EX-POW BULLETIN - American Ex-Prisoners of War
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EX-POW BULLETIN the official voice of the American Ex-Prisoners of War 501(c)3 Veterans Service Organization Volume 78 www.axpow.org Number 10/11/12 October~November~December 2021 We exist to help those who cannot help themselves November 11 ~ Veterans Day 2021
October-December, 2021 table of contents Officers/Directors 4 National Commander 5 CEO 6 Medsearch 7 Legislative 12 Ownership Statement 13 Andersonville 14 NamPOW 15 POW/MIA 16 Civilian 17 News 20 Events 20 Father’s Wings 21 Wreaths 24 On the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month of Never Forgotten 26 1918, an armistice, or temporary cessation of hostilities, New members 27 was declared between the Allied nations and Germany in Contributions 28 the First World War, then known as “the Great War.” Taps/Chaplain 29 Biography Form 33 Commemorated as Armistice Day beginning the following Voluntary Funding 33 year, November 11th became a legal federal holiday in the United States in 1938. In the aftermath of World War II Publisher and the Korean War, Armistice Day became Veterans Day, PNC Milton M Moore Jr a holiday dedicated to American veterans of all wars. 2965 Sierra Bermeja Sierra Vista, AZ 85650 Veterans Day is intended to honor and thank all military (520) 249-7122 personnel who served the United States in all wars, firstname.lastname@example.org particularly living veterans. It is marked by parades and church services and in many places the American flag is hung at half mast. A period of silence lasting two minutes Editor may be held at 11AM. Some schools are closed on Veterans Cheryl Cerbone Day, while others do not close, but choose to mark the 23 Cove View Drive occasion with special assemblies or other activities. South Yarmouth, MA 02664 (508) 394-5250 email@example.com Merry Christmas! Happy Deadline for the Jan-Mar 2022 Hanukkah! Feliz Navidad! Bulletin is Dec. 1, 2021 Happy Holidays! Please send all materials to the from the AXPOW Board of Directors editor at the above address. EX-POW Bulletin (ISSN 0161-7451) is published quarterly (four times annually) by the American Ex-Prisoners of War, PO Box 3445, Arlington, TX 76007-3445. Periodical postage paid at Arlington, TX and additional mailing offices. Postmaster: send address changes to EX-POW Bulletin, AXPOW Headquarters, PO Box 3445, Arlington, TX 76007-3445. Founded April 14, 1942, in Albuquerque, NM, then known as Bataan Relief Organization, Washington State non- profit corporation, “American Ex-Prisoners of War”, October 11, 1949, recorded as Document No. 133762, Roll 1, Page 386-392. NONPROFIT CORPORATION. Nationally Chartered August 10, 1982. Appearance in this publication does not constitute endorsement by the American Ex-Prisoners of War of the product or service advertised. The publisher reserves the right to decline or discontinue any such advertisement. © 2021 American Ex-Prisoners of War
axpow board of directors National Headquarters PO Box 3445, Arlington, TX 76007-3445 (817) 649-2979 HQ@axpow.org National Commander ~ Robert Certain 5100 John D Ryan Blvd, Apt 1801, San Antonio, TX 78245 (770) 639-3313 firstname.lastname@example.org operations board of directors Chief Executive Officer Edward “Ted” Cadwallader Sally Morgan Elk Grove, CA Grand Prairie, TX (916) 685-5369 (972) 896-7252 DCadwall@aol.com email@example.com David Eberly Jim 'Moe' Moyer Williamsburg, VA Lake Wales, FL (757) 508-8453 (407) 448-1181 Chief Operations Officer firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Clydie J Morgan PO Box 3445 Pam Warner Eslinger Mary Schantag Arlington TX 76007-3445 Hammon, OK Branson, MO (817) 300-2840 - Cell (580) 821-1526 (417) 336-4232 firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Alan Marsh Charles A. Susino Chief Financial Officer Lizella, GA Piscataway, NJ Marsha M Coke (478) 951-9247 (732)221-0073 2710 Charon Court email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Grand Prairie TX 75052 (817) 649-2979 – Office Milton ‘Skip’ Moore Jan Williams (817) 723-3996 – Cell Sierra Vista, AZ Guthrie, OK email@example.com (520) 249-7122 (580) 821-2376 firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com
national Indochina to colonial status set rest of our fellow countrymen the stage for the rise of may be grateful that we are gone Communism in Hanoi. The Korean and feel no remorse for those we commander War has never been concluded with a formal treaty, only an leave behind – and they are to be pitied. If we do not examine our armistice or cease-fire, leaving a motives, our actions, and our desperate and despotic consequences, we will not be able dictatorship in the northern half. to capitalize on our successes or The Paris Peace Accords of to learn from our mistakes. If our January 1973, while it resulted in civilian leaders and commanders the release of prisoners of war, do not learn, they will eventually was little more than a holding send another generation of brave action for the next two years. Americans into the fog and friction of war with foolish rules Our 20-year undeclared war in of engagement and no real exit Afghanistan is ending as I write strategy. this, and the events of the ragged withdrawal and evacuation are When combat troops come home strongly reminiscent of the swift from war, we have been and ignominious fall of Saigon in profoundly changed. While some 1975. Even though American of that change is not so good, Robert G. Certain fighting men and women some of it can actually lend us a 5100 John D Ryan Blvd, Apt successfully turned back evil greater understanding of who we 1801 forces and held them at bay in are, what society is about and San Antonio, TX 78245 both Vietnam and Afghanistan, what international relations are (770) 639-3313 American diplomats ultimately about. Our wartime experience firstname.lastname@example.org tired of the conflicts and called us can bring a wealth of home without thinking through or understanding to apply to the ENDING WELL OR POORLY? planning for our honorable exit important work to fully utilize the and for the stability of the nation positive aspects of those days in The wars in which we fought have we left behind. our life back in the world as we had spotty endings with lingering step forward to take leadership in undesirable consequences. The Those of us who fought, died, or government, business, and our Treaty of Versailles did not result nearly died in the service of our faith communities. We must in global peace following the “war nation and that of our allies can never stop serving those who to end all wars” and instead set hold our heads high knowing we serve today by advocating for the stage for the Nazi takeover of acted with valor, honor, and good and thoughtful government Germany a mere generation later. dignity. I suspect we feel the as well as for the benefit of those World War II was more greatest amount of grief at the “who have borne the battle and conclusively ended, but the Allied tragedies we see befalling the for his widow, and his orphan.” agreement to restore French nation we tried to protect. The
