FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS PRESENTATION (IAS -32)

 
 
Chapter 16
     FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS PRESENTATION (IAS -32)
Objective
The objective of this IAS is to enhance user’s understanding of the significance of financial
instruments to an entity’s financial position, performance and cash flows. The main issues
are: -
   Classification of financial instruments from the perspective of issuer;
   Classification of related interest, dividend, losses and gains; and
   The circumstances in which financial asset can be set off against the liability
Scope
This IAS is applicable to all entities to all types of financial instruments except: -
   Those interests in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures accounted for under IASs 27,
        28 & 31, however, where IAS-39 is applied for these instruments, the requirements of
        this IAS will be operative;
   Employer’s rights and obligations where IAS-19 is applicable;
   Insurance contracts where IFRS-4 is applicable except embedded derivatives; and
   Contracts and obligations under share based payments under IFRS-2 except where this
        IAS or IAS-39 is applicable
This Standard shall be applied to those contracts to buy or sell a non-financial item that can
be settled net in cash or another financial instrument, or by exchanging financial
instruments, as if the contracts were financial instruments, with the exception of contracts
that were entered into and continue to be held for the purpose of the receipt or delivery of
a non-financial item in accordance with the entity’s expected purchase, sale or usage
requirements.
There are various ways in which a contract to buy or sell a non-financial item can be
settled net in cash or another financial instrument or by exchanging financial instruments.
Examples are: -
(a)     When the terms of the contract permit either party to settle it net in cash or another
        financial instrument or by exchanging financial instruments;
(b)     when the ability to settle net in cash or another financial instrument, or by
        exchanging financial instruments, is not explicit in the terms of the contract, but the
        entity has a practice of settling similar contracts net in cash or another financial
        instrument, or by exchanging financial instruments (whether with the counterparty,
        by entering into offsetting contracts or by selling the contract before its exercise or
        lapse);
(c)     when, for similar contracts, the entity has a practice of taking delivery of the
        underlying and selling it within a short period after delivery for the purpose of
        generating a profit from short-term fluctuations in price or dealer’s margin; and
(d)     When the non-financial item that is the subject of the contract is readily convertible
        to cash.
Definitions
Financial instrument is any contract that gives rise to financial asset of one enterprise and
financial liability or equity instrument of another enterprise.
Financial asset is any asset that is:
a)Cash;
b)An equity instrument of another entity;
c)A contractual right:
         i. to receive cash or another financial asset from another entity; or

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ii.to exchange financial assets or financial liability with another entity under
                conditions that are potentially favorable to the entity; or
d)a contract that will or may be settled in the entity’s own instruments and is:
         i. a non-derivative for which the entity is or may be obliged to receive a variable
                number of the entity’s own equity instruments; or
        ii.a derivative that will or may be settled other than by the exchange of a fixed
                amount of cash or another financial asset for a fixed number of the entity’s
                own equity instruments.
                For this purpose the entity’s own equity instruments do not include puttable
                financial instruments classified as equity instruments in accordance with
                paragraphs 16A and 16B, instruments that impose on the entity an obligation
                to deliver to another party a pro rata share of the net assets of the entity only
                on liquidation and are classified as equity instruments in accordance with
                paragraphs 16C and 16D, or instruments that are contracts for the future
                receipt or delivery of the entity’s own equity instruments.
Examples of financial assets are cash, deposits in other companies, trade receivables, loan
to other companies, investment in debt instruments, investment in shares, and other equity
instruments.
Financial liability is any liability that is: -
a)a contractual obligation: -
       (i) to deliver cash or another financial asset to another entity; or
       (ii) to exchange financial assets or financial liability with another entity under
                conditions that are potentially un-favorable to the entity; or
b)a contract that will or may be settled in the entity’s own instruments and is:
       (i) a non-derivative for which the entity is or may be obliged to deliver a variable
                number of the entity’s own equity instruments; or
       (ii) a derivative that will or may be settled other than by the exchange of a fixed
                amount of cash or another financial asset for a fixed number of the entity’s
                own equity instruments.
                For this purpose, rights, options or warrants to acquire a fixed number of the
                entity’s own equity instruments for a fixed amount of any currency are equity
                instruments if the entity offers the rights, options or warrants pro rata to all of its
                existing owners of the same class of its own non-derivative equity instruments.
                Also, for these purposes the entity’s own equity instruments do not include
                puttable financial instruments that are classified as equity instruments in
                accordance with paragraphs 16A and 16B, instruments that impose on the
                entity an obligation to deliver to another party a pro rata share of the net
                assets of the entity only on liquidation and are classified as equity instruments
                in accordance with paragraphs 16C and 16D, or instruments that are
                contracts for the future receipt or delivery of the entity’s own equity
                instruments.
                As an exception, an instrument that meets the definition of a financial liability
                is classified as an equity instrument if it has all the features and meets the
                conditions in paragraphs 16A and 16B or paragraphs 16C and 16D.
Examples of financial liability are trade payables, loans from other companies and debt
instruments issued by the entity.
Equity instrument: Any contract that evidences a residual interest in the assets of an entity
after deducting all of its liabilities.
A derivative is a financial instrument:
       Whose value changes in response to the change in an underlying variable such as
       an interest rate, commodity or security price, or index;
That requires no initial investment, or one that is smaller than would be required for a
        contract with similar response to changes in market factors; and
        That is settled at a future date.
Contract and contractual refer to an agreement between two or more parties that has
clear economic consequences that the parties have little, if any, discretion to avoid,
usually because the agreement is enforceable by law. Contracts, and thus financial
instruments, may take a variety of forms and need not be in writing.
A puttable instrument is a financial instrument that gives the holder the right to put the
instrument back to the issuer for cash or another financial asset or is automatically put back
to the issuer on the occurrence of an uncertain future event or the death or retirement of
the instrument holder.
Puttable financial instruments will be presented as equity only if all of the following
criteria are met:
(i) the holder is entitled to a pro-rata share of the entity’s net assets on liquidation;
(ii) the instrument is in the class of instruments that is the most subordinate and all
          instruments in that class have identical features;
(iii)the instrument has no other characteristics that would meet the definition of a
          financial liability; and
(iv) the total expected cash flows attributable to the instrument over its life are
          based substantially on the profit or loss, the change in the recognized net
          assets or the change in the fair value of the recognized and un-recognized
          net assets of the entity (excluding any effects of the instrument itself). Profit or
          loss or change in recognized net assets for this purpose is as measured in
          accordance with relevant IFRSs.
In addition to the criteria set out above, the entity must have no other instrument
that has terms equivalent to (iv) above and that has the effect of substantially
restricting or fixing the residual return to the holders of the puttable financial
instruments.
Presentation Financial Liability and Equity
The issuer of a financial instrument shall classify the instrument, or its components parts, on
initial recognition as a financial liability, financial asset or an equity instrument in
accordance with the substance of the contractual arrangement and definitions of a
financial liability, a financial asset and equity instrument.
Classification
A financial instrument is an equity instrument only if: -
a)       the instrument includes no contractual obligation to deliver cash or another
        financial asset to another entity or to exchange financial asset/liability with another
        entity under conditions which are potentially unfavorable to issuer; and
b)       if the instrument will or may be settled in the issuer's own equity instruments, it is
        either:
                a non-derivative that includes no contractual obligation for the issuer to
                deliver a variable number of its own equity instruments; or
                a derivative that will be settled only by the issuer exchanging a fixed amount
                of cash or another financial asset for a fixed number of its own equity
                instruments.
                For this purpose, rights, options or warrants to acquire a fixed number of the
                entity’s own equity instruments for a fixed amount of any currency are equity
                instruments if the entity offers the rights, options or warrants pro rata to all of its
                existing owners of the same class of its own non-derivative equity instruments.
                Also, for these purposes the issuer’s own equity instruments do not include

