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Women’s History NATIONAL WOMEN’S HISTORY ALLIANCE I 2021 Extending the Women’s Suffrage Centennial through 2021 What’s Happening Statues & Memorials Equality Day Resolution Black Suffragists 2021 Honorees Women’s History Forum Women’s History Resource Catalog Inside
2 WOMEN’S HISTORY SUSAN WARE A Timely & Compelling History I MARCHED in my first feminist demonstration on the historically significant date of August 26, 1970 – the fiftieth anniversary of the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment – as a col- “Why haven’t I heard this history before?” was a refrain I encountered movement is an important part of that story. Even without the disruptions caused by the pandemic, extending the com- memoration of the centennial of the lege student newly awakened to the time and again. Nineteenth Amendment into 2021 and powerful ideas of modern feminism and beyond makes sense. The questions and the excitement of women’s history. Suf- lessons this history raises don’t have an ham Clinton at the White House also frage has been part of my life ever since. expiration date. They remain timely and created a political climate where ques- Probably earlier than most, I fixed my compelling. I very much look forward tions of feminism, women’s political to joining with the National Women’s activism, and voting rights were very History Alliance to keep this conversa- much front and center. It was not hard to tion going. get audiences to draw parallels between the suffrage struggle and contemporary Susan Ware is the Honorary Women’s Suf- movements for social change. frage Centennial Historian at Radcliffe’s Schlesinger Library. She is the editor of the An Ongoing Struggle Library of America anthology American Women’s Suffrage: Voices from the Long As a historian I was privileged to be part Struggle for the Vote, 1776-1965 (2020). of many of these events. During my time on the suffrage hustings, I was able to Suffragists march in Washington D.C. on share with audiences the powerful stories WOMEN’S HISTORY March 3, 1913. of those women – and men – who were March 2021 Number 1 part of the long fight to win the right to Published by the National eye on the upcoming centennial in 2020, vote. “Why haven’t I heard this history Women’s History Alliance hoping to be part of a larger national before?” was a refrain I encountered © 2021 NWHA conversation about questions of citizen- time and again. All rights reserved. Reprint inquiries welcome. ship, gender, and voting. Things didn’t work out quite as I had expected. Editors: Molly Murphy MacGregor, Robert P. J. Cooney, Jr. Design & Production: Vicki Dougan/Sales Feminism Front and Center Promotion, Robert Cooney Graphic Design Thank you to all our national contributors, First, the election of Donald Trump in writers, artists and photographers. 2016 robbed feminists of the chance to celebrate the centennial of the Nine- National Women’s History Alliance 730 Second Street #469 teenth Amendment with our first woman Santa Rosa, CA 95402 president. Then the planning suffered a (707) 636-2888 second blow when the global pandemic https://nationalwomenshistoryalliance.org caused by COVID-19 upended so many email@example.com of the activities planned to mark the The Women’s March in Washington D.C. Individual copies $2.50 Multiple copies can event. Nevertheless, we persisted. on January 21, 2017. be ordered for $15 for 10 copies plus ship- Around the country there was a robust ping through the NWHA online store: agenda of virtual events, symposia, and I was also able to point out how in- www.nwha1980.org. commemoration that allowed the public complete the legacy of the Nineteenth at large to engage in the vital historical Amendment was, especially for African Cover photograph: STAND, A monument American women and other women of celebrating the 100th anniversary of the questions raised by the long suffrage passage of the 19th Amendment struggle and make connections to our color, an equally important takeaway Artist: © Barbara Grygutis 2020 contemporary political landscape. point. I would always conclude my talks Computer render by Katie McCann Ironically the very election of Donald by pointing out that feminism is an on- Commissioned by Breaking the Bronze Trump that deprived us of the chance to going struggle and it will always be nec- Ceiling, Lexington, Kentucky celebrate with President Hillary Rod- essary. And the women’s suffrage
WOMEN’S HISTORY 3 Celebrating Women’s History Throughout 2021 2021 is a year full of hope and promise that offers us an extended opportunity to celebrate what women accom- plished one hundred years ago and ever since. When the pandemic hit in March 2020, many plans for celebrating the women’s suffrage centennial - exhibits, performances and events of every kind - had to be cancelled, often after years of preparation. Now, to make up for lost time, many groups have extended suffrage celebrations through 2021. A Year to be Proud of 2020 was a very difficult year and yet a year to be proud Image courtesy of Bria Goeller and WTF America-Good Trubble. of. Despite the impact of the pandemic, Americans Vice-President Kamala Harris walking with the shadow of Ruby Bridges, who integrated a New throughout the country paid tribute to the dedicated suffra- Orleans elementary school in 1960. gists who won Votes for Women 100 years ago. By the end of the year, there had not only been thousands of both CONTENTS live and virtual centennial events but also the election of the first woman as Vice-President of the United States. A Timely and Compelling Women’s history, a central part of American history, was History, Susan Ware 2 written before our eyes. Plan a Parade 4 Throughout the year, the National Women’s History Alliance played an important role. We supported the Rose 2021 Highlights 5 Parade centennial float, serving as fiscal sponsor for that Women’s Equality Week 10 and for the Women’s Vote Centennial Initiative. We con- 2021 Valiant Women of vened a National Networking Conference in January and the Vote Honorees 12 published “Women Win the Vote,” our third gazette aimed at building interest in the centennial. NWHA 2021 Partners 15 Women Who Refused Heralding Women’s Achievements to be Silenced 17 The Alliance also created lists of state groups, catalogs of WOMENS HISTORY FORUM centennial merchandise and updates on events throughout The Fruits of Our the country. These efforts supported established and new Democracy, Krysta Jones 19 groups, artists and many other individuals and helped keep the suffrage centennial visible in a difficult time. The Challenge of Telling Now we plan a year heralding women’s achievements Complex History, today as well as 100 years ago. This year's theme, Valiant Robert P. J. Cooney, Jr. 20 Women of the Vote - Refusing to Be Silenced, emphasizes The Shaming Must Stop, the resilience of multicultural women working for the vote Myriam Miedzian 21 both in the suffrage movement and later. Women’s largely Black Women Marched in unheralded accomplishments are what the NWHA has cel- The 1913 Parade, ebrated for 40 years. Martha S. Jones 23 Women’s history is something happening today, a cur- rent and ongoing source of inspiration and power. It is an Statues and Memorials 24 overlooked part of our national history that has a chance to come forward now and shine as never before. Women’s History Resources Catalog 27
4 WOMEN’S HISTORY MAKE WOMEN’S LIVES VISIBLE IN 2021 Plan or Join a Parade The Women’s Suffrage Centennial Float in the Pasadena Rose Parade, January 1, 2020 I F WE ARE LUCKY ENOUGH millions watched the Rose dressed in white in rows of theme of hope. to have 4th of July Parade on January 1, 2020, ten. Alice Paul organized a Parades in 2021, please as the float that launched the On the float were the parade for suffrage through join one and bring the spirit Centennial celebration of descendants of suffragists Washington D.C. on March of the suffrage movement to a women in the United States including Elizabeth Cady 3, 1913, one day before the larger crowd. If not the 4th of winning the right to vote Stanton, Ida B. Wells and inauguration of President July then on August 26th came into view. The crowds Frederick Douglass. The Woodrow Wilson. The have your own hometown cheered as Years of Hope, magnificent, flower covered parade hosted 8,000 partici- parade in honor of the 101st Years of Courage – the float was over 50 feet long pants, nine marching bands, 20 floats, and a anniversary of women 1913 Suffrage Parade, Washington, D.C. performance in in the United States front of the winning the vote. Once Treasury Building. it is safe, let’s bring This Sonoma the celebratory spirit County, California, of women’s history to parade (left) on our communities by March 10, 1979. decorating cars and dressing Women’s Suffrage and featured a 20-foot tall helped launch what would as suffragist or other women Centennial Rose Parade Float Statue of Liberty covered in become the National in history. Maybe the local – began the 5½ mile route. eucalyptus leaves. Women’s History Project/ high school marching band Right behind the float was The vibrant, colorful float Alliance. It was a county- would like to participate. a contingent of 100 won the Theme Award for wide event which included a Throughout the world, contemporary suffragist all best representing the parade’s local junior high school band.