Of course, we are always happy to from the CEO receive your donations by mail as well. Your support enables us to maintain our programs. It also shows us that Cheryl Cerbone the future of AXPOW is important to you. Speaking of Guidestar, you may have noticed our Gold Seal of Transparency on the home page of our website as well as on the front cover of each EX-POW Bulletin. Your officers spend It’s a cool September morning here on Cape Cod…I can feel days each year filling out the the difference in the air as we make the transition to fall. My requirements for us to obtain this very next column will probably be filled with “I HATE WINTER!”…but special recognition. It tells potential right now I’m enjoying the weather. donors that we are transparent in our finances, goals and plans. Normally in September, I’m busy packing my helmet and planning to meet Marsha, Debbie and Mom in Georgia for the One donation we decided to make POW/MIA Recognition Day ceremonies with The Ride Home. again this year was to sponsor wreaths It was a disappointment that this year’s event was canceled – for the National Cemetery at due to COVID concerns at Warner-Robins and the serious Andersonville…the site of our National injuries sustained by our National Director Moe Moyer, who POW Museum. As you know, runs The Ride each year. Please keep Moe and his wife Ginnie Andersonville is our legacy – ensuring in your prayers. We hope to see him in April in Texas for our your experiences and your stories are board meeting. never forgotten. There is more information on Wreaths Across We’ve had a lot going on this summer at AXPOW. Guidestar America in this Bulletin, and if you finally realized that we were, in fact, a 501(c)3 and that opened decide you would like to contribute, a lot of donation doors. I don’t know how many of you are your wreath will also be placed at spending time on the Internet, but for those of you who are, Andersonville. Our special link is; we’ve got opportunities for you to make painless donations. www.wreathsacrossamerica.org/AEPW The first is Amazon Smile. We’ve got a notice on the home The POW Museum itself is only newly page of our website: www.axpow.org that allows you to click reopened as we recover from COVID. on and make AXPOW your charity. If you want, you can also Programs that had been put on hold check on our unique link: https://smile.amazon.com/ch/94- last year should be restarted in 2022. 1430564 Make any purchase through the Amazon Smile This year, our board voted that unused charity portal, and they'll make a donation to AXPOW—at no funds be used for oral transcriptions cost to you! Just use the link on the website, and designate and a wayside exhibit near the Park part of your purchase price to help fund our POW support entrance to tell visitors about the POW activities. Try it next time you make a buy on Amazon. It's Memorial Grove. painless. It makes shopping more satisfying. And you'll help a great cause! From my family to yours, we wish you a very happy holiday season – running The second is Facebook. I had no idea they participated in a from Thanksgiving through New Year’s program that let friends and family (or even total strangers) Day. Please stay safe and healthy and make a birthday/anniversary/important date donation. We just pray for our military always. received our first check from Facebook from friends who wanted to honor me on my birthday. Again, it’s an easy process. When my birthday was coming, I received a notice Fondly from Facebook that I could ask for donations to my favorite charity. Naturally, it was AXPOW, and a number of friends did Cheryl make a donation.
pow medsearch nso Marsha Coke, Chairman Ruth Powell, Director e-mail: email@example.com 665 NC Hwy 121 PO Box 3445 Greenville, NC 27834 Arlington, TX 76007-3445 781-296-6307 cell (817) 649-2979 firstname.lastname@example.org Your feet Patients often seek advice first amount of activity. The physician or secondary to a variety of from their primary care should also inquire about the metabolic, structural or physicians regarding the effectiveness of current or inflammatory disorders. diagnosis and treatment of their previous treatment(s). The pathophysiology of bunions foot problems. The role of the Observation of the patient’s gait is poorly understood, but is physician is to recognize and treat and foot position and inspection thought to be secondary to both the underlying condition, prevent of his/her footwear should be hereditary and environmental further injury or deformities, and performed since tight fitting factors. The fact that bunions educate the patient about his/her shoes may exacerbate the foot occur commonly in families disease. In order for this to occur, condition, and modifications may suggests a genetic predisposition physicians require a basic prevent further injury. from ligamentous laxity and understanding of the anatomy, hyperpronation of the foot. The pathophysiology, and biomechanics of the foot. This Common Foot higher incidence in women compared to men is believed to article focuses on three of the most common conditions of the Disorders be due to tightly fitting women’s footwear. However, footwear foot seen by primary care alone is not sufficient to explain physicians in the ambulatory Bunion this condition. The complex setting: bunion, plantar fasciitis, relationship of the first ray and Morton’s neuroma. Bunion is derived from the Latin biomechanics and hindfoot word meaning turnip. It is a bursa mechanics influence bunion Evaluation begins by taking a sac that develops over the first development. Additionally, any thorough history which includes metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint disorder resulting in first MTP questions regarding the quality, as a result of a hallux valgus joint inflammation may weaken location, radiation, severity, deformity of this joint. Hallux MTP soft tissue restraints, duration, and exacerbating valgus refers to the lateral predisposing to bunion formation. and/or relieving factors related to deviation of the first toe. the pain. A family history of However, in common parlance, The pain associated with a bunion congenital or acquired disorders “bunion” has come to denote any is caused by pressure and of the foot should be sought. bump or associated deformity of frictional force exerted on the Additional information should the first MTP joint with deviation skin, soft tissue, and bursa at the include a history of previous of the lateral great toe. Bunions medial prominence of the first injuries, occupational and can be primary in the absence of MTP joint. Over time, callous recreational activities, and any any known underlying diseases formation and progression of the recent changes in the type or foot deformity cause internal
medsearch, cont’d… considered if pain or functional disability persists or progresses Examination shows focal plantar medial pain over the medial despite conservative measures. process of the calcalenal tubercle that may extend throughout the subluxation with abnormal mechanics resulting in articular Plantar fasciitis longitudinal arch. This pain may be exacerbated by the forced deterioration. A painful callous dorsiflexion of the toes that may also occur under the lateral The plantar fascia or plantar aponeurosis is a fibrous band of stretches the aponeurosis. Pain subluxed medial that is located posteriorly to the sesamoid.