Fairness For Students - Student recommendations for the 2018 Ontario budget Canadian Federation of Students-Ontario

Fairness For Students
Student recommendations for the 2018 Ontario budget

       Canadian Federation of Students-Ontario
350,000 undergraduate,
graduate, and college
students united.
The Canadian Federation of Students-Ontario is the
oldest and largest student organization in the province,
representing over 350,000 college, undergraduate and
graduate students from Thunder Bay to Windsor.

Canadian Federation of Students-Ontario
225 Richmond Street West, Suite 302, Toronto ON M5V 1W2
Phone: 416.925.3825 | Fax: 416.925.6774
cfsontario.ca | federation@cfsontario.ca
Ce document est disponible en français.
Introduction............................................................................ 2

Summary of Recommendations............................................. 3

Tuition Fees............................................................................ 4

Rethinking Quality of Education............................................. 6

Post-Residency Fees............................................................... 8

French Language Institutions................................................. 9

Mental Health Services......................................................... 11

Sources................................................................................. 14
                                                                  ing the costs onto students and their families,
Ontario is at a turning point. Across the province,
                                                                  even as average class sizes swell, and full-time
people are beginning to realize the vital impor-
                                                                  faculty are replaced with poorly paid, precarious,
tance of ensuring universal access to post-second-
                                                                  part-time instructors.
ary education.
                                                                  Ontario is uniquely positioned on the global stage
In an economy where over 75 per cent of new                       to take advantage of broad political and eco-
jobs require some form of college or university                   nomic shifts, which are making this province one
education, Ontarians recognize that it is no longer               of the most desirable places to live in the world.
acceptable for our institutions to lie beyond the                 We must now continue to make bold, strategic
reach of any aspiring student.                                    investments in our colleges and universities to
                                                                  shape a system of high quality education that
With the introduction of the Ontario Student                      supports students and surpasses expectations for
Grant (OSG), the government has taken a critical                  the future. At the same time, we cannot lose sight
step in addressing the financial barriers that limit              of the importance of investing in other public ser-
access from our most marginalized communities.                    vices, such as transit, child care and health care,
In what has been described as “the largest reform                 that together create the conditions for students to
of student assistance in the province’s history”, we              be successful.
have seen a significant effort from elected officials
to open the door to students from all socio-                      This year government will have the opportunity
economic backgrounds.                                             to bring forward a platform of ideas that speak to
                                                                  the people. Funding for post-secondary educa-
While the Canadian Federation of Students is                      tion will be an election issue that has the potential
pleased to see the formation of the OSG, govern-                  to polarize parties in their support for youth and
ment must not lose sight of the bigger picture.                   the working class.
For the eighth straight year, Ontario has ranked
the lowest in per-student funding among all                       Students are mobilizing around the call for
Canadian provinces, and this amount of funding                    increased public funding for the improvement
continues to diminish on a per-student basis.                     of public services. Political parties of all stripes
                                                                  have a chance in this election to be the party that
Declining levels of institutional funding threaten                pledges to make government and public services
to erode the quality of education in our province.                work for the youth of Ontario. With this proud
To make up for the shortfall in public funding,                   vision of our province in mind, students are bring-
institutions are encouraged to raise tuition fees                 ing forward the following set of recommendations
through an outdated funding formula, download-                    to decision-makers at Queen’s Park.

2 | Fairness for Students: Student recommendations for the 2018 Ontario Budget
Summary of Recommendations
    Tuition Fees                                                Rethinking Quality of Eduaction
    Cost: Up to an additional 4 billion dollars annually.       Cost: 400 million dollars to support colleges and univer-
     • Increase per-student funding levels to match the         sities across Ontario in full-time faculty renewal.
       national average.                                         • Ensure students have access to a high quality
                                                                   post-secondary education system by increasing full-
                                                                   time permanent positions and fairness for contract