WOMEN’S HISTORY 5 Members of Long Beach Suffrage 100 launched their centennial effort on August 24, 2019, under artist Dina Saadi's vibrant mural that reflects both the boldness and serious purpose that marked centennial celebrations throughout the country. Photo by Jose Cordon. 2021 HIGHIGHTS An Extended Celebration of Votes for Women Free Women’s Suffrage Centennial Resources The National Women’s History W E ARE EXCITED to have an additional year to celebrate the Women’s Suffrage celebrations. The record set- ting parachute jump attempt is now set for Fall 2021 (brokenrecords.world). The Alliance published “Women Centennial, which features Centennial Motorcycle Ride Win the Vote” in 2020 as well many events and celebrations to Washington D.C. has also as several updates and catalogs that had to be postponed last been rescheduled for July 31- to prepare for and popularize year. While there were August 20, 2021 the women’s suffrage centenni- wonderful live events that did (centennialride.com). al. Each publication is full of happen in 2020, including the A number of ambitious news, articles, links to resources Rose Parade Float and the suffrage-related efforts are and more, and is available on our homepage under the tab Central Park statue unveiling, still in the works, including Centennial Events (national many plans and projects had the television series based on womenshistoryalliance.org). to be cancelled or delayed. Elaine Weiss’ book, “The The list of groups organized for Many have now been Project 19 Skydivers. Woman’s Hour,” lighting up the centennial in each state is in rescheduled but check ahead Mt. Rushmore with women’s the Centennial Update, August- to confirm. record. With colorful flags images (lookuptoher.com), 16-22 pdf and in the Gift Idea Women skydivers still and flares, Project 19 jumpers and Shaina Taub’s Broadway Catalog. plan to jump for a Guiness were a dramatic presence at musical, The Suffragists. several centennial However, once discovered.
6 WOMEN’S HISTORY women’s history isn’t going Rights Amendment and ideas place historical markers out- and the Right to Vote” on away, so there should be are aready being discussed. side suffrage sites, shares their 2021 calendar. In plenty of time for these Here are a few examples women’s history on social Michigan, the Greater Grand creations as well as many and highlights of plans for the media, and has big plans for Rapids Women’s History others. year, particularly from many the year. Council (ggrwhc.org) offers a There were centennial state suffrage centennial The Maryland Women’s fine Digital History Exhibit exhibits, often multiple ones, groups. Each of the websites Heritage Center in Baltimore on suffrage in the state and a in nearly every state and most referenced offers a wealth of has a new home (mdwomens new “Women Who Ran” went online as much as resources, attractions, links heritagecenter.org) as well as electoral history of 47 women possible. You can still view and new information; many a vibrant website with down- who ran for public office in many. Museums, libraries, have short films, slide shows, loadable panels celebrating Grand Rapids between 1887 “Valiant Maryland Women,” and 1920. a traveling suffrage exhibit Arkansas Heritage and more. The Center opened (arkansasheritage.com) is the year with a panel on “The featuring their series “Sand- Next 100 Years: Continuing wiching in History,” virtual the Work of Our Maryland noon-time tours of significant Foremothers.” There’s also a state sites, and a series of “Suffrage in Sixty Seconds” radio spots. Florida’s Cen- tennial Commission’s website offers “Suffrage Tea Time,” a virtual monthly series of informative interviews, lectures, and discussions (floridasuffrage100.org). North Carolina (ncder.gov) has an education- al online interactive exhibit, Unveiling a new display panel “She Changed the World: on activists in Massachusetts. North Carolina Women Breaking Barriers,” and other new Maryland Museum of suffrage resources. The Mu- Women’s History in Centre- seum of the American Revo- “Fight for the Right: 100 Years of Women Voting” Exhibit at the Museum of California in Sacramento. ville whose first exhibit was lution (amrevmuseum.org) “Enslavement to Emancipa- in Philadelphia is having a videos, calendars and news- tion: Voices Not Heard,” virtual exhibit to April 25, historical societies and state letters to keep you informed. (marylandmuseumofwomens 2021, “When Women Lost government all paid tribute to They are all worth exploring. history.org). the Vote: A Revolutionary women’s achievement. Since See the Free Centennial Re- Tennessee’s group Story, 1776-1807.” the suffrage movement was sources box (page 5) for a list (tnwoman100) has an ongo- In Iowa, there are plans based in the states, this fresh of state centennial sites. ing Commemoration at the for an original musical, The attention uncovered new Parthenon and the exhibit Suffragist, July 16-18 in Ce- information, forgotten local “Ratified! Tennessee Women dar Falls, postponed from last leaders, and a largely Celebrations in unknown part of our national the States history. Recoginizing the Centennial activists in centennial in 2021 as well as Massachusetts (suffrage 2020 increases our chances of 100MA.org) just launched engaging the public and pays their “1000 Classrooms Initi- fitting tribute to these women ative” to identify teachers and what they accomplished. who will screen and discuss Events and celebrations of their new educational film, women’s political involve- The Fight for Women’s Suf- ment will continue through frage: Looking Back, March- this year and beyond. 2023 is ing Forward, which high- the centennial of the intro- lights overlooked women of duction of the Equal color. The group maintains a Women’s basketball coaches and players on teams at several fine website, continues to Iowa universities commemorated the 19th Amendment.
