrapment
associated bunion deformity            Plantar fasciitis is a clinical
                                       diagnosis that is most commonly         syndrome.            Additionally,
simultaneously.                                                                symptoms that persist despite
Initial treatment is primarily         seen in younger runners and
                                       patients between the ages of 40         treatment for plantar fasciitis
conservative and must first                                                    should prompt a search for
address the patient’s footwear.        and 60 years of age⁵ who are
                                       often slightly overweight and may       alternative diagnoses that affect
Foot padding, taping, night                                                    the heel.
splints, foot exercises, orthotic      be       deconditioned.        Other
devices,     nonsteroidal     anti-    contributing     factors     include
                                       obesity, recent weight gain, and        Plantar fasciitis may be caused by
inflammatory medications, or a                                                 overuse          and/or       other
combination of these treatment         occupations        that      require
                                       prolonged standing. Recently, it        biomechanical       factors.    The
modalities may be prescribed.                                                  pathophysiologic       mechanism,
Allowance should be made for           has been demonstrated that
                                       individuals suffering from plantar      particularly in runners, is thought
adequate space in the shoe to                                                  to be due to overuse caused by
prevent further injury. Orthotic       fasciitis develop a secondary
                                       contracture of the gastrocsoleus        repetitive microtrauma of the
devices may provide short-term                                                 plantar fascia. In this group of
symptomatic pain relief for mild       complex that may perpetuate the
                                       inflammation of the plantar             patients, plantar fasciitis has
to moderate hallux valgus                                                      been attributed to changes in
deformity,² although there is no       fascia. Rarely is it associated with
                                       a      systemic        inflammatory     footwear, running on hard
evidence     to    support     their                                           surfaces, excessive or increased
effectiveness in preventing its        condition            such         as
                                       spondyloarthropathy or infection.       running distance, or anatomical
progression.³ Surgery should be
EX-POW BULLETIN - American Ex-Prisoners of War
medsearch, cont’d…                      are continued for 6 to 8 weeks.
                                        For patients with continued
                                                                                  compression and irritation of the
                                                                                  third common digital nerve and
                                        symptoms, night splinting is              lead to nerve fiber degeneration,
                                        added. Casts or inserts may help          intraneural    and    juxtaneural
abnormalities such as a pes             in certain patients with abnormal         fibrosis, and hypertrophy of the
cavus, high arch deformity, or a        biomechanical examinations. For           nerve. Anatomical factors that
shortened Achilles tendon.              patients who are physically               may contribute to this condition
                                        active, recommendations should            include excessive motion of the
Patients     with    biomechanical      include temporary avoidance of            third and fourth metatarsals,
abnormalities affecting the leg         weightbearing            exercises.       juxtaposition of the third and
and thigh (e.g., excessive femoral      Although     nonsteroidal      anti-      fourth metatarsal heads and the
anteversion, lateral tibial torsion,    inflammatory       medication     is      branches of medial and lateral
or leg length discrepancy), ankle       commonly used, there have been            plantar nerves between the third
(e.g., equines), arch (e.g., pes        no      randomized,       clinically      nerve, and the third transverse
planus or pes cavus), or hindfoot       controlled trials to support their        intermetatarsal          ligament
(e.g., flexible rearfoot varus) are     benefit.⁵ However, a short course         overlying the third common
at increased risk of developing         of corticosteriods may provide            digital     nerve      and     its
plantar       fasciitis.⁶      These    short-term pain relief. Injections        communicating branches.
conditions      cause       abnormal    may be painful and may,
pronatory forces that, in turn,         inadvertently, result in plantar          Pathologic findings alone are
translate       into       excessive    fasciia rupture. Custom semirigid         insufficient    to   explain    the
biomechanical stress. This results      orthotics with a silicone heel cup        symptoms of Morton’s neuroma,
in microtrauma to the plantar           may be beneficial for patients            since these same findings may
fascia    leading      to    collagen   with preexisting biomechanical            occur        in     asymptomatic
degeneration. The end result,           abnormalities of the foot, such as        individuals. The diagnosis of
found pathologically, is a loss of      pes planus or pes cavus                   Morton’s neuroma is suspected
collagen fibers and an increase in      deformities.      For    refractory       clinically when patients complain
the vascularity and connective          patients, iontophoresis or casting        of pain located in the webspace
tissue matrix with chronic              treatment should be considered.           of their toes. Early in the course,
inflammatory changes.⁷                  For cases resistant to the above          patients may describe burning or
Diagnostic testing should be            measures      for    12    months,        tingling in this region. These
reserved for cases in which the         radiofrequency      lesioning    or       symptoms may progress to the
diagnosis is unclear in patients        surgical fasciotomy techniques            more typical paroxysmal, severe,
who have failed to respond to           are performed.                            sharp, lancinating pain that
appropriate treatment. Treatment                                                  occurs with weightbearing and
typically proceeds in a stepwise
fashion with more conservative,         Morton’s neuroma                          walking and is relieved by sitting,
                                                                                  removing       the   shoes,    and
noninvasive               mechanical                                              massaging and manipulating the
approaches used initially. Recent       Morton’s       neuroma,       initially
                                        described by Morton in 1876, is a         affected region of the forefoot.
evidence suggests that non-                                                       The pain, as previously noted,
weightbearing              stretching   reactive        fibrosis     of       a
                                        communicating branch of the               typically involves the third and
exercises to the plantar fascia                                                   occasionally the fourth webspace
provide improvement in pain and         third            nerve            and,
                                        histopathologically, is not a true        and may radiate to the third and
mobility         compared          to                                             fourth toe.
weightbearing Achilles tendon           neuroma. The neuroma is
stretching exercises.⁸ Patients         believed to be mechanically
                                        induced and most commonly                 The webspace compression test
should be instructed to avoid                                                     is used clinically for the diagnosis
wearing flat shoes and walking          affects the third common digital
                                        nerve located in the region of the        of Morton’s neuroma and takes
barefoot⁵ and started with a                                                      advantage             of         the
cushioned heel cup and Achilles         third webspace of the foot.