    French Language Institutions                                Mental Health Services
    Cost: 50 million dollars.                                   Cost: 40 million dollars.
     • Consult Francophone and bilingual students in dis-        • Work with the Mental Health Commission of Can-
       cussions regarding programs and services that will be       ada to create and distribute a standardized and
       offered at the new Toronto French Language University.      mandatory Mental Health First Aid workshop for all
     • Ensure that any funding dedicated to the new French         front-line workers at colleges and universities every
       Language University be new government funding.              two years.
     • Create a French Education Fund with new funding          Cost: 150 million dollars over 4 years.
       specifically earmarked for francophone and bilingual
                                                                 • Introduce more funding for colleges and universities
                                                                   to support the maintenance, expansion and creation
                                                                   of diverse forms of mental health services on
Tuition Fees
                                                                  gain on investment from a public perspective.1         then, institutions are likely to continue increasing
Investing in Ontario’s future                                     In Canada, the total return or “net present            the cost of tuition by the maximum amount annu-
                                                                  value”, both private and public, for an adult with     ally – 3% for undergraduate programs and 5% for
2017 was an exciting year for colleges and
                                                                  post-secondary education is $189,200. Investing        graduate and professional programs – to balance
universities in Ontario with the introduction of the
                                                                  in an educated workforce benefits not only the         their budgets.
Ontario Student Grant (OSG) through changes to
                                                                  current economy but also future generations by
the Ontario Student Assistance Program (OSAP).                                                                           While financial aid schemes such as the OSG help
                                                                  contributing to a more innovative, competitive,
The OSG, offered for the first time in September                                                                         to ensure that students with the greatest need
                                                                  and productive workforce.2
2017, was created by redirecting 100% of the                                                                             have access to post-secondary education, these
funds from all previously existing OSAP grants                                                                           measures do not offer a sustainable solution in
into one upfront package.                                         A balanced approach: per-student                       ensuring that education remains affordable. What
                                                                                                                         institutions really need is an increase in per-stu-
Although the government did not invest any new
                                                                  funding                                                dent funding to levels that are comparable with
money to create the OSG, it has made it simpler                   Since 2008-2009, Ontario has ranked the lowest         the rest of the country, so that Ontario’s colleges
for students to access financial aid and has broad-               of all provinces in per-student funding. As a          and universities are adequately supported with
ened the terms of who is eligible for support. It                 result of this legacy of underfunding, our “pub-       public dollars to provide high-quality services,
has since benefitted 210,000 students, which is                   lic institutions” are no longer publicly funded        without raising tuition fees to pick up the slack.
almost one third of all post-secondary students.                  but publicly assisted, with the majority of their
                                                                  revenue coming from tuition fees and private           Raising the bar
However, despite the positive impact of the OSG,                  sources.3 In 2014-2015, Ontario’s per-student
the grant does not go far enough. Most students                   funding amounted to $8,037. This is a striking         As colleges and universities struggle to do more
in Ontario still pay out of pocket to cover the cost              35 per cent lower than the average for the rest        with less, Ontario is being left behind other
of their enrolment. Students from families with                   of Canada, which was $12,346 in the same year.         provinces by failing to invest in the future of our
incomes over $50,000, part-time students, inter-                  In fact, between 2000 and 2015, while operating        institutions. This is why students are calling for an
national students and students in most profes-                    grants for institutions increased by 43% in the rest   increase in per-student funding levels comparable
sional programs all continue to pay tuition fees.                 of Canada, Ontario’s per-student operating grant       to the national average. This new money can
For a truly accessible post-secondary system, we                  increased by only 17%.4                                be used to eliminate all tuition fees and support
must strive to eliminate financial barriers for all                                                                      institutions by providing stable long-term funding.
students.                                                         For years, successive provincial governments have
                                                                  sought to make up for low-levels of per-student        Recommendation:
Investments in public education benefit all Ontar-                funding by increasing tuition fees. This de-
ians. Research consistently shows that individuals                cade-long trend has downloaded the costs of run-       Increase per-student funding levels to
who graduate from college or university benefit                   ning institutions onto students and their families,    match the national average.
in the labour market, make more money, have                       creating record levels of student debt. The current
reduced risk of unemployment, and deliver a net                   tuition fee framework will expire in 2019. Until       Cost: Up to an additional 4 billion dollars annually.

4 | Fairness for Students: Student recommendations for the 2018 Ontario Budget
Canadian Federation of Students–Ontario | 5
Rethinking Quality of Education
                                                                                                                          term contracts or per course, not knowing if their
An essential service                                              A more reflective way of assessing quality of
                                                                                                                          contract will be renewed the following term. At
                                                                  education is to look at student to faculty ratios
                                                                                                                          the college level, it is estimated that the ratio of
Ontario’s colleges and universities provide an                    and the ratio of contract to full-time faculty.
                                                                                                                          full-time to part-time faculty is approximately one
essential service in our province, creating spaces
                                                                                                                          to three.8 At the university level, there is a lack of
for learning, innovation and personal develop-                    In Ontario, full-time faculty hiring has not kept
                                                                                                                          comprehensive research on full-time and contract
ment. These institutions support cutting-edge                     pace with the increasing number of students en-
                                                                                                                          instructors employed by Canadian universities.
research, which fuels our economy, and encour-                    rolling in our institutions. For example, in the last
age the critical debate of ideas that bolsters our                decade, at the university level full-time student       The Ontario Confederation of University Faculty
democracy. As major employers in our communi-                     enrolment has increased by 22 per cent while            Associations has estimated that the number of
ties, colleges and universities are also economic                 over the same period full-time faculty hiring in        courses taught by contract faculty at the university
hubs that bring people together and create jobs.                  universities has increased by only four per cent.6      level has doubled.9 According to a Canadian
Today, the majority of new jobs require some form                 At the college level student enrolment has nearly       Broadcast Corporation report, it is also estimated
of post-secondary education. Now, more than                       doubled since the early 1990’s. During that time        that more than half of all undergraduates in Cana-
ever, we need to support all students in accessing                full-time faculty has dropped, leaving roughly          da are taught by contract faculty.10 The increased
higher education to ensure our province’s success                 1,000 fewer full-time faculty to teach 100,000          reliance on contract faculty has become en-
in an increasingly competitive global economy.                    more students.7                                         trenched in our institutions and poses a significant
                                                                                                                          barrier to faculty performance and job security.
Defining quality of education                                     Student to Faculty Ratio
                                                                                                                          Declining Quality of Education
In response to pressure from students, parents,                   Faculty play an essential role in post-secondary
communities, employers and government,                            education. With student to faculty ratios in 2015       The increase in student to faculty ratios and
post-secondary institutions are constantly working                at the college level being 30 students to every         contract hiring have led to a very worrisome shift
on measuring and seeking to improve quality of                    two full-time faculty members and at the universi-      in academia. In the past six months, we have
education. Changes intended to strengthen quali-                  ty level 31 students to every one faculty member,       witnessed a major strike at Ontario’s colleges
ty, such as increasing flexibility for learners, quality          high student to faculty ratios have led to less         as well as picketing at the University of Toronto,
assurance regimes like the Key Performance                        engagement and networking opportunities, fewer          bringing attention to the new norm of precarious
Indicator (KPI) program run by the provincial gov-                forms of mentorship and minimal student-faculty         work in academia.
ernment, and student satisfaction surveys have                    research project collaborations.
fallen short over the years. Analysis on programs                                                                         In October 2017 over 12,000 Ontario college
that measure KPI show that the impact on college                  Full-Time and Contract Hiring                           faculty went on strike, impacting around 330,000
and university behavior is minimal at best and                                                                            students. Chronic underfunding has led to multi-
many results are becoming increasingly stratified.5               As student enrolment has increased, there has           ple barriers for both students and faculty within
All of the aforementioned measures fail to provide                been a disturbing shift towards an over-reliance        college classrooms, with little accountability or
a clear picture of the quality of education students              of contract faculty. Contract faculty, both at the      support from government or institution adminis-
receive.                                                          college and university level, are hired on short-       trations. Part-time and contract faculty often hold

6 | Fairness for Students: Student recommendations for the 2018 Ontario Budget
and university faculty have long asked for better
multiple teaching positions at other institutions,     working conditions, full-time job status and fair
making it difficult to support students outside of     wages. The future of post-secondary education
classroom hours. When you have a system where          in the province relies on increasing the quality
roughly three out of four faculty are working on       of education that is delivered. Faculty working
contract every four months, course curriculum is       conditions are students learning conditions and
negatively impacted because faculty are unable         it is time that every student in Ontario access
to plan for the upcoming months due to a lack of       high-quality post-secondary education.
job security.