WOMEN’S HISTORY 7 (womenvote100.org). A Legacy video, Reflecting on the Suffrage Centennial, and an Agency Report highlight creative projects throughout the country. The National Park Service (nps.gov/subjects/womenshist ory/19th-amendment) has a series of very informative suffrage articles by scholars plus the collection of essays from the Centennial Commis- sion, “On Their Shoulders: Vision2020 celebrated the centennial with a SHE Leads Road Rally, a motorcade from The Radical Stories of Wom- Philadelphia to Seneca Falls and back in October. en’s Fight for the Vote.” The National Portrait Gallery also year (suffragistmusical.com). fragists, free panel exhibits, offers a set of ten download- Iowa’s 19th Amendment collages and more. able “A Portrait of Persis- Centennial group, whose Rhode Island tence” thematic posters with motto is “Hard Won, Not (shallnotbedenied.org) is an exhibition handbook and Done,” had to suspend in- helping Girl Scouts earn a user guide, (sites.si.edu/s person events, but online, 19th Amendment Centennial /topic/0TO1Q000000cZgKW they offer a fascinating varie- Patch through July and is also AU/votes-for-women-a- ty of learning resources in- hosting an Archiving portrait-of-persistence). cluding a curriculum de- There’s also “Suffrage at 100: signed for Grades 9-12 based Girl Scouts in Elk River, Min- A Visual History” from the on Iowa Social Studies nesota, received the mayor’s New York Times Standards. They also have centennial Women’s Equality (www.nytimes.com/interactiv two suffrage wagon replicas Day proclamation in August. e/2020). they loan out, The League of Women (19thamendment- Thinking Nationally Voters (lwv.org), which grew centennial.org). directly out of the suffrage The national grassroots or- Profiles and ganization, 2020 Women’s New Curriculum Vote Centennial Initiative (2020Centennial.org), will Utah’s accomplished centen- Workshop. The website has continue to offer its expan- nial group “Better Days great links, a timeline and sive website and calendar of 2020” (betterdays2020.com) other educational materials. events. Also, check Vision has developed suffrage cur- Kentucky (Kentucky 2020 (drexel.edu/vsion2020) womansuffrageproject.org) movement, is one consistent riculum for elementary and the National Women’s offers profiles of state suffra- contact in every state. Over schools tied to the Utah Core History Alliance for events, gists, videos, teaching re- 700 chapters stay active as information and support. sources, a Student Activity reliable sources for news and Many national and gov- book and more. An inspired events. One new effort to ernmental organizations offer site for educators teaching involve young women is The special suffrage resources, engaged civics is What Is a Voter Girl Project. like the Library of Congress, Vote Worth? The Alice Paul Institute in the Schlesinger Library, and (whatisavoteworth.org). New Jersey (alicepaul.org), the National Organization for The wealth of new re- which has just added a series Women, which has a poster State Standards. They also sources is astonishing. New of educational videos on its set of 100 voting rights activ- offer an impressive educa- research and original source Youtube channel, has agreed ists (now.org/sisters-of- tional site (UtahWomens His- material will be indispensible to officially preserve the leg- suffrage). tory.org). in writing the full story of the acy of the historic National The federally funded The Washington state national drive for Votes for Woman’s Party, co-founded Women’s Suffrage Centenni- group (Suffrage100WA) now Women and the importance by Alice Paul. The API has al Commission ceased opera- offers 57 biographical of suffragists in each state. received the right to use the tion in December but left a sketches of Washington suf- NWP name for future pro- record of events along with grams, some possibly in an archived website
8 WOMEN’S HISTORY grams, some possibly in Elaine Weiss and Hillary Washington D.C. The Clinton, on youtube.com. Library of Congress and the The Suffragists, a musical National Park Service already by Shaina Taub, is discussed received NWP collections. and two songs are performed in a NY Times special on New Films on youtube.com. The Battle for the Ballot, Women’s Suffrage composer Stacy Garrop’s 16- Several states, like Tennes- minute symphonic work fea- see, produced their own cen- tures quotes from American tennial films or worked with suffragists plus an interview, local filmmakers to create cabrillomusic.org/2020- The White House was lit up in suffrage colors for Equality Day. season. programs like the Iowa PBS film, Carrie Chapman Catt: A Suffrage Centennial Finding Justice: The Un- “Unceasing Militant: The Playlist of 90 rousing songs Warrior for Women. told Story of Women’s Fight Life of Mary Church Terrell,” assembled by Joyce Rouse, for the Vote is a 19-minute a new biography by Alison earthmama.org/her-story. documentary just produced M. Parker, American Journalism’s by the Justice Bell Founda- “An Unfinished Revolu- Suffrage and the Media tion in Pennsylvania. They tion: Edna Buckman Kearns website offers links to books, also funded a Justice Bell and the Struggle for Wom- articles, film clips, interviews replica as a public art project en’s Rights,” a finely-tuned and much more, suffrageand (justicebell.org). and delightful family memoir, themedia.org The 19th Amendment: A with photographs, by grand- She Resisted: Strategies of Woman’s Right to Vote is the daughter and long-time Suffrage, an interactive presen- Annenberg Center’s award- activist Marguerite Kearns. tation with great visuals, relat- winning video (Annenberg ed to The Vote PBS Special, publicpolicycenter.org). www.pbs.org/wgbh/american experience/features/vote-she- Recent & resisted. UNLADYLIKE2020 has Upcoming Books films profiling diverse and Without a Whisper — little-known American Konnon:Kwe is a new docu- Look for new books through- women from the early 20th mentary film by Katsitsionni out the year, including these century and today who follow Fox on how Indigenous recent and upcoming titles: in their footsteps. Visit their women influenced early suf- “A Vote for Women,” a beau- resource-rich website, fragists in their fight for free- tifully illustrated coffee table unladylike2020.com. dom and equality, featuring book produced by St. James The Crisis: A Record of Mohawk Bear Clan Mother House in London with the Darker Races, founded by Louise Herne and professor Women Vote Centennial Ini- W.E.B. DuBois in 1910, Sally Roesch Wagner tiative, was the magazine of the (withoutawhisperfilm.com). “One Woman, One Vote,” New York suffragist and jour- newly-formed NAACP, now Into Light is a dramatic an expanded second edition nalist Edna Buckman Kearns. digitized – go to the source, 13-minute film, now stream- with incisive essays by a mul- www.modjourn.org ing on Amazon Prime, featur- titude of scholars, New state books include Women and Social ing a powerful portrayal by “We Demand: The Suf- “Pioneering the Vote: The Movements has generated Amy Walker of suffragist frage Road Trip,” Anne Gass’ Untold Story of Suffragists hundreds of profiles and Inez Milholland’s last speech fictionalized version of Sara in Utah and the West” by writings of both White and in Los Angeles (intolight Bard Field’s cross-country Neylan McBaine and “A Black suffragists at docu- official.com). Los Angeles- journey as seen by the unher- Simple Justice: Kentucky ments.alexanderstreet.com/ based Wild West Women, alded Swedish women who Women Fight for the Vote” VOTESforWOMEN who made the inspiring doc- drove her, by Melanie Beals Goan. WEAR Organization umentary, Inez Milholland ~ “Bohemians West: Free works to increase recognition Forward into Light, continues Love, Family, and Radicals in A Few Favorites of women’s history in middle to present films and lead dis- Twentieth Century America,” and high schools in Fairfax cussions about historical Sherry L. Smith’s portrait of Women’s Fight for the Vote County, Virginia women (wildwest western suffragist Sara Bard Centennial talk with author (w-e-a-r.org). women.org). Field and poet CES Wood,