¹ Additionally, changes connective tissue located on the plantar surface of the foot. This medial calcaneal tubercle or in the biomechanics of the foot which occurs with compression of result in an imbalance which fascia assists in forming the longitudinal arch of the foot. The the calcaneus from a medial to causes the patient to shift his/her lateral direction suggests another weight laterally and, in turn, plantar fascia originates near the medial process of the calcaneal diagnosis such as stress fracture, increases pressure and pain at a heel pad disorder, a plantar the head of the metatarsals tubercle and inserts onto the plantar ligamentocapsular nerve entrapment (“jogger’s (metatarsalgia). Progressive foot”), or periostitis. lateral great toe deviation complex of the first through fifth produces a retrograde load on the metatarsal heads. The origin of the plantar fascia is the most Foot pain associated with plantar first metatarsal, which deviates fasciitis occurs immediately after medially allowing for great toe “fixed” point of this structure, and it is this site that is most prone to standing or walking, especially shifting, and begins a vicious when preceded by prolonged cycle. Subsequently, the great injury. It should be noted that heel spurs or calcaneal sitting (“start-up pain”). Thus, toe may either override the patients will complain of pain, second toe or, more commonly, osteophytes have no relationship to plantar fasciitis. In fact, heel particularly in the morning, go beneath the second toe. occurring after taking their first Elevation of the second toe may spurs occur in 15% to 20% of the asymptomatic population and are step. During the early phase of result in significant second MTP the disease, pain often improves joint pain and a hammer toe absent in many people with plantar fasciitis.⁴ Additionally, the or resolves with continued deformity of the second toe. walking. When pain occurs at Frequently, the hammer toe may plantar calcaneal spur originates at a different anatomic layer of night or persists in the prone be the greater source of position, other causes of heel pain discomfort. Relief of hammer toe the foot than the plantar fascia. should be sought, including stress pain may require addressing an fracture or a nerve entrapment associated bunion deformity Plantar fasciitis is a clinical diagnosis that is most commonly syndrome. Additionally, simultaneously. symptoms that persist despite Initial treatment is primarily seen in younger runners and patients between the ages of 40 treatment for plantar fasciitis conservative and must first should prompt a search for address the patient’s footwear. and 60 years of age⁵ who are often slightly overweight and may alternative diagnoses that affect Foot padding, taping, night the heel. splints, foot exercises, orthotic be deconditioned. Other devices, nonsteroidal anti- contributing factors include obesity, recent weight gain, and Plantar fasciitis may be caused by inflammatory medications, or a overuse and/or other combination of these treatment occupations that require prolonged standing. Recently, it biomechanical factors. The modalities may be prescribed. pathophysiologic mechanism, Allowance should be made for has been demonstrated that individuals suffering from plantar particularly in runners, is thought adequate space in the shoe to to be due to overuse caused by prevent further injury. Orthotic fasciitis develop a secondary contracture of the gastrocsoleus repetitive microtrauma of the devices may provide short-term plantar fascia. In this group of symptomatic pain relief for mild complex that may perpetuate the inflammation of the plantar patients, plantar fasciitis has to moderate hallux valgus been attributed to changes in deformity,² although there is no fascia. Rarely is it associated with a systemic inflammatory footwear, running on hard evidence to support their surfaces, excessive or increased effectiveness in preventing its condition such as spondyloarthropathy or infection. running distance, or anatomical progression.³ Surgery should be
medsearch, cont’d… are continued for 6 to 8 weeks. For patients with continued compression and irritation of the third common digital nerve and symptoms, night splinting is lead to nerve fiber degeneration, added. Casts or inserts may help intraneural and juxtaneural abnormalities such as a pes in certain patients with abnormal fibrosis, and hypertrophy of the cavus, high arch deformity, or a biomechanical examinations. For nerve. Anatomical factors that shortened Achilles tendon. patients who are physically may contribute to this condition active, recommendations should include excessive motion of the Patients with biomechanical include temporary avoidance of third and fourth metatarsals, abnormalities affecting the leg weightbearing exercises. juxtaposition of the third and and thigh (e.g., excessive femoral Although nonsteroidal anti- fourth metatarsal heads and the anteversion, lateral tibial torsion, inflammatory medication is branches of medial and lateral or leg length discrepancy), ankle commonly used, there have been plantar nerves between the third (e.g., equines), arch (e.g., pes no randomized, clinically nerve, and the third transverse planus or pes cavus), or hindfoot controlled trials to support their intermetatarsal ligament (e.g., flexible rearfoot varus) are benefit.⁵ However, a short course overlying the third common at increased risk of developing of corticosteriods may provide digital nerve and its plantar fasciitis.⁶ These short-term pain relief. Injections communicating branches. conditions cause abnormal may be painful and may, pronatory forces that, in turn, inadvertently, result in plantar Pathologic findings alone are translate into excessive fasciia rupture. Custom semirigid insufficient to explain the biomechanical stress. This results orthotics with a silicone heel cup symptoms of Morton’s neuroma, in microtrauma to the plantar may be beneficial for patients since these same findings may fascia leading to collagen with preexisting biomechanical occur in asymptomatic degeneration. The end result, abnormalities of the foot, such as individuals. The diagnosis of found pathologically, is a loss of pes planus or pes cavus Morton’s neuroma is suspected collagen fibers and an increase in deformities. For refractory clinically when patients complain the vascularity and connective patients, iontophoresis or casting of pain located in the webspace tissue matrix with chronic treatment should be considered. of their toes. Early in the course, inflammatory changes.⁷ For cases resistant to the above patients may describe burning or Diagnostic testing should be measures for 12 months, tingling in this region. These reserved for cases in which the radiofrequency lesioning or symptoms may progress to the diagnosis is unclear in patients surgical fasciotomy techniques more typical paroxysmal, severe, who have failed to respond to are performed. sharp, lancinating pain that appropriate treatment. Treatment occurs with weightbearing and typically proceeds in a stepwise fashion with more conservative, Morton’s neuroma walking and is relieved by sitting, removing the shoes, and noninvasive mechanical massaging and manipulating the approaches used initially. Recent Morton’s neuroma, initially described by Morton in 1876, is a affected region of the forefoot. evidence suggests that non- The pain, as previously noted, weightbearing stretching reactive fibrosis of a communicating branch of the typically involves the third and exercises to the plantar fascia occasionally the fourth webspace provide improvement in pain and third nerve and, histopathologically, is not a true and may radiate to the third and mobility compared to fourth toe. weightbearing Achilles tendon neuroma. The neuroma is stretching exercises.⁸ Patients believed to be mechanically induced and most commonly The webspace compression test should be instructed to avoid is used clinically for the diagnosis wearing flat shoes and walking affects the third common digital nerve located in the region of the of Morton’s neuroma and takes barefoot⁵ and started with a advantage of the cushioned heel cup and Achilles third webspace of the foot. Anatomic factors along with pathophysiologic process and plantar fascia stretching responsible for this condition. regimen. Arch taping, heat, ice injury, irritation, or pressure from wearing pointed and/or high- With the patient in a sitting or massage, and ice baths or packs prone position, the examiner may be added. These modalities heeled shoes result in squeezes the third and fourth
