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N AT I O N A L M U S E U M o f t h e A M E R I C A N

                                             FALL 2013

                                      FROM KIVA NEW TO
                                       PROJECT RUNWAY
                                          NO MORE CUTE

                                  IN THE VATICAN

                                  THE MODERN SPIRIT
                                  OF PAINTER
                        It is the only arts academy of its kind among tribal
                         nations and is the premier youth arts academy in
                                       southeastern Oklahoma.
                                     July 15 — 27 2013
                              Showcase, Saturday, July 27
                          East Central University, Ada, OK

       “TOBACHI”   New works by the Chickasaw Young Composers
                         CD Release Fall 2013

         SEASAM     Juried Show - Now Calling for Artists
           Opening October 4 – 5 at Chickasaw Annual Meeting
             in beautiful historic Tishomingo. The show continues
           throughout the month of October at the A&H Gallery.
                    201 N. Broadway, Ada, OK 74820

                    For more information,
   call the Chickasaw Nation Division of Arts & Humanities
     (580) 272-5520 or e-mail
                                                                                                                    Since 1907
photo: studio seven productions

                                                                                                   Hand Painted Scarf: Patricia Michaels
                                                                                                   Stingray, Lyndon Tsosie
                                                                                                   Silver & Diopside, Althea Cajero
                                                                                                   Carved Turquoise, Jolene Eustace
                                                                                                   Ivory Pin/Pendant, Gomeo Bobelu

                   2677 Louisiana N.E., Albuquerque, NM 87110 • 866-372-1042 • 505-266-0120 •
             WRIGHTS_NMAI_winter2013new.indd 1                                                                     7/16/2013 9:30:46 AM
For more than 35 years, American Indian Art Magazine has been the premier
magazine devoted exclusively to the great variety of American Indian art.

This beautifully illustrated quarterly features articles by leading experts, the
latest information about current auction results, publications, legal issues,
museum and gallery exhibitions and events.

American Indian Art Magazine, continuing to bring you
the best in American Indian Art.

                                                                        American Indian Art Magazine
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1                                                                                                                               2                                                 3

                         Contemporary Native Music from the
                         National Museum of the American Indian

4                                                                                        5

1. SHAPED BY WIND AND WATER                                                       4. SOUNDS OF INDIAN SUMMER
POSTCARD BOOK                                                                     Contemporary Native Music from the National
Postcards of the National Museum of the                                           Museum of the American Indian
American Indian / $8.95                                                           CD / $15.00
                                                                                  ¡AHORA EN ESPAÑOL!
                                                                                  5. NATIONAL MUSEUM OF THE AMERICAN
Tradition, Change, and Celebration in Native
                                                                                  INDIAN – A SOUVENIR BOOK
Women’s Dress / $9.95
...............................................................................   $9.95 softcover, 64 pages, 265 color illustrations
Notecards from the Smithsonian’s National
Museum of the American Indian / $14.95

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National Museum of the American Indian magazine (ISSN
1528-0640, USPS 019-246) is published quarterly by the
Smithsonian’s National Museum of the American Indian                       Jackie & Norman Cooeyate, Kolowisi (detail)
(NMAI), 4th Street and Independence Ave SW, MRC 590
P.O. Box 37012, Washington, D.C., 20013-7012. Periodical
postage paid at Washington, D.C., and at additional offices.
                                                                           fetishes            jewelry         pottery   since 1981
National Museum of the American Indian magazine is a
benefit of NMAI Membership and constitutes $6 of an
individual’s annual membership. Basic annual membership         Fall 2013 ad kolowisi.indd 1                                     7/14/13 2:22 PM
begins at $25.
Reprinting Articles: Articles may be reprinted in whole                   Nelson Island Diamond
                                                                                    is one of our beautiful
or in part at no charge for educational, non-commercial
and non-profit purposes, provided the following details

                                                                              traditionally-based scarf patterns
for the respective article are credited: “National Museum
of the American Indian, issue date [such as “Winter 2005”],
title of the article, author of the article, page numbers and
© 2013, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of
the American Indian.” Questions regarding permission to
                                                                                       The pattern pictured below comes from
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NMAI’s Office of Public Affairs in Washington, D.C., at
(202) 633-6985.
                                                                                       pattern was adapted from the decorative trim
Letters to the Editor are welcome and may be mailed                                    of a parka used in the Nelson Island area. It is
to NMAI, Attn. Editor, Office of Public Affairs, P.O. Box                              thought to represent the
23473, Washington, D.C., 20026-3473 or an e-mail
may be sent to Or, you may call NMAI’s                                clashing of the packed ice
Public Affairs office at (202) 633-6985 or send a fax to
(202) 633-6920, Attn. Public Affairs.
                                                                                       as it breaks apart in the
Back issues of National Museum of the American Indian are
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$5 per copy (shipping and handling included), subject to                               in the spring, leaving ice
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send an e-mail to                            floes and ice in the shape of diamonds.
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                                                                                                                         22                                                      36
                                                                N AT I O N A L M U S E U M o f t h e A M E R I C A N

                                                                                                                         TAINO IN THE VATICAN                                    NO MORE CUTE WARBONNETS:
                                                                                                                         After years of restoration, officials of the Vatican    RECLAIMING INDIAN FASHION
                                                                                                             FALL 2013

                                                                                                                         Museum recently announced that a detail in the          Mainstream fashion has too often exploited the
                                                                                                 FASHION                 Pinturicchio frescos in the Borgia Apartment is         most revered icons of tribal life. A leading historian

                                                                                                      FROM KIVA NEW TO   probably the earliest known European depiction          of Indian fashion says it’s time to call a halt.
                                                                                                       PROJECT RUNWAY
                                                                                                          NO MORE CUTE   of American natives. But the six figures, very likely
                                                                                                           WARBONNETS                                                            38 THOSHOGRAPHY
                                                                                                        THOSHOGRAPHY     the surviving Taino brought back by Columbus on
                                                                                                                                                                                 Fashion photographer Anthony (Thosh) Collins
                                                                                                                         his first voyage, are no strangers to us. We even

                                                                                                                                                                                 is responding to misappropriation with his own
                                                                                                                         know one by name.
                                                                                                                                                                                 respectful style of Native chic, showing how it

                                                                                                  TAINO                  28                                                      should be done.