Recent back-to-work legislation that forced an         Recommendation:
end to the college strike undermined faculty’s
efforts to improve their working conditions. This      Ensure students have access to a high
regressive action by government presents an            quality post-secondary education system
obstacle to sector stakeholders who are working
to improve student’s learning conditions.              by increasing full-time permanent posi-
                                                       tions and fairness for contract workers.
In November 2017, 91 per cent of contract
academic workers at the University of Toronto          Cost: 400 million dollars to support colleges and
mandated their union in favor of strike action.        universities across Ontario in full-time faculty
These workers commute from campus to campus            renewal.
throughout the GTA, earn far less than their
permanent counterparts and have little to no job
security. Similar to the college strike, these work-
ers outlined the need for a pathway to permanent

Investing in the Future

Faculty that are fairly compensated with relative
job stability are in a better position to provide
high-quality instruction to their students.

It is time that the provincial government take
leadership and create appropriate working condi-
tions for all workers in Ontario. Ontario’s college

                                                                                                           Canadian Federation of Students–Ontario | 7
Post-Residency Fees
                                                                  their research component make significant labour
Background                                                        and research contributions to institutions through
                                                                  presentations, authoring and producing original
Post-residency fees refer to a reduction in tuition                                                                    To address this financial gap, students are rec-
                                                                  research. The implementation of a standardized
fees paid by graduate students once they have                                                                          ommending the provincial government create
                                                                  form of post-residency fees across the province
concluded their course work and are undertaking                                                                        a policy that will re-introduce and mandate
                                                                  would help graduate students afford the high cost
the independent research and thesis-writing                                                                            post-residency fees across the province.
                                                                  of completing graduate school. Institutions that
stages of their degree. Today, post-residency fees
                                                                  offer post-residency fees recognize the contribu-
are known by several names that change between
                                                                  tions graduate students make to their institutions
institutions. Terms such as “post- program,” “pro-
                                                                  and understand that these students are utilizing
rate,” “continuing,” “maintenance of status,”                                                                          The incorporation of a post-residency fee
                                                                  fewer university resources.
“additional session,” “re-registration” and “dis-                                                                      policy for all institutions in Ontario.
counted” fees often refer to post-residency fees.
                                                                  Consequences of Higher Fees                          Cost: 305 million dollars per year for a 50 per cent
Post-residency fees were originally put in place                                                                       reduction in tuition for all students in the post-res-
to recognize the fact that graduate students in                   For many students who manage to enroll in a          idency phase of their graduate degree.
the final research component of their degrees use                 graduate program in Ontario, financial pressure
less campus resources, require less direct teacher                can have a negative impact on their ability to
time, and make significant contributions to the                   focus on their work. Financial barriers remain the
institution. As a result, reduced “post-residency”                leading reason why graduate students do not
fees were introduced for students at this stage of                continue their studies.
their studies.
                                                                  With limited funding opportunities provincially
During the early 1990s, post-residency fees were                  and highly competitive funding programs feder-
phased out in Ontario universities leaving institu-               ally, that focus more on privatized research than
tions with the discretion of applying post-residen-               curiosity-based research, graduate students now
cy fees as they saw fit. Today, some universities in              face heavier financial burdens than ever before.
Ontario have some form of post-residency fees in                  Though graduate students may be offered
place, but these policies vary drastically across the             funding packages to work as Research Assistants
province and can be changed at the institution's                  (RAs), Teaching Assistants (TAs) or lab assistants
discretion.                                                       during their studies, workloads often go beyond
                                                                  what they are compensated for. Furthermore,
Why Post-Residency Fees?                                          many of these positions cannot remotely cover
                                                                  the cost of tuition and living expenses, leaving
Graduate students who finish the course work                      many graduate students living below the poverty
component of their degrees and are working on                     line.