                                        Anatomic factors along with               pathophysiologic             process
and plantar fascia stretching                                                     responsible for this condition.
regimen. Arch taping, heat, ice         injury, irritation, or pressure from
                                        wearing pointed and/or high-              With the patient in a sitting or
massage, and ice baths or packs                                                   prone position, the examiner
may be added. These modalities          heeled       shoes       result      in
                                                                                  squeezes the third and fourth
EX-POW BULLETIN - American Ex-Prisoners of War
medsearch, cont’d…                    the calf muscles join with the
                                      tendon. Injuries in this area
                                                                             also teach the patient specific
                                                                             stretches and strength training
                                      often heal on their own but may        exercises to regain function and
metatarsal heads together with        do so slowly than injuries in the      prevent future problems.
one hand and, using the other         muscular area of the leg, since        Less often, patients who do not
hand, compresses the soft tissue      there is less of a blood supply to     benefit from these therapies may
in the involved webspace. A           promote healing.                       require surgery.
positive test results in pain.
Ultrasonography may be used in
cases of diagnostic uncertainty,      Conditions and issues                  Achilles tendon injury
however, Morton’s neuroma                                                    prevention
remains a clinical diagnosis.         Chronic, long-lasting Achilles
                                      tendon disorders range from            Since a lack of flexibility is a
Treatment options for Morton’s        overuse injuries that cause            major      cause       of     injury,
neuroma include avoiding pointed      inflammation or degeneration, to       proper stretching of the lower leg
and/or high-heeled shoes, using       acute traumas such as Achilles         is the most basic way to prevent
metatarsal        pads,        and    tendon ruptures. Pain along the        Achilles tendon strains or tears.
administering local corticosteroid    back of the ankle or in the heel       As is the case with many other
injections, the latter of which       are often the result of distinct       conditions injuries, it is important
must be approached with caution.      problems along the course of the       to stay as fit as possible during
Inadvertent extravasations into       Achilles tendon or at its point of     the healing and rehabilitation
the toe adjacent to the MTP joint     attachment to the heel of the          process. Swimming and other
may result in significant MTP joint   foot. This type of pain may also       non-impact       exercises        are
instability. In refractory cases,     be caused by retrocalcaneal            best, including bicycling, if that
neurolysis,    transposition, or      bursitis, which is sometimes           activity does not cause any pain
surgical excision of the nerve is     called Achilles tendon bursitis.       (which would indicate a liklihood
performed.       Recurrence      of   Learn about more specific Achilles     of reinjury). Running should be
symptoms must provoke a search        tendon conditions in the articles      avoided at all costs until a
for a “stump neuroma” or              shown below.                           rehabilitation specialist, trainer or
pathology of adjacent structures,                                            doctor advises that sufficient
such     as   the    MTP    joints.
Recurrence after surgical excision
                                      Treatments                             recovery has taken place.

is most commonly associated           Most people who have injuries
with incomplete nerve release or      and inflammation related to
excision.                             overuse of the tendon undergo
                                      nonsurgical treatments. These
                                      can include:
Achilles Tendon Injuries              •       rest or other modification         National Institutes
                                      of activities                                   of Health
The Achilles tendon is a thick        •       physical            therapy       9000 Rockville Pike
tendon located in the back of the     (rehabilitation)
leg.     It      connects       the
                                                                             Bethesda, Maryland 20892
                                      •       nonsteroidal           anti-
gastrocnemius       and     soleus    inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
muscles in the calf to an insertion   such as ibuprofen
point at the calcaneus (heel          •       (for                  some
bone). It is the strongest tendon     patients) platelet-rich plasma             A part of the U.S.
in the body and allows people to      injections (also known as PRP          Department of Health and
push off while walking, running       injections)                             Human Services, NIH is
and jumping.                          In          rehabilitation,        a     the largest biomedical
                                      physical therapist or athletic
Achilles injuries can occur in        trainer may employ ultrasound,
                                                                              research agency in the
several places, but the most          electrical     stimulation,     cold             world.
common area is at the muscle-         therapy (icing) and massage to
tendon junction – the area where      promote healing. They will
PRESUMPTIVE                              10. PSYCHOSIS                            duodenum (the first part of the
                                            A generic term for any of the            small intestine).
SERVICE CONNECTED                           insanities.
   DISABILITIES                                                                      20. CIRRHOSIS
                                            11. PANIC DISORDER                       Scar tissue replaces normal,
        Public Law 97-37                    Characterized by discrete periods        healthy tissue, blocking the flow of
by William Paul Skelton, Ill, MD F.A.C.P.