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instruments that have all the features and meet the conditions described in
               paragraphs 16A and 16B or paragraphs 16C and 16D, or instruments that are
               contracts for the future receipt or delivery of the issuer’s own equity
               instruments.
     Illustration - preference shares
     If an enterprise issues preference (preferred) shares that pay a fixed rate of dividend
     and that have a mandatory redemption feature at a future date, the substance is
     that they are a contractual obligation to deliver cash and, therefore, should be
     recognized as a liability. In contrast, normal preference shares do not have a fixed
     maturity, and the issuer does not have a contractual obligation to make any
     payment. Therefore, they are equity.
     Illustration – putt-able instruments
     A financial instrument that gives the holder the right to return it to the issuer for cash
     or another financial asset (a 'puttable instrument') is a financial liability – even if the
     amount of cash or other financial assets is determined on the basis of an index or
     other variable that has the potential to increase or decrease, or when the legal form
     of the puttable instrument gives the holder a right to a residual interest in the assets
     of an issuer except when paragraph 16 A to 16 to 16 D of IAS 32 applied. (Mutual
     funds, unit trusts)
     Illustration - issuance of fixed monetary amount of equity instruments
     A contractual right or obligation to receive or deliver a number of its own shares or
     other equity instruments that varies so that the fair value of the entity's own equity
     instruments to be received or delivered equals the fixed monetary amount of the
     contractual right or obligation is a financial liability. (To deliver/receive shares equal
     to Rs. 100 or 10 ounces of gold)
      Illustration - Fixed amount of cash and fixed number of shares
     When a contract that will be settled by the entity receiving or delivering fixed
     number of shares for no future consideration or exchanging a fixed number of its
     own shares for a fixed amount of cash or another financial asset, is an equity
     instrument. Example is Forward contract to repurchase fixed number of own shares
     against fixed amount of cash.
c)     A financial instrument may require the entity to deliver cash or another financial
     asset, or otherwise to settle it in such a way that it would be a financial liability, in the
     event of the occurrence or non-occurrence of uncertain future events (or on the
     outcome of uncertain circumstances) that are beyond the control of both the issuer
     and the holder of the instrument, such as a change in a stock market index,
     consumer price index, interest rate or taxation requirements, or the issuer’s future
     revenues, net income or debt-to-equity ratio. The issuer of such an instrument does
     not have the unconditional right to avoid delivering cash or another financial asset
     (or otherwise to settle it in such a way that it would be a financial liability). Therefore,
     it is a financial liability of the issuer unless:
     (a)       The part of the contingent settlement provision that could require settlement
               in cash or another financial asset (or otherwise in such a way that it would be
               a financial liability) is not genuine; or
     (b)       The issuer can be required to settle the obligation in cash or another financial
               asset (or otherwise to settle it in such a way that it would be a financial
               liability) only in the event of liquidation of the issuer.
     Illustration – contract settled in cash or another financial asset
     A contract that will be settled in cash or another financial asset is a financial asset or
     liability even if the amount of cash or another financial asset that will be received or
paid is based on changes in the market value of entity’s own equity. Example is a
     net cash settled share option.
d)   When a derivative financial instrument gives one party a choice over how it is settled
     (e.g. the issuer or the holder can choose settlement net in cash or by exchanging
     shares for cash), it is a financial asset or a financial liability unless all of the settlement
     alternatives would result in it being an equity instrument.