                                                                                                  IN THE VATICAN

                                                                                                  THE MODERN SPIRIT
                                                                                                  OF PAINTER
                                                                                                                         FASHION STATEMENTS
                                                                                                                         FROM KIVA NEW TO PROJECT RUNWAY
                                                                                                  GEORGE                                                                         FROM CEDAR TREE TO CEDAR STREET:
                                                                                                  MORRISON               When Patricia Michaels (Taos Pueblo), the noted
                                                                                                                                                                                 THE MODERN SPIRIT OF GEORGE
                                                                                                                         southwest fashion designer, nearly won the
                                                                 1 AMERICAN INDIAN FALL 2013

                                                                                                                         popular Project Runway television show, she
                                                              ON THE COVER: Patricia Michaels (Taos Pueblo)                                                                      The “grandfather of Native modernism,” painter
                                                                                                                         served notice that Indians are ready to take on
                                                              wowed the judges of the Project Runway television                                                                  Morrison (Grand Portage Band of Chippewa)
                                                                                                                         the intensely competitive fashion industry on their
                                                              competition with this blue dress studded with mica                                                                 had deep roots in both 20th century abstract art
                                                              pendants; one called it “techno powwow.” The mica          own terms. She represents a Native breakthrough
                                                                                                                                                                                 and his Lake Superior homeland. A new exhibit
                                                              sheets, an important traditional material for the Taos     that has been building for three generations.
                                                                                                                                                                                 highlights his most stunning images.
                                                              Pueblo people, are enclosed in silver hoops forged

                                                              in the blacksmith shop of Michaels’ stepfather and
                                                              hand-sewn on the dress.

                                                              Silk organza and silk crepe in winter blue, 1½” and        DESIGNING INDIANS
                                                              2½” mica piettes, ½” silver piettes, size 6, horsehair
                                                                                                                         A new cohort of Native designers is ready to
                                                              headpiece in winter blue, modeled by Katrina, February
                                                              7, 2013, Project Runway, Season 11.                        make its mark.

                                                              10 AMERICAN INDIAN FALL 2013
FALL 2013
                                                                                                             VOL. 14 NO. 3


48 THE ANISHINAABE PLACE                             52 FASHION PLATE
Morrison’s contemporaries, and their traditional     The 18th century fashion sense of the Great
context, are on view in a companion exhibit Before   Lakes is preserved in an ensemble collected by
and after the Horizon: Anishinaabe Artists of the    Lieutenant Andrew Foster around 1790 during
Great Lakes at New York’s National Museum of         his military service at frontier forts near
the American Indian.                                 Detroit and Michilimackinac.

50 MUCH MORE THAN A DOLL                             53 EXHIBITIONS AND EVENTS
Contemporary female crafters demonstrate the         CALENDAR
artistry behind Grand Procession, the Sealaska
Gallery exhibit of figures from the Charles and      62 MEMBER PROFILE: EDA DANIEL
Valerie Diker Collection.

                                                                                                      SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 11
CELEBRATE NATIVE AMERICAN CONTEMPORARY                                                                                                                          NMAI books

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                                                                                                                                   DE SI rE           E,
                                                                                                                                            : gl Ob

                                                                                                                                                               past, pr

                                                                                                                                                                                                       , and fu
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                                                                                                 NS       IT IO


                                                                                                                                                                                   of the Am
                                                                                                                                                                        Smithsoni              erican In
American Indians/American Presidents: A History    Foods of the Americas: Native Foods and Traditions                                                               Washing        an Institu
                                                                                                                                                                            ton, D.C          tion
                                                                                                                                                                                     ., and New
Edited by Clifford E. Trafzer (Wyandot ancestry)   by Fernando Divina and Marlene Divina (Chippewa/                                                                                               York

$29.99 hardcover                                   Cree/Assiniboine descent)
                                                   $28.00 softcover
Most Serene Republics
Edgar Heap of Birds                                The Land Has Memory: The Native Landscape
Edited by Kathleen Ash-Milby (Navajo) and          and the National Museum of the American Indian
Truman Lowe (Ho-Chunk)                             Edited by Duane Blue Spruce (Laguna/Ohkay
$20.00 softcover                                   Owingeh) and Tanya Thrasher (Cherokee)
                                                   $45.00 hardcover, $24.95 softcover
HIDE: Skin as Material and Metaphor
Edited by Kathleen Ash-Milby (Navajo)              Past, Present, and Future Challenges of the
$23.95 softcover                                   National Museum of the American Indian
                                                   $20.00 softcover

 To order, visit or call 202-633-6687
                                                                                                                                                                                                      SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 17

                   ative cultures have long            Secretary Wayne Clough called for a
                   recognized and celebrated       pan-Institutional effort to examine the ef-
                   the interrelatedness of all     fects of climate change and other challenges
                   life on Earth. Thousands of     to our environment, our biodiversity, and
                   years of keen observation       our society from the perspectives of sci-
                   and intimate experience         ence, history, art, and culture. In response, a
                   of their surroundings have      consortium of Smithsonian scholars created
produced a complex ecological knowledge that       the Anthropocene Committee, of which the
is benefiting science today. As we tackle global   National Museum of the American Indian is
change and today’s increasingly complex            an original member. On October 11, 2012,
environmental issues, this wisdom is more           the committee hosted a high-level sympo-
important than ever. Since 2007, the National      sium, The Anthropocene: Planet Earth in the
Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) has           Age of Humans, to discuss and deliberate
held annual symposia on the vital topic of cli-    on these global changes. (You can find the
mate change. These programs are at the heart       symposium program at http://www/
of the museum’s ongoing dedication to dis-         consortia.) Subsequently, the Secretary
seminate knowledge about sustainable living        charged the committee to consider how the
and advance understanding of climate change.       Smithsonian could confront the magnitude
    Smithsonian scholars from many different       of the Anthropocene in our world. (Secretary
museums and research centers are conduct-          Wayne Clough, Dec. 6, 2012, Climate Change:
ing research on global environmental change        Connecting the Dots:
and humanity’s responses to those changes.             The National Museum of the American
A consensus has emerged that the tremendous        Indian has been selected to serve on the
pace and scope of transformations occurring        Smithsonian Anthropocene Executive Com-
on the Earth, with profound effects on plants,     mittee. Beginning with the winter issue of
animals, and natural habitats, is primarily the    American Indian magazine, a regular column
result of human activities.                        will present the latest Smithsonian research,
    Climate change is also occurring at a time     innovations, and programs that address the
of rapid social, economic, political, and tech-    issue of climate change and sustainability.
nological transformation. Literature and the       I hope you look forward to the column,
arts are affected too with writers and artists     “Living in the Anthropocene,” on one of the
struggling to express unprecedented social         most important challenges facing the Smith-
and environmental upheavals. The effects of        sonian for decades to come. X
humans on the planet, and our knowledge of         Kevin Gover (Pawnee) is director of the Smithsonian’s
                                                   National Museum of the American Indian. You can email
those effects, places the world in a new epoch,    Gover at
the Anthropocene, or The Age of Humans.
                                                   P.S. The Anthropocene: Planet Earth in the Age
                                                   of Humans is the theme for a monthly lecture
                                                   series by Smithsonian scholars and researchers.
                                                   For upcoming lectures and to watch videos of
                                                   past ones, visit:

                                                                                                                   SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 13
NMAI books

Tales of the People

COYOTE IN LOVE WITH A STAR                     BRAVE WOLF AND                $11.96
Written by Marty Kreipe de Montaño             THE THUNDERBIRD
                                                                             (NMAI Members)
(Prairie Band Potawatomi) and illustrated      Written by Joe Medicine
by Tom Coffin (Prairie Band                    Crow (Crow) and illustrated   $13.46
Potawatomi–Creek)                              by Linda Martin (Navajo)
                                                                             (Smithsonian Members)
Written by Maria Williams (Tlingit) and        Written and illustrated by
illustrated by Felix Vigil (Jicarilla Apache   Gerald Dawavendewa (Hopi)     (Non-Members)
and Jemez Pueblo)

To order, visit or call 202-633-6687
NMAI books

For 35 years, American Indian Art Magazine has
been the premier magazine devoted exclusively to the
great variety of American Indian art.
This beautifully illustrated quarterly features articles
by leading experts, the latest information about
current auction results, publications,
legal issues, gallery and museum
exhibitions and events.

