Guidelines of competence development in the study field of chemistry

 
Guidelines of competence development in the study field of chemistry
Guidelines of competence
development in the study
   field of Chemistry
Development of the Concept of the European Credit Transfer and
          Accumulation System (ECTS) at the National Level:
    Harmonization of the Credit and Implementation of the Learning
             Outcomes Based Study Programme Design
                      VP1-2.2-ŠMM-08-V-01-001

Aldona Beganskienė, Algirdas Brukštus,
  Saulutė Budrienė, Henrikas Cesiulis,
Vladas Gefenas, Aleksandra Prichodko,
  Rimantas Raudonis, Nijolė Ružienė,
  Eugenijus Valatka, Vida Vičkačkaitė

  Guidelines of competence
development in the study field
        of Chemistry

                               Vilnius
                                2012
Aldona Beganskienė
Algirdas Brukštus
Saulutė Budrienė
Henrikas Cesiulis
Vladas Gefenas
Aleksandra Prichodko
Rimantas Raudonis
Nijolė Ružienė
Eugenijus Valatka
Vida Vičkačkaitė

Guidelines of competence development in the study field of Chemistry

© Vilniaus universitetas, 2012

ISBN 978-609-462-003-4
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. OVERVIEW OF CHEMISTRY AND RELATED FIELD DEGREE PROGRAMMES ..............4
2. GENERAL DESCRIPTIONS OF STANDARD CHEMISTRY DEGREE PROGRAMMES OF
VARIOUS LEVELS (PROFESSIONAL BACHELOR, BACHELOR AND MASTER)...................6
3. EMPLOYMENT AND FURTHER STUDIES OF GRADUATES...................................................8
4. GENERIC COMPETENCES DEVELOPED IN DEGREE PROGRAMMES OF VARIOUS
LEVELS (PROFESSIONAL BACHELOR, BACHELOR AND MASTER).................................... 11
5. METHODOLOGICAL GUIDANCE FOR IDENTIFYING SUBJECT-SPECIFIC
COMPETENCES IN CHEMISTRY PROGRAMMES......................................................................14
6. STUDENT WORKLOAD AND METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINATION THEREOF.....16
   6.1. Key definitions..............................................................................................................................16
   6.2. Estimating average workload ......................................................................................................16
   6.3. Methods of determining workload ...............................................................................................17
   6.4. Principles of determining student workload and steps of their preparation.................................18
   6.5. Planning student workload...........................................................................................................19
   6.6. Determining student workload in the ECTS system.....................................................................20
   6.7. Examples of determining student workload ................................................................................20
7. COURSE AND MODULE BASED STUDY SYSTEMS.................................................................23
8. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TEACHING, LEARNING AND ASSESSMENT
METHODS..............................................................................................................................................27
   8.1. Teaching and learning...................................................................................................................27
     8.1.1. Lectures..................................................................................................................................27
     8.1.2. Practical classes, seminars......................................................................................................28
     8.1.3. Laboratory work.....................................................................................................................28
     8.1.4. Work placements.....................................................................................................................29
     8.1.5. Coursework and theses...........................................................................................................29
   8.2. Assessment....................................................................................................................................29
     8.2.1. Test (colloquia) assessment....................................................................................................30
     8.2.2. Examination assessment.........................................................................................................31
     8.2.3. Work placement assessment...................................................................................................32
     8.2.4. Thesis assessment...................................................................................................................33
Literature.................................................................................................................................................34
guidelines of competence development in the study field of chemistry

    1. OVERVIEW OF CHEMISTRY AND RELATED FIELD DEGREE
                      PROGRAMMES
      The implementation of the Bologna Process in each study field has its own peculiarities. The
provided “Guidelines of comeptence development in the study field of chemistry” (hereinafter
referred to as the guidelines) should help improve the existing and develop new chemistry and
chemistry-related degree programmes, which would be compatible and comparable with chemistry
degree programmes in other European countries. The guidelines has been developed with due
consideration to the experience related to the degree programmes currently offered in Lithuania
(Table 1) and the Tuning Project implemented in Europe.

Table 1. Chemistry and chemistry-related degree programmes offered by Lithuanian
higher education institutions

    Institution      Study programme           Cycle          Study area, field              Degree

                                             First       Physical Sciences,
                    Chemistry                                                        Bachelor of Chemistry
                                             Cycle       Chemistry
                    Nanotechnologies and     First       Physical Sciences,
 Vilnius                                                                             Bachelor of Chemistry
                    Material Science         Cycle       Chemistry
 University
 (VU)                                        Second      Physical Sciences,
                    Chemistry                                                        Master of Chemistry
                                             Cycle       Chemistry
                    Chemistry of             Second      Physical Sciences,
                                                                                     Master of Chemistry
                    Nanomaterials            Cycle       Chemistry
                                             First       Physical Sciences,
                    Applied Chemistry                                                Bachelor of Chemistry
                                             Cycle       Chemistry
                    Chemical Technology      First       Technological Sciences,     Bachelor of Chemical
                    and Engineering          Cycle       Chemical Engineering        Engineering
                    Food Technology and      First       Technological Sciences,     Bachelor of Chemical
                    Engineering              Cycle       Chemical Engineering        Engineering
                                                         Technological Sciences,     Bachelor of
                    Environmental            First
                                                         Environmental               Environmental
                    Engineering              Cycle
                                                         Engineering                 Engineering
                                             Second      Physical Sciences,
                    Applied Chemistry                                                Master of Chemistry
                                             Cycle       Chemistry