e)    Compound Financial Instruments
     Some financial instruments - sometimes called compound instruments - have both a
     liability and an equity component from the issuer's perspective. In that case, IAS 32
     requires that the component parts be accounted for and presented separately
     according to their substance based on the definitions of liability and equity. The split
     is made at issuance and not revised for subsequent changes in market interest rates,
     share prices, or other event that changes the likelihood that the conversion option
     will be exercised.
              To illustrate, a convertible bond contains two components. One is a financial
              liability, namely the issuer's contractual obligation to pay cash, and the other
              is an equity instrument, namely the holder's option to convert into common
              shares. Another example is debt issued with detachable share purchase
              warrants.
              When the initial carrying amount of a compound financial instrument is
              required to be allocated to its equity and liability components, the equity
              component is assigned the residual amount after deducting from the fair
              value of the instrument as a whole the amount separately determined for the
              liability component.
              On conversion of a convertible instrument at maturity the entity de-recognizes
              the liability component and recognize it as equity. There is no gain/loss
              recognition on conversion at maturity.
              When an entity extinguishes a convertible instrument before maturity i.e.
              redemption or repurchase in which original conversion privileges are
              unchanged, the entity allocates the consideration paid and transaction cost
              to liability and equity component at the date of transaction. The method is
              same as used for original allocation of debt/equity.
               Interest, dividends, gains, and losses relating to an instrument classified, as a
              liability should be reported in the income statement. This means that dividend
              payments on preferred shares classified as liabilities are treated as expenses.
              On the other hand, distributions (such as dividends) to holders of a financial
              instrument classified as equity should be charged directly against equity, not
              against earnings.
f)   Treasury shares
     The cost of an entity's own equity instruments that it has reacquired ('treasury shares')
     is deducted from equity. Gain or loss is not recognized on the purchase, sale, issue,
     or cancellation of treasury shares. Treasury shares may be acquired and held by the
     entity or by other members of the consolidated group. Consideration paid or
     received is recognized directly in equity.
g)   Off-setting
     IAS 32 also prescribes rules for the offsetting of financial assets and financial liabilities.
     It specifies that a financial asset and a financial liability should be offset and the net
     amount reported when and only when, an enterprise:
          has a legally enforceable right to set off the amounts; and



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intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realize the asset and settle the liability
               simultaneously.
       Offsetting is usually inappropriate when:
       •several different financial instruments are used to emulate the features of a single
               financial instrument (a ‘synthetic instrument’);
       •financial assets and financial liabilities arise from financial instruments having the
               same primary risk exposure (for example, assets and liabilities within a portfolio
               of forward contracts or other derivative instruments) but involve different
               counterparties;
       •financial or other assets are pledged as collateral for non-recourse financial
               liabilities;
       •financial assets are set aside in trust by a debtor for the purpose of discharging an
               obligation without those assets having been accepted by the creditor in
               settlement of the obligation (for example, a sinking fund arrangement); or
       •obligations incurred as a result of events giving rise to losses are expected to be
               recovered from a third party by virtue of a claim made under an insurance
               contract.
h)     Costs of issuing and reacquiring equity instruments
       Costs of issuing or reacquiring equity instruments (other than in a business
       combination) are accounted for as a deduction from equity, net of any related
       income tax benefit.
       An entity typically incurs various costs in issuing or acquiring its own equity
       instruments. Those costs might include registration and other regulatory fees,
       amounts paid to legal, accounting and other professional advisers, printing costs
       and stamp duties. The transaction costs of an equity transaction are accounted for
       as a deduction from equity (net of any related income tax benefit) to the extent
       they are incremental costs directly attributable to the equity transaction that
       otherwise would have been avoided. The costs of an equity transaction that is
       abandoned are recognized as an expense.
       Transaction costs that relate to the issue of a compound financial instrument are
       allocated to the liability and equity components of the instrument in proportion to
       the allocation of proceeds. Transaction costs that relate jointly to more than one
       transaction (for example, costs of a concurrent offering of some shares and a stock
       exchange listing of other shares) are allocated to those transactions using a basis of
       allocation that is rational and consistent with similar transactions.
Examples-1
An enterprise issues 2,000 convertible bonds at the start of Year 1. The bonds have a three-
year term, and are issued at par with a face value of Rs.1,000 per bond giving total
proceeds of Rs.2,000,000. Interest is payable annually in arrears at a nominal annual interest
rate of 6%. Each bond is convertible at any time up to maturity into 250 common shares.
When the bonds are issued the prevailing market interest rate for similar debt without
conversion options is 9%. The entity has incurred Rs. 100,000 as issuance cost of compound
instrument. The effective rate considering the issuance cost of debt is 11% p.a.
Required: -
Determine the debt and equity component?
Pass necessary double entries for all the three years?
Pass necessary double entries at the maturity date if the investor exercises cash option or
share option?
Example-2
On January 01, 1999 Entity A issued 10% convertible debentures with face value of Rs.
1,000,000 maturing at December 31, 2008. The debenture is convertible into ordinary shares
of entity A at Rs. 25 per share. Interest is payable half yearly in cash. The market interest rate
for non-convertible debenture at the issue date is 11%.
On January 01, 2004, the convertible debenture has a fair value of Rs. 1,700,000. Entity A
makes a tender offer to the holders of the debentures for Rs. 1,700,000, which the holders
accepted. At the date of repurchase entity could have issued non-convertible debt with a
five-year term bearing a coupon rate of 8%.
     Required: Determine the debt and equity component at the issue of loan and what
                     accounting entries to be passed at the date conversion?
Past Papers
The following information pertains to Crow Textile Mills Limited (CTML) for the year ended 30
June 2012:
(b)     On 1 July 2011, 2 million convertible debentures of Rs. 100 each were issued. Each
        debenture is convertible into 25 ordinary shares of Rs. 10 each on 30 June 2014.
        Interest is payable annually in arrears @ 8% per annum. On the date of issue, market
        interest rate for similar debt without conversion option was 11% per annum.
        However, on account of expenditure of Rs. 4 million, incurred on issuance of shares,
        the effective interest rate increased to 11.81%. (08)
Required:- Prepare Journal entries for the year ended 30 June 2012 to record the above
transactions. (Show all necessary calculations)