medsearch, cont’d… the calf muscles join with the tendon. Injuries in this area also teach the patient specific stretches and strength training often heal on their own but may exercises to regain function and metatarsal heads together with do so slowly than injuries in the prevent future problems. one hand and, using the other muscular area of the leg, since Less often, patients who do not hand, compresses the soft tissue there is less of a blood supply to benefit from these therapies may in the involved webspace. A promote healing. require surgery. positive test results in pain. Ultrasonography may be used in cases of diagnostic uncertainty, Conditions and issues Achilles tendon injury however, Morton’s neuroma prevention remains a clinical diagnosis. Chronic, long-lasting Achilles tendon disorders range from Since a lack of flexibility is a Treatment options for Morton’s overuse injuries that cause major cause of injury, neuroma include avoiding pointed inflammation or degeneration, to proper stretching of the lower leg and/or high-heeled shoes, using acute traumas such as Achilles is the most basic way to prevent metatarsal pads, and tendon ruptures. Pain along the Achilles tendon strains or tears. administering local corticosteroid back of the ankle or in the heel As is the case with many other injections, the latter of which are often the result of distinct conditions injuries, it is important must be approached with caution. problems along the course of the to stay as fit as possible during Inadvertent extravasations into Achilles tendon or at its point of the healing and rehabilitation the toe adjacent to the MTP joint attachment to the heel of the process. Swimming and other may result in significant MTP joint foot. This type of pain may also non-impact exercises are instability. In refractory cases, be caused by retrocalcaneal best, including bicycling, if that neurolysis, transposition, or bursitis, which is sometimes activity does not cause any pain surgical excision of the nerve is called Achilles tendon bursitis. (which would indicate a liklihood performed. Recurrence of Learn about more specific Achilles of reinjury). Running should be symptoms must provoke a search tendon conditions in the articles avoided at all costs until a for a “stump neuroma” or shown below. rehabilitation specialist, trainer or pathology of adjacent structures, doctor advises that sufficient such as the MTP joints. Recurrence after surgical excision Treatments recovery has taken place. is most commonly associated Most people who have injuries with incomplete nerve release or and inflammation related to excision. overuse of the tendon undergo nonsurgical treatments. These can include: Achilles Tendon Injuries • rest or other modification National Institutes of activities of Health The Achilles tendon is a thick • physical therapy 9000 Rockville Pike tendon located in the back of the (rehabilitation) leg. It connects the Bethesda, Maryland 20892 • nonsteroidal anti- gastrocnemius and soleus inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) 301-496-4000 muscles in the calf to an insertion such as ibuprofen point at the calcaneus (heel • (for some bone). It is the strongest tendon patients) platelet-rich plasma A part of the U.S. in the body and allows people to injections (also known as PRP Department of Health and push off while walking, running injections) Human Services, NIH is and jumping. In rehabilitation, a the largest biomedical physical therapist or athletic Achilles injuries can occur in trainer may employ ultrasound, research agency in the several places, but the most electrical stimulation, cold world. common area is at the muscle- therapy (icing) and massage to tendon junction – the area where promote healing. They will
PRESUMPTIVE 10. PSYCHOSIS duodenum (the first part of the A generic term for any of the small intestine). SERVICE CONNECTED insanities. DISABILITIES 20. CIRRHOSIS 11. PANIC DISORDER Scar tissue replaces normal, Public Law 97-37 Characterized by discrete periods healthy tissue, blocking the flow of by William Paul Skelton, Ill, MD F.A.C.P. of apprehension or fear. blood through the organ and preventing it from working as it 12. GENERALIZED ANXIETY should. DISORDER All ex-POWs should keep these. 21. STROKE & COMPLICATIONS Whenever you open your claim, 13. OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE A stroke occurs when the blood take them with you and make sure DISORDER supply to part of the brain is the adjudication officer sees them This may be either obsessions or suddenly interrupted or when a and have him read them! Make compulsions. blood vessel in the brain bursts, sure he knows all about them. Tell spilling blood into the spaces him your own story as it relates to 14. POST TRAUMATIC STRESS surrounding brain cells. your problem..... DISORDER The re-experiencing of a trauma of 22. HEART & COMPLICATIONS 1. ARTHRITIS, TRAUMATIC a past recognized stress or that can Heart disease includes Also known as articular trauma. produce symptoms of distress. atherosclerotic heart disease, and hypertensive vascular disease 2. AVITAMINOSIS 15. ATYPICAL ANXIETY DISORDER (including hypertensive heart The total lack of vitamins in the This is a category that is used for disease, and hypertension). diet. diagnosis when the affected individual appears to have an 23. OSTEOPOROSIS 3. BERIBERI anxiety disorder that does not meet Osteoporosis is a disease in which Caused by a severe lack of vitamin the criteria for entry into any of the bones become fragile and more B1 (thiamine) in the diet. other known anxiety disorders. likely to break. 4. DYSENTERY, CHRONIC 16. DEPRESSIVE NEUROSIS A disease characterized by frequent /DYSTHYMIC DISORDER Disability compensation is a and watery stools, usually with Characterized by depressive monetary benefit paid to Veterans blood and mucus, and accompanied periods in which the patient feels who are determined by VA to be by rectal and abdominal pain, sad and/or down and has a loss of disabled by an injury or illness that fever, and dehydration. interest in the usual activities that was incurred or aggravated during cause pleasure or involvement in active military service. These 5. FROSTBITE usual pastimes. disabilities are considered to be The actual freezing of tissue. service connected. 17. PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY 6. HELMINTHIASIS Literally Greek for the suffering of To be eligible for compensation, the Infection with any type of worms nerves outside of the brain and Veteran must have been separated that parasitize the human. spinal cord. or discharged under conditions other than dishonorable. 7. MALNUTRITION 18. IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME Merely means bad nutrition. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is Monthly disability compensation a common disorder of the intestines varies with the degree of disability 8. PELLAGRA that leads to crampy pain, gas, and the number of eligible It is caused by a virtual lack of bloating, and changes in bowel dependents. Veterans with certain vitamin B3 (niacin) in the diet. habits. severe disabilities may be eligible for additional special monthly 9. ANY OTHER NUTRITIONAL 19. PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE compensation (SMC). Disability DEFICIENCY A peptic ulcer is a sore or hole in compensation benefits are not The lack of protein and calories in the lining of the stomach or subject to federal or state income the diet generally produces no tax. lasting side effects.