 Kaunas                                      Second      Technological Sciences,     Master of Chemical
                    Chemical Technology
 University of                               Cycle       Chemical Engineering        Engineering
 Technology         Food Science and         Second      Technological Sciences,     Master of Chemical
 (KTU)              Safety                   Cycle       Chemical Engineering        Engineering
                                             Second      Technological Sciences,     Master of Chemical
                    Chemical Engineering
                                             Cycle       Chemical Engineering        Engineering
                    Food Product             Second      Technological Sciences,     Master of Chemical
                    Technology               Cycle       Chemical Engineering        Engineering
                    Environmental                        Technological Sciences,
                                             Second                                  Master of Environmental
                    Protection Management                Environmental
                                             Cycle                                   Engineering
                    and Clean Production                 Engineering
                    Environmental            Second      Technological Sciences,     Master of Environmental
                    Engineering              Cycle       Environmental Engineering   Engineering
                                             Second      Technological Sciences,     Master of Material
                    Materials Science
                                             Cycle       Materials Science           Sciences

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of chemistry

                           Chemistry
                                                           First        Physical Sciences,          Bachelor of Chemistry,
    Vilnius                (implemented till
                                                           Cycle        Chemistry                   teacher
    Pedagogical            201-09-01)
    University             Chemistry
    (VPU)                                                  First        Social Sciences, Teachers   Bachelor of Chemistry,
                           (implemented since
                                                           Cycle        training                    teacher
                           201-09-01)
    Vilnius
    University
                           Chemical Analysis               First        Technological Sciences,     Professional Bachelor of
    of Applied
                           Technology                      Cycle        Chemical Engineering        Chemical Engineering
    Sciences
    (VIKO)

       The Helsinki conference (February 2001), held as a continuation of the Bologna process,
has decided that a Bachelor‘s degree should correspond to 180-240 ECTS credits (3-4 years).
It has also indicated that a model of 180 rather than 240 credits is more preferable. Those
institutions which decide on 210 or 240 credits will obviously exceed the Bachelor criteria, but
the remaining 30 or 60 credits may be used for the Bachelor thesis or industrial placement.
       „The guidelines for the general requirements for degree-earning first cycle and integrated
degree programmes“ approved by Order No V-50111 of the Minister of Education and Science of
the Republic of Lithuania of 9 April 2010 states that from 1 September 2011 a first cycle university
degree programme, completing which awards a Bachelor‘s degree in a subject area (branch),
carries the minimum of 210 and the maximum of 240 credits. A college degree programme,
completing which awards a Professional Bachelor‘s degree in a subject area (branch), carries the
minimum of 180 and the maximum of 210 credits.
       „The guidelines for the general requirements for Master study programmes“ approved by
Order No V-8262 of the Minister of Education and Science of the Republic of Lithuania of 3
June 2010 stipulates that from 1 September 2011 a second cycle degree programme, completing
which awards the qualification degree of a Master, carries the minimum of 90 and the maximum
of 120 credits.
       The primary aim of the qualification of a Bachelor or Professional Bachelor in chemistry
is to award a first cycle degree which would be a standard and which would be:
       • recognised by employers as being of a standard which will fit the graduates for
          employment as professional chemists in chemical and related industries or as teachers
          in education institutions (holders of the professional qualification of a teacher) or in any
          other workplace;
       • for holders of the qualification of a Bachelor in chemistry, which will provide the
          automatic right of access to a chemistry Master programme (though not the right of
          admission, which is the prerogative of the receiving institution), and for holders of
          the qualification of a Professional Bachelor, which will provide the right of continuing
          studies in a chemistry Master programme following additional studies though not the
          right of admission, which is the prerogative of the receiving institution).
       The primary aim of the qualification of a Master in chemistry is to award a second cycle
degree of the highest standard which will be recognised by:
       • other European institutions as being of a standard which will provide the automatic
          right of access to continuing studies in a chemistry doctoral programme;
       • employers.

1
    Official Gazette Valstybės žinios, 2010, No 44-2139.
2
    Official Gazette Valstybės žinios, 2010, No 67-3375.

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of chemistry

       2. GENERAL DESCRIPTIONS OF STANDARD CHEMISTRY
     DEGREE PROGRAMMES OF VARIOUS LEVELS (PROFESSIONAL
               BACHELOR, BACHELOR AND MASTER)
      The aims of the first cycle chemistry degree programmes are indicated in the Budapest
descriptors3. They were proposed by the Chemistry Subject Area Group of the project Tuning
Educational Structures in Europe in May 2005.
      A 1st cycle degree in chemistry (qualification of a Bachelor or Professional Bachelor) is
awarded to students who have shown themselves by appropriate assessment to:
      • have a good grounding in the core areas of chemistry (inorganic, organic, physical, biological
         and analytical chemistry) and in addition the necessary background in mathematics and physics;
      • have basic knowledge in several other more specialised areas of chemistry (computational
         chemistry, materials chemistry, macromolecular (polymer) chemistry);
      • have built up practical skills in chemistry during laboratory courses, at least in inorganic,
         organic and physical chemistry, in which they have worked individually or in groups;
      • have developed generic competences in the context of chemistry which are applicable
         in many other contexts;
      • have attained a standard of knowledge and competence which will give them access to
         second cycle degree programmes.
     On completing the first cycle, students will:
      • have the ability to gather and interpret relevant scientific data and make judgements that
         include reflection on relevant scientific and ethical issues;
      • have the ability to communicate information, ideas, problems and solutions to informed audiences;
      • have competences to fit them for entry-level graduate employment in the general
         workplace, including the chemical industry;
      • have developed those learning skills that are necessary for them to undertake further
         study with a sufficient degree of autonomy.
      The aims of the second cycle chemistry degree programmes are indicated in the Budapest
descriptors.
      A 2nd cycle degree in chemistry (qualification of a Master) is awarded to students who
have shown themselves by appropriate assessment to:
      • have knowledge and understanding that is founded upon and extends that of the
         Bachelor’s level in chemistry, and that provides a basis for originality in developing
         and applying ideas within a research context;
      • have competences to fit them for employment as professional chemists in chemical and
         related industries;
      • have attained a standard of knowledge and competence which will give them access to
         third cycle degree programmes.
      On completing the second cycle, students will:
      • have the ability to apply their knowledge and understanding, and problem solving
         abilities, in new or unfamiliar environments within broader (or multidisciplinary)
         contexts related to chemical sciences;
      • have the ability to apply their knowledge and understanding gained and modern
         techniques to practices that require analytical skills, innovation and knowledge
         integration, including research, and the ability to assess research results and determine
         their reliability;
3
    The „Budapest“ Cycle Level Descriptors for Chemistry. http://ectn- assoc.cpe.fr/archives/lib/2005/N03/200503_BudapestDescriptors.pdf