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FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS RECOGNITION AND
MEASUREMENT

IAS – 39
SCOPE

IAS 39 applies to all types of financial instruments except for the following, which are
scoped out of IAS 39:
       interests in subsidiaries, associates, and joint ventures accounted for under IAS 27, IAS
       28, or IAS 31; however IASs 32 and 39 apply in cases where under IAS 27, IAS 28, or
       IAS 31 such interests are to be accounted for under IAS 39 - for example, derivatives
       on an interest in a subsidiary, associate, or joint venture;
       employers' rights and obligations under employee benefit plans to which IAS 19
       applies;
        contracts requiring payment based on climatic, geological, or other physical
       variable, except derivatives embedded in such contracts are subject to IAS 39;
       rights and obligations under insurance contracts, except IAS 39 does apply to
       financial instruments that take the form of an insurance (or reinsurance) contract but
       that principally involve the transfer of financial risks and derivatives embedded in
       insurance contracts;
       financial instruments that meet the definition of own equity under IAS 32, however,
       the holder of this instrument will apply this IAS.
Leases IAS 39 applies to lease receivables and payables only in limited respects:
       It applies to lease receivables with respect to de-recognition and impairment
       provisions.
       It applies to lease payables with respect to the de-recognition provisions. IAS 39
       applies to derivatives embedded in leases.
       derivatives that are embedded in leases are subject to the embedded derivatives
       provisions of this Standard
Financial guarantees.
The financial guarantees are in the scope of IAS.
Loan Commitments
(a)    Loan commitments that the entity designates as financial liabilities at fair value
       through profit or loss. An entity that has a past practice of selling the assets resulting
       from its loan commitments shortly after origination shall apply this Standard to all its
       loan commitments in the same class.
(b)    Loan commitments that can be settled net in cash or by delivering or issuing another
       financial instrument. These loan commitments are derivatives. A loan commitment is
       not regarded as settled net merely because the loan is paid out in installments (for
       example, a mortgage construction loan that is paid out in installments in line with the
       progress of construction).
(c)    C commitments to provide a loan at a below-market interest rate.
Contracts to buy or sell financial items Contracts to buy or sell financial items are also within
the scope of IAS 39.
Contracts to buy or sell non-financial items Contracts to buy or sell non-financial items are
within the scope of IAS 39 if they can be settled net in cash or another financial asset and
are not entered into and held for the purpose of the receipt or delivery of a non-financial
item in accordance with the entity's expected purchase, sale, or usage requirements.
Contracts to buy or sell non-financial items are inside the scope if net settlement occurs.
The following situations constitute net settlement:
        the terms of the contract permit either counterparty to settle net;
        there is a past practice of net settling similar contracts;
        there is a past practice, for similar contracts, of taking delivery of the underlying and
        selling it within a short period after delivery to generate a profit from short-term
        fluctuations in price, or from a dealer's margin; or
        the non-financial item is readily convertible to cash.

Definitions

A derivative is a financial instrument:
        Whose value changes in response to the change in an underlying variable such as
        an interest rate, commodity or security price, or index;
        That requires no initial investment, or one that is smaller than would be required for a
        contract with similar response to changes in market factors; and
        That is settled at a future date.
Examples of derivatives
Forwards: Contracts to purchase or sell a specific quantity of a financial instrument, a
commodity, or a foreign currency at a specified price determined at the outset, with
delivery or settlement at a specified future date. Settlement is at maturity by actual delivery
of the item specified in the contract, or by a net cash settlement.
Interest Rate Swaps and Forward Rate Agreements: Contracts to exchange cash flows as of
a specified date or a series of specified dates based on a notional amount and fixed and
floating rates.
Futures: Contracts similar to forwards but with the following differences: Futures are generic
exchange-traded, whereas forwards are individually tailored. Futures are generally settled
through an offsetting (reversing) trade, whereas forwards are generally settled by delivery
of the underlying item or cash settlement.
Options: Contracts that give the purchaser the right, but not the obligation, to buy (call
option) or sell (put option) a specified quantity of a particular financial instrument,
commodity, or foreign currency, at a specified price (strike price), during or at a specified
period of time. These can be individually written or exchange-traded. The purchaser of the
option pays the seller (writer) of the option a fee (premium) to compensate the seller for
the risk of payments under the option.
Caps and Floors: These are contracts sometimes referred to as interest rate options. An
interest rate cap will compensate the purchaser of the cap if interest rates rise above a
predetermined rate (strike rate) while an interest rate floor will compensate the purchaser if
rates fall below a predetermined rate.
The amortized cost of a financial asset or financial liability is the amount at which the
financial asset or financial liability is measured at initial recognition minus principal
repayments, plus or minus the cumulative amortization using the effective interest method
of any difference between that initial amount and the maturity amount, and minus any
reduction for impairment or un-collectability.
The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortized cost of a financial
asset or a financial liability and of allocating the interest income or interest expense over
the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated
future cash payments or receipts through the expected life of the financial instrument or,
when appropriate, a shorter period to the net carrying amount of the financial asset or
financial liability. When calculating the effective interest rate, an entity shall estimate cash

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flows considering all contractual terms of the financial instrument but shall not consider
future credit losses. The calculation includes all fees and points paid or received between
parties to the contract that are an integral part of the effective interest rate, transaction
costs, and all other premiums or discounts.


IFRS 9
OBJECTIVE

IFRS 9’s objective is to establish principles for the financial reporting of financial assets that
will present relevant and useful information to users of financial statements for their
assessment of amounts, timing and uncertainty of the entity’s future cash flows.