8 | Fairness for Students: Student recommendations for the 2018 Ontario Budget
French Language Institutions
The current state of French language                     Toronto French Language University                    Recommendations:
post-secondary education in Ontario                      - a good first step                                   1. As planning for the Toronto French
Ontario is home to the largest francophone               In August 2017, the provincial government an-            Language University gets underway,
population in Canada outside of Québec, with             nounced plans to open the province’s first French
over 550,000 Francophones calling this province          Language University in southwestern Ontario. The         students will be eagerly awaiting
home.12 Despite being the province with the              university is projected to open in Toronto in 2020.      opportunities for consultation on
second highest amount of French-speakers in the          This announcement was made following the pub-            the programs and services offered
country, of the 46 post-secondary institutions in        lication of the 2017 Adam Report, which outlined
Ontario, only two colleges are francophone and           the findings of the French-Language University           at this institution. Francophone and
four universities are bilingual.13 Due to this lack of   Planning Board. The francophone community has            bilingual students are experts in
options, Francophone students are often forced           been advocating for a French Language post-sec-          their experiences accessing French
to move further away from their home communi-            ondary institution for decades, and this announce-
ties in order to access programs in their language,      ment was met with much enthusiasm.                       language education in the province
taking on the cost of rent and other living expens-                                                               and are best poised to comment
es in addition to their tuition fees.                    Students were cautiously optimistic at the time          on which programs and services
                                                         of this announcement and continue to be as
Francophone students must also contend with a            we await further details regarding the funding           are currently lacking in French. It is
lower quality of post-secondary education than           of this new institution. Students believe that           crucial that their voices be central in
that of Anglophone students. On bilingual cam-           it is imperative for the new French Language             this discussion.
puses, many courses for Francophone students             University to exist solely off of new dedicated
use English textbooks and resources and co-op            government funds, rather than pulling available
opportunities are not always offered in French.          funds from francophone and bilingual universi-        2. It is also imperative that any fund-
Furthermore, courses taught in French are offered        ties and colleges that currently exist. While the        ing dedicated to the new French
at a lesser rate than English courses, forcing           announcement of a French Language University
francophone students to choose between taking            is a long-awaited victory within the Francophone         Language University be new gov-
mandatory courses in English or extending their          community, students continue to advocate for the         ernment funding, rather than adding
degrees by an extra semester or even an extra            government to increase the number of available           yet another school to fight for scraps
year in order to complete all of their schooling in      French language institutions across Ontario.
their language.                                                                                                   from the same pot of money as
                                                                                                                  Ontario’s other 46 publicly-assisted
                                                                                                                  colleges and universities. Students
                                                                                                                  are adamant that funding for the new
                                                                                                                  French Language University should

                                                                                                                         Canadian Federation of Students–Ontario | 9
not impact available funds for current
  francophone and bilingual institu-
  tions, so as not to impact the number
  of options for Francophone and bilin-
  gual students to choose from when
  considering where to study in French
  in Ontario.

3. Students are also demanding the
   creation of a French Education Fund,
   which would have new funding
   specifically earmarked for franco-
   phone and bilingual education in
   order to increase the number of
   French-speaking faculty and ad-
   ministration and improve course
   textbooks and resources, especially
   in courses where resources are only
   offered in English.
   Approximate cost: 50 million dollars.
Mental Health Services
                                                      reported experiencing overwhelming anxiety
Background                                            in the previous year. With more than half of the
                                                      students across the province trying to cope with
In recent years, there has been an increase in
                                                      their mental health, wait-times to access support
awareness around mental health on campuses,
                                                      services continue to increase. In addition to lon-
in government as well as throughout mainstream
                                                      ger wait-times, students are also limited in terms
media. As society has become more accepting of
                                                      of when and how often they are allowed to access
mental health and its intricacies, there has been
                                                      resources during their academic term.
an uptake in the number of students seeking the
support of mental health services. Despite efforts
made by institutions to provide resources to          Mental health resources are not only underfunded
students that meet their distinct needs, many of      and under-staffed, but tend to be non-reflective
the support services that are offered have proven     of students’ needs and identities. When address-                                            RIP
to be unreliable.                                     ing a students’ mental health, it is important that
                                                      all front-line workers are equipped with the skills
Quite often the stress of balancing academia,         and knowledge needed to help students’ mental
work, family life and the rising cost of post-sec-    well-being and direct them to the appropriate
ondary education serves as a catalyst to the          available services and resources.
decline of a person’s mental wellbeing. A survey
of 25,000 college and university students con-        All front-line workers, regardless of the depart-
ducted by the Ontario University and College          ment they work in, should be trained to know
Health Association (OUCHA) reported a thirteen        how to identify a student in need and direct them
per cent increase in the number of students expe-     to the appropriate services. By providing greater
riencing anxiety and a sixteen per cent increase in   funding for mental health services, more diverse
the number of students experiencing depression        and accessible services can be created, as front-
between 2013 and 2016.                                line workers are given the tools needed to better
                                                      support students.
On May 3, 2017, the Ministry of Advanced Educa-
tion and Skills (MAESD) announced an additional       Funding to support these services must not come
investment of $6 million per year for three years     from students or at the expense of any existing
to fund initiatives such as mental health hubs,       public services. To develop these programs,
peer-support programs and counseling. Though          institutions and government should seek to
this funding is a step in the right direction,        collaborate with organizations such as the Mental
given the prevalence of mental health concerns        Health Commission of Canada, and work with
amongst students, the amount of funding does          stakeholders to develop polices and program-
not go far enough. In 2016, the survey conducted      ming that improve and expand existing services.
by OUCHA also revealed that 65% of students
                                                                                                            Canadian Federation of Students–Ontario | 11
Recommendations:                                                    • Phase 1: Front-line staff (faculty   2.   Introduce more funding for colleges
                                                                            and administrative staff that deal        and universities to support the main-
        1. Work with the Mental Health
                                                                            with students regularly, coun-            tenance, expansion and creation
           Commission of Canada to create
                                                                            selors and support service staff,         of diverse forms of mental health
           and distribute a standardized
                                                                            residence staff and volunteers)           services on campus. When creating
           and mandatory Mental Health
                                                                                                                      new forms of services, institutions
           First Aid workshop for all front-
                                                                          • Phase 2: Educators (professors,           must be encouraged to work with
           line workers at colleges and
                                                                            contract faculty, teaching assis-         both students and the religious and
           universities every two years.
                                                                            tants, research assistants)               cultural communities that students
           The training could be delivered
                                                                                                                      are members of to ensure these
           in phases to various types of                                Cost: 40 million dollars.                     services are reflective of their needs.
           campus workers and decision
           makers, as suggested:                                                                                      Cost: 150 million dollars over four years.

12 | Fairness for Students: Student recommendations for the 2018 Ontario Budget
Canadian Federation of Students–Ontario | 13
  1. Schleicher, Andreas. “Education at a Glance 2011.” Country Note - Canada, OECD, 13 Sept. 2011, www.oecd.org/canada/48687311.pdf.