legislative with disability claims for asthma, allow veterans to remain in their rhinitis and sinusitis based on homes and receive support as presumed particulate matter they age. Executive Director, VA exposures during military service Office of Geriatrics & Extended in Southwest Asia and other areas Care Dr. Scotte Hartronft from open burn pits, sand, dust addressed VA’s focus on and particulate matter, oil well expanding these services, as well fires, etc. The Southwest Asia as modernizing and improving Theater of operations refers to systems for healthy aging Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, the including facility-based care, neutral zone between Iraq and technological access, and Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, the geriatric expertise. Many of our United Arab Emirates, Oman, the members and their families have Gulf of Aden, the Gulf of Oman, experienced the short comings of the Persian Gulf, the Arabian Sea, the current practices. Legislative officer the Red Sea and the airspace Charles A Susino above these locations. Other proposed bills worth Additionally, this includes watching are: veterans who served in Listening to the news, it would Southwest Asia beginning Aug. 2, H.R. 2127: Toxic Expo- appear that Congress is totally 1990, to the present, or sure in the American Military preoccupied with COVID, COVID Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Syria or (TEAM) Act impacts, and infrastructure and Djibouti beginning Sept. 19, S 927: Toxic Exposure in of course Afghanistan. While 2001, to the present. These the American Military Act those issues have taken the conditions must have manifested majority of attention, there has within 10 years of a qualifying H.R. 2268: Keeping Our been some slow progress on period of military service. Promises Act issues facing America’s Veterans. Keeping Our Promises Act In June, the House and Senate Researchers, including experts at This bill expands the list of dis- Committees on Veterans’ Affairs VA, are actively studying airborne eases that are provided a pre- introduced comprehensive hazards like burn pits and other sumption of service-connection legislation on toxic exposure. The military environmental for veterans who served in the House bill is the Honoring our exposures. Ongoing research will Republic of Vietnam between PACT Act and the Senate bill is help better understand potential January 9, 1962, and May 7, the Comprehensive and Overdue long-term health effects and 1975. Support for Troops of War Act of provide better care and services. 2021 or the COST of War Act. Many health conditions related to H.R. 2569: Veterans these hazards are temporary and Agent Orange Exposure Equity . If you haven’t already done so, should disappear after the Act- To provide for a presump- we encourage all veterans, family exposure ends. Other longer- tion of service connection for members, friends, and supporters term health issues may be caused diseases associated with expo- to do their part and contact their by a combination of hazardous sure to certain herbicide agents Congressman. This issue is close exposures, injuries, or illnesses for veterans who served in close to home for the EXPOWs where it experienced during your military proximity to the Republic of Viet- took Congress until the 1980’s to service including blast or noise nam. establish presumptives for injuries. This ongoing research is America’s. Sadly, very sadly, it vital to addressing our veterans S. 1965: Planning for still takes far too long for health care needs. Aging Veterans Act of 2021, Add Congress to act on health issues facing our veterans during their to List bill to direct the Secretary The House Veterans’ Affairs time of service. of Veterans Affairs to improve Subcommittee on Health conducted a hearing on access to long-term care provided to vet- On August 2, 2021, the VA began erans by the Department of Vet VA’s home and community-based processing new presumptive services. Ideally, these services conditions for toxic exposures
legislative, cont’d… United States Postal Service Statement of Ownership, Management, and erans Affairs, and for other purpos- Circulation es. EX-POW BULLETIN Pub. # 0161-7451 S. 2172: Building Solutions filing date 10/2021 for Veterans Experiencing Home- Frequency: quarterly (4 issues annually) lessness Act of 2021- this bill was $40.00 annual subscription price, or as part of membership dues just introduced by Jon Tester in Pub. Office: PO Box 3445, Arlington, TX 76007-3445 June. This particular issue has Marsha M. Coke, CFO been raised by AXPOW for many (817) 649-2979 years with respect to the hardship Headquarters: PO Box 3445, Arlington, TX 76007-3445 to the veteran and the embarrass- Publisher: Milton M. Moore, Jr., 2965 Sierra Bermeja, Sierra Vista, AZ ment to our country. 85650 Editor: Cheryl Cerbone, 23 Cove View Drive, South Yarmouth, MA 02664 S. 89: Ensuring Survivor Managing Editor: Cheryl Cerbone, 23 Cove View Drive, South Benefits during COVID-19 Act of Yarmouth, MA 02664 2021- this bill would require the Owner: American Ex-Prisoners of War, PO Box 3445, Arlington, TX Secretary of Veterans Affairs to 76007-3445 secure medical opinions for Known bondholders, mortgagees, other security holders: NONE veterans with service-connected Tax status: Purpose, function and non-profit status of this organization disabilities who die from COVID-19 and the exempt status for federal income tax purposes has not changed to determine whether their service- during the preceding 12 months. connected disabilities were the principal or contributory causes of Publication Title: EX-POW BULLETIN death. Circulation Data: Issue July/Aug/Sept 2021 VA announced this past quarter that Since last file date 10/2020 it will begin implementing the three Average-12 months Single Issue Jul-Sep 2021 presumptive conditions associated Total copies printed: with Agent Orange exposure that 6471 6214 were added in the National Defense Total paid/and or requested: Authorization Act of 2021: bladder 6335 6091 cancer, hypothyroidism, and Free distribution outside the mail: Parkinsonism. We encourage 47 55 affected veterans and survivors to Total distribution: contact their Service Officer with 6382 6146 questions and concerns. Copies not distributed: 89 68 Total: 6471 6214 As a reminder, a user friendly Percent paid/requested circulation: source of information on the 98% 99% proposed bills, Bills signed into law, VA committee members, and other Publication Statement of Ownership Form 3526 filed with the details are available on line at Postmaster, United States Postal Service, Arlington, TX. Copy held at govtrack.us. We encourage you to National Headquarters, Arlington, TX access and other sources of information to stay current on laws American Ex-Prisoners of War is a non-profit corporation, effecting veterans. incorporated in Washington state, October 11, 1949, recorded as Document No. 133762, Roll 1, Page 386-392.