                                                                                                       “A collection that
                                                                                                       stuns today’s Indian
                                                                                                       leaders for its power
                                                                                                       to recapitulate so
                                                                                                       much lost history.”
                                                                                                            – New York Times

                                                                                                                 $29.99 hardcover
                                                                                                                 9 x 11 inches
                                                                                                                 320 pages
                                                                                                                 225 object photographs
                                                                                                                 35 archival photographs
                                                                                                                 11 maps

                                                                                                                 Copublished with HarperCollins

           This lushly illustrated book, which accompanies a ten-year exhibition of
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                                                                                                510S              SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 51

  N AT I O N A L M U S E U M o f t h e A M E R I C A N

                                                          FALL 2010

                                                         THE FORMIDABLE
                                                          ART OF MICHAEL


                                                         THE REMARKABLE
                       SPECIAL ISSUE

                                                          INDIANS ON THE
                      MARKETS                              WALLS

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BECOME A MEMBER OF THE NATIONAL                                            • 2 0% discount on all books purchased
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                                                   $22.95 hardcover, 192 pages, 80 photographs. Copublished with fulcrum Publishing

 Garnering acclaim from critics and visitors, the NMAI’s Mitsitam Native Foods
 Cafe serves fresh, innovative dishes based on the Americas’ truly native foods. Offering 90 of
 the cafe’s most popular recipes to home cooks for the first time. Illustrated with beautiful color
 photographs of the finished dishes and images of objects from the museum’s vast collections,
 the The Mitsitam Cafe Cookbook provides a wealth of fresh, easy-to-prepare recipes that reflect
 the diversity of the hemisphere’s Native cultures.

To preorder visit or call 202-633-6687
                                                                                                                SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 45