  2. "Return on Investment in Tertiary Education.” Canada benchmarked against 15 countries, The Conference Board of Canada, Mar. 2013, www.conference-

  3. “The Funding of Postsecondary Education in Ontario.” FAO Commentary, Financial Accountability Office of Ontario, 8 Sept. 2016, www.fao-on.org/en/

  4. “Preserving the quality of university education in Ontario.” OCUFA’s 2017 pre-Budget submission, The Ontario Confederation of University Faculty Associa-
     tions, Jan. 2017, ocufa.on.ca/assets/2017-OCUFA-Pre-Budget-Submission.pdf.

  5. Chan, Vivian. Efficacy and Impact of Key Performance Indicators as Perceived by Key Informants in Ontario Universities. Canadian Journal of Higher Educa-
     tion, 2015, journals.sfu.ca/cjhe/index.php/cjhe/article/view/184917/pdf_51.

  6. “Preserving the quality of university education in Ontario.” OCUFA’s 2017 pre-Budget submission, The Ontario Confederation of University Faculty Associa-
     tions, Jan. 2017, ocufa.on.ca/assets/2017-OCUFA-Pre-Budget-Submission.pdf.http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/most-university-undergrads-now-taught-by-

  7. Ontario's Public Colleges at 50 : A Better Plan. Ontario Public Service Employees Union , d3n8a8pro7vhmx.cloudfront.net/weownit/pages/327/attach-

  8. MacKay, Kevin. Report on Education in Ontario Colleges. Ontario Public Service Employees Union , Apr. 2014, ocufa.on.ca/assets/2014-04_CAAT-A-Re-

  9. “Preserving the quality of university education in Ontario.” OCUFA’s 2017 pre-Budget submission, The Ontario Confederation of University Faculty Associa-
     tions, Jan. 2017, ocufa.on.ca/assets/2017-OCUFA-Pre-Budget-Submission.pdf.

  10. Basen, Ira. “Dirty little secret: Poorly paid part-Timers now teach most undergrads.” CBCnews, CBC/Radio Canada, 8 Sept. 2014, www.cbc.ca/news/cana-

  11. If grad students received the minimum amount of OGS funding ($10,000 for 2 or 3 consecutive terms of study); this would only affect 15% of grad students
      in the province.

14 | Fairness for Students: Student recommendations for the 2018 Ontario Budget
12. Pierroz, Sébastien. “Statistique Canada compte 549 185 Franco-Ontariens.” #ONFR, Télévision française de l'Ontario (TFO), 2 Aug. 2017, www5.tfo.org/
    onfr/statistique-canada-compte-549-185-franco-ontariens/."Return on Investment in Tertiary Education.” Canada benchmarked against 15 countries, The
    Conference Board of Canada, Mar. 2013, www.conferenceboard.ca/(X(1)S(shpyrdiufs2ltghgokfgjyjk))/hcp/Details/education/tertiary.aspx?AspxAutoDetect-

13. “French-Language colleges and universities.” Https://Www.ontario.ca/Page/French-Language-Colleges-and-Universities, Queen’s Printer for Ontario, Oct.
    26AD, 2017, www.ontario.ca/page/french-language-colleges-and-universities.“Preserving the quality of university education in Ontario.” OCUFA’s 2017
    pre-Budget submission, The Ontario Confederation of University Faculty Associations, Jan. 2017, ocufa.on.ca/assets/2017-OCUFA-Pre-Budget-Submission.

                                                                                                                      Canadian Federation of Students–Ontario | 15
Équité pour les étudiantes et étudiants

      Fédération canadienne des étudiantes et étudiants-Ontario
350 000 étudiantes et
étudiantes unis, au premier
cycle universitaire, au cycles
supérieurs et dans les collèges.
La Fédération canadienne des étudiantes et étudiants et étudiants-
Ontario, avec ses plus de 350 000 membres représentés par 38 syndicats
étudiants dans toutes les régions de la province, est la voix des étudiantes
et des étudiants du niveau postsecondaire en Ontario. La Fédération
représente des étudiantes et étudiants à temps plein et à temps partiel au
niveau collégial et à tous les niveaux universitaires.

Fédération canadienne des étudiantes et étudiants-Ontario
225 rue Richmond Ouest, Suite 302, Toronto ON M5V 1W2
Tél. : 416 925-3825 | Téléc. : 416.925.6774
fceeontario.ca | federation@cfsontario.ca
18 | Fairness for Students: Student recommendations for the 2018 Ontario Budget
This document is also available in English.
Introduction............................................................................ 2

Résumé des recommandations.............................................. 3

Les frais de scolarité............................................................... 4