WOMEN’S HISTORY 9 In hats and suits, resolute members of the Men’s League for Woman Suffrage march up Fifth Avenue during the May 2, 1913 suffrage parade in New York City. Learn about the inspiring example of men Named one of the "Five Best Books" on the backing women and working together for jus- Subject by The Wall Street Journal tice and equal rights. This is a story men of eve- Readers’ responses to “Winning the Vote” ry age should know and take pride in. Under- from Amazon reviews (5 out of 5 stars) stand how the bold actions that women took “A must have” • “A pleasure to read and hard to put down” to win the vote were supported by many brave “Outstanding and unparalleled” • “A really fine volume” and farsighted men despite intense pressure “An excellent resource for our home library” • “A visual feast” from other men. “A volume to be treasured” • “In a class by itself” Winning the Vote features hundreds of photographs, illustrations and editorial cartoons from the time. Winning the Vote The Triumph of the American Woman Suffrage Movement by Robert P. J. Cooney, Jr. Reviews and more at www.AmericanGraphicPress.com Order from the nwha1980.org NWHA STORE
10 WOMEN’S HISTORY Women’s Equality Week On August 18, 1920, the Votes for Women Amendment was ratified by the state of Tennessee, the last state needed for ratification. Certified on August 26, 1920, it became the 19th Amendment to the Constitution. In 1973 Congress recognized the important historic event by designating August 26th as “Women’s Equality Day.” In 2021, we want to expand Women’s Equality Day to Women’s Equality Week from the day of ratifica- tion day - August 18th to the day of certification day - August 26, culminating the week by having Women’s Equality Day, August 26th recognized as a national holiday. Please join us. It’s Time to Update the National Calendar This is a Call to Action to recognize Equality Day, civic and nonprofit bodies, city and county boards and August 26, as a national holiday. state legislatures to celebrate Women’s Equality Day an- We are entering a new chapter in American history, 100 nually and to officially adopt this Resolution to make it years after passage of the 19th Amendment, and the Na- a national holiday that honors American women. tional Women’s History Alliance wants to make sure that multicultural women have a prominent place on the new Women’s Equality Day national calendar. As we reevaluate the values and institutions we hold Program Kit dear, rejecting racism and white male supremacy, we need #0534 $45.95 to create new holidays and ways to promote the society we #0545 $55.95 (wih DVD) want to see flourish. The contributions of those who have All items are been excluded can now be included and honored. available individually Therefore, we call on individuals and collective bodies in our webstore throughout the country to pass this Resolution to make nwha1980.org August 26 a national holiday. The first step for a significant date to become a national holiday is for people to observe it themselves, every year, regardless of official sanction. The NWHA calls on individuals, businesses, civic and nonprofit bodies, city and county boards and state legisla- tures to celebrate Women’s Equality Day annually and to officially adopt this Resolution to make it a national holi- day that honors American women. Our goal for Women’s Equality Day to become a widely observed, festive multi- cultural holiday with lasting historical importance. We will have downloadable version of the Celebrate Women’s Equality Day as a National Holiday Petition on our website. The NWHA calls on individuals, businesses,
WOMEN’S HISTORY 11 Proposing August 26 as a National Holiday Downloadable Petition available at nwha1980.org To measure the success of this effort, please email the names and locations of organizations, business- es, nonprofits or legislative bodies who have officially adopted this Resolution to nwhp1980.@gmail.com We will acknowledge them on our website. WHEREAS, there is no national holiday that recognizes women and their many contributions to American life. WHEREAS, the women of the United States have historically been treated as second-class citizens and have often been denied the full rights and privileges, public or private, legal or institutional, which are available to male citi- zens of the United States; and WHEREAS, the women of the United States have united to assure that these rights and privi- leges are available to ALL citizens equally, and WHEREAS, the women of the United States have designated August 26, the anniversary date ERA Update of the certification of the Nineteenth Amend- The Equal Rights Amend- ment, which culminated a 72-year, non-violent ment is a proposed amend- campaign to extend the right to vote to women, ment to the United States as a symbol of the continued fight for equal Constitution designed to rights: and guarantee equal legal rights WHEREAS, the women of the United States for all American citizens regardless of sex. It seeks are to be commended and supported in their to end the legal distinctions between men and organizations and activities, women in terms of divorce, property, employment, NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED, that and other matters. Women’s Equality Day commemorating that day Three-State Strategy: Bills to remove the time in 1920, on which the women of America won limit of seven years that had been imposed on the their right to vote will be recognized and cel- ERA’s ratification process and declare it complete ebrated as an opportunity to continue to work for when three-fourths (38) of the states ratify, thereby equal rights for ALL citizens. retaining the existing 35 state ratifications as viable. Legislation is pending in Congress to remove any National Women’s History Alliance time limit on the ERA ratification For more infor- 730 Second Street #469 mation contact www.equalrightsamendment.org. Santa Rosa, CA 95402 (707) 636-2888 “Equality of rights under the law shall not be firstname.lastname@example.org denied or abridged by the United States or by any nwha1980.org state on account of sex.”