                                            of apprehension or fear.                 blood through the organ and
                                                                                     preventing it from working as it
                                            12.  GENERALIZED            ANXIETY      should.
All ex-POWs should keep these.
                                                                                     21. STROKE & COMPLICATIONS
Whenever you open your claim,
                                            13.    OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE              A stroke occurs when the blood
take them with you and make sure
                                            DISORDER                                 supply to part of the brain is
the adjudication officer sees them
                                            This may be either obsessions or         suddenly interrupted or when a
and have him read them! Make
                                            compulsions.                             blood vessel in the brain bursts,
sure he knows all about them. Tell
                                                                                     spilling blood into the spaces
him your own story as it relates to
                                            14. POST TRAUMATIC STRESS                surrounding brain cells.
your problem.....
                                            The re-experiencing of a trauma of       22. HEART & COMPLICATIONS
                                            a past recognized stress or that can     Heart       disease       includes
Also known as articular trauma.
                                            produce symptoms of distress.            atherosclerotic heart disease, and
                                                                                     hypertensive vascular disease
                                            15. ATYPICAL ANXIETY DISORDER            (including   hypertensive    heart
The total lack of vitamins in the
                                            This is a category that is used for      disease, and hypertension).
                                            diagnosis when the affected
                                            individual appears to have an            23. OSTEOPOROSIS
                                            anxiety disorder that does not meet      Osteoporosis is a disease in which
Caused by a severe lack of vitamin
                                            the criteria for entry into any of the   bones become fragile and more
B1 (thiamine) in the diet.
                                            other known anxiety disorders.           likely to break.
                                            16.    DEPRESSIVE        NEUROSIS
A disease characterized by frequent
                                            /DYSTHYMIC DISORDER                      Disability compensation is a
and watery stools, usually with
                                            Characterized     by     depressive      monetary benefit paid to Veterans
blood and mucus, and accompanied
                                            periods in which the patient feels       who are determined by VA to be
by rectal and abdominal pain,
                                            sad and/or down and has a loss of        disabled by an injury or illness that
fever, and dehydration.
                                            interest in the usual activities that    was incurred or aggravated during
                                            cause pleasure or involvement in         active military service. These
                                            usual pastimes.                          disabilities are considered to be
The actual freezing of tissue.
                                                                                     service connected.
                                            17. PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY
                                            Literally Greek for the suffering of     To be eligible for compensation, the
Infection with any type of worms
                                            nerves outside of the brain and          Veteran must have been separated
that parasitize the human.
                                            spinal cord.                             or discharged under conditions
                                                                                     other than dishonorable.
                                            18. IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME
Merely means bad nutrition.
                                            Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is        Monthly disability compensation
                                            a common disorder of the intestines      varies with the degree of disability
                                            that leads to crampy pain, gas,          and the number of eligible
It is caused by a virtual lack of
                                            bloating, and changes in bowel           dependents. Veterans with certain
vitamin B3 (niacin) in the diet.
                                            habits.                                  severe disabilities may be eligible
                                                                                     for additional special monthly
                                            19. PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE                 compensation (SMC). Disability
                                            A peptic ulcer is a sore or hole in      compensation benefits are not
The lack of protein and calories in
                                            the lining of the stomach or             subject to federal or state income
the diet generally produces no
lasting side effects.
                                     with disability claims for asthma,     allow veterans to remain in their
                                     rhinitis and sinusitis based on        homes and receive support as
                                     presumed particulate matter            they age. Executive Director, VA
                                     exposures during military service      Office of Geriatrics & Extended
                                     in Southwest Asia and other areas      Care     Dr.  Scotte     Hartronft
                                     from open burn pits, sand, dust        addressed     VA’s     focus   on
                                     and particulate matter, oil well       expanding these services, as well
                                     fires, etc. The Southwest Asia         as modernizing and improving
                                     Theater of operations refers to        systems for healthy aging
                                     Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, the        including facility-based care,
                                     neutral zone between Iraq and          technological     access,     and
                                     Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, the      geriatric expertise. Many of our
                                     United Arab Emirates, Oman, the        members and their families have
                                     Gulf of Aden, the Gulf of Oman,        experienced the short comings of
                                     the Persian Gulf, the Arabian Sea,     the current practices.
Legislative officer
                                     the Red Sea and the airspace
Charles A Susino                     above        these        locations.   Other proposed        bills   worth
                                     Additionally,      this     includes   watching are:
                                     veterans      who       served    in
Listening to the news, it would
                                     Southwest Asia beginning Aug. 2,             H.R. 2127: Toxic Expo-
appear that Congress is totally
                                     1990, to the present, or               sure in the American Military
preoccupied with COVID, COVID
                                     Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Syria or      (TEAM) Act
impacts, and infrastructure and
                                     Djibouti beginning Sept. 19,                 S 927: Toxic Exposure in
of course Afghanistan.      While
                                     2001, to the present. These            the American Military Act
those issues have taken the
                                     conditions must have manifested
majority of attention, there has
                                     within 10 years of a qualifying                H.R. 2268: Keeping Our
been some slow progress on
                                     period of military service.            Promises Act
issues facing America’s Veterans.