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of chemistry

     • have the ability to integrate knowledge and handle complexity, and formulate judgements
       with incomplete or limited information, but that include reflecting on ethical and social
       responsibilities linked to the application of their knowledge and judgements;
     • have the ability to communicate their conclusions, and the knowledge and rationale
       underpinning these, to specialist and non-specialist audiences clearly and unambiguously;
     • have developed those learning skills that will allow them to continue to study in a
       manner that is self-directed or autonomous, learn and assess critically theoretical
       and practical innovation of the field of cognition or creation, and ensure their own
       professional development.

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of chemistry

     3. EMPLOYMENT AND FURTHER STUDIES OF GRADUATES
      I. The Vilnius University Faculty of Chemistry trains Bachelors/Masters in chemistry
for employment at chemical laboratories, chemistry-related manufacturing and commercial
enterprises, or to continue studies in chemistry or biochemistry and other chemistry-related Master/
Doctor study programmes at VU, other higher education institutions or foreign universities.
      Typical fields of activity in which the graduates of the Faculty of Chemistry of Vilnius
University practise professionally are as follows:
      • continue studies in the Doctoral programme, employed in scientific institutions,
      • manufacturing,
      • control and analysis services,
      • trade,
      • education,
      • etc.
      So far, there is no specific information as to the employment of graduates who do not practise
professionally. Information has been gathered on further studies and employment of the graduates of the
chemistry programme of the VU Faculty of Chemistry in 2009 and 2010 and is presented in Tables 2-6.

Table 2. Further studies and employment of graduates of Bachelor and Master studies

                             Graduated /        Employed after            Employed and
                                                                                                Continue studies
                              surveyed           graduation              continue studies
      Bachelors
     Year of 2009              35 / 29                    8                      14                       7
     Year of 2010              44 / 40                 10                        13                      17
       Masters
     Year of 2009              29 / 15                    3                      8                        4
     Year of 2010              18 / 17                    9                      5                        3

Table 3. Further studies of graduates of Bachelor studies

                                 At Vilnius      At Vilnius              At other
                                 University      University            Lithuanian
               Graduated /                                                                               Studies not
                                (according       (according               higher        Abroad
                surveyed                                                                                 continued
                                to the same      to another             education
                                programe)       programme)             institutions

 Year of
                  35 / 29           17                1                     2               1                 8
 2009
 Year of
                  44 / 40           27                1                     1               1                 10
 2010

Table 4. Employment of graduates of Bachelor studies
                                                     Employed according to            Employed not according
                      Graduated / surveyed
                                                          profession                      to profession
  Year of 2009                35 / 22                           22                                   –
  Year of 2010                44 / 23                           19                                   4

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Table 5. Further studies of graduates of Master studies
                                      At Vilnius          At Vilnius              At other
                                      University          University            Lithuanian
               Graduated /                                                                                    Studies not
                                     (according           (according               higher        Abroad
                surveyed                                                                                      continued
                                     to the same          to another             education
                                     programe)           programme)             institutions
  Year of
                  29 / 29                 6                    –                     4              2               17
   2009
  Year of
                  18 / 17                 5                    –                     1              2               9
   2010

Table 6. Employment of graduates of Master studies
                                                              Employed according to             Employed not according
                        Graduated / surveyed
                                                                   profession                       to profession
 Year of 2009                   29 / 11                                    10                             1
 Year of 2010                   18 / 14                                    14                             –

       Thus, approximately 74% of graduates continue their studies in the Master programme and
approximately 43% – in the Doctoral programme, while approximately 91% of bachelors and
approximately 96% of masters practise chemistry professionally.
       II. Vilnius University of Applied Sciences trains Professional Bachelors in chemical
engineering for employment at chemical laboratories of the food, garment and textile and
chemical industries, research institutes, environmental protection services, public health centres
and education institutions, as well as at biotechnology companies, plastic processing enterprises,
textile product dry cleaning enterprises and laundry service enterprises.
       Graduates are employed as technologists, chemical analysts, chemistry professionals,
chemists, technicians, laboratory technicians or operators at chemical laboratories of various
public and private companies, production plants of chemical and food industry enterprises and
biotechnology companies. They continue studies at Lithuanian (VPU, VGTU, VDU, KTU, VU)
and foreign universities.
       Information about further studies and employment of graduates of chemical analysis technology
degree programme of Vilnius University of Applied Sciences is provided in Tables 7 and 8.

Table 7. Employment of graduates of chemical analysis technology degree programme of
Vilnius university of applied sciences in 2005-2010
                                                                   Year studies completed
                                     2005              2006             2007             2008      2009            2010
 Employed according to
                                                       45,5             68,2             35,0      13,5            50,1
    profession (%)

Table 8. Further studies of graduates of chemical analysis technology degree programme
of Vilnius University of Applied Sciences in 2005-2010
                                                               Year studies completed
                              2005            2006                 2007             2008          2009             2010
 Continued studies
                                                   1                6                 5            1                1
  at universities

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of chemistry

     III. According to information of Kaunas University of Technology, about 40% of KTU
graduates have chemistry-related employment.

     IV. Employment statistics of graduates of Bachelor studies of chemistry of the Lithuanian
University of Educational Sciences for 2005-2010 is provided in Table 9.