SCOPE
IFRS 9 generally has to be applied by all entities preparing their financial statements in
accordance with IFRS and to all types of financial assets within the scope of IAS 39,
including derivatives.
Essentially any financial assets that are currently accounted for under IAS 39 will fall within
the IFRS 9's scope.


INITIAL RECOGNITION AND MEASUREMENT
An entity shall recognize a financial asset or financial liability in its statement of financial
position when and only and only when it becomes party to contractual provisions of the
instrument.
All financial assets and financial liability in IFRS 9 are to be initially recognized at fair value,
plus, in the case of a financial asset or financial liability that is not at fair value through profit
or loss, transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition of the financial
asset.
Regular way purchase or sale of financial assets
A regular way purchase or sale of financial asset is recognized using either trade date
accounting or settlement date accounting.
When an entity uses settlement date accounting for an asset that is subsequently
measured at amortized cost, the asset is recognized initially at its fair value on the trade
date.

CLASSIFICATION AND MEASUREMENT
IFRS 9 has two measurement categories: amortized cost and fair value. In order to
determine the financial assets that fall into each measurement category, it may be helpful
for management to consider whether the financial asset is an investment in an equity
instrument as defined in IAS 32, 'Financial instruments: Presentation'. If the financial asset is
not an investment in an equity instrument, management should consider the guidance for
debt instruments below.
Classification and measurement - Debt instruments
If the financial asset is a debt instrument, management should consider whether both the
following tests are met:
■ The objective of the entity's business model is to hold the asset to collect the
    contractual cash flows.
■ The asset's contractual cash flows represent only payments of principal and interest.
  Interest is consideration for the time value of money and the credit risk associated with
the principal amount outstanding during a particular period of time.

If both these tests are met, the financial asset falls into the amortized cost measurement
category. If the financial asset does not pass either of the above tests, or only one of the
above tests, it is measured at fair value through profit or loss.
Even if both tests are met, management also has the ability to designate a financial
asset as at fair value through profit or loss if doing so reduces or eliminates a
measurement or recognition inconsistency (‘accounting mismatch’). IFRS 9 retains only
one of the three conditions in IAS 39 to qualify for using the fair value option. It removes
the conditions regarding being part of a group of financial assets that is managed and
its performance evaluated on a fair value basis and where the financial asset contains
one or more embedded derivatives, as they are no longer necessary under the
classification model in IFRS 9.
Classification and measurement - Business model
Financial assets are subsequently measured at amortized cost or fair value based on the
entity’s business model for managing the financial assets. An entity assesses whether its
financial assets meet this condition based on its business model as determined by the
entity’s key management personnel.
Management will need to apply judgment to determine at what level the business
model condition is applied. That determination is made on the basis of how an entity
manages its business; it is not made at the level of an individual asset. Therefore, the
entity’s business model is not a choice and does not depend on management’s
intentions for an individual instrument; it is a matter of fact that can be observed by the
way an entity is managed and information is provided to its management.
Although the objective of an entity’s business model may be to hold financial assets in
order to collect contractual cash flows, some sales or transfers of financial instruments
before maturity would not be inconsistent with such a business model.
The following are examples of sales before maturity that would not be inconsistent with a
business model of holding financial assets to collect contractual cash flows:
■ an entity may sell a financial asset if it no longer meets the entity’s investment policy,
  because its credit rating has declined below that required by that policy;
■ when an insurer adjusts its investment portfolio to reflect a change in the expected
  duration (that is, payout) for its insurance policies; or
■ when an entity needs to fund capital expenditure.

However, if more than an infrequent number of sales are made out of a portfolio,
management should assess whether and how such sales are consistent with an objective
of collecting contractual cash flows. There is no set rule for how many sales constitutes
‘infrequent’; management will need to use judgment based on the facts and
circumstances to make its assessment.
An entity’s business model is not to hold instruments to collect the contractual cash flows
− for example, where an entity manages the portfolio of financial assets with the
objective of realizing cash flows through sale of the assets. Another example is when an
entity actively manages a portfolio of assets in order to realize fair value changes arising
from changes in credit spreads and yield curves, which results in active buying and
selling of the portfolio.
Example 1 – Factoring
An entity has a past practice of factoring its receivables. If the significant risks and


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rewards have transferred from the entity, resulting in the original receivable being
derecognized from the balance sheet, the entity is not holding these receivables to
collect its cash flows but to sell them.
However, if the significant risks and rewards of these receivables are not transferred from
the entity, and the receivables do not, therefore, qualify for de-recognition, the client's
business objective may still be to hold the assets in order to collect the contractual cash
flows.
Example 2 – Syndicated loans
An entity’s business model is to lend to customers and hold the resulting loans for the
collection of contractual cash flows. However, sometimes the entity syndicates out
portions of loans that exceed their credit approval limits. This means that, at inception,
part of such loans will be held to collect contractual cash flows and part will be held-for-
sale. The entity, therefore, has two business models to apply to the respective portions of
the loans.
Example 3 – Portfolio of sub-prime loans
An entity that operates in the sub-prime lending market purchases a portfolio of sub-
prime loans from a competitor that has gone out of business. The loans are purchased at
a substantial discount from their face value, as most of the loans are not currently
performing (that is, no payments are being received, in many cases because the
borrower has failed to make payments when due). The entity has a good record of
collecting sub-prime loan arrears. It plans to hold the purchased loan balances to
recover the outstanding cash amounts relating to the loans that have been purchased.
As the business model is to hold the acquired loans and not to sell them, the business
model test is met.
Classification and measurement - Contractual cash flows that are solely payments of
principal and interest