andersonville On July 11th, author Mary designed an assistive device for Gorman presented a program on more efficiently digging the raiders that was attended by headstone holes. 75 visitors. Park staff will be providing two programs on September 17th focused on POWs buried in the National Cemetery. The park is beginning design services for Section Q to best determine future burials and preservation of cemetery integrity. Potential funding for all NPS-managed National Cemeteries is being discussed at the national level. Park management will be providing The Travelling Exhibit is at the US needed information to support Army Airborne and Special this combined effort. Operations Museum at Fort Bragg Andersonville NHS in North Carolina and will remain 496 Cemetery Road AXPOW funds that were unable there through end of September. Andersonville, GA 31711 to be used last year are being We have been unable to find a (229) 924-0343 used to fund an oral history location for the exhibit from transcription project. Proposals October forward. Any assistance Gia Wagner, have been received, and staff are would be appreciated as the park Superintendent reviewing for award process. The is struggling to find interested current funding will provide and size-appropriate venues. We Greetings from transcription services for part of are interested in discussing the Andersonville… the base proposal (transcription future of the Traveling Exhibit as of 99 interviews and copy-editing a result and ideas to continue We had steady visitation during of an additional 25 interviews). sharing stories. the summer months, and the Additional funds will be needed to weekends continue to see about complete this phase. The Phyllis Hine traveled to the park 100-250 visitors as we move into contract was also written with to donate her father’s POW the fall season. Mitigations options to complete additional canteen and photographs. Philip remain in place to maintain one- transcriptions and copy-editing. Daniel Tolan was a POW for 42 way traffic, protect employees, We also have a draft design for a months during WWII and helped and maintain cleanliness. The new wayside exhibit for the POW build the Sack of Cement Cross park films are being shown again Memorial Grove as part of the that is featured in the National in theater with limited seating for 2020 funds. POW Museum. visitor protection. Work will begin to upgrade the museum lighting To help with physically distancing As always, we hope you and in the next couple of months. as part of COVID safety yours are well, thriving, and plan measures, two park employees to visit us soon. Wreaths Across America Coming to Andersonville National Historic Site December 18, 2021
namPOW news rice. And a banana. And even a few sips of beer. It’s obviously a good sign. We’d be going home soon! And I was never going to complain about food again. Paul Galanti 804-389-1668 We didn’t go home that year but, for whatever email@example.com reason, the communists went through this charade every year. It served as a way to mark time. Infrequently, they’d bring in their “Catholic priest” who’d serve communion to a few “believers” (as the Communists called Christmas in Hanoi them) while dutifully recording the event with their propaganda cameras. (x7) In the Son Tay prison camp, I remember hearing the Christmas story according to Marx Heartbreak Hotel interrogation prison. & Lenin on the camp P.A. system. Hanoi December 25, 1966. It was bitter cold and damp. I’d Summarized with apologies for a 50 year old been a POW for a little more than six months with much of memory: Jesus was a poor working man who it in a sweltering solitary confinement. was being exploited by the capitalistic foreign invader Pontius Pilate, But Jesus rallied the Fifty of us had been paraded through Hanoi’s city streets as masses against the imperialist colonialists and thousands of Vietnamese chanted obscenities and threw for that he was martyred by the criminal various objects at us at the urging of their communist political invaders. Moral. We are all the same. Only commissars. I’d had several brutal interrogation sessions that the U.S. government exploiting its lackeys in had left my emaciated body screaming in pain. Our daily South Vietnam, like the Roman imperialists, meals of watery pumpkin gruel and rice had recently changed are attempting to enslave the heroic to sewer greens and rice twice a day. “Vietnamese people.” A mouth-watering scent wafted through the boarded up A long diatribe against “Johnson, McNamara windows momentarily eclipsing the harsh, sewer smell of the and Dean Rusk” would follow followed by toilet bucket. Wow… What was that? The smell of onions? Of exhortations to “side with the Vietnamese actual meat? Of an exotic oriental smelling aroma of fish people” as opposed to following blindly “The sauce? U.S. Government.” To digress slightly and for purposes of total disclosure, I am Each year the Christmas “celebration” in four and have always been an optimist. Totally, unrepentant and or five different prisons went about the same. without any hint-of-shame optimist! In 1972, several hundred of us were in a From the day in June 1966 when I’d parachuted into North mountain camp near Lang Son near the Vietnam from my burning A-4 Skyhawk and been immediately Chinese border. It was somehow different. I captured, I was convinced my internment would last six remember thinking about the last eight months to a year (at most). Christmases – 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972 — all of them in WESTPAC So now I was approaching my first Christmas in Hanoi. Last on cruise or in POW Camps. I thought, “You year my squadron and ship had been at sea flying combat know, I’ve been here a long time. (But felt missions off the coast of South Vietnam but we’d had a better when I realized that I was a newcomer. “stand-down” for Christmas day, itself. The meal aboard ship Good grief, Alvarez has been here 22 months had been a traditional Christmas dinner. And now with longer than I have.) This is really a good sign.” delightful aromas emanating from the usually pungent cellblock, my morale skyrocketed – and mouth watered. My I thought, for the thousandth time, “We emaciated 100 lb. frame longed for something that tasted as should be out of here in six months to a year.” good as the aroma that drifted through the window boards. I was wrong. We were home in less than two When the meal came, it was a small chunk of turkey flavored months. The next Christmas was MUCH better! with nuoc mam, the Vietnamese fish sauce. And some white