Table 9. Employment of graduates of Bachelor studies of chemistry of the Lithuanian
University of Educational Sciences in 2005-2010

                                                                     Year of graduation (number of graduates)
          Activity after the completion
  No.                                                  2005           2006            2007           2008            2009            2010
               of Bachelor studies
                                                       (24)            (19)           (14)            (20)            (17)           (17)
   1.     Teacher, educator                         8 (33 %)        6 (32 %)        5 (36 %)       7 (35 %)       4 ( 24 %)       4 (24 %)
          Student of Master or Doctoral
   2.     programme (continued                      3 (13 %)             –              –          7 (35 %)        3 (18 %)       5 (29 %)
          studies)
          Laboratory assistant
   3.     (institutes, chemical                     3 (12 %)        7 (37 %)        2 (14 %)        1 (5 %)        1 (6 %)        3 (18 %)
          laboratories)
   4.     Consultant (pharmacy)                      1 (4 %)             –          1 (7 %)             –          1 (6 %)             –
          Consultant, manager
   5.     (other companies)                         4 (17 %)        3 (16 %)        5 (36 %)       2 (10 %)        6 (35 %)       3 (18 %)

   6.     Entrepreneur                                   –           1 (5 %)            –           1 (5 %)            –               –
   7.     Raising children                          4 (17 %)             –              –           1 (5 %)         1 (6 %)        1 (6 %)
   8.     Went abroad                                1 (4 %)        2 (10 %)        1 (7 %)         1 (5 %)         1 (6 %)        1 (6 %)

       As can be seen from information provided in this section, not all higher education institutions
compile information on the employment of their graduates. Precise data on the professional
activity of graduates of degree programmes are very important for the improvement of degree
programmes in order to make them in line with the demands of the labour market. Therefore,
subdivisions of higher education institutions should be encouraged to gather such information, if
possible. On the other hand, beside the statistical data on the employment of graduates, valuable
information for the revision and improvement of degree programmes can be received from a
study of professional activities, which focuses on graduates who practise professionally upon
their graduation. In 2010, a field study4 of professional activity in chemistry was carried out,
which provided information on how employers and graduates of chemistry degree programmes
assess the relevance of subject-specific and generic competences to professional activity of
graduates and the preparedness of young specialists for employment.

4
  The study has been carried out as part of the ECTS project. The study included a survey of employers in institutions employing graduates of
chemistry degree programmes who graduated five or less than five years ago. Also, group discussions with graduates of chemistry programmes
have been held. More information about the study is available at Profesinio lauko tyrimo ataskaita: chemijos kryptis. Vilnius, 2010. http://www.
ects.cr.vu.lt

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             4. GENERIC COMPETENCES DEVELOPED IN DEGREE
            PROGRAMMES OF VARIOUS LEVELS (PROFESSIONAL
                   BACHELOR, BACHELOR AND MASTER)
       Competences represent a dynamic combination of cognitive and meta-cognitive skills,
knowledge and understanding, interpersonal, intellectual and practical skills, and ethical
values. Developing these competences to the full is an important aim of all degree programmes.
Competences are developed in all course modules and assessed at different stages of a programme.
Some competences are subject-area related (specific to a field of study), others are generic
(common to any degree course). It is normally the case that competence development proceeds
in an integrated and cyclical manner throughout a programme5.
       A mode detailed discussion on generic competences began when teaching experts
started raising questions on how to educate personalities and help them to adapt to a cultural
and social environment, enhance the fundamentals of emotional self-regulation, and train a
future worker who would show flexibility in adapting to constant change and the ability for
continuous learning autonomously and self-development, as well as for communicating freely
in any environment. Generic competences are especially relevant now as changes in the labour
market are particularly rapid and make professional competences and subject-specific abilities
outdated if these are not renewed constantly. Therefore, the aim and duty of higher education
institutions is to provide not only professional (subject-specific) competences but also a firm
basis of generic competences that would help the personality to adapt to the ever-changing
labour market and environment and would promote change and development.
       The lists and justification of generic competences in degree programmes of various
levels (Professional Bachelor, Bachelor and Master)
       The preparation of lists of generic competences for the chemistry programme should be
based on the „Tuning Educational Structures in Europe“ project, referred to as „Tuning“ for
short6, which distinguishes three types of generic competences:
       1) instrumental (operational) competences, including cognitive, methodological,
technological and linguistic abilities;
       2) interpersonal competences, including individual abilities like social skills (social
interaction and cooperation);
       3) systemic competences, including abilities and skills concerning whole systems
(combination of understanding, sensibility and knowledge; prior acquisition of instrumental and
interpersonal competences required).
       The short list of generic competences proposed by the Tuning project (2003) is the
following:
       • Capacity for analysis and synthesis;
       • Capacity for applying knowledge in practice;
       • Basic general knowledge in the field of study;
       • Information management skills;
       • Interpersonal skills;
       • Ability to work autonomously;
       • Elementary computer skills;
       • Research skills.
5
  Tuning Educational Structures in Europe. Contribution of universities into the Bologna Process. Introduction. Education Exchanges Support
Foundation, 2010.
6
 Tuning Educational Structures in Europe. Contribution of universities into the Bologna Process. Introduction; Sanchez V., Ruiz M. P. (eds.)
2008. Competency-based learning: A proposal for the assessment of generic competences. Bilbao: Universidad de Deusto.

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of chemistry

      In practice the generic competences do not appear to be rigidly separate from the subject-
specific competences. Rather they appear as further variations of the subject-specific competences.
      The development of subject-specific (or professional) competences in the chemistry
programme also involves embedding and obtaining generic competences. The level at which
these competences will be achieved in the process of Profession Bachelor, Bachelor or Master
studies should be defined. The generic competences obtained in the Professional Bachelor
and Bachelor study programmes are very similar, so they are discussed here together. The
generic competences gained from the Bachelor study programme in chemistry, necessary for
professional and personal development, will be further developed in Master studies. In addition,
the discussion of particular generic competences will also include examples of their development
in the chemistry degree programme.