the members of the Director’s Council of Friends and the Desert
Sands Circle for their exceptional generosity in making the museum
accessible to people across the country and around the world.
Director's Council of Friends        Mr. and Mrs. Charles A. Davis   Ms. Jane A. Harf                Mr. David Martin and           Ms. Caroline Orosz
Mr. Roger T. Abelson                 Ms. Emilie De Brigard           Ms. Dori Harrell                  Mrs. Virginia Martin         Mrs. Robyn Brode Orsini
Mr. Ronald Adolphi                   Ms. Elizabeth De Cuevas         Mr. Edward A. Harris            Mrs. Susanne W. Max            Ms. Virginia Ortega
Mrs. Renee M. Alberts                Mr. Arthur F. Dellheim and      Ms. Rose A. Herrmann            Ms. Mary H. McConnell          Mr. John B. Osborn
Ms. Clara Allison                      Mrs. Isadora Dellheim         Mr. John F. Hester and          Mrs. Ruth Gates McGlashan      Ms. Jo Ann R. Osborne
The Hon. Lynette L. Allston          Dr. Philip J. Deloria              Mrs. Belinda Hester          Mr. Cameron Allen McGuire      Mr. Paul Owen
Mrs. Patti Apostolides               Mr. Richard F. Demain           Mr. James Hickman               Mrs. Christine T. McLaughlin   Mr. Stephen Oxley
Mr. Charles A. Arnold                Mrs. Victoria K. DePalma        Ms. Juana P. Hicks                and Mr. John J. McLaughlin   Ms. Lois M. Pausch
Mr. James K. Asselstine and          Ms. Linda Descano               Mr. and Mrs. Gene E. Hill       Mr. William McMiller           Mr. Robert S. Perkin
  Ms. Bette J. Davis                 Ms. Sherie Dick                 Mr. Charles A. Hilton           Ms. Laurie J. Meininger        Ms. Antoinette Peskoff
Ms. Shenan Rae Atcitty and           Miss Patti Dixon                Ms. Mary Pick Hines             Ltc. Mae D. Mercereau          Ms. Kathryn R. Polster
  Mr. Mark C. Van Norman             Ms. Maureen D. Dobiesz          Mr. Stephen P. Holmes           Ms. Gail Louise Meredith       Mr. Jim Powell and
Dr. Phillip Backup and               Mr. Marvin A. Droes and         Ms. Susan Davis Hopkins         Ms. Patricia Meyer               Mrs. Karla Powell
  Mrs. Ruth Backup                     Mrs. Nellie S. Droes          Mr. Eric Ross Horowitz          Ms. Pamela G. Meyer            Ms. Patricia E. Pratt
Ms. Louise R. Barrow                 Ms. Mary N. Dryden              Mr. Larry D. Hothem             Dr. Carol F. Meyer             Mrs. Anne Proudfoot
Ms. Yvonne N. Barry                  Ms. Lynn A. Dutton              Mr. Ron Houston                 Mrs. Judith G. Mich            Ms. Rose E. Provan
Ms. Gretchen M. Bataille             Ms. Eleanor J. Ebright          P. J. Huff-Mckinney and         Ms. Monica M. Michael          Mr. and Mrs. David R. Pruner
Dr. Brenda U. Beal                   Ms. Venita Ellington               Shelby L. Lachmann           Ms. Louise J. Middlemiss       Ms. Kathryn Ramsey
Mr. T. E. Beck, Jr., and             Dr. Harold A. Failey            Mr. Theodore H. Jacobsen        Ms. Marjorie R. Miller         Ms. M. Elaine Rand
  Mrs. Ann M. Beck                   Ms. Sharon K. Fearey            Ms. Leslie Jenkin and           Mr. Lynn Russell Miller and    Mrs. Vicki Lane Ray and
Mr. Howard R. Berlin and             Mrs. Sarah Feinerman and           Ms. Nita Adamson               Ms. Diane Elton Miller         Mr. Walter Herbert Ray
  Mrs. Joy Berlin                      The Hon. Robert Feinerman     Ms. Elizabeth G. Johnson        Ms. Janine Miller and          Dr. Joanna Ready
Mr. Craig A. Berrington and          Mr. Thomas F. Fine              Ms. Rosemary Joyce                Mr. Jon Miller               Ms. Angela M. Reed
  Mrs. Susan D. Berrington           Ms. Elizabeth W. Fischer        Ms. Colleen Kalinoski           Ms. Barbara A. Miller          Ms. Barbara A. Reichardt
Ms. Donna M. Bhatnagar               Mrs. Shirley M. Fisher          Mr. Sheldon T. Katz and         Mr. Neil Milofsky              Prof. Theresa M. Reilly
Ms. Evelyn Billingsley               Mr. Joseph Fisher                  Mrs. Audrey W. Katz          Ms. Susan Minerich             Ms. Helen M. Reinsch
Mr. Earl Blackaby                    Mr. William S. Fletcher         Ms. Carol Keefer                Mr. Lance G. Minnich           Joan L. Retzlaff and
Ms. Sharon Blackwell                 Mrs. Roxanne Daniels Ford and   Mr. Peter Kibbee                Mr. Louis Moller                 Arthur H. Retzlaff
Ms. Charlotte Blain, M.D.              Mr. Walter Buhl Ford, III     Mr. Peter M. Klein and          Mrs. Betty M. Montgomery       Ms. Bertina Richter
Ms. Jacqueline K. Bodin              Ms. Judy M. Fredericks             Mrs. Sandi Klein             Ms. Joan T. Moore              Ms. Nancy A. Ridenour and
Mr. Austin Box                       Ms. Marla L. Freed              Mr. Douglas Kliever             Mr. Robert Morgan                Mr. Ed Mason
Mr. Robert Braitman and              Mr. David F. Freeman, Jr.       Mr. James Knight and            Mrs. Anne M. Morgan            Ms. Lynne King Roberts
  Mrs. Mary Beth Braitman            Mr. Cary J. Frieze                 Mrs. Renee Knight            Ms. Jeanne Morrel-Franklin     Prof. Nicholas A. Robinson
Ms. Sue Breazil                      Mr. Alan F. Frigy               Ms. Lanita Koster               Ms. Patricia H. Morris         Ms. Carla Rodriguez
Dr. Quincalee Brown                  Mr. Michael A. Gallagher        Mr. Joseph Kovalik and          Mr. David M. Moskowitz and     Dr. Henry G. Roe
Mrs. Joyce Browne                    Mr. Garrett Gallant                Mrs. Nancy Kovalik             Mrs. Francesca M.            Ms. Janet L. Rogozinski
Mr. Paul Bruegger and                Ms. Pamela Garrison             Ms. Irene D. Kress                Moskowitz                    Ms. Tia Rosengarten
  Mrs. Rosmarie Reinhard                                             Ms. Wendy Kukic                 Ms. Jo Ann Mulcahy
                                     Ms. Joan B. Gates                                                                              Mrs. Margarita V. Rosenthal
  Bruegger                                                           Ms. Ann E. Larimore             Ms. Mary E. Murray
                                     Dr. Michelle F. Gaudette                                                                         and Mr. Herbert Rosenthal
Ms. Mary G. Bullerdiek                                               Ms. Ramona Laster               Mr. R. Carlos Nakai
                                     Ms. Lucy E. Ghastin                                                                            Ms. Denise G. Ross
Ms. Cassandra Hapke Bunker                                           Ms. Gloria Lauriano             Dr. Larry D. Nelson and
                                     Ms. Lynne Glikbarg                                                                             Ms. Nancy W. Ruskin
Mrs. James J. Butler                                                 Ms. Dolores E. Layton             Mrs. Linda Nelson
                                     Dr. Paul A. Gluck and                                                                          Dr. Louise A. Russell
Mr. Warren F. Buxton                                                 Dr. Yvonne T. Le Melle          Dr. Sharon Nelson-Barber
                                       Dr. Joan Gluck                                                                               Ms. Carol Sakata
Ms. Phyllis H. Cade                                                  Ms. Denise C. LeClair-Robbins   Ms. Katherine Neville and
                                     Mrs. Karen Goering and                                                                         Dr. Robert E. Savage
Ms. Kathleen D. Calder                 Mr. Lawrence Goering          Mrs. Margaret Lerner              Mr. Karl Pribram             Ms. Patricia J. Sawvel
Dr. Jan D. Carline                   Ms. Tina Good                   Ms. Ann B. Lesk                 Mrs. Carol Newbill and         Ms. Alice Schnyder
Ms. Alice Cary                       Ms. Patricia Gordon             Mr. Michael W. Lingo              Mr. Gordon Newbill
                                                                                                                                    Ms. Barbara Schuler
Mr. A. Bertrand Cassan, Jr.          Mr. James O. Graham             Mr. Blake Lipham                Ms. Sarah W. Newman
                                                                                                                                    Mrs. Dolores A. Sena
Ms. Kay Gott Chaffey                 Dr. David Granite and           Mr. Edward T. Lis, Jr.          Mr. Frederick M. Nicholas
                                                                                                                                    Mrs. Harris Shapiro
Mrs. Joan Mt. Pleasant                 Dr. Mary Lou Oster-Granite    Mr. Michael Littleford          Mr. John Bulica Nicholson
                                                                                                                                    Dr. John J. Shaw and
  Chapman                            Mr. Melvin Green and            Ms. Karin N. Lohman             Mrs. Paul M. Niebell, Sr.        Ms. Mary Carr Patton
Ms. Ann E. Chiller                     Mrs. Judy Green               Mr. Harry D. Ludeman and        Ms. Anna-Belle Nimmo           Mr. David Sickey
Mrs. Jean Rainey Coffin              Ms. Marilyn Greene                 Mrs. Helen D. Ludeman        Ms. Karen A. Nordquist         Ms. Elizabeth Sidamon-
Mr. John Thomas Coletta              Ms. Lumina Greenway             Ms. Kayrene Lunday              Mr. Joseph E. Nordsieck and      Eristoff and Mr. Hunter
Ms. Margaret A. Collins              Mr. Eric W. Gregory             Ms. Sharon Lyons                  Ms. Melanie A. Ringer          Lewis
Ms. Catherine M. Conover             Ms. Marge Newcomer Guilfoil     Ms. Kathryn A. MacLane          Ms. Margaret Ann Olson         Mrs. Gail F. Sigler and
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Mr. Robert William Craig             Ms. Elizabeth Hambleton         Ms. Rachel Makool and             Mrs. Natalia Onufrey         Mr. Lynwood Sinnamon and
Ms. Colleen F. Crombie               Mrs. Maureen Hamilton              Mr. John J. Alt              Ms. Jo Oppenheimer               Mrs. Thalia Sinnamon
Mrs. Virginia M. G. Crossley         Mr. Collier Hands               Ms. Sheila Maloney              Dr. Peter Orenski              Mr. Albert H. Small
Ms. Ory Cuellar                      Ms. Joanne Hanifan and          Ms. Wilma Maracle               Mr. and Mrs. N. Gregory        Ms. Jeanie Smart
Mr. John B. Cullens                    Mr. Jim Hanifan               Ms. Jacqueline Badger Mars        Orndorff