pow/mia Email friends that need to be wheelchairs, scooters, CPAP notified? machines can all be donated to veterans organizations? Hearing Mary Schantag, Chairman If Arlington is under aids can be reprogrammed for consideration, they can only those less fortunate at a very P.O.W. Network accept “entire” remains or low cost when donated to firstname.lastname@example.org cremains. The trend to keep a someone in need. vial, or small container of ashes may sound like a way to ease Are there ID cards that must be If tomorrow the grief, but there are cancelled (military retirement or consequences. disability), or even concealed never comes carry or firearms permits? If Do they have the phone number you own firearms, what are they No one is promised another to call Social Security or the to do with them? Is there a list tomorrow. Veterans Admin to stop checks? of kind, serial number, value, Do they know that if a check is even a picture? But what if the kiss good night, cashed (SSN/VA) and a loved tonight, is the last one? Or the one dies, that latest check may Do they have phone numbers “I love you, be careful” as we be WITHDRAWN from the bank and account numbers to access, close the door as a loved one without notice, leaving checks to change or close bank accounts, leaves, is the last time we get to bounce or bills to pay if there is utility accounts, car payments, say that, or hear the response? not sufficient monies in the mortgage payments, credit card account? accounts, or cell phones? Do you In the desperate, alone darkness receive paper bills to make this that envelops us immediately If you are 100% VA disabled, easy, or are all your bill copies after a loss, can your loved one they will need a Service Officer received by email or only online take the first steps to survive as to apply for spousal benefits. after you access an account? Do a widow or widower? The shock, There will be paperwork, and a they have the passwords for the the grief, the fog, the pain, very long wait before benefits computer and overtakes every need we have are approved if they qualify. passwords/account numbers for to survive, for a very, very, long They will need to change their access to those online sites and time. ID card if you were their accounts? sponsor. It’s too late to file a Do they know how to gas the Do they know where to find the disability claim AFTER you pass, car? Or how often to have the oil Will, Life Insurance Policies, car no matter how ill you were. changed in the car? What oil to titles, mortgage papers, keys to use? What trusted mechanic to lockers, bank deposit boxes, or They need to call Social Security take it too? Do they know how the safe? Do they have access and see what your death does to use a GPS or even an old to your DD214 and an accurate to their benefits. There is more fashioned map? listing of awards and decorations paperwork. if needed? Can they find a copy Will they know how to turn off of your birth certificate, social Did you get meds by mail – they the breaker in the electrical box security card, and marriage need to be stopped. Do they or how to turn off the main water license? know how to dispose of the supply? Know that you need not meds in the home that can no turn off the whole house to turn Will they have the answers as to longer be used? Please – do not off a toilet’s water supply? How parent’s names, grandparents, flush and contaminate the water to flush a toilet when the water siblings and spouses, schooling, supply. Drop off at a police is shut off? How to relight a hot jobs, military, hobbies that the station or consult your pharmacy water tank, or fill a water funeral home will ask? or the VA for ways to dispose of softener? Who to call if the properly. plumbing, furnace or A/C needs Do you have best friends that repairs? How to change a need to be told of your passing? If you have special needs did furnace filter? you know that glasses, braces,
pow/mia cont’d… civilian How about the lawn and weed or snow removal? If there is storm THE CONTRASTING CASES OF damage, or a tree falls, is there someone you call? AMERICAN AND JAPANESE-AMERICAN WORLD WAR II INTERNEES Take the time to call their phone, and leave an unexpected “I love by Martin Meadows you” message they can keep to hear your voice when times are INTRODUCTION. It has been more than 76 years since I was tough. Tuck an extra cologne or among the nearly 4,000 American and other Allied-country perfume aside so they can put a nationals who were liberated from Manila's Santo Tomas bit on their pillow at night and Internment Camp (STIC) on 3 February 1945. Despite that know you are still by their side. passage of time, however, I continue to harbor two grievances Tell them every penny they find concerning the U.S. coverage of two related but separate and distinct subjects linked to World War II (WWII): (1) The American when you are gone, is you walking public’s virtually total ignorance of the subject of Japan's WWII with them, as it’s an angel penny American civilian captives, or internees; and (2) the sharp from heaven. Tell them not to be contrast between their lack of coverage and the extensive (and scared or surprised if they think continuing) amount of attention accorded in the U.S. to the they hear you or feel you on subject of U.S. government treatment of WWII Japanese- lonely nights. American internees. This analysis will discuss each grievance in turn, focusing on the main reasons for the contrasting nature of Don’t wait. No one is promised the coverage, and on how that difference contributed to the another tomorrow. failures and successes, respectively, of the American and the Japanese-American efforts to achieve restitution. Lastly, this study will examine certain neglected aspects of the subject at As of September 9, 2021 issue in the concluding section. THE NUMBER OF AMERICANS MISSING Before proceeding, several distinctions and clarifications should AND be cited, for the sake of accuracy (and to forestall potential criticisms); but brevity dictates that not all of them will be used UNACCOUNTED-FOR here. They include the following: (1) In the context of this FROM THE VIETNAM survey, the term “Japanese-American” is not always appropriate, WAR IS 1,584 as not all those of Japanese descent in the U.S. and in the then Territory of Hawaii were U.S. citizens during WWII. (2) The word commonly used to include all diaspora ethnic Japanese, regardless of their citizenship, is Nikkei; a term used herein, though not comparable, is “Japanese-American community.” (3) Because not all Japanese-Americans were interned, it would be inaccurate to refer to them — although I do so — as “internees” (as distinguished from military prisoners, or “POWs”). (4) To simplify, instead of using the terms “former internees” or “ex-internees,” they will be referred to simply as “internees.” Finally, a note to emphasize that my grievances are not personal; this survey is the outcome not of prejudice, antipathy and/or bitterness, but rather of an examination of the historical record. GRIEVANCE #1. The reasons for the ignorance of the American internees’ case in my opinion result largely if not entirely from deliberate policy decisions by both the Japanese and the American governments. The principal reason Japanese leaders always have desired to conceal the facts of their handling of WWII captives (both military POWs and civilian internees) needs no explanation
civilian, cont’d… greatest number of American civilians in U.S. history, and that the U.S. government was at the least partly responsible. (3) No doubt most important, the desire to ensure that Japan would — they simply do not want it known be an ally against the Soviet Union in the rapidly-developing how brutally they treated their cold war. And, to support the view that the U.S. government prisoners. As evidence of that did not treat American internees equitably, note that it provided mistreatment, here are some them only minimal compensation for their internment (a illustrative facts and figures: maximum of $2,200 per STIC adult), especially so in Among American POWs in Europe, comparison with reparations from WWII Allied countries to their slightly more than one percent died own internees (an average of at least $15,000 each). while prisoners; among Japan’s American POWs, about 40% died in GRIEVANCE #2. And now to the second grievance, concerning captivity. Among American the grossly disparate treatment within the U.S. of the two internees in Europe, 3.5% died in categories of internees, a situation for which the U.S. prison; among American internees government and the Japanese-American community bear of Japan, 11% died in captivity — primary responsibility. First, just as the U.S. government has more than triple the European rate. been mainly responsible for Americans’ ignorance of the (Fewer than 0.02% of Japanese- American internees’ case, so too it has contributed