                                                                                    Keeping Our Promises Act
In June, the House and Senate
                                     Researchers, including experts at      This bill expands the list of dis-
Committees on Veterans’ Affairs
                                     VA, are actively studying airborne     eases that are provided a pre-
introduced         comprehensive
                                     hazards like burn pits and other       sumption of service-connection
legislation on toxic exposure. The
                                     military            environmental      for veterans who served in the
House bill is the Honoring our
                                     exposures. Ongoing research will       Republic of Vietnam between
PACT Act and the Senate bill is
                                     help better understand potential       January 9, 1962, and May 7,
the Comprehensive and Overdue
                                     long-term health effects and           1975.
Support for Troops of War Act of
                                     provide better care and services.
2021 or the COST of War Act.
                                     Many health conditions related to             H.R.    2569:    Veterans
                                     these hazards are temporary and        Agent Orange Exposure Equity
. If you haven’t already done so,
                                     should disappear after the             Act- To provide for a presump-
we encourage all veterans, family
                                     exposure ends. Other longer-           tion of service connection for
members, friends, and supporters
                                     term health issues may be caused       diseases associated with expo-
to do their part and contact their
                                     by a combination of hazardous          sure to certain herbicide agents
Congressman. This issue is close
                                     exposures, injuries, or illnesses      for veterans who served in close
to home for the EXPOWs where it
                                     experienced during your military       proximity to the Republic of Viet-
took Congress until the 1980’s to
                                     service including blast or noise       nam.
establish    presumptives      for
                                     injuries. This ongoing research is
America’s. Sadly, very sadly, it
                                     vital to addressing our veterans                 S. 1965: Planning for
still takes far too long for
                                     health care needs.                     Aging Veterans Act of 2021, Add
Congress to act on health issues
facing our veterans during their                                            to List bill to direct the Secretary
                                     The House Veterans’ Affairs
time of service.                                                            of Veterans Affairs to improve
                                     Subcommittee        on    Health
                                     conducted a hearing on access to       long-term care provided to vet-
On August 2, 2021, the VA began                                             erans by the Department of Vet
                                     VA’s home and community-based
processing new presumptive
                                     services. Ideally, these services
conditions for toxic exposures
legislative, cont’d…                                  United States Postal Service
                                               Statement of Ownership, Management, and
erans Affairs, and for other purpos-                          Circulation
                                         EX-POW BULLETIN Pub. # 0161-7451
       S. 2172: Building Solutions       filing date 10/2021
for Veterans Experiencing Home-          Frequency: quarterly (4 issues annually)
lessness Act of 2021- this bill was      $40.00 annual subscription price, or as part of membership dues
just introduced by Jon Tester in         Pub. Office: PO Box 3445, Arlington, TX 76007-3445
June.    This particular issue has       Marsha M. Coke, CFO
been raised by AXPOW for many            (817) 649-2979
years with respect to the hardship       Headquarters: PO Box 3445, Arlington, TX 76007-3445
to the veteran and the embarrass-        Publisher: Milton M. Moore, Jr., 2965 Sierra Bermeja, Sierra Vista, AZ
ment to our country.                     85650
                                         Editor: Cheryl Cerbone, 23 Cove View Drive, South Yarmouth, MA
    S. 89: Ensuring Survivor             Managing Editor: Cheryl Cerbone, 23 Cove View Drive, South
Benefits during COVID-19 Act of          Yarmouth, MA 02664
2021- this bill would require the        Owner: American Ex-Prisoners of War, PO Box 3445, Arlington, TX
Secretary of Veterans Affairs to         76007-3445
secure     medical    opinions  for      Known bondholders, mortgagees, other security holders: NONE
veterans with service-connected          Tax status: Purpose, function and non-profit status of this organization
disabilities who die from COVID-19       and the exempt status for federal income tax purposes has not changed
to determine whether their service-      during the preceding 12 months.
connected disabilities were the
principal or contributory causes of      Publication Title: EX-POW BULLETIN
                                         Circulation Data:
                                         Issue July/Aug/Sept 2021
VA announced this past quarter that
                                         Since last file date 10/2020
it will begin implementing the three        Average-12 months Single Issue Jul-Sep 2021
presumptive conditions associated        Total copies printed:
with Agent Orange exposure that                    6471                   6214
were added in the National Defense       Total paid/and or requested:
Authorization Act of 2021: bladder                 6335                   6091
cancer,      hypothyroidism,     and     Free distribution outside the mail:
Parkinsonism.      We     encourage               47                         55
affected veterans and survivors to       Total distribution:
contact their Service Officer with                 6382                   6146
questions and concerns.                  Copies not distributed:
                                                   89                         68
                                         Total: 6471                      6214
As a reminder, a user friendly
                                         Percent paid/requested circulation:
source of information on the                       98%                           99%
proposed bills, Bills signed into law,
VA committee members, and other          Publication Statement of Ownership Form 3526 filed with the
details are available on line at         Postmaster, United States Postal Service, Arlington, TX. Copy held at
govtrack.us. We encourage you to         National Headquarters, Arlington, TX
access and other sources of
information to stay current on laws      American Ex-Prisoners of War is a non-profit corporation,
effecting veterans.                      incorporated in Washington state, October 11, 1949, recorded as
                                         Document No. 133762, Roll 1, Page 386-392.
                                      On July 11th, author Mary              designed an assistive device for
                                      Gorman presented a program on          more     efficiently    digging
                                      the raiders that was attended by       headstone holes.