The gifts recognized above were made before July 4, 2013.
Mr. Donald Zucker and                 Mrs. Stella A. Gieseler
                                        Ms. Barbara Zucker                  Ms. Gwen Gildea
                                      Mr. James Joseph Zuiches              Mr. Tim Goetze
                                      Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana          Mr. Leo Gonzalez
                                      Comanche Nation Museum                Mr. Mervin P. Gray
                                                                            Mr. Stuart Grossman
                                      Desert Sands Circle                   Ms. Elaine Grudzinski
                                      Ms. Kyle Adamonis                     Mr. James Hallowell
                                      Mrs. Beryl L. Adcock and              Mr. J. L. Hammitt and
                                        Mr. David C. Adcock                   Mrs. Margaret Hammitt
                                      Mr. Syed S. Albukhary                 Mr. Herbert Hansell
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  Mrs. Estelle Sosland                  and Mr. Martin Ross                 Ms. Diane E. R. Hendricksen
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                                                                            Mr. Tom James and
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  and Mrs. Mary-Jane B.                 Mr. Peter Barrett
                                                                            Mr. David S. Jernigan and
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  and Mr. Jerry Wayne                 Prof. Reid Cooper and                                                          Mr. Jacob Perea and              Mr. Richard Stone
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                                                                            Dr. Carolyn J. Lukensmeyer                 Pisciotta
  Berman                              Ms. Pamela Dale                                                                                               Ms. Beverly Terry
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                                                                            Ms. D. E. Madison
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                                                                            Mr. and Mrs. R. Marshall
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                                                                            Mr. William Martin
Lt. Col. Thomas H. Wright,            Mr. Tod Fackler                                                                Ms. Verna Savage                 Mrs. Eleanor A. Weck
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                                                                            Ms. Leslie M. Masson                                                      Wetherell, Jr.
Ms. Frances Yeransian                 Ms. Mary B. Ffolliott                                                          Mr. Stephen Schoonmaker
                                                                            Mr. Richard W. Mauntel                                                  Mr. J. A. Williams
Mr. Vance S. Zavela and               Ms. Kathryn Forbes                                                             Mrs. Rozanne Seelen
                                                                            Mr. Stephen Mc Candless                                                 Ms. Dorothy Williams and
  Mrs. Jean Schiro-Zavela             Ms. Linda M. Franks                                                            Ms. Lynne C. Sendejo
                                                                            Mr. Timothy McDowell                                                      Mr. Robert Ross
Ms. Patricia M. Zell                  Ms. L. S. Freed                                                                Dr. Mary Ann Sens
                                                                            Mr. Jeffrey B. McLaughlin                                               Ms. Janet Wingert
Ms. Barbara E. Zelley                 Mr. J. Arthur Freed                                                            Ms. Patricia Seubert
                                                                            Ms. Mary Mekosh                                                         Ms. Trudy Winsberg
Ms. Marilyn M. Zimmerman              Mr. William L. Freeman and                                                     Mr. Ronald C. Shorb
                                        Ms. Carolyn M. Robbins              Mr. Michael A. Moran                                                    Ms. Lillian Wurzel
Ms. Lois S. Zoller                                                                                                   Ms. Minnie W. Shorter
                                      Mr. Kerry Geist                       Mr. Walter Morton                                                       Mr. Paul Young and
Mr. Richard Zucker and                                                                                               Mr. John F. Sicks, Jr.
                                      Mr. Carl Gewirz and                   Mr. Merlin G. Nygren and                                                  Ms. Jo Ann Young
  Mrs. Beth Zucker                                                                                                   Mrs. Robert L. Simmons
                                        Mrs. Nancy Gewirz                     Mrs. Mildred Nygren                                                   Mr. Emil Zuberbueler

Miccosukee/Seminole boy’s (big shirt), 1925–1935. Florida. Cotton cloth. Photo by David Heald. 20/3627
                     The National Museum of the American Indian
                 would like to recognize the following members for their
                     support of our 2013 Conservation Campaign.

Barbara Ackermann, Ed.D.,      Ms. Suzanne M. Burg           Kathy & Rick Freedman               Sarah Hetznecker-Sheehan &
   L.C.S.W.                    Chris Burns                   Ms. Joan Duke Freimanis               Gary Sheehan
Ms. Paulette Adams             Ms. Tina L. Calvert           Chellis French                      Ms. Maryellen W. Hicks
Ms. Phyllis T. Albritton       Mr. Bob J. Canada             Ms. Debra Frey                      Ms. Susan C. Hinzpeter
Mr. Alfred E. Allen            Dr. Alan Carsrud &            Ms. Rubena Friesen                  Mr. & Mrs. Steven Hoback
Ms. Cheryl Allen                 Mr. Danny Babineaux         Ms. Ramona K. Garcia                Florence G. Hoffmann
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Zoe Allison-Rockingbear        Barbara Chesser, Ph.D.        Egland George                       Ms. Carol L. Houk
Marcelle Amelia                Mrs. Valerie v. Choudhury     Mr. & Mrs. Paul E. Glaser           Jynx Houston
Ms. Lauren J. Amsterdam        Bob Christian                 Mrs. Janet M. Gleason               Ms. Rachel I. Huot
Ms. Sonja Anderson             Ms. Jeannie Christie          Ms. Danielle Glenn-Rivera           Marylee Hursh
Potter Anderson                Rick's Cafe                   Dr. Jolande Elisabeth Goldberg      Ms. Lynne Irion
J. Richard Andrews             Ms. Margaret Church           Mr. David Goldstein                 Ms. Ruth Iseli
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Christine Mary Armstrong       Ms. Janice Colvin             Dr. and Mrs. Richard R. Gonzalez    Mr. Richard Jervey
Sister June M. Baker, O. P.    Mr. Tony Crowell              David F. Good                       Jolyon Johnson
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Omie Baldwin                   Ms. Christine Curtis          Mrs. Elizabeth A. Goodwin           Mr. Fred Jones
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                                                             Linda Gunther
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                              Ms. Karin Mills                  Mr. Michael C. Seebeck
                              Ms. Adele Montgomery             Mr. Louis Segaloff
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                              Ms. Rhetta Kay Moorhead          Ms. Thelma Irene Shamblen
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Ms. Darlene Lawler            Mr. Ronald H. Oetting            Mr. Sherwin A. Swartz
Mrs. M. Dennis Lee            Mr. Hector O'Leal                Mr. Bob Sweeny
Luis R. Lee-Guin Yah Geyh     Mr. John Olhoft                  Lloyd E. Tack
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Dr. Marjory Levitt            Ms. Susan Ondiak                 Ms. Frances Talbert
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Coella J. Longanecker         Suzanne Day Peters               Jeanne Tonelson
Patricia & Gilbert Lopez      G. Steele Phillips               Ms. Barbara J. Toney
Dr. Dorothy L. Lord           Ms. Patricia Pierce              Helen I. Towner
Mr. Daniel Macedo             Ms. Mabelle Pizzutiello          Mr. Danny Townsend
Sister Carol A. MacKenzie     Gwendolyn Poche                  Ms. Lili Townsend
Mr. John L. Maggio            Mrs. Sydney J. Ponturo           Mr. Floyd John Trexler                          Child’s parka, Niuam (Comanche),
                                                                                                                           ca. 1890. Lynx skin/fur.
Ms. Angelina Maggio           Mr. Richard Procello             Mr. Joel Truman
                                                                                                  Collected by M.R. Harrington in 1909. (02/1503)
R. N. Main                      (Muscogee Creek Nation)        Ms. Marina L. Tyson
Mr. James Mangan              Dr. Thaddeus Raushi              Jane & Ed Ulery
Ms. Avigael Mann              Mr. Ken Redman                   Mr. Max J. Vallo                  Ellen L. Winner
Susan E. Markley              Susan L. Reeves (Southern Ute)   Arlan E. Varner                   Mr. Walter Wolf
Mr. Paul Marner               Joan Revell                      Mrs. Toni Vaughn                  Mr. Walt Wood
Kainlani Rice Marquez         Ms. Kathryn Rhoads               Ms. Audrey Vickers                Russell Worobec
Ms. Mona Marra                Ms. Mary P. Richards             Mr. David L. Vigue                Ms. Brenda Wright
Mr. Larry C. Marshall         Jaynya Richards                  Mrs. Mary E. Vogel                Robin M. Wright
Ms. Kathleen Masterson        Dr. Susan B. Richardson          Mrs. Nancy Wadis                  Mr. Ted Wrobleski
Mrs. Ann H. Matthews          Mr. Robert Ricklefs              John P. & Janet H. Walters        Mrs. Ruth M. Wulf
Ms. Jeanne S. Mayer           Mrs. Margaret C. Ritzel          Ms. Valerie Warren                Barbara Yearsley-Monaghan
Mr. Harry Mc Bee              Ms. Patricia P. Robison          Mr. James R. Watson               The Rev. Constance B. Yost
Ms. Helen McCauslin           Mrs. Jeanne M. Roe               Terry "Standing Bear" Weatherby   J. W. Yukluk
Mr. H. McNeely, Jr.           Mr. Jeffrey Rogart               Ms. Carol Ann Webb                Mr. Thomas J. Zach
Carmen N. Medellin            Mr. James L. Rolleston           Ms. Joyce C. Webb                 Mr. Robert Zarbock
Dr. Gail Megna                Ms. Marsha Rose                  Ms. Alice P. Welch                Mr. Leonard Ziegler
Roberta B. Mehegan            Mr. Sam J. Ross                  Ms. Sandra Wentzell               Ms. Mary Zilz
Catherine A. Mehler           Maggie Rowlett                   Ms. Elaine H. Weston              Ms. Carolyn Zirbes
Ed & Julie Melton             Ms. Kathleen Rudaitis            Frank Wheeler                     Ms. Bea Zizlavsky
Barbara Melton                Mr. Edwin Russum                 Ms. JoAnn F. White Eagle          Curtright & Son Tribal Art
Ms. Pamela G. Meyer           Mr. Kawika Sabado                Carol F. Whitley                  Dakota Indexing
Bette E. Meyer                Terry Tukey Santos               Mrs. Ethel Whitsett               Darryl C. Bullington Revocable
Mr. George H. Meyers II       Ms. Barbara Schultz              Dr. Norman Whitten                   Living Trust
Ms. Mary B. Mikkelson         Mr. Kenneth Schupp               Barbara A. Wilson                 Toni Roller Indian Pottery
Mr. Robert Millard            Ms. Debbie Schwartz              Neta Winders                      Walter & Karla Goldschmidt
Barry A. Miller               Ms. Marjorie M. Schweitzer       Ms. Rose Winn                        Foundation