considerably Americans died as internees.) to the disparity of coverage, since ignorance of the issue Moreover, Japanese motivation to obviously has led to its lack of coverage. On the other hand, suppress the facts has been greatly however, the U.S. government could not have prevented reinforced by the post-WWII growth widespread knowledge, and thus extensive coverage, of the of right-wing ultra-nationalism in Japanese-American case. That is because the government Japan. As a result, Japan has could not legally have censored any, let alone all, of the always refused even to discuss — numerous efforts to publicize the Japanese-American case, and let alone to award — reparations also because those efforts were led not only by the Japanese- payments to its American internees, American community but also by what could be called the civil citing the provisions of the 1951 rights community, which is often an influential factor in such peace treaty with the U.S. And in instances. Conversely, though the government could not that regard, it is important to suppress awareness of the Japanese-American case, it was able underscore the fact that the to do so in the American internees’ case, because that occurred American government at every step outside of the U.S. and thus beyond public notice, did not of the way has sided with Japan involve either civil rights violations or the civil rights against any and every attempt by community, and affected a far smaller number of individuals the American internees to seek (a few thousand as against more than 100,000). reparations from Japan. The reasons for that stance are As for the Japanese-American community, its lengthy pursuit examined next. of restitution achieved complete success in 1988, when the U.S. Congress formally apologized for the government's WWII The motivations of the U.S. actions, and passed the Civil Liberties Act. That Act, and its government both to conceal the later amendments, awarded $20,000 in reparations to almost facts, and to side with Japan, in my all WWII-era Japanese-Americans (of whom more than 80,000 opinion include (in addition to the were still alive), regardless of their wartime status — that is, provisions of the aforesaid peace regardless of their citizenship, their treatment (e.g., treaty) these three major ones: (1) internment, relocation, or neither), their ages, or even whether The desire to cover up the they had been repatriated to Japan or had actually fought for government’s role in Japan. The Act also authorized creation of a Civil Liberties actually preventing, not merely Public Education Fund, which has served to insert the Japanese- discouraging, American civilians American point of view into the country's educational system from leaving the Philippines prior to as well as into the historical record. And the Japanese- the Pearl Harbor attack (for American case has continued to receive public attention as well instance, by refusing to furnish as to achieve further successes, which need not be cited here. required travel documents). (2) In short, ever since WWII, Americans have displayed the The desire to avoid any negative sharpest possible contrast in their knowledge of and interest reaction that might have resulted in the two categories of WWII internees discussed in this study. from Americans' knowledge that a foreign enemy had captured the
civilian, cont’d… In summary, thanks in part to the less savory side of its history, the CONCLUSION. The contrasting outcomes traced above — Japanese-American community not resulting from contrasts in awareness, and thus in coverage — only ultimately achieved its seem destined to be more or less permanent; thus a more objectives, it is virtually complete analysis than so far provided is needed to produce a invulnerable to attack. Conversely, fuller explanation, and judgment, of those contrasting results. the American internees who were The standard explanation — which is espoused by the victims of Imperial Japan's Greater Japanese-American community — follows conventional lines: East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere In accordance with “the American dream,” Japanese- appear destined to remain Americans “worked hard and played by the rules” — particularly invulnerable as well — except that the rules of the American political system, including in particular they are invulnerable to the public the election of Japanese-Americans to the U.S. Congress. Thus attention and support Americans they were much more able to promote their cause and influence bestow on the Japanese-American public opinion than were the virtually unknown, ignored, and community. Their efforts to achieve numerically insignificant American internees. While that restitution were unable to gain explanation has merit, it is not the whole story; there is a traction within the American public darker side to consider. A detailed account of that aspect, and were aimed primarily at the briefly summarized next, can be found in an unpublished U.S. government — which itself, article-length manuscript by John J. Stephan, professor however, undercut their efforts, as emeritus of history at the University of Hawaii, who is fully explained earlier. Thus, by conversant with Japan's language and history. (Complete comparison with the efforts of the citation: John J. Stephan, “Injustice Contrived: Wartime Japanese-American community, Internment as Political Theater,” Honolulu, 2021. Stephan those of the American internees currently is updating the cited version and hopes to soon upload proved to be pitifully feeble. And it to the site ResearchGate.net where one can search for it by there the story of these two sharply name and/or title.) contrasting histories must rest, for now if not forever. That is, unless To cite only the barest essentials, among other things Stephan the remnants of the American outlines the pre-Pearl Harbor beliefs and actions of a minority internees, and/or their (approximately one-fourth) of America’s Japanese-American descendants, can somehow muster community, almost all of them located in the then Territory of the will, the energy, and the Hawaii. According to Stephan, that minority harbored a financial and political support to “racist-nationalist virus”; actively supported Japanese gain public recognition and thereby expansionism in Asia; did not intend to settle in the U.S.; made at least modify their side of the trips back to Japan; and on several occasions hosted visiting story for the better. members of the Japanese military. Their actions were so potentially incriminating that, after Pearl Harbor, they sought to dispose of evidence of their sympathies. Thenceforth, Japanese-Americans in general made — and continue to make Reprinted with permission from the — similar efforts to discourage any and all references to the CPOW September 2021 issue aforesaid minority’s compromising pre-WWII history. Stephan also pinpoints the various deficiencies — simplifications, distortions, etc. — in the Japanese-American version of their relationship with the U.S. government. In view of such flaws, one may well wonder why the Japanese-American story, as presented to the American public since WWII, has never been CPOW successfully challenged. The reason is simple; as Stephan Civilian Ex-Prisoners pointed out in a personal email, any criticism of the Japanese- of War American community's presentation of its history is virtually impossible to publish. In his words, that history is based upon www.cpow.org “a civil rights narrative that the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 Sally Meadows, turned into orthodoxy enforced within the government, media, Commander and academe.”
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