                                      75 visitors. Park staff will be
                                      providing two programs on
                                      September 17th focused on POWs
                                      buried in the National Cemetery.
                                      The park is beginning design
                                      services for Section Q to best
                                      determine future burials and
                                      preservation      of     cemetery
                                      integrity. Potential funding for all
                                      NPS-managed               National
                                      Cemeteries is being discussed at
                                      the national level.           Park
                                      management will be providing           The Travelling Exhibit is at the US
                                      needed information to support          Army Airborne and Special
                                      this combined effort.                  Operations Museum at Fort Bragg
Andersonville NHS                                                            in North Carolina and will remain
496 Cemetery Road                     AXPOW funds that were unable           there through end of September.
Andersonville, GA 31711               to be used last year are being         We have been unable to find a
(229) 924-0343                        used to fund an oral history           location for the exhibit from
                                      transcription project. Proposals       October forward. Any assistance
Gia Wagner,
                                      have been received, and staff are      would be appreciated as the park
Superintendent                        reviewing for award process. The       is struggling to find interested
                                      current funding will provide           and size-appropriate venues. We
Greetings from                        transcription services for part of     are interested in discussing the
Andersonville…                        the base proposal (transcription       future of the Traveling Exhibit as
                                      of 99 interviews and copy-editing      a result and ideas to continue
We had steady visitation during       of an additional 25 interviews).       sharing stories.
the summer months, and the            Additional funds will be needed to
weekends continue to see about        complete this phase.          The      Phyllis Hine traveled to the park
100-250 visitors as we move into      contract was also written with         to donate her father’s POW
the fall season.       Mitigations    options to complete additional         canteen and photographs. Philip
remain in place to maintain one-      transcriptions and copy-editing.       Daniel Tolan was a POW for 42
way traffic, protect employees,       We also have a draft design for a      months during WWII and helped
and maintain cleanliness. The         new wayside exhibit for the POW        build the Sack of Cement Cross
park films are being shown again      Memorial Grove as part of the          that is featured in the National
in theater with limited seating for   2020 funds.                            POW Museum.
visitor protection. Work will begin
to upgrade the museum lighting        To help with physically distancing      As always, we hope you and
in the next couple of months.         as part of COVID safety                yours are well, thriving, and plan
                                      measures, two park employees           to visit us soon.

                                                      Wreaths Across America
                                                      Coming to Andersonville
                                                       National Historic Site
                                                        December 18, 2021
namPOW news
                                                                   rice. And a banana. And even a few sips of
                                                                   beer. It’s obviously a good sign. We’d be
                                                                   going home soon!

                                                                   And I was never going to complain about food
                                         Paul Galanti
                                      804-389-1668                 We didn’t go home that year but, for whatever
                               paulgalanti@mac.com                 reason, the communists went through this
                                                                   charade every year. It served as a way to
                                                                   mark time. Infrequently, they’d bring in their
                                                                   “Catholic priest” who’d serve communion to
                                                                   a few “believers” (as the Communists called

Christmas in Hanoi
                                                                   them) while dutifully recording the event with
                                                                   their propaganda cameras.

(x7)                                                               In the Son Tay prison camp, I remember
                                                                   hearing the Christmas story according to Marx
Heartbreak Hotel interrogation prison.                             & Lenin on the camp P.A. system.
Hanoi December 25, 1966. It was bitter cold and damp. I’d          Summarized with apologies for a 50 year old
been a POW for a little more than six months with much of          memory: Jesus was a poor working man who
it in a sweltering solitary confinement.                           was being exploited by the capitalistic foreign
                                                                   invader Pontius Pilate, But Jesus rallied the
Fifty of us had been paraded through Hanoi’s city streets as       masses against the imperialist colonialists and
thousands of Vietnamese chanted obscenities and threw              for that he was martyred by the criminal
various objects at us at the urging of their communist political   invaders. Moral. We are all the same. Only
commissars. I’d had several brutal interrogation sessions that     the U.S. government exploiting its lackeys in
had left my emaciated body screaming in pain. Our daily            South Vietnam, like the Roman imperialists,
meals of watery pumpkin gruel and rice had recently changed        are attempting to enslave the heroic
to sewer greens and rice twice a day.                              “Vietnamese people.”

A mouth-watering scent wafted through the boarded up               A long diatribe against “Johnson, McNamara
windows momentarily eclipsing the harsh, sewer smell of the        and Dean Rusk” would follow followed by
toilet bucket. Wow… What was that? The smell of onions? Of         exhortations to “side with the Vietnamese
actual meat? Of an exotic oriental smelling aroma of fish          people” as opposed to following blindly “The
sauce?                                                             U.S. Government.”

To digress slightly and for purposes of total disclosure, I am     Each year the Christmas “celebration” in four
and have always been an optimist. Totally, unrepentant and         or five different prisons went about the same.
without any hint-of-shame optimist!                                In 1972, several hundred of us were in a
From the day in June 1966 when I’d parachuted into North           mountain camp near Lang Son near the
Vietnam from my burning A-4 Skyhawk and been immediately           Chinese border. It was somehow different. I
captured, I was convinced my internment would last six             remember thinking about the last eight
months to a year (at most).                                        Christmases – 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969,
                                                                   1970, 1971, 1972 — all of them in WESTPAC
So now I was approaching my first Christmas in Hanoi. Last         on cruise or in POW Camps. I thought, “You
year my squadron and ship had been at sea flying combat            know, I’ve been here a long time. (But felt
missions off the coast of South Vietnam but we’d had a             better when I realized that I was a newcomer.