       Generic competences for the Professional Bachelor and Bachelor study programmes.
The list of generic competences has been developed with due consideration to the results of
the field study of professional activity in chemistry, which was carried out in 2010 and which
involved the teaching staff and graduates of chemistry degree programmes as well as employers7.
       1. Capacity for abstract thinking, analysis and synthesis of information. The generic
competence obtained enables the student to understand and evaluate information which he or
she needs to gather and process to identify the main issues. The student will have the ability for
analytical, systemic and critical thinking and for initiative.
       2. Capacity for applying knowledge in practice. The student can apply his or her knowledge
and understanding and problem-solving abilities in new or unfamiliar environments within
broader contexts related to area of studies. This competence is developed in laboratory courses.
During the defence of laboratory works, the requirements for students should be the ability to
link knowledge with the laboratory work rather than theoretical knowledge. These abilities are
also stressed and enhanced during professional placements.
       3. Ability to organise and plan the workload and time. The ability to plan student
workload and rest time, and to prepare a lecture and reporting plan, as well as a plan for learning
autonomously. These abilities are quite easy to assess where the student is late for practical
classes or laboratory sessions or stays in the training laboratory longer, or fails to report on
laboratory works by the set deadline, or is late with coursework, essays, etc. These abilities are
also developed and enhanced by a student selecting the electives for the following semester, also
by planning and distributing the workload of the semester.
       4. Ability to search for, process and analyse information from a variety of sources. The
ability to find necessary information in the literature, distinguish between primary and secondary
sources or literature, use the library (in a traditional way or electronically), and find information
on the Internet. The ability to use different computer software. For example, in an organic
chemistry laboratory session, the student must collect, summarise and analyse literature on the
synthesis of a specific compound. Apart from the knowledge of the subject area, this ability is
assessed when students report on work performed. At the beginning of Year Four, also literature
for the Bachelor thesis is gathered and summarised.
       5. Ability to evaluate and maintain the quality of work produced (commitment to
quality). The ability for a self-critical evaluation of the quality of own work and efforts to fulfil
the assigned tasks well. The assessment of quality with which various tasks are performed in
laboratory work, practical classes and seminars, (e.g. laboratory work in organic synthesis), the
assessment includes not only the result but also the quality of work (e.g. meeting of occupational
7
 Profesinio lauko tyrimo ataskaita: chemijos kryptis.

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of chemistry

safety and procedure requirements, autonomous work, the completeness and quality of the final
report).
       6. Ability to communicate both orally and through the written word in first language.
Communication in the native language. The ability and capacity for expressing and interpreting
phenomena, feelings and facts orally and through the written word in the native language
(listening, speaking, reading and writing). In view of the expanding interdisciplinary relationships
today, it is of relevance to communicate one’s professional knowledge to representatives of other
subject areas in a clear and simple way. These abilities are developed and can be assessed during
the presentation of essays and literature collected. The linguistic coherence of the presentation
and answers to questions are taken into account.
       7. Ability to communicate in a second language. Skills of a second language. Ability to
communicate in different situations and obtain the basic vocabulary of the most common words
and phrases. Ability to clearly and understandably provide information in a second language to
a specialist of the same field and to a representative of another field.
        8. Ability to learn. The ability for conscious, autonomous and self-directed learning and
development.
       9. Ability to solve problems. The ability to integrate knowledge and formulate judgements
with incomplete or limited information available.
       10. Ability to work autonomously. The abilities for organising one‘s time, prioritising,
complying with the set time limits and fulfilling all agreed work are necessary for both personal
and professional life. They cay be assessed through monitoring students‘ behaviour during
practical classes and laboratory work.

      Generic competences for the Master study programme. As mentioned before, the
generic competences obtained in the Professional Bachelor and Bachelor study programme in
chemistry will be further developed in Master studies. Therefore, this list contains the key generic
competences that are embedded and developed in the Master studies in chemistry.
      1. Ability to evaluate and maintain the quality of work produced (commitment to quality).
The ability for a self critical and critical evaluation of the quality of own work and work of
others, and efforts to fulfil the assigned tasks well and conscientiously.
      2. Ability to work in a group and in the interdisciplinary and international environment.
The student will be able to work and interact in a team. The student will have abilities for
personal and interpersonal communication. The ability to cooperate in an international context.
Appreciation of diverse opinions and the multicultural environment. The ability to communicate
with scientists from another professional field when dealing with issues of that another field or
with interdisciplinary issues.
      3. Ability to adapt to new situations. The student will have generic competences that allow
adapting to the ever-changing professional activity content and cultural and social environment.
      4. Ability to undertake research. The ability to prepare definite research plans or projects
and evaluate their results analytically and critically. Senior students often get involved in research
and take part in scientific conferences, while the experimental material obtained by them is used
for writing research papers. Thus, they already have the opportunity for learning about the basic
specifics of research.