 VATICAN                                        BY JOSE BARREIRO

                                     n a cleaning of frescoes at the Vatican,
                                     from the clouding dust of centuries,
                                     emerge naked figures – five, maybe six
                                     men. Amidst horses and helmeted sol-
                                     diers, wearing feathered headdresses,
                               the men seem to dance. One man, naked, leg
                               raised in movement, faces out prominently;
                               another one, seen from behind, buttocks bare,
                               bends a knee forward, right arm raised, per-
                               haps holding a feather, as if in dance.
                                   Authorities at the Vatican, perplexed at
                               first, have surmised over seven years since
                               this drawing began to emerge that the figures
                               represent American Indians – specifically the
                               Arawak-speaking Caribbean island people,
                               Taino – who greeted Christopher Columbus.
                               The Vatican authorities also announced their
                               conclusion that these are indeed the first im-
                               ages drawn of American Indians in Europe.
                               Perhaps it is so. We can, with some certainty,
                               even give a name to one of the figures, Diego
                               Colon, the adopted Taino son of Columbus,
                               the central figure in my historical novel Taino
                               (Fulcrum, 2012) and a constant presence to
                               me over several years of writing.

ABOVE: Bernardino di Betto (Pinturiccho) (1454-1513) Resurrection of the Christ, 1492-94.
Fresco in Borgia Apartments, the Vatican. DETAIL, LEFT: Possible depiction of Taino captives pre-

sented by Columbus at Spanish court. Inset is very likely by one of Pinturicchio’s many assistants,
who filled in much of his backgrounds.

                                                                                                      SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 23

                                                                                                                                                                                        PHOTO BY LESSINGIMAGES.COM
Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury (1797-1890). The reception of Christopher Columbus by King Ferdinand II and Queen Isabel of Spain in Barcelona, 1847. Musee du Grand-Palais, Paris.
Robert-Fleury’s depiction of the presentation of the Taino captives shows some striking similarities to the Vatican fresco, especially the presence of Spanish soldiers on horseback.

                                                                                                                                              he scene is but a sketch, almost
                                                                                                                                              ghostly, etched in a small space
FROM HIS FIRST VOYAGE AND THE NEWS OF                                                                                                         of the large fresco called Resur-
                                                                                                                                              rection of the Christ by Renais-
HIS ‘DISCOVERY’ HAD MASSIVE DISSEMINATION                                                                                                     sance painter Bernardino di
THROUGHOUT EUROPEAN COUNTRIES. A MARVEL                                                                                       Betto (Pinturicchio). The Vatican fresco is
OF CALCULATED SELF-PROMOTION, COLUMBUS’                                                                                       located in the Apartamento Borgia, the space
                                                                                                                              once occupied by Pope Alexander VI, Rodrigo,
FIRST LETTER TO THE SPANISH SOVEREIGNS                                                                                        the “Borgia Pope,” as his name indicates, from
CONTAINED A GENIAL NARRATIVE FOR THE                                                                                          the prominent Spanish family whose reign at
EMERGENT RENAISSANCE.”                                                                                                        the Vatican was one of paramount intrigue,
                                                                                                                              corruption and mayhem. Pinturicchio, the
                                                                                                                              “little painter,” worked on the monumental
                                                                                                                              fresco – an artistic act intended to celebrate the
                                                                                                                              sanctity of the Borgia Pope – starting in 1492
                                                                                                                              and finished at the end of 1494. The decora-
tion of the Pope’s quarters was in active execu-
tion as news of Columbus’ “descubrimiento”
spread rapidly throughout Europe.
                                                    “THE SIX CAPTIVE TAINOS
                                                      BROUGHT TO SPAIN BY COLUMBUS WERE