“stand-down” for Christmas day, itself. The meal aboard ship       Good grief, Alvarez has been here 22 months
had been a traditional Christmas dinner. And now with              longer than I have.) This is really a good sign.”
delightful aromas emanating from the usually pungent
cellblock, my morale skyrocketed – and mouth watered. My           I thought, for the thousandth time, “We
emaciated 100 lb. frame longed for something that tasted as        should be out of here in six months to a year.”
good as the aroma that drifted through the window boards.
                                                                   I was wrong. We were home in less than two
When the meal came, it was a small chunk of turkey flavored        months. The next Christmas was MUCH better!
with nuoc mam, the Vietnamese fish sauce. And some white
                                     Email friends that need to be        wheelchairs, scooters, CPAP
                                     notified?                            machines can all be donated to
                                                                          veterans organizations? Hearing
Mary Schantag, Chairman              If     Arlington     is     under    aids can be reprogrammed for
                                     consideration, they can only         those less fortunate at a very
P.O.W. Network                       accept “entire” remains or           low cost when donated to
info@pownetwork.org                  cremains. The trend to keep a        someone in need.
                                     vial, or small container of ashes
                                     may sound like a way to ease         Are there ID cards that must be
If tomorrow                          the grief, but there are             cancelled (military retirement or
                                     consequences.                        disability), or even concealed
never comes                                                               carry or firearms permits? If
                                     Do they have the phone number        you own firearms, what are they
No one is promised another           to call Social Security or the       to do with them? Is there a list
tomorrow.                            Veterans Admin to stop checks?       of kind, serial number, value,
                                     Do they know that if a check is      even a picture?
But what if the kiss good night,     cashed (SSN/VA) and a loved
tonight, is the last one? Or the     one dies, that latest check may      Do they have phone numbers
“I love you, be careful” as we       be WITHDRAWN from the bank           and account numbers to access,
close the door as a loved one        without notice, leaving checks to    change or close bank accounts,
leaves, is the last time we get to   bounce or bills to pay if there is   utility accounts, car payments,
say that, or hear the response?      not sufficient monies in the         mortgage payments, credit card
                                     account?                             accounts, or cell phones? Do you
In the desperate, alone darkness                                          receive paper bills to make this
that envelops us immediately         If you are 100% VA disabled,         easy, or are all your bill copies
after a loss, can your loved one     they will need a Service Officer     received by email or only online
take the first steps to survive as   to apply for spousal benefits.       after you access an account? Do
a widow or widower? The shock,       There will be paperwork, and a       they have the passwords for the
the grief, the fog, the pain,        very long wait before benefits       computer                     and
overtakes every need we have         are approved if they qualify.        passwords/account numbers for
to survive, for a very, very, long   They will need to change their       access to those online sites and
time.                                ID card if you were their            accounts?
                                     sponsor. It’s too late to file a     Do they know how to gas the
Do they know where to find the       disability claim AFTER you pass,     car? Or how often to have the oil
Will, Life Insurance Policies, car   no matter how ill you were.          changed in the car? What oil to
titles, mortgage papers, keys to                                          use? What trusted mechanic to
lockers, bank deposit boxes, or      They need to call Social Security    take it too? Do they know how
the safe? Do they have access        and see what your death does         to use a GPS or even an old
to your DD214 and an accurate        to their benefits. There is more     fashioned map?
listing of awards and decorations    paperwork.
if needed? Can they find a copy                                           Will they know how to turn off
of your birth certificate, social    Did you get meds by mail – they      the breaker in the electrical box
security card, and marriage          need to be stopped. Do they          or how to turn off the main water
license?                             know how to dispose of the           supply? Know that you need not
                                     meds in the home that can no         turn off the whole house to turn
Will they have the answers as to     longer be used? Please – do not      off a toilet’s water supply? How
parent’s names, grandparents,        flush and contaminate the water      to flush a toilet when the water
siblings and spouses, schooling,     supply. Drop off at a police         is shut off? How to relight a hot
jobs, military, hobbies that the     station or consult your pharmacy     water tank, or fill a water
funeral home will ask?               or the VA for ways to dispose of     softener? Who to call if the
                                     properly.                            plumbing, furnace or A/C needs
Do you have best friends that                                             repairs?      How to change a
need to be told of your passing?     If you have special needs did        furnace filter?