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of chemistry

     5. METHODOLOGICAL GUIDANCE FOR IDENTIFYING SUBJECT-
         SPECIFIC COMPETENCES IN CHEMISTRY PROGRAMMES
       Identifying subject specific competences is necessary in order to identify and compare
degree programmes and define differences between the first and second cycle studies.
       While implementing the national ECTS one of the objectives was to find out the opinion
of Lithuanian employers and job experts on subject specific-competences and abilities that are
important for the career in chemistry in their companies. In the survey, the employers have
assessed as many as 28 subject-specific competences. The majority of respondents assessed them
all as being very important or important.8
        It has been proposed to divide the subject-specific competences into chemistry-related
cognitive abilities and competences, i.e. abilities and competences relating to intellectual tasks,
including problem solving, and chemistry-related practical skills9.
       Cognitive abilities and competences include:
       • Ability to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of essential facts, concepts,
           principles and theories relating to the chemistry subject areas concerned;
       • Ability to apply knowledge and understanding to the solution of qualitative and
           quantitative problems;
       • Ability to demonstrate in-depth knowledge and understanding of a specific area of
           chemistry;
       • Ability to demonstrate general knowledge of equipment of the chemical industry;
       • Ability to evaluate, interpret and synthesise chemical information and data;
       • Ability to implement good measurement practice;
       • Ability to present the results of scientific work and arguments in writing and orally;
       • Computational and data-processing skills, relating to chemical information and
           experimental data.
       Practical skills include:
       • Skills in the safe handling of chemical materials, taking into account their physical and
           chemical properties and hazards;
       • Skills required for the conduct of standard laboratory procedures involved and use
           of instrumentation in synthetic and analytical work, in relation to both organic and
           inorganic systems;
       • Skills in the investigation and evaluation of chemical properties of a substance, events
           or changes, and the systematic and reliable recording and documentation thereof;
       • Ability to interpret data derived from laboratory observations and measurements in
           terms of their significance and relate them to appropriate theory.
       A distinction should be made between subject-specific competences to be developed by
graduates of Bachelor or Master studies.
       Cognitive abilities and competences of a Bachelor in chemistry could be as follows10:
       • Ability to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of essential facts, concepts, principles
           and theories of chemistry;
       • Ability to apply knowledge and understanding to the solution of qualitative and quantitative
           problems of a familiar nature;
       • Ability to evaluate, interpret and synthesise chemical information and experimental data;
8
    Profesinio lauko tyrimo ataskaita: chemijos kryptis. Vilnius, 2010. http://www.ects.cr.vu.lt
9
    Tuning Chemistry Subject Area Brochure. ECTN, 2008. http://ectn-assoc.cpe.fr/archives/lib/2008/200805_Tuning_Chemistry_Brochure.pdf
 Guidelines for Applications for the Chemistry Eurobachelor® Label. http://ectn-assoc.cpe.fr/chemistry-eurolabels/doc/officials/Off_
10

EBL090728_Eurobachelor_GuidelinesAppl_200907V5.pdf

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of chemistry

     • Ability to implement good measurement practice;
     • Ability to present the results of chemical scientific work and arguments in writing and
        orally, to an informed audience;
     • Computational and data-processing skills, relating to chemical information and
        experimental data.
     Practical skills of a Bachelor in chemistry could be as follows11:
     • Skills in the safe handling of chemical materials, taking into account their physical and
        chemical properties and hazards;
     • Skills required for the conduct of standard laboratory procedures involved and use
        of instrumentation in synthetic and analytical work, in relation to both organic and
        inorganic systems;
     • Skills in the investigation and evaluation of chemical properties of a substance, events
        or changes, and the systematic and reliable recording and documentation thereof;
     • Ability to interpret data derived from laboratory observations and measurements in
        terms of their significance and relate them to appropriate theory.
     These subject-specific competences are further developed during Master studies. Graduates
of Master studies should obtain also new subject-specific competences.
     Cognitive abilities and competences of a Master in chemistry could be as follows12:
     • Ability to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of essential facts, concepts,
        principles and theories of chemistry studied in the Master programme;
     • Ability to apply knowledge and understanding to the solution of qualitative and
        quantitative problems of an unfamiliar nature;
     • Ability to adopt and apply methodology to the solution of unfamiliar problems.
     Practical skills of a Master in chemistry are as follows13:
     • Skills required for the conduct of advanced laboratory procedures and use of
        instrumentation in synthetic and analytical work;
     • Ability to plan and carry out experiments independently and be self-critical in the
        evaluation of experimental procedures and outcomes;
     • Ability to take responsibility for laboratory work;
     • Ability to use an understanding of the limits of accuracy of experimental data to inform
        the planning of future work.

11
     Ibid.
12
  Guidelines for Applications for the Chemistry Euromaster® Label. http://ectn-assoc.cpe.fr/chemistry-eurolabels/doc/officials/Off_
EML091222_Euromaster_GuidelinesAppl_200912V2a.pdf
13
     Ibid.

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of chemistry

                6. STUDENT WORKLOAD AND METHODOLOGY FOR
                          DETERMINATION THEREOF
                                                       6.1. Key definitions

       Learning outcomes or intended learning outcomes are statements of what a learner
is expected to know, understand and/or be able to demonstrate after completion of a process
of learning. Learning outcomes are determined by the teaching staff. In addition to learning
outcomes, appropriate assessment criteria should also be formulated, which are the basis for
determining the level of learning outcomes reached. To define learning outcomes and assessment
criteria, requirements need to be specified that must be met in order to award a credit. A mark
is given with account of the extent to which the student‘s knowledge meets those requirements.
Clearly specifying and accurately describing learning outcomes for which credits are awarded
facilitate the credit accumulation and transfer process considerably14.
       Student workload is the time (expressed in hours) that it is expected that an average
learner (at a particular cycle/level) will need to spend to achieve specified learning outcomes.
This time includes all the learning activities which the student is required to carry out (e.g.
lectures, seminars, practical classes, private study, professional visits, examinations, etc.)15.
       Determining student workload is a joint activity (of the degree programme committee and
the teaching staff engaged in the programme), which determines the successful implementation
of a degree programme. Determining workload is a precondition for a critical review of a degree
programme and the evaluation of its feasibility and viability16.
       The student’s workload required to achieve the expected learning outcomes is measured in
credits. 60 ECTS are attached to the workload of a typical student for a full-time year of formal
learning (academic year) and the associated learning outcomes. In most cases, student workload
ranges from 1,500 to 1,800 hours for an academic year, whereby one credit corresponds to 25 to
30 hours of work. The number of hours of student work (i.e. of the typical student) required to
achieve the given learning outcomes (on a given level) depends on the student‘s ability, teaching
and learning methods, teaching and learning resources and curriculum design. These can differ
between universities in a given country and between countries. Since credits are only a measure
of workload within a curriculum, they can also be used as a planning or monitoring tool when
the curriculum itself has been defined17.