The other condition that must be met in order for a financial asset to be eligible for
amortized cost accounting is that the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on
specified dates to cash flows that are "solely payments of principal and interest on the
principal amount outstanding". In this case, interest is defined as consideration for the
time value of money and for the credit risk associated with the principal amount
outstanding during a particular period of time.
In order to meet this condition, there can be no leverage of the contractual cash flows.
Leverage increases the variability of the contractual cash flows with the result that they
do not have the economic characteristics of interest. Leverage is generally viewed as
any multiple above one.
However, unlike leverage, certain contractual provisions will not cause the ‘solely
payments of principal and interest’ test to be failed. For example, contractual provisions
that permit the issuer to pre-pay a debt instrument or permit the holder to put a debt
instrument, back to the issuer before maturity result in contractual cash flows that are
solely payments of principal and interest as long as the following certain conditions are
met:
■ The pre-payment amount substantially represents unpaid amounts of principal and
  interest on the principal amount outstanding (which may include reasonable
  additional compensation for the early termination of the contract).
Contractual provisions that permit the issuer or holder to extend the contractual term of
a debt instrument are also regarded as being solely payments of principal and interest,
provided during the term of the extension the contractual cash flows are solely
payments of principal and interest as well (for example, the interest rate does not step up
to some leveraged multiple of LIBOR) and the provision is not contingent on future
events.
The following are examples of contractual cash flows that are not solely payments of
principal and interest:

■ Links to equity index, borrower’s net income or other non-financial variables.
■ Deferrals of interest payments where additional interest does not accrue on those
  deferred amounts.
■ Convertible bond (from the holder’s perspective).
If a contractual cash flow characteristic is not genuine, it does not affect the financial
asset's classification. In this context, ‘not genuine’ means the occurrence of an event
that is extremely rare, highly abnormal and very unlikely to occur.
Example 1 – Changing credit spread
An entity has a loan agreement that specifies that the interest rate will change
depending on the borrower’s credit rating, EBITDA or gearing ratio. Such a feature will
not fail the ‘solely payments of principal and interest’ test provided the adjustment is
considered to reasonably approximate the credit risk of an instrument with that level of
EBITDA, gearing or credit rating. That is, if such a covenant compensates the lender with
higher interest when the borrower's credit risk increases then this is consistent with interest
being defined as the consideration for the credit risk and the time value of money.
However, if the covenant results in more than just compensation for credit or provides for
some level of interest based on the entity's profitability that will not meet the test.
Example 2 – Average rates
An entity has a loan agreement where interest is based on an average LIBOR rate over a
period. That is, the loan has no defined maturity, but rolls every two years with reference
to the two year LIBOR rate. The interest rate is reset every two years to equal the average
two year LIBOR rate over the last two years. The economic rationale is to allow borrowers
to benefit from a floating rate, but with an averaging mechanism to protect them from
short-term volatility. Such a feature will not fail the ‘solely payments of principal and
interest’ test provided the average rate represents compensation for only the time value
of money and credit risk.
Classification and measurement - Non-recourse

A non-recourse provision is an agreement that, should the debtor default on a secured
obligation, the creditor can look only to the securing assets (whether financial or non-
financial) to recover its claim. Should the debtor fail to pay and the specific assets fail to
satisfy the full claim, the creditor has no legal recourse against the debtor's other assets.
The fact that a financial asset is non-recourse does not necessarily preclude the financial
asset from meeting the condition to be classified at amortized cost.
If a non-recourse provision exists, the creditor is required to assess (to ‘look through to’)
the particular underlying assets or cash flows to determine whether the financial asset's
contractual cash flows are solely payments of principal and interest. If the instrument's
terms give rise to any other cash flows or limit the cash flows in a manner inconsistent with
‘solely payments of principal and interest’, the instrument will be measured in its entirety
at fair value through profit or loss.
There is limited guidance as to how the existence of a non-recourse feature may impact
the classification of non-recourse loans at amortized cost. Judgment will, therefore, be


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needed to assess these types of lending relationships.