                                     you know that glasses, braces,
pow/mia cont’d…
How about the lawn and weed or
snow removal? If there is storm      THE CONTRASTING CASES OF
damage, or a tree falls, is there
someone you call?                    AMERICAN AND JAPANESE-AMERICAN
                                     WORLD WAR II INTERNEES
Take the time to call their phone,
and leave an unexpected “I love      by Martin Meadows
you” message they can keep to
hear your voice when times are       INTRODUCTION. It has been more than 76 years since I was
tough. Tuck an extra cologne or      among the nearly 4,000 American and other Allied-country
perfume aside so they can put a      nationals who were liberated from Manila's Santo Tomas
bit on their pillow at night and     Internment Camp (STIC) on 3 February 1945. Despite that
know you are still by their side.    passage of time, however, I continue to harbor two grievances
Tell them every penny they find      concerning the U.S. coverage of two related but separate and
                                     distinct subjects linked to World War II (WWII): (1) The American
when you are gone, is you walking
                                     public’s virtually total ignorance of the subject of Japan's WWII
with them, as it’s an angel penny
                                     American civilian captives, or internees; and (2) the sharp
from heaven. Tell them not to be
                                     contrast between their lack of coverage and the extensive (and
scared or surprised if they think    continuing) amount of attention accorded in the U.S. to the
they hear you or feel you on         subject of U.S. government treatment of WWII Japanese-
lonely nights.                       American internees. This analysis will discuss each grievance in
                                     turn, focusing on the main reasons for the contrasting nature of
Don’t wait. No one is promised       the coverage, and on how that difference contributed to the
another tomorrow.                    failures and successes, respectively, of the American and the
                                     Japanese-American efforts to achieve restitution. Lastly, this
                                     study will examine certain neglected aspects of the subject at
   As of September 9, 2021           issue in the concluding section.
   AMERICANS MISSING                 Before proceeding, several distinctions and clarifications should
            AND                      be cited, for the sake of accuracy (and to forestall potential
                                     criticisms); but brevity dictates that not all of them will be used
                                     here. They include the following: (1) In the context of this
   FROM THE VIETNAM                  survey, the term “Japanese-American” is not always appropriate,
       WAR IS 1,584                  as not all those of Japanese descent in the U.S. and in the then
                                     Territory of Hawaii were U.S. citizens during WWII. (2) The word
                                     commonly used to include all diaspora ethnic Japanese,
                                     regardless of their citizenship, is Nikkei; a term used herein,
                                     though not comparable, is “Japanese-American community.” (3)
                                     Because not all Japanese-Americans were interned, it would be
                                     inaccurate to refer to them — although I do so — as “internees”
                                     (as distinguished from military prisoners, or “POWs”). (4) To
                                     simplify, instead of using the terms “former internees” or
                                     “ex-internees,” they will be referred to simply as “internees.”
                                      Finally, a note to emphasize that my grievances are not personal;
                                     this survey is the outcome not of prejudice, antipathy and/or
                                     bitterness, but rather of an examination of the historical record.

                                     GRIEVANCE #1. The reasons for the ignorance of the American
                                     internees’ case in my opinion result largely if not entirely from
                                     deliberate policy decisions by both the Japanese and the American
                                     governments. The principal reason Japanese leaders always have
                                     desired to conceal the facts of their handling of WWII captives
                                     (both military POWs and civilian internees) needs no explanation
civilian, cont’d…                       greatest number of American civilians in U.S. history, and that
                                        the U.S. government was at the least partly responsible. (3)
                                        No doubt most important, the desire to ensure that Japan would
— they simply do not want it known      be an ally against the Soviet Union in the rapidly-developing
how brutally they treated their         cold war. And, to support the view that the U.S. government
prisoners.    As evidence of that       did not treat American internees equitably, note that it provided
mistreatment, here are some             them only minimal compensation for their internment (a
illustrative facts and figures:         maximum of $2,200 per STIC adult), especially so in
 Among American POWs in Europe,         comparison with reparations from WWII Allied countries to their
slightly more than one percent died     own internees (an average of at least $15,000 each).
while prisoners; among Japan’s
American POWs, about 40% died in        GRIEVANCE #2. And now to the second grievance, concerning
captivity.      Among     American      the grossly disparate treatment within the U.S. of the two
internees in Europe, 3.5% died in       categories of internees, a situation for which the U.S.
prison; among American internees        government and the Japanese-American community bear
of Japan, 11% died in captivity —       primary responsibility. First, just as the U.S. government has
more than triple the European rate.     been mainly responsible for Americans’ ignorance of the
(Fewer than 0.02% of Japanese-          American internees’ case, so too it has contributed considerably
Americans died as internees.)           to the disparity of coverage, since ignorance of the issue
 Moreover, Japanese motivation to       obviously has led to its lack of coverage. On the other hand,
suppress the facts has been greatly     however, the U.S. government could not have prevented
reinforced by the post-WWII growth      widespread knowledge, and thus extensive coverage, of the
of right-wing ultra-nationalism in      Japanese-American case. That is because the government
Japan. As a result, Japan has           could not legally have censored any, let alone all, of the
always refused even to discuss —        numerous efforts to publicize the Japanese-American case, and
let alone to award — reparations        also because those efforts were led not only by the Japanese-
payments to its American internees,     American community but also by what could be called the civil
citing the provisions of the 1951       rights community, which is often an influential factor in such
peace treaty with the U.S. And in       instances.     Conversely, though the government could not
that regard, it is important to         suppress awareness of the Japanese-American case, it was able
underscore the fact that the            to do so in the American internees’ case, because that occurred
American government at every step       outside of the U.S. and thus beyond public notice, did not
of the way has sided with Japan         involve either civil rights violations or the civil rights
against any and every attempt by        community, and affected a far smaller number of individuals
the American internees to seek          (a few thousand as against more than 100,000).