Repenser la qualité de l'éducation......................................... 6

Les frais de scolarité postprogramme.................................... 8

Les établissements d’enseignement en langue française.... 10

Services de santé mentale.................................................... 12

Sources................................................................................. 14
                                                                                                                         secondaire sera un enjeu électoral qui pourrait
L'Ontario est à un tournant. Partout dans la                       La baisse continue des niveaux de financement
                                                                                                                         polariser les partis dans leur appui aux jeunes et à
province, les gens commencent à comprendre                         des établissements menace d’affaiblir la qualité
                                                                                                                         la classe ouvrière.
l'importance vitale d'assurer l’accès universel à                  de l'éducation dans notre province. Pour pallier le
l'éducation postsecondaire.                                        manque de fonds publics, les établissements sont      Les étudiantes et étudiants se mobilisent autour
                                                                   encouragés à augmenter les frais de scolarité au      de l'appel à un financement public accru pour
Dans une économie où plus de 75 pour cent des                      moyen d'une formule de financement désuète,           l'amélioration des services publics. Tous les partis
nouveaux emplois exigent des études collégiales                    transférant ainsi les coûts aux étudiantes, aux       politiques ont l’occasion, durant ces élections,
ou universitaires, les Ontariennes et Ontariens                    étudiants et à leur famille, même si l'effectif       d'être le parti qui s'engage à faire en sorte que
reconnaissent qu'il n'est plus acceptable que nos                  moyen des classes augmente, et que les mem-           le gouvernement et les services publics soient
établissements soient inaccessibles à quiconque                    bres du corps professoral à plein temps sont          efficaces pour les jeunes de l'Ontario. En gardant
veut faire des études.                                             remplacés par des chargées et chargés de cours        en tête cette fière vision de notre province, les
                                                                   à temps partiel dans des postes précaires et mal      étudiantes et étudiants présentent les recomman-
Avec l'introduction de la Subvention ontarienne                    rémunérés.                                            dations suivantes aux décisionnaires de Queen’s
d’études (SOE), le gouvernement a franchi une                                                                            Park.
étape décisive en vue d’éliminer les obstacles                     L’Ontario est particulièrement bien placé sur la
financiers qui limitent l'accès de nos commu-                      scène internationale pour profiter des vastes
nautés les plus marginalisées. Dans ce qui a                       changements politiques et économiques qui
été décrit comme « la plus importante réforme                      font de cette province l'un des endroits les plus
du régime d'aide financière aux étudiantes et                      recherchés où vivre dans le monde. Nous devons
étudiants que l'Ontario ait connue », nous avons                   maintenant continuer de faire des investissements
constaté que les représentantes et représentants                   audacieux et stratégiques dans nos collèges et
élus ont déployé des efforts remarquables pour                     universités pour façonner un système d'éducation
ouvrir la voie aux étudiantes et étudiants de tous                 de haute qualité qui appuie les étudiantes et
les milieux socioéconomiques.                                      étudiants et dépasse les attentes pour l'avenir.
                                                                   Parallèlement, nous ne pouvons perdre de vue
Bien que la Fédération canadienne des étudiantes                   l’importance d’investir dans d’autres services
et étudiants se réjouisse de la création de la SOE,                publics tels que les transports en commun, les
le gouvernement ne doit pas perdre de vue la                       services de garde d’enfants et les soins de santé,
situation d'ensemble. Pour la huitième année                       qui, ensemble, créent les conditions propices à la
consécutive, l'Ontario s'est classé au dernier rang                réussite des étudiantes et étudiants.
parmi toutes les provinces canadiennes pour le
financement par étudiante ou étudiant, et ce                       Cette année, le gouvernement aura l'occasion de
financement continue de diminuer.                                  présenter une plateforme d'idées qui touchent la
                                                                   population. Le financement de l'éducation post-

2 | Équité pour les étudiantes et étudiants : recommandations étudiantes pour le budget 2018 de l'Ontario
Résumé des recommandations
     Les frais de scolarité                                           Repenser la qualité de l'éducation
     Coût : augmentation de jusqu’à quatre milliards de dollars par   Coût : 400 millions de dollars pour soutenir le renouvellement
     année.                                                           des professeures et professeurs à plein temps dans les
                                                                      collèges et universités partout en Ontario.
      • Augmenter le financement par étudiante ou étudiant à
        la moyenne nationale.                                          • S’assurer que les étudiantes et étudiants ont accès à une
                                                                         éducation postsecondaire de grande qualité en augmen-
                                                                         tant le nombre d’emplois permanents à plein temps et