WOMEN’S HISTORY 10 Valiant Women of the Vote 2021 Honorees 12 WOMEN’S HISTORY Valiant Women of the Vote 2021 Honorees A VICTORY as important as women winning the right to vote deserves an extended celebration. That’s why the National Women’s History Alliance is leading the drive to celebrate women’s historic achievements throughout 2021. In recognition of the ongoing cel- ebrations of the centennial of the 19th Amendment, we are honoring women Lucy Burns Lucy Burns Carrie Chapman Carrie Chapman Catt Wilhelmina Wilhelmina from the original suffrage movement as 1879 – 1966 1879 – 1966 Catt–1947 1859 Kekelaokalaninui Kekelaokalaninui well as 20th and 21st century women Lucy Burns Carrie Chapman Catt Wilhelmina American American Woman WomanSuf- 1859 –1947 American Woman Suf- Widemann Widemann Dowsett who have continued the struggle (fight- 1879 – 1966 1859 –1947 Kekelaokalaninui frage Activist Suffrage Activist frage Activist American WomanSuf- Dowsett 1861 - 19291861 - 1929 ing against poll taxes, literacy tests, American Woman Suf- American Woman Widemann Dowsett Lucy Burns was an Carrie SuffrageChapman Activist Catt Founder Founder ofofthe theNa-Na- voter roll purges, and other more con- Lucy Activist frage Burns was an frage Activist 1861 - 1929 American suffragist was an activist from tional tional Women’s Women’s Equal Equal temporary forms of voter suppression) Lucy Burnssuffragist American and women’s was an rights CarrieChapman Carrie ChapmanCatt Iowa who advocated Catt Founder of the Na- Suffrage Association of American and women’s suffragist rights was was an an activist activist from from Suffrage Association tional Women’s Equal to ensure voting rights for all advocate. 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AfterAfter the the by aso long pandemic. those Sincesome we were unableasto ing her time oversees, vote. In 1900, Catt Hawai’i, suffragists some bios areneedshort and editing some very Union (WSPU). Dur- ing women gain the forced forced annexation of of recognize last year’s 2020 Honorees, we (WSPU). During Burns perfected herher pivotal succeeded role in helping Susan B. from theannexation mainland saw shown, long so but those notneed done. someAnd an In-as editing ing her time oversees, vote. In 1900, Catt Hawai’i, suffragists are honoring them in 2021. time oversees, suffrage Burns protest tactics. women gain Anthony the vote. as President Hawai’i, an opportunitysuf-fragists for the Burns perfected her succeeded Susan B. from the mainland saw troduction shown, buthere. not done. And an In- Burns returned perfected to her suffrage of In the National 1900, Catt Ameri- succeed- from newly the mainland acquired United suffrage protest tactics. Anthony as President an opportunity for the the U.S. protest to continue can ed Woman Susan B.Suffrage Anthony States saw an territory to grant opportunity troduction here. Burnstactics. returned to of the National Ameri- newly acquired United the fight for women’s Association women the for theterritory newlyrightacquired to AN INTRODUCTION to the Honorees the Burns U.S. to returned continue to as President can of the Woman Suffrage States to grant suffrage. Upon her (NAWSA). vote. for 2020 AN and 2021, explanation, INTRODUCTION etc. to the Honorees the the fight U.S. for to women’s continue return she joined the National Association American Catt worked tire- United women States the rightterritory In 1899, members to suffrage. Upon her (NAWSA). Woman vote. to grant women the This is mockup copy. In 1899, for 2020 and 2021, explanation, etc. members the fight Women’s National for women’s lessly on Suffrage a nationalAs- of the National Ameri- return she joined the Catt worked sociation tire- (NAWSA). In 1899, right to vote. members of theisNational suffrage. Upon her Suffrage Association level to support suf- can Woman Suffrage This mockup American Woman copy. In 1899, Suf- members National Women’s lessly on a national of the National Ameri- In 1899,(NAWSA)mebers of (NAWSA) return she before joined Suffrage Association the Catt frage. worked Catt workedtire- level to support suf- Association frage Association (NAWSA) of the National American Woman Suf-wrote the with can Woman Suffrage forming the National (NAWSA) more mili- Women’s before lesslypoliticians frage. on aworked Catt at the national wrote the the “Hawaiian National Association (NAWSA) American “Hawaiian frage Appeal”, Association asking wrote the (NAWSA) tant, Congressional state and national level Appeal”, Woman asking Con- Suffrage As- Valiant Women of the Vote CongressAppeal”, “Hawaiian to give Hawaiian asking women the Suffragethe forming (NAWSA) tant, Association Union for Woman more mili- before Congressional level to frage.and state sup-port with politicians at the including, Woodrow Catt worked national suf- level wrote the “Hawaiian gress to give sociationasking Appeal”, Hawaiian (NAWSA) Con- Suffrage with fellow Wilson who did not women the right to Refusing to Be Silenced Luncheon right Congress to give Hawaiianfounded to vote. Later, Dowsett womenthe the Union forming fortheWomanmore suffragist Alice Paul. Suffrage including, with Woodrow politicians support Women’s Suf- at wrote gress tothe give “Hawaiian Hawaiian vote. Later, Dowsett National Women’s Equal Suffrage right to vote. Later, Dowsett founded theAsso- militant,with fellow Congressio- Wilson the state frage. who did Cattand wasna- not a re- women Appeal”, founded theasking right toCon- the National ciation Hawai’i ofWomen’s (WESAH) and our led the suffragist Alice Paul. support Women’s tional level Suf- including, vote. gress Later, to giveDowsett Hawai- National On Saturday, Equal21, August Suffrage 2021 Asso- 2021 nal Union for Woman lentless lobbyist and Women’s Equal Suf- frage. Catt was a re- founded the National efforts ciation to Honoree enfranchise of Hawai’i luncheon the (WESAH)women of and led will be held her the at the Suffrage with fellow Woodrow by Wilson 1918, Wilson was ian women frage Associationthe right of to lentless lobbyist and Women’s Equal Suf- in whosupport did suffragist Alice Paul. by 1918, Wilson was of not suffrage support Hawai’i vote. (WESAH) Later, Dowsett island. Hamilton efforts Restaurant to enfranchise thelocated women at of600 her frage Association of which Women’s led to the pass- Suffrage. and led thethe founded efforts to National 14th St NW, In 1899, island. Washington, members DC 20005. of the National in support of suffrage Hawai’i (WESAH) ing of the 19th amend- enfranchise the women Catt was which a relent-less led to the pass- Women’s and led the Equal efforts Suf- to In All American 2021 1899, Honorees Woman members willNational Suffrage of the be acknowl- Association ment in 1920. ing of the and lobbyist 19thby amend- 1918, of her island. frage Association enfranchise the women of edged (NAWSA)Womanwith a video wrote the presentation. “Hawaiian Appeal”, American Suffrage Association ment Wilsonin 1920. was in support of her island. Hawai’i (WE-SAH) Terry Ao Minnis, Eleanor Holmes (NAWSA) wrote the “Hawaiian Appeal”, of suffrage which led and led the efforts Norton, Maria Teresa Kumar, and Edith Mayonwill receive the Valiant Women to the passing of the to enfranchise the of the Vote Award. 19th amend-ment in women of her island. We hope that our Honorees will 1920. speak for 5 to 10 minutes.