reparations from Japan.        The
reasons for that stance are             As for the Japanese-American community, its lengthy pursuit
examined next.                          of restitution achieved complete success in 1988, when the
                                        U.S. Congress formally apologized for the government's WWII
The motivations of the U.S.             actions, and passed the Civil Liberties Act. That Act, and its
government both to conceal the          later amendments, awarded $20,000 in reparations to almost
facts, and to side with Japan, in my    all WWII-era Japanese-Americans (of whom more than 80,000
opinion include (in addition to the     were still alive), regardless of their wartime status — that is,
provisions of the aforesaid peace       regardless of their citizenship, their treatment (e.g.,
treaty) these three major ones: (1)     internment, relocation, or neither), their ages, or even whether
The desire to cover up the              they had been repatriated to Japan or had actually fought for
government’s           role        in   Japan. The Act also authorized creation of a Civil Liberties
actually preventing, not merely         Public Education Fund, which has served to insert the Japanese-
discouraging, American civilians        American point of view into the country's educational system
from leaving the Philippines prior to   as well as into the historical record. And the Japanese-
the Pearl Harbor attack (for            American case has continued to receive public attention as well
instance, by refusing to furnish        as to achieve further successes, which need not be cited here.
required travel documents). (2)           In short, ever since WWII, Americans have displayed the
The desire to avoid any negative        sharpest possible contrast in their knowledge of and interest
reaction that might have resulted       in the two categories of WWII internees discussed in this study.
from Americans' knowledge that a
foreign enemy had captured the
civilian, cont’d…                                                     In summary, thanks in part to the
                                                                      less savory side of its history, the
CONCLUSION. The contrasting outcomes traced above —
                                                                      Japanese-American community not
resulting from contrasts in awareness, and thus in coverage —
                                                                      only    ultimately     achieved    its
seem destined to be more or less permanent; thus a more
                                                                      objectives,      it    is    virtually
complete analysis than so far provided is needed to produce a
                                                                      invulnerable to attack. Conversely,
fuller explanation, and judgment, of those contrasting results.
                                                                      the American internees who were
  The standard explanation — which is espoused by the
                                                                      victims of Imperial Japan's Greater
Japanese-American community — follows conventional lines:
                                                                      East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
   In accordance with “the American dream,” Japanese-
                                                                      appear      destined     to   remain
Americans “worked hard and played by the rules” — particularly
                                                                      invulnerable as well — except that
the rules of the American political system, including in particular
                                                                      they are invulnerable to the public
the election of Japanese-Americans to the U.S. Congress. Thus
                                                                      attention and support Americans
they were much more able to promote their cause and influence
                                                                      bestow on the Japanese-American
public opinion than were the virtually unknown, ignored, and
                                                                      community. Their efforts to achieve
numerically insignificant American internees. While that
                                                                      restitution were unable to gain
explanation has merit, it is not the whole story; there is a
                                                                      traction within the American public
darker side to consider. A detailed account of that aspect,
                                                                      and were aimed primarily at the
briefly summarized next, can be found in an unpublished
                                                                      U.S. government — which itself,
article-length manuscript by John J. Stephan, professor
                                                                      however, undercut their efforts, as
emeritus of history at the University of Hawaii, who is fully
                                                                      explained earlier.         Thus, by
conversant with Japan's language and history. (Complete
                                                                      comparison with the efforts of the
citation: John J. Stephan, “Injustice Contrived: Wartime
                                                                      Japanese-American         community,
Internment as Political Theater,” Honolulu, 2021. Stephan
                                                                      those of the American internees
currently is updating the cited version and hopes to soon upload
                                                                      proved to be pitifully feeble. And
it to the site ResearchGate.net where one can search for it by
                                                                      there the story of these two sharply
name and/or title.)
                                                                      contrasting histories must rest, for
                                                                      now if not forever. That is, unless
To cite only the barest essentials, among other things Stephan
                                                                      the remnants of the American
outlines the pre-Pearl Harbor beliefs and actions of a minority
                                                                      internees,          and/or       their
(approximately one-fourth) of America’s Japanese-American
                                                                      descendants, can somehow muster
community, almost all of them located in the then Territory of
                                                                      the will, the energy, and the
Hawaii. According to Stephan, that minority harbored a
                                                                      financial and political support to
“racist-nationalist virus”; actively supported Japanese
                                                                      gain public recognition and thereby
expansionism in Asia; did not intend to settle in the U.S.; made
                                                                      at least modify their side of the
trips back to Japan; and on several occasions hosted visiting
                                                                      story for the better.
members of the Japanese military. Their actions were so
potentially incriminating that, after Pearl Harbor, they sought
to dispose of evidence of their sympathies. Thenceforth,
Japanese-Americans in general made — and continue to make             Reprinted with permission from the
— similar efforts to discourage any and all references to the           CPOW September 2021 issue
aforesaid minority’s compromising pre-WWII history. Stephan
also pinpoints the various deficiencies — simplifications,
distortions, etc. — in the Japanese-American version of their
relationship with the U.S. government. In view of such flaws,
one may well wonder why the Japanese-American story, as
presented to the American public since WWII, has never been                         CPOW
successfully challenged. The reason is simple; as Stephan                  Civilian Ex-Prisoners
pointed out in a personal email, any criticism of the Japanese-                   of War
American community's presentation of its history is virtually
impossible to publish. In his words, that history is based upon
“a civil rights narrative that the Civil Liberties Act of 1988               Sally Meadows,
turned into orthodoxy enforced within the government, media,                   Commander
and academe.”
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