     Les établissements d’enseigne-
     ment en langue française
     Coût: 50 millions de dollars.
      • Fournir de nouveaux fonds pour le financement de la
        nouvelle université de langue française pour ne pas
        enlever du financement dont bénéficient les institutions
        bilingues et francophones actuelles de la province.
      • Créer un fonds consacré à l’éducation en français doté
        d’un nouveau financement spécifiquement réservé à l'éd-
        ucation francophone et bilingue afin d’accroître le nom-
        bre de professeures et d'administrateurs francophones et
        améliorer les manuels scolaires et les ressources, notam-
        ment pour les cours en anglais.
Les frais de scolarité
                                                                   les obstacles financiers pour toute la population      cent à la moyenne des autres provinces du Cana-
Investir dans l’avenir de l’Ontario                                étudiante.                                             da, qui était de 12 346 $ pour la même année. De
                                                                                                                          fait, entre 2000 et 2015, alors que les subventions
L'année 2017 a été passionnante pour les collèg-                   Tous les Ontariens et Ontariennes bénéficient
                                                                                                                          de fonctionnement aux établissements augmen-
es et universités de l'Ontario avec l'introduction                 des investissements dans l’éducation publique.
                                                                                                                          taient de 43 pour cent dans le reste du Canada, la
de la Subvention ontarienne d’études (SOE) dans                    Les recherches démontrent constamment que les
                                                                                                                          subvention de fonctionnement par étudiante ou
le cadre des changements apportés au Régime                        personnes qui obtiennent un diplôme collégial
                                                                                                                          étudiant en Ontario n'augmentait que de 17 pour
d'aide financière aux étudiantes et étudiants                      ou universitaire en bénéficient sur le marché du
de l'Ontario (RAFEO). La SOE, offerte pour la                      travail, sont mieux rémunérées, risquent moins
première fois en septembre 2017, a été créée par                   d’être au chômage, et produisent un revenu             Pendant des années, les gouvernements provinci-
la réorientation vers une seule bourse initiale de la              de placement net d’une perspective publique.1          aux successifs ont cherché à compenser le faible
totalité des fonds de l'ensemble des subventions                   Au Canada, le rendement global ou « valeur             niveau de financement par étudiante ou étudiant
du RAFEO précédentes.                                              actualisée nette », tant privé que public, pour        en augmentant les frais de scolarité. Cette
                                                                   un adulte ayant fait des études postsecondaires        tendance qui dure depuis dix ans a entraîné le
Bien que le gouvernement n’ait investi aucuns                      est de 189 200 $. L’investissement dans une            transfert des coûts de fonctionnement des étab-
nouveaux fonds pour créer la SOE, cette initiative                 main-d'œuvre instruite est avantageux non              lissements aux étudiantes et étudiants, et à leur
a simplifié l’accès à l’aide financière pour les                   seulement pour l'économie actuelle, mais aussi         famille, ce qui a créé des niveaux records d'en-
étudiantes et étudiants et a élargi les conditions                 pour les générations futures, puisqu’il contribue à    dettement étudiant. Le cadre actuel des frais de
d’admissibilité au soutien. Depuis, 210 000                        une main-d'œuvre plus novatrice, concurrentielle       scolarité expirera en 2019. D'ici là, il est probable
étudiantes et étudiants en ont bénéficié, soit près                et productive.2                                        que les établissements continueront d'augmenter
du tiers de la population étudiante de niveau                                                                             le coût des frais de scolarité du montant maximal
postsecondaire.                                                    Une approche équilibrée : finance-                     annuel permis – soit trois pour cent pour les
                                                                                                                          programmes de premier cycle et cinq pour cent
Cependant, malgré ses avantages, la SOE n’est
                                                                   ment par étudiante ou étudiant                         pour les programmes cycles supérieurs et pour
pas suffisante. La plupart des étudiantes et étudi-                Depuis 2008-2009, l’Ontario se classe au dernier       les programmes d’études professionnelles – afin
ants en Ontario paient toujours de leur poche le                   rang de toutes les provinces en matière de             d’équilibrer leur budget.
coût de leur inscription. Les étudiantes et étudi-                 financement par étudiante ou étudiant. Par
ants issus de familles dont le revenu excède 50                    conséquent, ce sous-financement historique a           Bien que des programmes d'aide financière
000 $, les étudiantes et étudiants à temps partiel,                donné lieu à des « établissements publics » qui        comme la SOE contribuent à assurer l'accès
les étudiantes et étudiants internationaux, ainsi                  ne sont plus financés par l’État, mais aidés par       aux études postsecondaires des étudiantes et
que les étudiantes et étudiants des programmes                     le public, alors que la majeure partie de leurs        étudiants qui en ont le plus besoin, ces mesures
d’études professionnelles continuent tous de                       revenus provient des frais de scolarité et de sourc-   n'offrent pas de solution durable pour que
payer des frais de scolarité. Pour que le système                  es privées.3 En 2014-2015, le financement par          l'éducation demeure abordable. Les établisse-
d’éducation postsecondaire soit réellement                         étudiante ou étudiant en Ontario s’élevait à 8 037     ments ont réellement besoin d'une augmentation
accessible, nous devons nous efforcer d’éliminer                   $. C’est-à-dire une infériorité marquée de 35 pour     du financement par étudiante ou étudiant à des

4 | Équité pour les étudiantes et étudiants : recommandations étudiantes pour le budget 2018 de l'Ontario
niveaux comparables à ceux du reste du pays,
de sorte que les collèges et les universités de
l'Ontario reçoivent suffisamment de fonds publics
pour fournir des services de haute qualité, sans
devoir augmenter les frais de scolarité pour
combler le manque à gagner.

Relever la barre
Alors que les collèges et les universités luttent
pour faire plus avec moins, l'Ontario se laisse
distancer par les autres provinces en n'investissant
pas dans l'avenir de nos établissements. C'est
pourquoi les étudiantes et étudiants réclament
une augmentation des niveaux de financement
par étudiante ou étudiant comparable à la
moyenne nationale. Ces nouveaux fonds peuvent
servir à éliminer tous les frais de scolarité et à
soutenir les établissements en fournissant un
financement stable à long terme.

Recommendation :
augmenter le financement par étudiante
ou étudiant à la moyenne nationale.
Coût : augmentation de jusqu’à quatre milliards
de dollars par année.