WOMEN’S HISTORY 10 WOMEN’S HISTORY 13 Valiant Women of the Vote 2021 Honorees WOMEN’S HISTORY 11 Ana Roqué de Ana Roqué de Elizabeth Piper Elizabeth Piper Marie Foster Marie Foster Dr. Dr. Mabel Ping- Mabel Ping-Hua Virginia Louisa Virginia Louisa Mi- Duprey Duprey Ensley Ensley 1917 –2003 1917 –2003 Hua Lee Lee Minor nor 1853 1853 ––1933 1933 1847-1919 1847-1919 LucyRights Civil Civil BurnsLeader Rights Leader 1896-1966 1824 Carrie Chapman Catt 1824 1896-1966 ––1894 1894 Wilhelmina 1879 –Foster Marie 1966 was born Suffragist, Member of 1859 –1947 American Women Suf- Kekelaokalaninui Suffragist and Suffragist andCo- Co- Educator Educator and andAfrican- African- Marie Foster was born Suffragist, Member of American Women American suffragist American in rural Wilcox Woman Coun-Suf- the Women’s American Woman Political Suf- frage Widemann ActivistDowsett founder of the Unive- founder of the Unive- American suffragist in rural Wilcox Coun- the Women’s Political Suffrage Activist Elizabeth Piper frage ty, ActivistBecause Alabama. Equality frage ActivistLeague Virginia 1861 - 1929 Louisa Minor rsity of Puerto Rico rsity of Puerto Rico Elizabeth PiperEnsley Ensley ty, Lucy of Alabama. the Burns overt and Because was an non- Equality Mabel Carrie ChapmanLeague Ping- HuaCatt Lee Virginia was Louisa a courageous Founder of the Na- Minor ac- Ana Roqué de Duprey, was a champion of the Ana Roquéasde“Flor also known Du- was a cham-pion of Woman Suffrage of the overt American ending racism and suffragist Marienon- Mabel an Ping was born activistHua in 1896 fromLee in was tivist tionalawhocourageous Women’stook an ac- Equal prey, also (Flower del Valle” known of the Woman Movement and Suffrage became and women’s Foster ending faced racism rights daily, she Marie Guangzhou, Iowaborn was who in China. advocated 1896 in tive rolewho Suffrage activist in founding Association took anof Movement a leading activist be- and advocate. became a Burns courageous Foster faced daily, she left Lee emigrated for suffrage Guangzhou, to thethe during China. the Woman Hawai’i active role in Suffrage founding as the“Flor Valley), delwas Valle”edu- in the came a leading activ- her studies and unrelenting at Vassar leader United second States generationand at-of Association Wilhelmina of Mis- Kekelao- cated (Flower in elementary of the Valley), Some names have dates, others CivilRightsMovement. became a courageous Lee emigrated to the the Woman Suffrage Ensley lived in Wash- College in the Civilto join Rightsthe tended Barnard suffragists. Catt Col- was souri. It was kalaninui Widemann the first and secondary school ist in the CivilRights- United was have educated teaching. none Duprey in soel-I eliminated ington D.Ctheand was a and British Movementunrelentingduringleader suffrage the lege andStates trained inColumbia and political Association organization Dowsett was in of Mis- the a fierce ementary and second- Movement. Ensley in the Civil movement 1960s. She as Rights a mem- worked attended University. activism underBarnard Upon earn- Susan souri. United advocate ItStates was the for the first to focus en- months showed and a gift fordays writ- onlived those professor that in Washington had at Howard College andand Colum- organization inofrights, the ary ing school at a very teaching. young age University. She even- Movement ber of the closely with during Martin the Women’s ing her Ph.D. B. Anthony in eco- played on the women’s franchisement all them for Duprey showedconsistency.D.C Alsoand edited was a profes- 1960s. Social and Luther KingPolitical Jr. and bia University. nomics a pivotal inrole 1921, in Upon she help- United even women. States predating After the to thefocus and by the age of a13gift tually moved to Bos- some for writing bios are short sor and at some Howardshe veryUni- Union other (WSPU). Oncivil rights Dur- Sunday, lead- March became ing women earning the first hergainPh.D.wom- thein National forced on Woman’s annexation the women’s of rights, had written aattextbook a very ton where contin- long so versity. She and as to moved ing ers her in time Alabama 7, 1965 a nonviolent oversees, to se- an to vote. obtain In 1900, economics in 1921, a PhD. Catt Suffrage Hawai’i, Association suffragists even predating the young on agethose universal and byneed geogra- the some ued to teachediting Burnsthe perfected her from Columbia Uni- succeeded (NWSA) founded by phy. age Duprey of shown, 13 had but was alsodone. written not Boston Andtoand helped build an continued In-a li- cure right to vote voting rights march she becameSusan B. the first from the mainland National Woman’ssaw recognized for her brary. suffrage for African protest tactics. Americans. versity. Anthony as President Susan an opportunity for and B. Anthony the atroduction textbook onhere. univer- to teach and helped to wasOn scheduled Burns returned to towalk woman to obtain LeeNational of the believed a that Ameri- Suffrage Elizabeth Association Cady Stan- insight into astronomy After a move to Sunday, March newly acquired United build sal geography. Duprey Colorado, Ensley be- a library. the the1965 7, 54 miles U.S. from Sel- atononviolent continue PhD. from achieving can Woman Columbia theSuffrage right for (NWSA) ton. States territory founded by to grant and was named an was After a move to ma to Montgomery, University. women to vote, was an Susan Minor B.theAnthony made rightatono- AN also recognized came the fight voting for women’s rights march Association women honorary member INTRODUCTION of to theaHonorees Colorado, reporter for the, for the her Paris insight Society into “Women’s Ensley Era”, a the state suffrage. was capitol. Upon scheduled The herwalk to important (NAWSA). step forthat Lee believed both table and impact onCady vote.Elizabeth the for 2020 and 2021, explanation, became aetc. reporter return the 54- she miles joined 600 marchers got only from the American achieving and Catt workedthe Chinese tire- right NWSA In 1899, Stanton. in 1869membersby astronomy oAstronomers. andIn was newsletter that is affil- This sheisanmockup women. onAt the age of proposing Minor made astrat- a legal 1893 named honor-copy. Infor founded 1899, iated the, with members “Women’s the National National Selma as far asto Women’s Montgomery, the Edmund lessly for women sixteen, a national to vote, she partici- of the agem National for quickly Ameri- at- of the Puerto National Rico’sof firstAmerican Woman Era”, Suf- a newsletter Association of Colored Suffrage the Association state capitol. The level to support suf- can Woman Suffrage ary member the Pettus Bridge, when was pated an important step notable impact on feminist newspaper, La Women (NACW). (NAWSA) 600 marchers before got only frage. inCatttheworked 1912 suf- taining suffrage. Association (NAWSA) She frage Association Paris Society oAs- that (NAWSA) is affiliated wrote the with state far and forming as the local more lawmen mili- for frageboth American parade in New with politicians at the the NWSA argued simply, in 1869 that