                                         6.2. Estimating average workload

      How to determine the average standard of brightness? There is a consensus that it takes
time and a certain standard of preparation/background to acquire certain knowledge and skills.
Therefore, time employed and personal background are the two elements that can be identified
as variables in learning achievement with respect to a particular subject or study programme. In
this context, pre-requisite knowledge when entering a given recognised qualification is a basic
element. It is commonly accepted that if a typical student puts in more effort into preparing for
an examination, the grade will be higher. If a good student spends the expected amount of time
14
   Markevičienė R. Dublino aprašai ir mokymosi pasiekimai (siekiniai) [2011 01 29]. http://www.su.lt/filemanager/download/5943/1%5B1%5D._R_
Markeviciene.pdf; Tuning Educational Structures in Europe. Contribution of universities into the Bologna Process. Introduction. Education
Exchanges Support Foundation.
15
     Tuning Educational Structures in Europe. Contribution of universities into the Bologna Process. Introduction.
16
  Bulajeva T., Jakubė A., Lepaitė D., Teresevičienė M., Zuzevičiūtė V. Studijų programų atnaujinimas: kompetencijų plėtotės ir studijų siekinių
vertinimo metodika. Vilnius, 2011. http://www4066.vu.lt/Projekto_rezultatai
17
     Tuning Educational Structures in Europe. Contribution of universities into the Bologna Process. Introduction.

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of chemistry

to prepare for an examination, he or she will be rewarded with a good grade. On the other hand,
if less time is spent, the grade will probably be lower. There is a relationship between the effort
and the results of a student. Accepting the fact that the actual time that students need to spend
in order to achieve the learning outcomes will vary according to the capacities of the individual
student (and be influenced by the degree of prior learning and the mode of learning), the notional
learning time can be defined. The notional learning time is the number of hours which it is
expected a student (at a particular level) will need, on average, to achieve the specified learning
outcomes at that level.
       The time necessary for effective learning is individual for each student and depends on
many factors, e.g. student ability, motivation, knowledge gained, complexity of the subject
area, quality of teaching, advice and recommendations provided.
       In estimating the study time, it is necessary to foresee the amount of time required for in-
depth study of the subject rather than for formal reporting. Although the need for time varies, the
study time may not be determined for each student individually. The time should be specified
considering the needs of an „average“ student (normally, such students account for 70%). The
estimated study time depends on:
       • Students‘ preparedness and motivation;
       • Expected learning outcomes;
       • Content and scope of the subject area;
       • Methods of teaching, learning and assessment.
       If the time is estimated with account of an average student, the expected learning outcomes
will be achieved by about 85% of students (70% average +15% best students).

                                   6.3. Methods of determining workload18

      In the determination of workload, the following factors have an important role:
      • The total number of contact hours for the course unit (number of hours per week x
          number of weeks);
      • Preparation before and finalising of notes after the attendance of the lecture/seminar;
      • The amount of further independent work required to finish the course unit successfully.
      The amount of independent work is the most difficult item to calculate and depends
largely on the discipline concerned and the complexity of the topic. Independent work includes:
      • The collection and selection of relevant material;
      • Reading and study of that material;
      • Preparation for an oral or written examination;
      • Writing of a paper or dissertation;
      • Independent work in a laboratory.
      The calculation of workload in terms of credits is not an automatic process. The teacher
has to decide on the level of complexity of the material to be studied per course unit. Prior
experience of the staff plays an essential role. In order to check regularly whether students
are able to perform their tasks in the prescribed period of time, it has proven to be very useful
to utilise questionnaires in which students are asked not only about how they experienced
the workload, but also about their motivation and the time reserved for the course unit.
      ECTS credits are awarded for a complete qualification or degree programmes and their
components (modules, course units, thesis, work placement and laboratory work). The number
of credits allocated to each component depends on student workload required for achieving the
18
     Tuning Educational Structures in Europe. Contribution of universities into the Bologna Process. Introduction.

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of chemistry

learning outcomes in a formal system. Credits are awarded to individual students (full-time or
part-time) after completion of the learning activities required by a formal programme of study
or by a single educational component and the successful assessment of the achieved learning
outcomes. Credits may be accumulated with a view to obtaining qualifications, as decided by
the degree-awarding institution. If students have achieved learning outcomes in other learning
contexts or timeframes (formal, non-formal or informal), the associated credits may be awarded
after successful assessment, validation or recognition of these learning outcomes. Credits awarded
in one programme may be transferred into another programme, offered by the same or another
institution. This transfer can only take place if the degree-awarding institution recognises credits
and related learning outcomes. Partner institutions should agree in advance on the recognition of
periods of study abroad.