                 ntonio Paolucci, Vatican Mu-         PROMINENTLY FEATURED AND A YOUNG
                 seums director, associates the       MAN FROM GUANAHANI, THE FIRST ISLAND
                 newly revealed fresco figures
                 with “the Indians” described by      CLAIMED BY COLUMBUS, CAUGHT THE QUEEN’S
                 Columbus – most obviously in         EYE. COLUMBUS WOULD ADOPT THE TAINO
drafts of his First Letter to the Spanish Mon-        ADOLESCENT, AND HE WOULD BECOME KNOWN
archs, written during his return voyage and
posted to the Spanish Court and his other in-         TO HISTORY AS DIEGO COLON...”
vestors immediately upon his Iberian landfall
in mid-March 1493. Not only the letters, but        The promise was of power to set in motion
also legendary public ceremonies celebrating        a major colonization of lands, peoples and
Columbus’ triumphal return provided vi-             goods without measure. In the language of
sual representations of Caribbean Indigenous        the church, this was a grand opportunity for
people for European imaginations. The Taino         “harvesting souls” via the evangelization of
captives he brought back with him – esti-           whole new peoples.
mated initially at 10 but reduced by disease to         A major scene, quickly legendary, was pub-
six – were put on display at these events along     licly enacted at Barcelona on May 15, 1493:
with his other curiosities.                         the Spanish monarchs, King Fernando of
    Paolucci makes a strong argument that by        Aragon and Queen Isabel of Castilla, grandly
mid-1493, in Rome, Pope Alexander VI must           feasted the returning hero Admiral. The whole
have had access to Columbus’ Letter and thus        city attended, and many foreign dignitar-
had read the descriptions of “the Indians” he       ies and potential new investors spread word
had ostensibly encountered, suggesting the          of the momentous occasion. The six captive
prototype for the recovered figures in the Res-     Tainos brought to Spain by Columbus were
urrection fresco. This is a respectable scenario    prominently featured and a young man from
explaining that the images are in fact of those     Guanahani, the first island claimed by Colum-
first Taino captives – invented curiosities         bus, caught the queen’s eye. Columbus would
of the first contact, but who, as we shall see,     adopt the Taino adolescent, and he would
achieved some early historical identity and         become known to history as Diego Colon, the
gained their place in legendary narrative.          adopted son and interpreter for the Admiral
    The return of Columbus from his first voy-      in his second voyage. (Diego or “Dieguillo” is
age and the news of his “discovery” had massive     the first-person narrator of my novel Taino.)
dissemination throughout European countries.            The Pope, particularly the geo-politically
A marvel of calculated self-promotion, Co-          ambitious Borgia, was immediately deep in the
lumbus’ first letter to the Spanish sovereigns      thicket created by the news from Spain. Two
(actual title, Letter of Columbus, on the islands   major powers, Portugal and Spain, nearly at war
of India beyond the Ganges recently discovered)     over claims of colonial discovery, first in Africa
contained a genial narrative for the emergent       and now in the “Orbo Novo,” or “New World,”
Renaissance. In fortuitous timing, the world-       required a theological and political framework
changing story rode the newly established           to define their increasingly global dispute. In
power of the printing press – thus the Letter       the very rooms of the Apartamento Borgia,
was republished widely and quickly, over 50         perhaps even as Pinturicchio and his under-
times, in more than a dozen European capitals.      lings were painting the now famous fresco, the
    By mid-1493, a poem praising Columbus’          Borgia Pope, Alexander VI, settled the ques-
deed based on the Letter was being recited          tion. He issued Inter caetera, his Papal bull of
and sung in street corners of Rome and Flor-        1493, which, in a sequence of such papal bulls,

ence. No doubt, the momentous news was              once again reclaimed the “pagan” world for
fully noted in Vatican discussions. The Co-         Christian dominion. It divided the bulk of the
lumbus missive spoke of fabulous potential          “New World” – partly for Portugal and mostly
for wealth, major gains to be made in gold,         for Spain. Alexander’s bull would become the
natural resources and cheap indigenous labor.       basis for the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, which

                                                                                                         SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 25
                                                                                                                                   Columbus had written, in the Letter: “…
                               Eugene Delacroix (1798-1863), The Return of Christopher
                                                                                                                                they are so guileless and so generous with all
                               Columbus, 1839. Oil on canvas, 33 ½" x 45 ½". Thomas A.                                          that they possess, that no one would believe
                               DeVilbiss Bequest Fund, 1938.80.                                                                 it who has not seen it. They refuse nothing
                                                                                                                                that they possess, if it be asked of them; on
                                                                                                                                the contrary, they invite any one to share it
                                                                                                                                and display as much love as if they would give
                                                                                                                                their hearts…”

                                                                                                                                                  ismissing the expectation that
                                                                                                                                                  these characteristics denote
                                                                                                                                                  lesser intelligence, Columbus
                                                                                                                                                  adds, “to the contrary…they
                                                                                                                                                  are…of a very acute intelli-
                                                                                                                                gence and they are men who navigate all those
                                                                                                                                seas, so that it is amazing how good an account
                                                                                                                                they give of everything…”
                                                                                                                                    Columbus did not hesitate, however, in

                                                                                         COURTESY TOLEDO (OHIO) MUSEUM OF ART
                                                                                                                                “capturing…Indians,” and would from the
                                                                                                                                onset consider their peaceful nature an asset
                                                                                                                                toward their potential enslavement. He was
                                                                                                                                likely referring to the specific people later
                                                                                                                                depicted in the Borgia fresco when he wrote,
                                                                                                                                “in the first island…I took some of the natives
                                                                                                                                by force, in order that they might learn and
                                                                                                                                might give me information of whatever there
                                                                                                                                is in these parts.”

“COLUMBUS                               further detailed the division of the world for
                                         Christian nations. The thinking inherent in
                                                                                                                                    Alexander VI died in 1503, just as a Spanish
                                                                                                                                governor friar, Nicolas de Ovando, was hang-
HAD WRITTEN, IN THE                      the treaty gave rise to the infamous Doctrine of                                       ing the Taino queen Anacaona and burning
                                         Discovery, the legal construct that justified the                                      ni-taino caciques by the dozen-plus-one, to
LETTER: ‘…THEY ARE                       dispossession of American Indigenous nations                                           signify Jesus and the twelve apostles. With the
SO GUILELESS AND SO                      by European powers.                                                                    Pope’s death, the rooms of the Borgia Aparta-
GENEROUS WITH ALL                            The scene of dancing Tainos is depicted                                            mento were closed untouched for nearly 400
                                         in but a small frame within the huge topic                                             years, shunned because of his bad reputation.
THAT THEY POSSESS,                       of the Christian Resurrection. Painted in                                              Only late in the 20th century was restoration
THAT NO ONE WOULD                        white, colorless in a sea of color, “the Indi-                                         work fully engaged. As a people, the Taino,
BELIEVE IT WHO HAS                       ans” are framed behind the right shoulder                                              too, were relegated to the obscurity of de-
                                         of a Roman soldier and the edge of his red                                             clared extinction, shut behind closed doors by
NOT SEEN IT. THEY                        tunic. The soldier gazes up in astonishment                                            subsequent histories of the Caribbean.
REFUSE NOTHING THAT                      at the rising body of Jesus. The Borgia Pope                                               From the group of mostly unidentified
THEY POSSESS, IF IT BE                   himself appears kneeling in prayer at the left                                         captive dancers in the Borgia apartment, we
                                         side of the mural, observing not only the                                              have one with clear, variously documented
ASKED OF THEM...’”                       resurrected body of Jesus, but also the danc-                                          name and narrative – Diego Colon, Lucayan
                                         ing figures. It makes sense; in the waning of                                          Taino interpreter from the Bahamian cays
                                         his own papal influence, Alexander VI is in-                                           northeast of Cuba, specifically Guanahani,
                                         strumental in the division of this new world                                           the first island sighted by Columbus. Diego
                                         – either paradise or inferno – from which                                              would become the Admiral’s adopted Taino
                                         come these strange, certainly distinct, new                                            son, and his primary interpreter during the
                                         human beings. Revealed during his pontifi-                                             second voyage and other explorations. A
                                         cate, the grand “discovery” of a “new world”                                           good list of writers, including this one, have
                                         and a new type of human being, generated                                               touched or been touched by this character
                                         the immediate question: Who are these new                                              from documented history who was transi-
                                         people? What do they represent?                                                        tional and dialectical at the Taino’s principal