the Even though women as Edmund wrote the “Hawaiian Mujer [Woman]. “Hawaiian In tronomers. Appeal”, 1893 asking the National Asso- in attacked the marchers tant, Congressional Pettus Bridge, when and stateChinese York, where and women. she national level by proposing Fourteenth Appeal”, a legal Amend- asking Con- Duprey is consid- Colorado had won the she founded Puerto ciationwomen of Colored with Unionand billy forlocalclubs Woman and At the age helped of the16, leadWoodrow parade stratagem ment gress to the for quickly Constitu- eredCongress one of Puerto to give Hawaiian right to vote in 1893, the state lawmen including, give Hawaiian Rico’s right to Rico’s first feminist vote. strongest Later, Women advo- Dowsett founded suffragists (NACW). the continued Suffrage attacked tear gas thewithmarchers and fellow drove while she Wilson onwhohorseback. participateddid notin tion women implicitly attaining thesuffrage. right guaran- to newspaper, La Mujer Even to push though for a women national suffragist with them backAlice billy clubs Paul. intoandSelma. Lee the wasWomen’s support 1912 asuffrage memberSuf- of teed She the vote.argued Later,franchise Dowsett simply, to cates for women’s National Women’s Equal Suffrage Asso- in Colorado women’s had won suffrage tear gas and drove the Women’s frage. Catt was parade in New York, Political a re- women. founded The the that the Fourteenth associa- National suffrage. She was one [Woman]. ciation of Hawai’i (WESAH) and led the Foster was one of the amendment. To edu- them back into Selma. Equality League and in lentless lobbyist tion adopted Women’s her Suf- Equal argu- of the She founders was one of of the the right to vote in marchers and because where she an helped lead Amendment toit the effortsRican Puerto to enfranchise Feminist the1893, women cate women ofofhercolor Foster was one of the 1915 gave by 1918, Wilson im-was ment frage Associationwide- and used of the founders of the suffragists the brutality marchers and of her because the parade portant in support speechwhile on titled, of suffrage Constitution ly. Hawai’i (WESAH) implicitly island. and utilized League on how to vote continued and for to push horseback. Puerto her talentsRican as a Feminist writer why they should vote, beating the brutality wasofcaptured her “China’s toLee which ledSubmerged was a the pass- guaranteed and led the efforts the fran- to In 1899, League members ofathe and utilized National national women’s on film,was beating shecaptured came to member Half” theof19th ing of which the was Wom- cov- amend- chise to women. enfranchise the women The to gain public support Ensley founded the American her for talents the causeas Woman ofa wom- writerSuffrage ColoredAssociation suffrage amendment. Women’s on film, she embody thecame to challeng- ered by in the mentPolitical en’s 1920.New York Equality association of her island.adopted wrote To educate women of embody the challenges Times. In thisinspeech (NAWSA) to gain en’s public suffrage. sup-the “Hawaiian Republic Appeal”, Club. es the protesters faced. League and 1915 her argument and used color on how to vote the protesters faced. she said: “The welfare port for the cause of gave an important it widely. On March 21, two of China and possibly women’s suffrage. and why they should speech its very titled, existence “China’s as an weeks later, Foster, vote, Ensley founded with two injured Submerged Half.” tardy justice to its Ed- the Colored Women’s Edited 4 lines to fit ited 4 lines to fit Honorees – pp 10-12 Republic Club.
WOMEN’S HISTORY 10 14 WOMEN’S HISTORY Valiant Women of the Vote 2021 Honorees WOMEN’S HISTORY 12 Anna Howard Maria TeresaKu- Maria Teresa EleanorHolmes Eleanor Holmes Terry AoMinnis Terry Ao Minnis Edith Mayo Edith Mayo Anna Howard Shaw Shaw Kumar mar Norton Norton Senior Director of Senior Director of the Suffrage Historian, Suffrage Historian, 1847 1847 ––1919 1919 CEO, CEO, VotoVotoLatino Latino CivilRights Civil Lucy RightsLeader, Burns Leader, the Census Census Chapman Carrie and Vot- and Voting Catt Women’s Women’s History Wilhelmina History American American Woman WomanSuf- Maria Teresa Maria Teresa Kumar Kumaris Con-gressperson, Congressperson, 1879 – 1966 Law- ing Programs, –1947AsianAsian Programs, 1859 Movement Movement Activist Kekelaokalaninui Activist frage Activist Suffrage Activist is a Hispanic a Hispanic American Ameri- Lawyer yer and and Organizer American Woman Organizer Suf- Americans AmericansWoman American Advancing Advancing Suf- Edith Widemann Mayo Edith Mayo Dowsett isisa ahisto- histo- Dr. Anna Dr. AnnaHoward Howard can Political Political rightsrights and frage Eleanor Activist Holmes Eleanor Holmes Nor- JusticeActivist Justice frage rian 1861of of the - 1929 women’s the women’s Shaw was a leader of Lucy is Burns Shaw was a leader of and voting rightsrights voting activist. Norton ton is awas a civil civilan rights Carrie Terry Ao Terry Chapman Ao MinnisCatt Minnis isisa a Founder of suffrage movement suffrage the Na- movement the women’s suffrage American suffragist was an activist from the women’s movement suf- in the Unit- Kumar was activist. born in Kumar was leader and rights leader andpolitical voting rights voting rights activistactivist and an activistofEqual tional and an Women’s activist ofthe Bogota, Columbia and and women’s organizer. Herrights political organizer. work on Iowa who has who who advocated has dedicated dedicated her Suffrage women’s the Association history women’s history of frage movement ed States who was in born in Bogota, Co- advocate. Burns left for suffrage during the Hawai’i grew up in Sonoma, voting rights dates career to fight for the movement. She is the the Unitedknown Statesforwho lumbia andShe grew Her work at onVassar voting her career to fightof to movement. She is the especially California. at- up in her backstudies to the 1960s and second right to generation equal access Wilhelmina current curator Kekelao- Emerita Some her was names affiliation especially withhave the dates, known Sonoma, othersCalifornia. tended college at Har- rights dates College continues totoday. joinback the to Nor- for the the suffragists. right ballot. to equal Catt Minnis was at- current kalaninui curator Widemann for Political History at Emeri- National for have American her none affiliation so Iwith She eliminated vard’sattended the college Kennedy Uni- the 1960s British suffrageand ton earned a bachelor’s con- access trained to in the ballot. political tended the University ta thefor Dowsett Political History was a fierce Smithsonian Na- Woman’s the Suffrage National American at Harvard’s versity School Kennedy of Gov- movement tinues from degree today. asAntioch aNorton mem- activism Minnis of Chicago under attended where Susanthe she advocate at the Museum tional for Smithsonianthe ofen- months Association and days on those that had Woman’s ernment andSchool the Uni- ber of the earned aand College Women’s master’s bachelor’s B. Anthony earned her and bachelor’s University of Chicago