          6.4. Principles of determining student workload and steps of their
                                     preparation19

      When deciding on the student workload the following elements are of relevance:
      • The student has a fixed amount of time depending on the programme he/she is taking.
      • The overall responsibility for the design of a programme of studies and the number
          of credits allocated to course units lies with the responsible legal body (e.g. faculty
          executive board, etc.).
      • The final responsibility for deciding on the teaching, learning and assessment activities
          for a particular amount of student time is delegated by faculty and university authorities
          to the teacher or the responsible team of staff.
      • The teacher should be aware of the specific learning outcomes to be achieved and the
          competences to be obtained.
      • The teacher should reflect on which educational activities are more relevant to reach the
          learning outcomes of the module / course unit.
      • The teacher should have a notion of the average student time required for each of the
          activities selected for the module / course unit.
      • The student has a crucial role in the monitoring (control) process to determine whether
          the estimated student workload is realistic, although monitoring is also a responsibility
          of the teaching staff.
      To realise the overall objective, namely the development of principles which lead to a
truly valid consideration of a student’s workload, implementation of the following four steps is
recommended:
      • Estimating student workload;
      • Checking (reviewing) the estimated workload through student evaluations;
      • Adjustment of the workload and/or activities.
      • The teaching staff estimate the time required to complete the activities foreseen for
          each course unit / module. The workload expressed in time should match the number of
          credits available for the course unit. Teachers must develop suitable strategies to use the
          time available to best advantage.
      • Modes of instruction (lecture, seminar, practical class, etc.);
      • Types of learning activities (attending lectures, practising technical or laboratory skills,
          writing papers, etc.);
      • Types of assessment (oral or written examination, test, essay, report, etc.).
19
     Tuning Educational Structures in Europe. Contribution of universities into the Bologna Process. Introduction.

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of chemistry

                                            6.5. Planning student workload

      For determining student workload, new national credits, i.e. ECTS credits which are the
unit measure of the size of a degree programme (or its component), are used; for this reason, they
are used as a planning and monitoring, as well as a workload accounting tool.
      The following three steps that would help to plan student workload are recommended20:
      1. Estimating student workload (teacher plan). The average student workload of a
course unit/module depends on the total amount of learning activities a student is expected to
complete in order to achieve the foreseen learning outcomes. It is measured in work hours. For
example, a course unit of 5 ECTS credits requires around 130–150 hours of work.
      Workload can be defined on the basis of the following educational activities:
      • Contact studies. They include work with or under the guidance of a teacher: lecture,
         seminar, laboratory work, tutorial, practical class, practical session, internship, work
         placement.
      • Independent studies: performance of tasks, writing of papers, reading of books and
         articles, project work, practising technical or laboratory skills. This item is the most
         difficult one to calculate.
      • Assessment: oral or written examination, essay, test, examples of works, report, thesis,
         presentation.
      The workload expressed in work hours should match the number of credits available
for a course unit/module. This estimation of the study time could utilise Table 10.

Table 10. Student workload planning and checking table
           Programme of studies

           Name of the module/course unit, number of credits

           Cycle (Professional Bachelor, Bachelor, Master, Doctor)

           Competences of the study programme to be developed:
           1. .............................................................
           2. .............................................................
           3. .............................................................

                                                     Educational                      Estimated student      Assessment
      Intended learning outcomes
                                                      activities                      workload in hours      (comments)
           1.

           2.

           3.

      2. Checking (reviewing) the estimated workload through student evaluations. There
are different methods to check whether the estimated student workload is correct. First, various
questionnaires can be used at the end of a semester. Second, in order to find out whether the
student study time has been estimated correctly, the same student workload planning table can be
used where students are asked to complete the table themselves, and third, to indicate the actual
time allocated to achieve the learning outcomes, by using Table 10.
20
     Bulajeva T., Jakubė A., Lepaitė D., Teresevičienė M., Zuzevičiūtė V., op. cit.

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guidelines of competence development in the study field of chemistry

     By using the completed forms both teacher and students become aware of the learning
outcomes, their relationship to the competences being developed and the average student
time involved for each of the tasks.
     3. Adjustment of the estimated workload through student evaluations. In case the
workload evaluation by the teacher and students differs significantly, it may be necessary to
adjust the educational activities and the estimated student workload. Where the teacher and student
estimates of work time required differ by 10–20%, the estimate should be deemed acceptable.
However, where the estimates differ by more than 25–30%, the teacher is advised to consult
with the colleagues when changing the estimation of workload. Only long-term monitoring of
a degree programme implemented (spanning several semesters) allows seeing this difference,
and drawing conclusions and re-estimating workload after one semester is not recommended. A
review of workload may involve change of the size of a module/course unit expressed in credits.
This can affect the whole degree programme and require its fundamental review, reform and a
better balance of its structural components (modules/course units).

                  6.6. Determining student workload in the ECTS system

       In estimating student workload, institutions must consider the total time needed by students
to achieve the learning outcomes. The teaching/learning activities may vary in different countries,
institutions and subject areas, but typically the estimated workload will result from the sum of:
       1. The contact hours for the educational component (number of contact hours per week x
           number of weeks);
       2. The time spent in individual or group work required to complete the educational
           component successfully (i.e. preparation beforehand and finalising of notes after
           attendance at a lecture, seminar or laboratory work; collection and selection of relevant
           material; required revision, study of that material; writing of reports/papers/projects/
           dissertation; practical work, e.g. in a laboratory);
       3. The time required to prepare for and undergo the assessment procedure (e.g. examinations);
       4. The time required for obligatory work placements.
       Other factors to take into consideration for estimating student workload in the various
activities are as follows:
       1. The entry level of students for whom the programme (or its components) is designed;
       2. The approach to teaching and learning and the learning environment (e.g. seminars
           with small groups of students, or lectures with very large numbers of students) and type
           of facilities available (e.g. language laboratory, multi-media room).
       N.B. Since workload is an estimation of the average time spent by students to achieve the
learning outcomes, the actual time spent by an individual student may differ from this estimate.
Individual students differ: some progress more quickly, while others progress more slowly.

                       6.7. Examples of determining student workload21

        The whole study time can be divided into three parts:
        • student‘s preliminary work before contact hours
        • contact hours
        • student‘s independent work after contact hours.
        The scope of independent work can be linked with the teaching/learning approach (Table 11).
21
  Determination Workload in Relation to Credits and Notional Hours [2011 01 29]. http://www.unisa.ac.za/contents/faculties/service_dept/bld/
docs/Creditsnotionalhoursandworkload.doc; Karjalainen A., Katariina A., Jutila S. Give me time to Think. Determining Student Workload in
Higher Education. Oulu University Press, 2006.

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