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historical moment, at the pivotal beginning of
the modern world. He is a historical character
and dream-mind with whom I once shared
long writing evenings over several years work-
ing on my novel.
   One important witness in the novel is
Father Bartolome de las Casas, the historical
“defender of the Indians,” whose chronicle,
History of the Indies, led me to find Diego
Colon’s final trails. Las Casas, the “good friar,”
was the most vigorous lifelong advocate for
the humanity of American Indians in all co-
lonial history.
   The Indian Diego – I like to think he is per-
haps the one facing front, or the one holding
the feather – lived to the 1530s in a convent in
Santo Domingo, where las Casas places him,
and where the mind’s eye of my novel finds
him, an old man full of the memory of his
momentous times and, in the novel at least,
also full of admonitions to the coming gen-
erations of his people who even today, after
centuries of ghostly absence and much like the
dancers at the Vatican, make a reappearance, a
Caribbean Indigenous resurgence, in this new
era, this post-modern world. X
Jose Barreiro (Taino) is director of the office of Culture,
History and Latin American Affairs at the National Museum
of the American Indian.

                                                                                            SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 27

              Design by Patricia Michaels with micaceous
              and silver piettes, Project Runway, Season 11,
              Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week 2013.

                                                                                                    ‘‘        I just knew that when you go
                                                                                                    out there and you do your [dance]
                                                                                                    performance competitively, you don’t
                                                                                                    give it a conservative moment, you
                                                                                                    give it everything you have. You have
                                                                                                    every bit of conviction that when you
                                                                                                    take that turn that you’re going to keep
                                                                                                    spinning and be flying at least three
                                                                                                    inches off the earth as you’re turning

                                                                                                    and dancing. I wanted my collection
                                                                                                    to feel that way. I wanted it to be in
                                                                                                    flight! I wanted that flight to be felt
                                                                                                    in that moment.”

THEIR OWN                                                                                                     – PATRICIA MICHAELS (Taos Pueblo)

(Taos Pueblo) was already well known in the Southwest when           Patricia Michaels working on
                                                                     Project Runway Season 11.
the invitation came that made her a national TV celebrity.
    Her listing on a website for booking fashion models
brought her to the attention of the producers of the influ-
ential cable TV competition Project Runway. In its recently
completed 11th season, the show invited Michaels to be its
first contestant of American Indian descent. Surviving week
after week in the often-catty competition, Michaels fre-
quently drew the judges’ praise for producing “something
we’ve never seen before.” One other contestant complained
that for host Heidi Klum, the famed model and entrepre-
neur, Michaels “could do no wrong.”
    In the final episode, timed for New York’s Fashion Week,
                                                                                                                                                        PHOTO BY BARBARA NITKE, COURTESY OF LIFETIME

Michaels startled the runway audience with a blue dress cov-
ered, elk-tooth fashion, with handcrafted mica pendants and
an undulating head piece whose filaments veiled the model’s
face. Judge Zac Posen, the noted designer, called it “techno pow-
wow.” In the end Michaels came within a horsehair of winning,
a showing that in itself became a rallying cry for Indian fashion.
    Michaels’ performance was a revelation for a national au-
dience deeply ignorant about contemporary Native fashion.
As Michaels noted, mainstream fashion thought “that a roach
meant a cockroach.” But she was working within a 70-year

                                                                                                                           SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 29

                                                                                                                                                             PHOTO BY BARBARA NITKE, COURTESY OF LIFETIME
Designs by Patricia Michaels, Project Runway, Season 11. Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week 2013.

tradition of famed Indian designers bring-                  She studied design at the Institute of       while “to stumble your way in that direction.”
ing a Native vision, without compromise, to             American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, which then         “There weren’t a lot of examples of ‘how to’
the commercial mainstream. She follows the              had a flourishing program in fashion design.     or a source I could look to for tools on what
trail of the major figures Lloyd Kiva New and           She then followed the example of her mentor      helps you earn your space in the competitive
Wendy Ponca, and her current generation is              Lloyd Kiva New and enrolled in the Chicago       fashion industry. On the other hand, everyone
blossoming with new talents.                            Art Institute.                                   else is ready to tell you how to design Native
    Michaels grew up near Canyon Road in                    Her textile designing flourished and, four   attire, and yet they’re not Native nor are they
Santa Fe, N.M. She visited the art galleries            years ago, she set up a company, PM Waterlily    designing professionally.
there while attending parochial school and              LLC. The label combines her initials and her         “Misrepresentation by non-Natives in it-
became inspired by the paintings. She strug-            native name Waterlily. She explains that the     self, has to change. An authentic voice has to
gled in her studies because of dyslexia but             plant, “was a medicinal trade pre-Columbus.      be the standard. We have to embrace what’s in
excelled in her creativity and artistic abilities.      Our trade routes went down into Mexico all       our hearts and ‘own it’ in order for all of us to
She found a way to be a part of scholastic              the way to Canada. People would come to our      move forward as a people.”
success by drawing or painting beautiful bor-           village to trade. Unfortunately, we don’t know       In recovering this voice and bringing it to
ders around the container where her fellow              how we used it as a medicine. No medicine        the modern fashion world, Michaels is taking
classmates’ golden star papers would go on              man or woman is around to know how it was        a course that might have startled her televi-
the chalkboard. She changed it every month.             used. My name itself has taught me to realize    sion viewers. But it has forerunners like Lloyd
“Everyone loved it! I found a way to be up              our voice has been muffled, because it hasn’t    Kiva New and Wendy Ponca. The Institute of
there,” she said. She is proud to be “a person          been our voice for so long.”                     American Indian Arts (IAIA) recently honored
who would change things around when I                       Although creating a label seems like the     their contribution in an exhibit now available
couldn’t be a part of it from the beginning.”           most logical step to take, she said, it took a   online:
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