played franchisement AmericanMuseum National of all of History. them forSuffrage (NAWSA). As- University consistency. Also edited of Social sociation (NAWSA). versity of California Government and the and degreelawand Political degrees from from Antioch adegree pivotal where inrole she in help- economics. earned her women. Mayo has After American History. the dedicated someShawbioswas born are in short Davis. and some very Union (WSPU). Dur- ing She women then gain the her continued forced her career annexation of Shawand England wasraised borninin University of Califor- Yale College ing University. her time andoversees, She master’s bachelor’s vote. In 1900, degree Catt in Mayo Hawai’i, hastodedicated making long so those need some Kumareditingwitnessed as currently serves as the education at American women’ssuffragists history more England Michigan.and Sheraised had a in nia Davis.how Latinos first-hand and law Burns degrees perfected Congressional herfrom Repre- economics. succeeded University’s She Susan Wash- then B. her from career to making the mainland accessible and inclu- saw shown, distinguished Michigan. but not profes- She had adone. And an In- Yale University. She continued her educa- women’s history more lackKumar access to witnessed services suffrage protest sentative for the Dis- tactics. Anthony as President ington College of Law an opportunity sive and to making for the sional career troduction and was here. distinguished profes- in first-hand California. how Latinos Kumar currently serves trict of Columbia. to Burns returned as tion of theatNational where American she receivedAmeri-Uni- her accessible newly sure women acquiredand inclu- United receive highly educated sional career and in awas recognized that tech- the theU.S. to continue Congressional can Woman versity’s law degree. Suffrage Washington She is a States sive balanced territory and representa- to makingto grant lack access to services Norton became active wide variety of fields. the fight forrights women’s Association key leader women the right to highly educated nology was a powerful in the civil Representative andthe for College ofon Law cam- where tion in sure women receive AN In 1890s Shawin a theINTRODUCTION in the to tool California. to Honorees connect Kumar young suffrage. voting Upon rights her move- (NAWSA). paigns reauthorizing vote. museums. representa- She is well wide variety for 2020to and of fields. recognized that 2021, explanation, tech- District of Columbia. she received her law balanced decided dedicate voters to etc. the vital in- return ments sheajoined Nortonasbecame collegethe stu- active the Catt degree.Voting worked She Rights tire- is a key Act knownIn 1899, members and widely In herself the full1890s time toShaw the This is mockup copy. Informationnology was 1899, members a power- National tiontheinNational museums. She they needed dent. SheWomen’s was an or- lessly and has onwritten a national nu- of respected for her Ameri- work decided to dedicate suffrage cause. fulWoman to toolpolitically stay to Suf- connect con- in the civil Suffrage ganizer for rights Association the Studentand leader level merous toon campaigns support articles suf- and is canwell known Woman Suffrage in documenting and Afri- of the National American herself full time to young scious. voters In 2004, toVoto the voting (NAWSA) rights move- before Nonviolent Coordinat- reauthorizing frage. Catt worked amicus briefs in sup- the widely Association can American respected (NAWSA) suffra-for frage Association (NAWSA) wrote the the suffrage cause. vital information Latino was foundedthey ments forming ing asthea more Committee college mili- Voting with port of Rightsrights. politicians voting Act at the and her wrote workthe gist history. in document- “Hawaiian “Hawaiian servedAppeal”, first as asking and Kumar became tant, Congressional student.and Shepartici- was state hasTerry and written national Aonumerous Minnis islevel Appeal”, ing African Mayo asking began Con- American her Shaw needed to stay po-the (SNCC) Union forMississippi Woman ViceCongress President, to and give Hawaiian liticallywomen president and CEO conscious. the ofIn pated in an organizer for the including, currentlyand articles Woodrow the Senior amicus gress career toat give a Hawaiian time suffragist history. when Suffrage with fellow Wilson who did notand women women’s the right to rightas later to President, vote. Later, the ofDowsett non-profit, 2004, founded Voto Latino non- was the Freedom Summer, Student Nonviolent suffragist a Director of briefs in support of support Census Women’sfor Suf- Mayo historybegan was her National Women’s partisan Equalfounded Suffrageorganization Asso- campaign Alice Paul. to register Voting Programs vote. largely Later, ignored Dowsett by the National American and Kumar Coordinating Com- voting frage. rights. career atthe a time when that was to increase the state’s disenfran- Asian Catt was a re- Americans Ad- founded historians. ANational Mayo’s Woman’s Hawai’i As- ciation ofSuffrage (WESAH) became and the led voter registration thein president mitteeAfrican chised (SNCC) and Ameri- Terrylobbyist lentless vancing Ao Minnis Justice and women’s Women’s history Equal Suf- work and dedication wasto sociation (NAWSA) and efforts to enfranchise theHispanic CEOand women ofofher the non- Latino participated in can citizens to vote, in Mis- is by fighting 1918, (AAJC). AAJC for civil Wilson iswas a largely frage ignored Association the women’s history byof from island.1904-1915. Dur- communities. profit, non-partisanWith sissippi Freedom 1964. in support rights non-profitandof suffrage empower- organization Hawai’i historians. movement (WESAH) isAvisible Mayo’s ing Inher1899, lifetime, Shaw Kumar as president, Summer, a campaign which ing fighting ledforto Asian the pass- Americans civil rights and led throughout work the efforts her 40 year and dedica- to members of the National that was organization ing and of the empowering19th amend- Asian enfranchise career with the women Smith- was widely respected Voto Latino voter to increase has regis- reg- to register the state’s to create a more just tion to the women’s American Woman Suffrage Association ment in 1920. of her island. sonian. Mayo’s exhib- as a public speaker tered over a quarter istration in Hispanic disenfranchised Afri- America for all. a Americans to create history movement is (NAWSA) wrote the “Hawaiian Appeal”, million voters and in- more just America for can American citizens all. it, Parlor to Prison ran visible throughout her and effective orga- and Latino creased Latino communi- voter for ten years and set nizer for the suffrage turnout. ties. With This Kumar one mil- as to vote, in 1964. 40-year the standard careerfor with cause. president, lion voters by VototheLatino 2020 the Smithsonian. showcase the historic has registered over a election. contributions of wom- Edited quarter8million lines tovoters. fit en.Edited 9 lines.
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