Classification and measurement - Equity instruments

Investments in equity instruments are always measured at fair value. Equity instruments
that are held for trading are required to be classified as at fair value through profit or loss.
For all other equities, management has the ability to make an irrevocable election on
initial recognition, on an instrument-by-instrument basis, to present changes in fair value
in other comprehensive income (OCI) rather than profit or loss. If this election is made, all
fair value changes, excluding dividends that are a return on investment, will be reported
in OCI. There is no recycling of amounts from OCI to profit and loss – for example, on sale
of an equity investment – nor are there any impairment requirements. However, the
entity may transfer the cumulative gain or loss within equity.
Example 1 – Investment in perpetual note
An entity (the holder) invests in a subordinated perpetual note, redeemable at the
issuer's option, with a fixed coupon that can be deferred indefinitely if the issuer does not
pay a dividend on its ordinary shares. The issuer classifies this instrument as equity under
IAS 32. The holder has the option to classify this investment at fair value through OCI
under IFRS 9, as it is an equity instrument as defined in IAS 32.
Example 2 – Investment in a puttable share
An entity (the holder) invests in a fund that has puttable shares in issue – that is, the
holder has the right to put the shares back to the fund in exchange for its pro rata share
of the net assets. The puttable shares may meet the requirements to be classified as
equity from the fund’s perspective, but this in an exception, as they do not meet the
definition of equity in IAS 32. However, the holder does not have the ability to classify this
investment as fair value through OCI, as paragraph 96C of IAS 32 states that puttable
should not be considered an equity instrument under other guidance. Investments in
puttable shares are, therefore, required to be classified as fair value through profit or loss,
as they cannot be regarded as equity instruments for IFRS 9.
Example 3 – Dividend return on investment
An entity invests in shares at a cost of C12 and designates these at fair value through
OCI. The fair value then increases to C22, giving rise to an unrealized gain of C10 in OCI.
The issuer then pays a special dividend of C10. This dividend is recorded in profit or loss in
accordance with IAS 18, ‘Revenue’; as such a dividend does not represent a recovery of
part of the cost of the investment.
Example 4 – Hybrid equity instrument
An entity invests in preference shares that have a maturity date for the repayment of
principal, but that also pays discretionary dividends based on the profits of the issuing
entity and give a right to share in the net assets on liquidation. These shares are
considered a compound instrument by the issuer and are treated as part liability and
part equity. Under paragraph 4.7 of IFRS 9, a hybrid financial asset is to be classified in its
entirety. This investment in its entirety does not meet the definition of an equity instrument
in IAS 32; it is not, therefore, eligible to use the fair value through OCI classification. The
contractual cash flows of this investment would need to be assessed. As it is not solely
receiving payments of principal and interest, it would be measured at fair value through
profit or loss.
Equity Instruments at Cost
The standard removes the requirement in IAS 39 to measure unquoted equity investments
at cost when the fair value cannot be determined reliably. However, it indicates that in
limited circumstances, cost may be an appropriate estimate of fair value – for example,
when insufficient more recent information is available from which to determine fair value;
or when there is a wide range of possible fair value measurements and cost represents
the best estimate of fair value within that range. However, IFRS 9 includes indicators of
when cost might not be representative of fair value. These are:
■ A significant change in the investee's performance compared with budgets, plans or
  milestones.
■ Changes in expectation that the investee’s technical product milestones will be
  achieved.
■ A significant change in the market for the investee’s equity or its products or potential
  products.
■ A significant change in the global economy or the economic environment in which
  the investee operates.
■ A significant change in the performance of comparable entities or in the valuations
  implied by the overall market.
■ Internal matters of the investee such as fraud, commercial disputes, litigation, or
  changes in management or strategy.
■ Evidence from external transactions in the investee’s equity, either by the investee
  (such as a fresh issue of equity) or by transfers of equity instruments between third
  parties.
Given the indicators above, it is not expected that cost will be representative of fair
value for an extended period of time.
Option to designate a financial asset at fair value through profit or loss
An entity may at initial recognition irrevocably designate a financial asset at fair through
profit or loss if doing so eliminates or significantly reduces a measurement or recognition
inconsistency.
Classification and measurement - Embedded derivatives
The accounting for embedded derivatives in host contracts that are financial assets is
simplified by removing the requirement to consider whether or not they are closely
related and should, therefore, be separated. The classification approach in the new
standard applies to all financial assets, including those with embedded derivatives.
Many embedded derivatives introduce variability to cash flows. This is not consistent with
the notion that the instrument’s contractual cash flows solely represent the payment of
principal and interest. If an embedded derivative was not considered closely related
under the existing requirements, this does not automatically mean the instrument will not
qualify for amortized cost treatment under the new standard. However, most hybrid
contracts with financial asset hosts will be measured at fair value in their entirety.
The accounting for embedded derivatives in non-financial host contracts and financial
liabilities currently remains unchanged.
CLASSIFICATION OF FINANCIAL LIABILITIES
An entity shall classify all financial liabilities as subsequently measured at amortized cost
using the effective interest method, except for:
(a)     Financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss. Such liabilities,
        including derivatives that are liabilities, shall be subsequently measured at fair
        value.
(b)     Financial liabilities that arise when a transfer of a financial asset does not
        qualify for de-recognition or when the continuing involvement approach applies.
(c)     Financial guarantee After initial recognition, an issuer of such a contract shall
        measure it at the higher of:

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(i)    the amount determined in accordance with IAS 37 Provisions,
              Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets and
       (ii)the amount initially recognized less, when appropriate, cumulative
           amortization recognized in accordance with IAS 18 Revenue.
(d)    Commitments to provide a loan at a below-market interest rate. After initial
       recognition, an issuer of such a commitment shall subsequently measure it at the
       higher of:
       (i)    the amount determined in accordance with IAS 37 and
       (ii)   the amount initially recognized less, when appropriate, cumulative
              amortization recognized in accordance with IAS 18.
(e)     Contingent consideration of an acquirer in a business combination to be
        measured subsequently at fair value.
OPTION TO DESIGNATE A FINANCIAL LIABILITY AT FAIR VALUE THROUGH PROFIT OR LOSS
An entity may, at initial recognition, irrevocably designate a financial liability as
measured at fair value through profit or loss when permitted by this IFRS or when doing
so results in more relevant information, because either:
(a)      it eliminates or significantly reduces a measurement or recognition
        inconsistency (sometimes referred to as ‘an accounting mismatch’) that would
        otherwise arise from measuring assets or liabilities or recognizing the gains and
        losses on them on different bases; or
(b)     a group of financial liabilities or financial assets and financial liabilities is
        managed and its performance is evaluated on a fair value basis, in accordance
        with a documented risk management or investment strategy, and information
        about the group is provided internally on that basis to the entity’s key
        management personnel, for example the entity’s board of directors and chief
        executive officer.
Embedded Derivatives
An embedded derivative is a component of a hybrid contract that also includes a non-
derivative host—with the effect that some of the cash flows of the combined instrument
vary in a way similar to a stand-alone derivative. An embedded derivative causes some
or all of the cash flows that otherwise would be required by the contract to be modified
according to a specified interest rate, financial instrument price, commodity price,
foreign exchange rate, index of prices or rates, credit rating or credit index, or other
variable, provided in the case of a non-financial variable that the variable is not specific
to a party to the contract.
A derivative that is attached to a financial instrument but is contractually transferable
independently of that instrument, or has a different counterparty, is not an embedded
derivative, but a separate financial instrument.
Hybrid Contract with financial asset hosts
If a hybrid contact contains a host that is a financial asset, the whole of the contract will
be measured at fair value through profit or loss account.
Other Hybrid Contracts
If a hybrid contract contains a host that is not an asset within the scope of this IFRS, an
embedded derivative shall be separated from the host and accounted for as a
derivative under this IFRS if, and only if:
(a)      the economic characteristics and risks of the embedded derivative are not
        closely related to the economic characteristics and risks of the host;
(b)      a separate instrument with the same terms as the embedded derivative would
        meet the definition of a derivative; and
(c)     the hybrid contract is not measured at fair value with changes in fair value
recognized in profit or loss (i.e. a derivative that is embedded in a financial liability
          at fair value through profit or loss is not separated).
If an embedded derivative is separated, the host contract shall be accounted for in
accordance with the appropriate IFRSs. This IFRS does not address whether an
embedded derivative shall be presented separately in the statement of financial
position.
If an entity is required by this IFRS to separate an embedded derivative from its host, but
is unable to measure the embedded derivative separately either at acquisition or at the
end of a subsequent financial reporting period, it shall designate the entire hybrid
contract as at fair value through profit or loss.
SUBSEQUENT MEASUREMENT OF FINANCIAL ASSETS
After initial recognition, an entity shall measure a financial asset at fair value or amortized
cost as appropriate under categories of fair value or amortized cost.
SUBSEQUENT MEASUREMENT OF FINANCIAL LIABILITIES
After initial recognition, an entity shall measure a financial liability at fair value or
amortized cost as appropriate under categories of fair value or amortized cost.
IMPAIRMENT AND UN-COLLECTABILITY OF FINANCIAL ASSETS
•         Impairment losses are incurred only if there is objective evidence as a result of one
          or more events that occurred after the initial recognition of the asset. The amount
          of the loss is measured as the difference between the asset’s CV and the PV of
          estimated cash flows discounted at the financial asset’s original effective interest
          rate.
•         Impairment of HTM investments and loans and receivables carried at amortized
          cost is recognized through profit or loss. Any reversal of the loss is also recognized
          through profit or loss.
GAINS AND LOSSES
A gain or loss on a financial asset or financial liability that is measured at fair value shall
be recognized in profit or loss unless:
(a) it is part of a hedging relationship;
(b)       it is an investment in an equity instrument and the entity has elected to present
          gains and losses on that investment in other comprehensive income; or
(c)       it is a financial liability designated as at fair value through profit or loss and the
          entity is required to present the effects of changes in the liability’s credit risk in
          other comprehensive income.
A gain or loss on a financial asset that is measured at amortized cost and is not part of a
hedging relationship shall be recognized in profit or loss when the financial asset is
derecognized, impaired or reclassified and through the amortization process. A gain or
loss on a financial liability that is measured at amortized cost and is not part of a hedging
relationship shall be recognized in profit or loss when the financial liability is derecognized
and through the amortization process.
A gain or loss on financial assets or financial liabilities that are hedged items and shall be
recognized in Profit and Loss Account or Other Comprehensive Income
If an entity recognizes financial assets using settlement date accounting any change in
the fair value of the asset to be received during the period between the trade date and
the settlement date is not recognized for assets measured at amortized cost (other than
impairment losses). For assets measured at fair value, however, the change in fair value
shall be recognized in profit or loss or in other comprehensive income.
Investments in equity instruments
At initial recognition, an entity may make an irrevocable election to present in other
comprehensive income subsequent changes in the fair value of an investment in an
equity instrument within the scope of this IFRS that is not held for trading.

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If an entity makes the election, it shall recognize in profit or loss dividends from that
investment when the entity’s right to receive payment of the dividend is established in
accordance with IAS 18.
Liabilities designated as at fair value through profit or loss
An entity shall present a gain or loss on a financial liability designated as at fair value
through profit or loss as follows:
(a)      The amount of change in the fair value of the financial liability that is attributable
         to changes in the credit risk of that liability shall be presented in other
         comprehensive income, and
(b)      the remaining amount of change in the fair value of the liability shall be presented
         in profit or loss unless the treatment of the effects of changes in the liability’s credit
         risk described in (a) would create or enlarge an accounting mismatch in profit or
         loss.
If the requirements in above paragraph would create or enlarge an accounting
mismatch in profit or loss, an entity shall present all gains or losses on that liability
(including the effects of changes in the credit risk of that liability) in profit or loss.
Reclassifications
An instrument’s classification is made at initial recognition and is not changed
subsequently, with one exception. Reclassifications between fair value and amortized
cost (and vice versa) are required only when the entity changes how it manages its
financial instruments (that is, changes its business model). Such changes are expected to
be infrequent. The reclassification must be significant to the entity's operations and
demonstrable to external parties. Any reclassification should be accounted for
prospectively. Entities are not, therefore, allowed to restate any previously recognized
gains or losses. The asset should be re-measured at fair value at the date of a
reclassification of a financial asset from amortized cost to fair value; this value will be the
new carrying amount. Any difference between the previous carrying amount and the
fair value would be recognized in a separate line item in the income statement. At the
date of a reclassification of a financial asset from fair value to amortized cost, its fair
value at that reclassification date becomes its new carrying amount.
Examples of change in the business model that would require reclassification include:
■ An entity has a portfolio of commercial loans that it holds to sell in the short-term.
  Following an acquisition of an entity whose business model is to hold commercial loans
  to collect the contractual cash flows, that portfolio is managed together with the
  acquired portfolio to collect the contractual cash flows.
■ An entity decides to close its retail mortgage business and is actively marketing its
  mortgage loan portfolio.

The following are not changes in business model:
■ A change in intention related to particular financial assets.
■ A temporary disappearance of a particular market for financial assets.
■ A transfer of financial assets between parts of the entity with different business models.
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