                                                       Canadian Federation of Students–Ontario | 23
Repenser la qualité de l'éducation
                                                                   provincial, et les sondages sur la satisfaction des
Un service essentiel                                               étudiantes et étudiants ont été insuffisants au fil
                                                                                                                         Taux d"encadrement
                                                                   des ans. L'analyse des programmes qui mesurent
Les collèges et universités de l'Ontario assurent                                                                        Les professeures et professeurs jouent un rôle
                                                                   les IRC démontre que l'incidence sur le compor-
un service essentiel dans notre province, en                                                                             essentiel dans l'éducation postsecondaire. Étant
                                                                   tement des collèges et des universités est minime
créant des espaces d'apprentissage et d'innova-                                                                          donné qu'en 2015, les taux d’encadrement au
                                                                   au mieux et que de nombreux résultats sont
tion et en offrant des voies de perfectionnement                                                                         niveau collégial étaient de 30 étudiantes et
                                                                   de plus en plus stratifiés.5 Toutes les mesures
personnel. Ces établissements soutiennent la                                                                             étudiants pour deux professeures ou professeurs
                                                                   susmentionnées ne parviennent pas à brosser
recherche de pointe, qui alimente notre écon-                                                                            à plein temps et au niveau universitaire, de 31
                                                                   un tableau juste de la qualité de l’éducation que
omie, et encouragent le débat critique sur les                                                                           étudiantes et étudiants par membre du corps
                                                                   reçoivent les étudiantes et étudiants.
idées qui renforcent notre démocratie. En tant                                                                           professoral, ces taux d’encadrement médiocres
qu'importants employeurs dans nos collectivités,                   Une façon plus réfléchie d’évaluer la qualité         ont donné lieu à une diminution des possibilités
les collèges et les universités sont aussi des                     de l’éducation est de se pencher sur les taux         d'interaction et de réseautage, des formes de
pôles économiques qui rapprochent les gens et                      d’encadrement et sur les taux d’embauche des          mentorat et des collaborations de recherche entre
créent des emplois. De nos jours, la majorité des                  professeures et professeurs contractuels en com-      la population étudiante et le corps professoral.
nouveaux emplois affichés requièrent une forme                     paraison de ceux des professeures et professeurs
d’éducation postsecondaire. Maintenant plus que                    à plein temps.                                        Embauche de professeures et professeurs à
jamais, nous devons aider tous les étudiants et                                                                          plein temps et contractuels
étudiantes à accéder à l'enseignement supérieur                    En Ontario, l'embauche de professeures et
pour assurer la réussite de notre province dans                    professeurs à plein temps n'a pas tenu le rythme      À mesure que le nombre d'étudiantes et
une économie mondiale de plus en plus concur-                      de l'augmentation du nombre d'étudiantes et           d’étudiants augmente, on constate une ten-
rentielle.                                                         d’étudiants inscrits dans nos établissements. Par     dance inquiétante vers un recours excessif aux
                                                                   exemple, au cours de la dernière décennie, le         professeures et professeurs contractuels. Les
Définir la qualité de l"éducation                                  nombre d'étudiantes et d’étudiants inscrits à plein   professeures et professeurs contractuels, tant au
                                                                   temps dans les universités a augmenté de 22           niveau collégial qu’universitaire, sont embauchés
En réponse aux pressions des étudiantes, des                       pour cent, alors qu'au cours de la même période,      dans le cadre de contrats à court terme ou par
étudiants, des parents, des communautés, des                       le nombre de professeures et de professeurs à         cours, sans savoir si leur contrat sera renouvelé
employeurs et du gouvernement, les établisse-                      plein temps dans les universités n'a augmenté         pour le trimestre suivant. Au niveau collégial, on
ments d’enseignement postsecondaire œuvrent                        que de quatre pour cent.6 Au niveau collégial, les    estime que le rapport entre les professeures et
constamment à mesurer la qualité de l’éducation                    inscriptions ont presque doublé depuis le début       professeurs à plein temps et ceux à temps partiel
et à s’efforcer de l’améliorer. Les changements                    des années 1990. Pendant cette période, le corps      est approximativement d’un pour trois.8 Au
visant à améliorer la qualité, comme une plus                      professoral à plein temps a diminué, ce qui laisse    niveau universitaire, il y a un manque de recherch-
grande souplesse pour les apprenantes et ap-                       environ 1 000 professeures et professeurs de          es exhaustives sur les professeures et professeurs
prenants, des régimes d'assurance de la qualité                    moins à plein temps pour enseigner à 100 000          à plein temps et contractuels embauchés par les
comme le programme des indicateurs de rende-                       étudiantes et étudiants de plus.7                     universités canadiennes.
ment clés (IRC), sous la tutelle du gouvernement

6 | Équité pour les étudiantes et étudiants : recommandations étudiantes pour le budget 2018 de l'Ontario
collèges, avec peu de responsabilisation ou d'ap-
L’Union des associations des professeurs d’uni-       pui de la part du gouvernement ou des adminis-
versité de l’Ontario estime que le nombre de          trations des établissements. Les professeures et
cours donnés par des professeures et professeurs      professeurs contractuels et à temps partiel occu-
contractuels au niveau universitaire a doublé.9       pent souvent de multiples postes d’enseignement
Et, selon un rapport de la Société Radio-Canada,      dans d’autres établissements, ce qui rend difficile
il est également estimé que plus de la moitié         le soutien aux étudiantes et étudiants après les
des étudiantes et étudiants des premiers cycles       heures de cours. Lorsque vous avez un système
au Canada est instruite par des professeures et       où trois des quatre professeures ou professeurs
professeurs contractuels.10 Le recours accru aux      contractuels travaillent pendant quatre mois à la
professeures et professeurs contractuels s'est        fois, le programme d’études est compromis parce
ancré dans nos établissements et constitue un         que les professeures et professeurs ne peuvent
obstacle important à la performance du corps          planifier les mois suivants en raison du manque
professoral et à la sécurité d'emploi.                de sécurité d’emploi.
Déclin dans la qualité de l’éducation                 La récente loi sur le retour au travail, qui a mis
                                                      fin à la grève collégiale, a sapé les efforts des
L'augmentation du nombre d'étudiantes et              professeures et professeurs pour améliorer leurs
d’étudiants en comparaison du nombre de               conditions de travail. Cette action régressive du
professeures et professeurs et l'embauche de          gouvernement constitue un obstacle pour les
personnel contractuel ont entraîné un change-         intervenantes et intervenants du secteur qui œu-
ment très inquiétant dans le milieu universitaire.    vrent à améliorer les conditions d'apprentissage
Au cours des six derniers mois, nous avons assisté    des étudiantes et étudiants.
à une grève majeure dans les collèges de l'On-
tario et à des piquets de grève sur le campus de      En novembre 2017, 91 pour cent des travaille-
l'Université de Toronto qui ont attiré l'attention    uses et travailleurs universitaires contractuels de
sur la nouvelle norme de travail précaire en milieu   l’Université de Toronto ont confié à leur syndicat
universitaire.                                        un mandat de grève. Ces travailleuses et tra-
                                                      vailleurs se déplacent d’un campus à un autre,
En octobre 2017, plus de 12 000 membres du            à l’échelle de la RGT, gagnent beaucoup moins
corps professoral des collèges de l'Ontario ont       que leurs homologues permanents et ont peu de
fait la grève, ce qui a eu des répercussions pour     sécurité d’emploi. Tout comme dans le cas de la
environ 330 000 étudiantes et étudiants. Le           grève collégiale, ces travailleuses et travailleurs
sous-financement chronique a créé de multiples        ont souligné la nécessité de trouver un emploi
obstacles pour la population étudiante et pour        permanent.
le corps professoral dans les salles de cours des

                                                                                                            Canadian Federation of Students–Ontario | 25
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